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Timber Pile Design and Construction Manual 2016

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This Timber Pile Design and Construction Manual has been developed by the Southern Pressure Treaters' Association as its official recommendation for Timber Piling Design and Construction. The data in this publication has been prepared in accordance with recognized engineering principles and is based on available technical data. The information in this manual should not be used or relied upon for a specific application without competent professional examination and verification of its accuracy, suitability, and applicability by a licensed professional engineer.
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... Assessment of the interface shearing resistance developed in response to relative soil-shaft movement represents a critical design consideration when evaluating the capacity of timber piles or improving the lateral spreading resistance when mitigating gently sloping ground. For example, the Nordlund (n.d.) shaft resistance model recommended in various static axial capacity design procedures (Collin 2016;Hannigan et al. 2016) implements the effective interface friction angle, δ 0 , as a function of the soil effective friction angle, ϕ 0 , and the volume of soil displaced by the pile. However, the prediction of shaft resistance may be difficult owing to the factors governing the magnitude of soil displacement, such as the pile spacing, sequence of pile installation, and state of the soil relative to the critical state . ...
... However, the methodology employed has the potential to be extended to consider piles that consist of a variable cross section (Davidson et al., 2011). Furthermore, a conservative deterministic estimate of the modulus of elasticity, E = 8.3 × 10 6 kN/m 2 was assumed for the piles since the source of the timber that was used to construct the piles was unknown (Collin, 2002;Davidson, et al., 2011). In addition, a deterministic value of the depth to fixity below the scour depth equal to 2 m for the bridge piles was assumed (Davidson et al., 2011;Tomlinson and Woodward, 2014), as illustrated in Figure 82. Figure 83 demonstrates the reduction of the pile load capacity with increasing depth of scour and, consequently, exposed pile length, whereby the critical buckling load reduces rapidly as the exposed pile length increases. ...
Technical Report
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This deliverable presents the results of two European case studies that were analysed to demonstrate the systematic application of the tools and methodologies that have been developed in the INFRARISK project. The case studies are located along the trans-European (TEN-T) network, which provides critical infrastructure corridors throughout Europe and facilitates the effective transportation of people and goods, supporting economies and contributing to the European single market. Each case study focuses on a particular transport infrastructure network (i.e. road or rail) and a particular source hazard (i.e. earthquake or rainfall). Stress tests are performed for the case studies according to the overarching risk assessment methodology that has been developed in the INFRARISK project. The first case study consists of a regional road network in the province of Bologna in northern Italy. Stress tests are performed for low probability, high consequence seismic hazard scenarios and the cascading landslide hazard effects. The direct consequences are quantified in terms of the cost of repairs for structural elements along the road network (i.e. bridges, tunnels and road sections). In addition, the indirect consequences are quantified in terms of the travel time increases encountered by road users as a result of the network disruption, as well as the associated economic losses at national level. The second case study consists of a rail network in Croatia for which stress tests are performed for low probability, high consequence flooding scenarios. Similarly, the direct consequences are quantified in terms of the costs of physical repairs to the network and the indirect consequences are determined in terms of the travel delay times for passengers and freight transport.
... Soil density, modulus, and strength estimates based on the blow counts were used to model the axial and lateral soil-pile interaction. The axial and lateral capacities were calculated according to methods for timber piles to be 1.22 kN of axial and 1.24 kN of lateral loading for a single pile [35]. The soil was treated as saturated due to the wall location at high and low tides. ...
Article
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Estuarine environments worldwide are among the most threatened habitats due to increased disturbances resulting from coastal infrastructure and rising population densities. Boating activity is a primary disturbance, as it induces biological stress and morphological changes along the coastline. This high-energy environment that boat wakes create has resulted in loss of surrounding oyster reefs and salt marsh vegetation, ultimately leading to shoreline and habitat erosion. Here, we characterize the boat wake climate in the Intracoastal Waterway, assess the bathymetry in this heavily trafficked area, and anticipate the effects of experimental living shorelines (natural breakwall and oyster restoration structures) on facilitating sediment deposition and slowing vegetation retreat. Field observations indicate that boat wakes suspend nearshore sediment and can reach heights greater than 40 cm. A numerical stability model of the breakwalls suggests that the optimal porosity is field-specific. The desired porosity for minimizing lateral displacement is 0.50, while it is 0.18 for maximum energy dissipation, which indicates a need to further investigate this complex problem. These findings demonstrate that boat wakes significantly and regularly disturb estuarine shorelines and may be altering their bathymetry as well as suggest that the design of the breakwalls may be optimized to best counteract this pervasive disturbance.
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The piezometer cone is generally regarded as the most efficient tool for stratigraphic logging of soft soils. A thin pore pressure element (5 mm thick) can sense layers a few centimeters thick. However, there remains some uncertainty with regard to the interpretation and use of the piezometer cone data for engineering applications. This paper summarizes some of the experience with piezometer cone testing and its use in the Vancouver, B. C. , Canada area.
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A new test, called the seismic cone penetration test (SCPT) is described. A small rugged velocity seismometer has been incorporated into an electronic cone penetrometer. The combination of the seismic downhole method and the CPT logging provide an extremely rapid, reliable and economic means of determining stratigraphic, strength and modulus information in one sounding. Results using the seismic cone penetration test are presented and compared to conventional in-situ seismic techniques.
Article
A method of computing the ultimate bearing capacity of a pile driven into cohesionless soils is derived empirically from a large number of load-test programs, wherein each program involves various types of piles all loaded to failure. Although the curve fitting aspect of the solution is empirical, the form of the solution is based on theoretical considerations. Consideration of such factors as pile taper, roughness and shape of the pile surface and volume of the pile, as well as those factors normally considered, differentiates this method from attempts along similar lines. A comparison of computed and observed ultimate bearing capacities reveals good agreement. The method of computation checked with some load tests reported elsewhere shows good correlation. Variations in the factors pile taper, roughness of pile surface, and volume of pile cause significant variations in the ultimate bearing capacity of a pile. For economical design of pile foundations, such factors should be considered.
Article
Methods are presented for the calculation of deflections, ultimate resistance, and moment distribution for laterally loaded single piles and pile groups driven into cohesionless soils. The lateral deflections have been calculated assuming that the coefficient of subgrade reaction increases linearly with depth and that the value of this coefficient depends primarily on the relative density of the supporting soil. The ultimate lateral resistance has been assumed to be governed by the yield or ultimate moment resistance of the pile section or by the ultimate lateral resistance of the supporting soil. The ultimate lateral resistance is assumed to be equal to three times the passive Rankine earth pressure. The deflections and lateral resistance, as calculated by the proposed methods, have been compared with available test data. Satisfactory agreement was found.