ArticlePDF Available

Valuation and Production Possibilities on a Working Forest using Multi-objective programming, Woodstock, Timber NPV, and Carbon Storage and Sequestration

Authors:

Abstract and Figures

This study analyzes the tradeoff between net present value (NPV) of timber resources, and carbon sequestration and storage for a working forest, the Hofmann Forest in North Carolina, U.S.A. multiple objective optimization is used to determine the production possibility curves showing the relationship between NPV and Carbon. We then perform sensitivity analysis to explore alternative management strategies. For carbon yields we used above ground pools: branches, leaves, tops and bole as estimated by the Forest Vegetation Simulator (FVS) and LOBDSS using the California Carbon Market Protocols including product carbon. Timber yields of Sawtimber, Chip-n-saw and pulpwood were estimated by LOBDSS for planted stands less than 49 years of age, and FVS was used for all natural stands and planted stands 49 years and over. Our results reveal that NPV opportunity costs associated with increasing carbon sequestration at Hofmann Forest are lesser than the current California carbon market price.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Full Terms & Conditions of access and use can be found at
http://www.tandfonline.com/action/journalInformation?journalCode=sfor20
Download by: [North Carolina State University] Date: 02 November 2016, At: 21:54
Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research
ISSN: 0282-7581 (Print) 1651-1891 (Online) Journal homepage: http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/sfor20
Valuation and production possibilities on a
working forest using multi-objective programming,
Woodstock, timber NPV, and carbon storage and
sequestration
J. P. Roise, K. Harnish, M. Mohan, H. Scolforo, J. Chung, B. Kanieski, G. P.
Catts, J. B. McCarter, J. Posse & T. Shen
To cite this article: J. P. Roise, K. Harnish, M. Mohan, H. Scolforo, J. Chung, B. Kanieski, G.
P. Catts, J. B. McCarter, J. Posse & T. Shen (2016) Valuation and production possibilities on
a working forest using multi-objective programming, Woodstock, timber NPV, and carbon
storage and sequestration, Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, 31:7, 674-680, DOI:
10.1080/02827581.2016.1220617
To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02827581.2016.1220617
Accepted author version posted online: 05
Aug 2016.
Published online: 01 Sep 2016.
Submit your article to this journal
Article views: 60
View related articles
View Crossmark data
Valuation and production possibilities on a working forest using multi-objective
programming, Woodstock, timber NPV, and carbon storage and sequestration
J. P. Roise
a,b
, K. Harnish
b
, M. Mohan
a,b
, H. Scolforo
b
, J. Chung
b
, B. Kanieski
b
, G. P. Catts
b
, J. B. McCarter
b
, J. Posse
b
and T. Shen
b
a
Operations Research Program, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA;
b
Department of Forestry and Environmental Resources, North
Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA
ABSTRACT
This study analyzes the trade-off between net present value (NPV) of timber resources, and carbon
sequestration and storage for a working forest, the Hofmann Forest in North Carolina, USA. Multi-
objective optimization is used to determine the production possibility curves showing the
relationship between NPV and carbon. We then perform a sensitivity analysis to explore alternative
management strategies. For carbon yields we used aboveground pools: branches, leaves, tops and
bole as estimated by the Forest Vegetation Simulator (FVS) and LOBDSS using the California
Carbon Market Protocols, including product carbon. Timber yields of sawtimber, chip-n-saw and
pulpwood were estimated by LOBDSS for planted stands less than 49 years of age, and FVS was
used for all natural stands and planted stands 49 years and over. Our results reveal that NPV
opportunity costs associated with increasing carbon sequestration at Hofmann Forest are less than
the current California carbon market price.
ARTICLE HISTORY
Received 15 December 2015
Accepted 28 July 2016
KEYWORDS
Multi-objective; carbon; net
present value; Woodstock;
Hofmann Forest
Introduction
The modern approach to forest management planning not
only involves timber production, but also includes multi-objec-
tive integrated management criteria and goals (Baskent &
Keleş2009). As forest ecosystems serve as possible sinks of
carbon dioxide (CO
2
), terrestrial carbon sequestration
through reforestation, avoided land-use conversion, afforesta-
tion and improved forest management (IFM) practices are
been viewed as methods to mitigate the issues related to
global climatic change (Hoen & Solberg 1994; Newell &
Stavins 2000; CARB 2015). Although water vapor contributes
more to the greenhouse effect, CO
2
is considered the most
important among anthropogenic gases (Hoen & Solberg
1999; van Kooten et al. 1999) and forests in this sense can
help in mitigating CO
2
emissions through carbon uptake and
storage in forest biomass and forest soil, substitution of fossil
fuel with biofuel and substitution of wood products for more
energy demanding materials (Dixon et al. 1994; Brown et al.
1996; Backéus et al. 2005). As an attempt to reduce the dra-
matic increase in CO
2
emissions, several guidelines for the
inclusion of forest-sector carbon sequestration in the national
greenhouse gas balance have also taken form in the last
few decades (Díaz-Balteiro & Romero 2003; Penman et al.
2003). In United States, atmospheric carbon sequestered by
forests was about Tg C yr
1
in year 2004 and it was found to
have a potential for reducing CO
2
emissions from burning
fossil fuels by approximately 10% (Heath & Smith 2004;
Birdsey et al. 2006).
In this context, several forest management optimization
models with carbon sequestration as a complementary
objective were developed. For example, Hoen and Solberg
(1994,1999) developed a multi-objective management
model for determining the transformation curve between
net present value (NPV) of timber and CO
2
captured within
the planning horizon. For these models, the classic methods
to determine optimal forest rotation age were found ineffec-
tive (Díaz-Balteiro & Romero 2003) as they were considering
conflicting bi-objective goals. This study investigates the
trade-off between NPV of timber resources, and carbon
sequestration and storage for a working forest, the
Hofmann Forest in North Carolina, USA. Multi-objective
optimization was employed for determining the production
possibility curves between NPV and Carbon. Adding to that,
alternative management strategies were explored using a
sensitivity analysis.
For our case study, the economic cost for carbon seques-
tration was quantified by estimating the NPV opportunity
cost associated with the buildup of carbon storage from har-
vested merchantable timber. For obtaining net greenhouse
gas credits from forest management projects, one has to
show additional carbon storage and sequestration above
what would have been achieved without the project. Recent
research findings suggest that the additionality requirement
of carbon will result in high economic costs to private land-
owners, which can only be mitigated by a corresponding
high price paid for carbon credits. Whereas public land is a
different story, because they typically do not have a profit
motive and they could feasibly be called on to sequester
and store additional carbon, for the public good. The oppor-
tunity cost of carbon sequestration depends on the
© 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group
CONTACT J. P. Roise joe_roise@ncsu.edu Department of Forestry and Environmental Resources, North Carolina State University, Box 8008, Raleigh, NC
27695-8008, USA
SCANDINAVIAN JOURNAL OF FOREST RESEARCH, 2016
VOL. 31, NO. 7, 674680
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02827581.2016.1220617
contribution margins of the sold timber, and thus varies from
place to place and time to time (Ndjondo et al. 2014). Even
though several authors have written about carbon sequestra-
tion, it can be hard to compare studies due to differences in
objectives, products and substitutions included, and non-
decision variables (Gharis et al. 2015). There is no specific
management practice that can be applied to every situation,
but we can make better trade-offs depending on our needs,
if we are able to comprehend the situation and understand
the variables behind it efficiently.
Materials and methods
Study area
The geographic focus of this study is the Hofmann Forest, a
major landholding of the Forestry School at North Carolina
State University, USA (Figure 1). It encompasses approxi-
mately 32,000 contiguous hectares in the coastal plain of
North Carolina ranging from 12 to 20 meters above sea
level with an average slope of 1%. For this study, we ana-
lyzed only the 24,000 ha of operational land, consisting
mostly of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantations. Figure 2
shows the associated age class distribution and other land-
use categories.
Multi-objective management approach
In this paper, we present a forest management model
designed to optimize the combination of two objectives:
NPV, and carbon sequestration and storage, on the Hofmann
Forest in North Carolina. For growth-and-yield estimates, we
used both LOBDSS and the USDA Forest Vegetation Simulator
(FVS). LOBDSS (Amateis et al. 2000,2001) is an expert system,
with FastLob2.1 as the underlying growth-and-yield model
used to determine intensively management treatment
effects of short (<49 years) rotation options (Amateis et al.
2000,2001). FVS is used to simulate longer (49 years) rotation
effects on forest outcomes and conditions. FVS is a family of
models that simulate growth and yield in an individual-tree
and distance-dependent fashion. Considerable investments
have been made by the United States Forest Service to
include as many forest outputs and conditions as science will
support (Dixon 2002). We spliced these two models together
to produce realistic short-rotation plantations which maximize
NPV and long-rotation estimates that are assumed to be
needed to maximize carbon sequestration and storage. Our
prescriptions included three levels of management intensity
over a 100-year planning horizon using 5-year planning
periods. Through sensitivity analysis, we explore the effects
of changes in carbon storage and NPV, and compared our
final values to the current markets (ARBOCS
1
) to evaluate
their feasibility to produce a change in management practices.
A model II multi-objective forest management linear pro-
gramming formulation was used involving different levels of
management intensity and rotation ages from 15 to 150
years. The model uses 5-year periods and a 100-year planning
horizon. The Remsoft Spatial Planning Systemprovided the
modeling structure. Equation (1) expresses the trade-off
between the weighted total NPV from timber and weighted
additional tons of carbon. The decision land management
variables are hectares allocated to each combination of plant-
ing density, thinning timing and intensity, and rotation length.
Besides timber volumes and values of sawtimber, chip-n-saw
and pulpwood, we track tons of carbon in standing timber, in
harvest residuals and slash, in product classes, and in landfill.
We did not include carbon used as a substitution for fossil
fuels or in soils, down woody debris, snags, understory, litter
and duff. The model formulation is:
MAX WnpvNPV + WcC, (1)
Subject to:
NPV =
24
i=1
20
j=1
5
k=1
(aijkxijk)+
24
i=1
18
j=i+3
12
k=1
(bijkrijk) , (2)
C1=
24
i=1
20
j=1
5
k=1
(vijk xijk )+
24
i=1
5
k=1
viNk xiNk
+
17
i=1
20
j=i+3
12
k=1
(vijk rijk )+
20
i=1
12
k=1
(viNk riNk ),
C0=
24
i=1
(vi0xi0),
C=C1C0, (3)
20
j=1
5
k=1
xijk +
5
k=1
xiNk =Aii=1...24, (4)
24
i=1
5
k=1
xijk +
j3
l=1
12
k=1
rjlk =
j3
l=j+3
12
k=1
rjlk j=1...20 , (5)
24
i=1
5
k=1
hijkxijk +
20
i=1
12
k=1
hijk rijk =Hjj=1...20, (6)
Hj+1(1 flow)Hj0 for j=1 to 19 (lower bound), (7)
Hj+1+(1 +flow)Hj0 for j
=1 to 19 (upper bound), (8)
xijk 0 for i=1...24, j=1... 20, k=1...5 , (9)
rijk 0 for i=1...17 j=3...20 k=1...12 , (10)
where x
ijk
are the existing stand decision variables, (i) is exist-
ing landclass, jis harvested period, following prescription k.
x
iNk
are existing stands not harvested by period N(=20). x
i0
are existing stands at time = 0. r
ijk
(r
jlk
) are the regenerated
stand decision variables (hectares planted in period i(j),
regen-harvested in period j(l), using prescription k). r
iNk
are
regenerated stands not harvested by period N.
A prescription is a combination of planting and thinning
activities as listed below. Existing stand options are thin (if
young enough) or not using same options as specified in (5, 6,
7, 8 and 9) below, and clear-cut at any time from ages 15 up
to 150 years, which leaves the option of doing nothing over
the 100-year planning horizon. Regenerated stand options
rotation ages from 15 to 150 years and the following options:
SCANDINAVIAN JOURNAL OF FOREST RESEARCH 675
(1) Planting and site preparation: shear, bed and plant at
1.5 × 6 meter spacing or 1077 trees ha
1
(5 × 20 feet
spacing or 436 trees ac
1
) (no fertilizer);
(2) Planting and site preparation: shear, bed and plant at
1.5 × 6 meter spacing or 1077 trees ha
1
(fertilizer);
(3) Planting and site preparation. shear, no bedding, plant at
3705 trees ha
1
(1500 trees ac
1
) (fertilizer);
(4) Planting and site preparation. shear, no bedding, plant at
3705 trees ha
1
(no fertilizer);
(5) Thin at ages 15 and 25;
(6) Thin at ages 10 and 20;
(7) Thin once at age 15;
(8) Thin once at age 20;
(9) No thinning.
NPV (Equation (2)) is the NPV of the whole forest over a
100-year planning horizon.
C (Equation (3)) is the total carbon stored in aboveground
live carbon and harvested wood products (HWPs) over the
100-year planning horizon. C and NPV are the two objectives
used in Equation (1). W
npv
is the weight for NPV and W
c
is the
weight for carbon. We use weights only to find alternative sol-
utions in each run. Weights are selected to find new solutions
on the production possibility curves (Figure 3).
Figure 1. Hofmann Forest 2015 Operations Map, including 640 km of roads and 2240 km of drainage ditches. Large blue area is Pocosin Swamp (6880 ha). Green
Square in upper blue area is T.E. Makis plot arguably changed forest practices in the southern coastal plan.
676 J. P. ROISE ET AL.
a
ijk
= net discounted value for stands harvested period j,
landclass i, and prescription k(interest = 6.5%);
b
ijk
= net discounted value for stands born in i, regen-
harvest in jusing prescription k;
v
ijk
= carbon tons sequestered and stored in variables x
ijk
and r
ijk.
v
i0
are tons of carbon at start;
h
ijk
= harvest volume for period j, for respective variable;
H
j
= the total harvest for period j;
A
i
= the area of landclass i.
Flow is the allowable increase or decrease in harvest
volume between periods (0, 0.2 or constraint deleted) and is
used in Equations (4), (7) and (8) to control period to period
variation in harvest volume.
Equation (1) is the objective function. Equation (2) is used
to calculate the NPV.
Equation (3) is a set of equations used to calculate the
carbon stored and sequestered for an optimization run.
Initial carbon amount for a model run is calculated at year
zero (C
0
). The estimate of total carbon stored for that run is
C
1
C
0
.v
ijk
is the difference between the carbon stocking in
period xand period x1 for each hectare. Initial carbon
stocks (v
i0
) were included for time 0 in the total carbon
stocks calculation. HWPs were calculated by taking the differ-
ence between HWP period xand HWP period x1. Total
carbon stock (Equation (3)) was calculated as the summation
over the 100-year period of from each hectare for each period,
including standing carbon and HWP. This formula was derived
from the California Air Resources Board quantification meth-
odology for an IFM project (CARB 2015). The estimate
additionalcarbon storage comes after the optimizations.
We first measure the total carbon storage at the Max NPV con-
dition (C
Wc = 0
), business as usual. Then we subtract C
Wc = 0
from C
Wc > 0
(carbon storage under improved management).
Equation (4) is the existing landclass areas. Equation (5) is
the area transfer rows. Equation (6) is the harvest accounting
rows. Equations (7) and (8) are the harvest flow constraints.
Equations (9) and (10) are non-negativity constraints. The
Remsoft Spatial Planning Systemprovided matrix gener-
ation and report writer. The approach was designed to evalu-
ate the trade-off between NPV and carbon by maximizing the
weighted total NPV from timber and tons of carbon. The
decision variables are hectares allocated to each combination
of planting density, thinning timing and intensity, and
rotation length.
The current inventory is the result of 80+ years of mana-
ging the Forest to Maximize NPV, acknowledging that over
the first 50 years, classical methods were used and only
over the last 30 years was the modern planning methodology
applied. Timber prices for estimating NPV were obtained from
Timber Mart-South.
2
For IFM projects, all protocols require
that parties applying for carbon credits must certify addition-
ality. It is based on how similar forests are being managed,
rather than guessing how a particular landowner would act.
Figure 2. Land-use age class distribution of the Hofmann Forest in March 2015.
The five columns are pine plantations. Not shown are Natural Pine and Hard-
wood operational categories. There are also 2.64 ha (6 acres) of 70+ slash
pine (Pinus elliottii), which are too small to show up on the graph.
Figure 3. Optimal combinations NPV and CO
2
presented as production possibility curves for NPV and carbon under the three harvest flow constraints. These are the
multi-objective optimization results from Woodstock. Note that each curve starts with 0 additional carbon when NPV is maximized (0 weight for carbon).
SCANDINAVIAN JOURNAL OF FOREST RESEARCH 677
After completing the calculation process and applications,
there are very specific processes for monitoring the accom-
plishment. Some of these procedures require independent
third party verification with consequent expenses. Monitoring
is a way of demonstrating that the carbon pool estimated has
not been reversed, and it accounts for both onsite and offsite
carbon (basically products). The products considered were
pine sawtimber, pine chip-n-saw and pine pulpwood, and
the product units were in green tons. Details on carbon con-
version can be found in Appendix C Estimating Carbon (CARB
2015).
It should be noted that in a multi-programming model, the
relative importance of each objective will vary depending on
the decision-makers interests, and even the non-decision
variables such as weights, discount rates, site indices, costs
and prices do affect the cost of carbon and efficacy of man-
agement practices (Prodanovic & Simonovic 2003). In other
words, the value of a forest is directly related to management
objectives.
Results and analysis
The multi-objective formulation was evaluated under three
different constraint scenarios; unconstrained harvest flow,
20% variation from period to period harvest flow and even
harvest flow. The results are summarized in Figure 3 which
displays production possibility curves of the relation
between optimal NPV and additional CO
2
sequestration and
storage. Each curve is a non-inferior set of points, with each
point on a curve being equally valid depending on the
decision-maker preferences, while each point below the
curve is inferior because you can always increase both NPV
and/or CO
2
by moving to the curve. Each point above the
curve is non-feasible given the capabilities of the land base
and the policies being applied. In each case, when optimizing
for carbon stored over the entire 100-year planning horizon,
the model selected stands with the highest available planting
density (3705 trees ha
1
), and extended harvest rotations.
The completely unconstrained maximization run resulted
in unrealistic harvest results. Operational and market experi-
ence suggest that no more than 8100 ha (20,000 ac) could
be harvested in a 5-year period. In order to maximize the
annual growth potential of the standing carbon stocks, the
unconstrained model clear-cut unrealistically large areas in
periods 5, 13 and 20. Adding the 20% variation in harvest
flow constraint lowered clear-cut areas to realistic levels and
increased the amount of thinning substantially from 209 ha
yr
1
(517 ac yr
1
) to 630 ha yr
1
(1558 ac yr
1
).
A sensitivity analysis revealed that the trade-off between
carbon sequestration and NPV maximization requires only a
slight reduction in carbon sequestration to achieve dramatic
increases in NPV (Figure 3). Under the 20% constraint, carbon
maximization yielded an NPV $48,531,255 and 5,576,235
additional Mg CO
2
over the 100-year horizon (Point 1, Figure
3). On the other end of the 20% curve, maximum NPV is
$61,552,806 and CO
2
is at 0 Mg (Point 2, Figure 3). Total CO
2
sequestered and stored is 15,969,129 Mg but none of this is
additional, since we get this under current management.
However, if we increased CO
2
to the maximum level (Point 1,
Figures 3 and 4), NPV falls by $13,021,551 yielding a gain of
5,576,235 Mg CO
2
at an opportunity cost of $2.34 Mg
1
(Point 1, Figure 4
)
. Current CARB market prices (over $10 per
Mg CO
2
) suggest that an IFM plan for large forest owners in
the southeastern United States could effectively improve
both carbon sequestration and profitability.
Discussion
Our results indicate that pine plantations represent a major
potential carbon pool in the southeastern United States. The
baseline formulation in our model is defined by an NPV optim-
ization condition and this type of baseline approach is impor-
tant as it affects the quantity, credibility and equity of credits
generated from efforts to reduce forest carbon emissions
(Chomitz 1999; Gibbs et al. 2007; Griscom et al. 2009). For
this study, we have not considered the minimum baseline
level (average carbon stocks of forest of the same cover
type in the same region) to be the baseline level of available
carbon stocks as we aimed to assess the net change in CO
2
sequestration relative to a business as usual scenario, and
not to other forests within the region. From Figures 3 and 4,
we understand that for a small cost per ton we can sequester
and store additional carbon. Although carbon sequestration
in forest might not be a permanent carbon sink, it can buy
us some extra time and thereby help in delaying temperature
increase and related issues (Backéus et al. 2005). Considering
an uncertain future, these methods have an advantage of
being flexible and reversible most of the times (Solberg
1997; van Kooten et al. 1997). Moreover, it is easier to evaluate
the cost of carbon uptake as compared to cost associated with
future damages caused due to changing climatic conditions
(van Kooten et al. 1997; Backéus et al. 2005). There are also
several other mechanisms such as emission trading and
joint implementation, which opens opportunities to pursue
transfer and creation of carbon reduction units through indus-
trial projects at a global scale (Pretty & Ball 2001; Burley et al.
2007). Considering all these factors there is a huge possibility
for landowners following short rotation ages, located in good
wood products markets to alter their management practices
and increase carbon storage capacity of forest, without
costing a large amount of money. However, recent studies
show that these research findings are not accepted by large
segments of the American public for various reasons (Leisero-
witz et al. 2013; Khanal et al. 2016).
One of the primary hurdles for including plantations in the
market is the species diversity requirement (CARB 2015). Plan-
tations are inherently monocultures, and currently IFM proto-
cols within the United States, require mixed species,
consistent with natural forest management. Another
concern regarding carbon storage is the saturation issue,
which is a measure of how much carbon forests can carry at
a given time (Marland et al. 2001; Lee et al. 2005; Canadell
et al. 2007; Nabuurs et al. 2013). From our saturation curve,
we can notice that 100 years were not enough for reaching
a steady state in standing volume, which means that there
is less risk of carbon storage over the next 100 years given
the fact that the net growth of our carbon model reflects
carbon sequestration and there are no large-scale
678 J. P. ROISE ET AL.
disturbances happening at the study site. However, it is
advised to understand the actual risk and magnitude of
potential reversals beforehand, so that suitable management
strategies can be incorporated in situations involving inten-
tional or unintentional release of carbon back to the atmos-
phere happening due to storms, fire, pests, land-use
decisions, etc. (Galik & Jackson 2009).
With respect to global climate change and mitigation strat-
egies, a measure of detailed carbon balance is necessary as
the net release or uptake of carbon by forests could have a
large impact on the atmospheres CO concentration (IGBP Ter-
restrial Carbon Working Group 1998; Körner 2003). Also, vari-
ation in forest management strategies can have serious
impacts on other carbon pools and this will in turn affect
the overall carbon sequestration capacity of a given forest
land. For example, harvesting, thinning and fertilizer appli-
cations are found to affect the soil carbon dynamics of
forests to a moderate degree (Johnson & Curtis 2001; Luo
et al. 2003; Jandl et al. 2007; Peng et al. 2008; Nave et al.
2010; Noormets et al. 2015). It should be borne in mind that
the carbon inventory used for this study was derived from
merchantable inventory, which does not include carbon
pools, such as soil, standing dead trees and trees below
minimum dbh class. Hence for improving the overall effi-
ciency of current model, further research focused on
implementation of inventory data to include all possible
carbon pools is essential.
Conclusion
Overall our research study suggests that for a small cost per
ton we can sequester and store large amount of carbon in
the pine plantations of southeastern United States.
However, current carbon market standards prohibit forests
with homogeneous species, broadcast fertilization and other
intensive silviculture practices. Further research is needed to
examine the potential for pine plantations located in similar
geophysical regions that adhere to the carbon market stan-
dards in comparison to intensively managed forests like the
Hofmann Forest, so that landowners may better understand
the opportunity cost of managing their property less inten-
sively so that they may enter the market. The current United
States carbon market is hospitable to forest landowners
who are already growing timber for markets that require
long rotation ages and for forest landowners located in
poor forest products markets. With a few changes in market
structure, landowners who currently manage for profit maxi-
mization using short rotation ages and located in good
wood products markets could alter their management and
realize a large increase in carbon sequestration, without
costing a large amount of money.
Notes
1. CRT Carbon Credits, Your Vercarbon Guide; Climate action Reserve
Approved to Register Offset Projects for Californias Cap-and-Trade
Program, Business Wire (December 14, 20012).
2. Timber Mart-South Eastern regional averages for the state of North
Carolina for the 1st quarter of 2015 (http://www.timbermart-south.
com/).
Acknowledgements
This research was conducted at the North Carolina State University,
Raleigh, NC 27695, USA.
Disclosure statement
No potential conflict of interest was reported by the authors.
Figure 4. The opportunity cost per ton in, NPV US dollars, associated with increases in carbon production for the three different harvest flow constraints.
SCANDINAVIAN JOURNAL OF FOREST RESEARCH 679
Funding
We would like to thank REMSOFT for use of the Spatial Planning System;
The North Carolina Natural Resources Foundation for use of the Hofmann
Forest, its GIS and database; Buck Vaughan and the Conservation Fund for
helpful insights into carbon projects; and nally Laura Parker, of American
Forest Management for guidance on use of the Spatial Planning System.
References
Amateis RL, Burkhart HE, Allen HL, Montes C. 2001. FASTLOB: a stand-level
growthand yield modelfor fertilizedand thinnedloblolly pineplantations.
Loblolly Pine Growth and Yield Research Cooperative Report, 115, 26.
Amateis RL, Liu J, Ducey MJ, Allen HL. 2000. Modeling response to midro-
tation nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization in loblolly pine planta-
tions. South J Appl For. 24(4):207212.
Backéus S, Wikström P, Lämås T. 2005. A model for regional analysis of
carbon sequestration and timber production. For Ecol Manage. 216
(1):2840.
Baskent EZ, KeleşS. 2009. Developing alternative forest management
planning strategies incorporating timber, water and carbon values:
an examination of their interactions. Environ Model Assess. 14
(4):467480.
Birdsey R, Pregitzer K, Lucier A. 2006. Forest carbon management in the
United States. J Environ Qual. 35(4):14611469.
Brown S, Sathaye J, Cannell M, Kauppi PE. 1996. Management of forests for
mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions. Cambridge University Press.
Burley J, Ebeling J, Costa PM, Freer-Smith PH, Broadmeadow MSJ, Lynch
JM. 2007. 5 Carbon Sequestration as a forestry opportunity in a chan-
ging climate. For Clim Change. 3137.
Canadell JG, Pataki DE, Gifford R, Houghton RA, Luo Y, Raupach MR, Smith
P, Steffen W. 2007. Saturation of the terrestrial carbon sink. In Terrestrial
ecosystems in a changing world. New York: Springer Berlin Heidelberg;
p. 5978.
CARB. 2015. Compliance offset protocol, California Air Resources Board.
Adopted June 25, 2015. Downloaded December 7, 2015. Available
from: http://www.arb.ca.gov/cc/capandtrade/protocols/usforest/forest
protocol2015.pdf
Chomitz KM. 1999. Evaluating carbon offsets from forestry and energy
projects: how do they compare? World Bank, Vol. 2357:34. http://dx.
doi.org/10.1596/1813-9450-2357. 10.1596/1813-9450-2357.
Díaz-Balteiro L, Romero C. 2003. Forest management optimisation models
when carbon captured is considered: a goal programming approach.
For Ecol Manage. 174(1):447457.
Dixon GE. 2002. Essential FVS: a users guide to the forest vegetation simu-
lator. Fort Collins (CO): USDA-Forest Service, Forest Management
Service Center.
Dixon R, Brown S, Houghton REA, Solomon AM, Trexier MC, Wisniewski J.
1994. Carbon pools and flux of global forest ecosystems. Science
(Washington). 263(5144):185190.
Galik CS, Jackson RB. 2009. Risks to forest carbon offset projects in a chan-
ging climate. For Ecol Manage. 257(11):22092216.
Gharis L, Roise J, McCarter J. 2015. A compromise programming model for
developing the cost of including carbon pools and flux into forest man-
agement. Ann Oper Res. 232(1):115133.
Gibbs HK, Brown S, Niles JO, Foley JA. 2007.Monitoring and estimating
tropical forest carbon stocks: making REDD a reality. Environ Res
Letters. 2(4):045023.
Griscom B, Shoch D, Stanley B, Cortez R, Virgilio N. 2009. Sensitivity of
amounts and distribution of tropical forest carbon credits depending
on baseline rules. Environ Sci Policy. 12(7):897911.
Heath LS, Smith JE. 2004. Criterion 5, indicator 26: total forest ecosystem
biomass and carbon pool, and if appropriate, by forest type, age class
and successional change.
Hoen HF, Solberg B. 1994. Potential and economic efficiency of carbon
sequestration in forest biomass through silvicultural management.
For Sci. 40(3):429451.
Hoen HF, Solberg B. 1999. Policy options in carbon sequestration via sus-
tainable forest management: an example from the North. In: Palo M,
editor. Forest transition and carbon fluxes global scenarios and pol-
icies. World Development Studies, 15. Helsinki: UNU World Institute for
Development Economics Research; p. 117132.
IGBP Terrestrial Carbon Working Group. 1998. Climate: the terrestrial
carbon cycle: implications for the Kyoto Protocol. Science. 280
(5368):13931394.
Jandl R, Lindner M, Vesterdal L, Bauwens B, Baritz R, Hagedorn F, Johnson
DW, Minkkinen K, Byrne KA. 2007. How strongly can forest manage-
ment influence soil carbon sequestration? Geoderma. 137(3):253268.
Johnson DW, Curtis PS. 2001. Effects of forest management on soil C and N
storage: meta analysis. For Ecol Manage. 140(2):227238.
Khanal PN, Grebner DL, Munn IA, Grado SC, Grala RK, Henderson JE,
Measells MK. 2016. Nonindustrial private forest landowner beliefs
toward climate change and carbon sequestration in the southern
United States. J For. 114:18.
Körner C. 2003. Atmospheric science: slow in, rapid out carbon flux
studies and Kyoto targets. Science. 300(5623):12421243.
van Kooten GC, Grainger A, Ley E, Marland G, Solberg B. 1997. Conceptual
issues related to carbon sequestration: uncertainty and time. Crit Rev
Environ Sci Technol. 27(S1):6582.
van Kooten GC, Krcmar-Nozic E, Stennes B, van Gorkom R. 1999.
Economics of fossil fuel substitution and wood product sinks when
trees are planted to sequester carbon on agricultural lands in
western Canada. Can J For Res. 29(11):16691678.
Lee HC, McCarl BA, Gillig D. 2005. The dynamic competitiveness of U.S.
agricultural and forest carbon sequestration. Can J Agr Econ/Revue
canadienne dagroeconomie. 53(4):343357.
Leiserowitz A, Maibach EW, Roser-Renouf C, Feinberg G, Howe P. 2013.
Climate change in the American mind: Americansglobal warming
beliefs and attitudes in April 2013. Available at SSRN 2298705.
Luo Y, White LW, Canadell JG, DeLucia EH, Ellsworth DS, Finzi A, Lichter J,
Schlesinger WH. 2003.Sustainability of terrestrial carbon sequestration:
a case study in Duke Forest with inversion approach. Global
Biogeochem Cycles. 17(1):21.121.13.
Marland G, Fruit K, Sedjo R. 2001. Accounting for sequestered carbon: the
question of permanence. Environ Sci Policy. 4(6):259268.
Nabuurs GJ, Lindner M, Verkerk PJ, Gunia K, Deda P, Michalak R, Grassi G.
2013. First signs of carbon sink saturation in European forest biomass.
Nat Clim Chang. 3(9):792796.
Nave LE, Vance ED, Swanston CW, Curtis PS. 2010. Harvest impacts on
soil carbon storage in temperate forests. For Ecol Manage. 259
(5):857866.
Ndjondo M, Gourlet-Fleury S, Manlay RJ, Obiang NLE, Ngomanda A,
Romero C, Claeys F, Picard N. 2014. Opportunity costs of carbon
sequestration in a forest concession in central Africa. Carbon Balance
and Management. 9(1):16.
Newell RG, Stavins RN. 2000. Climate change and forest sinks: factors
affecting the costs of carbon sequestration. J Environ Econ Manage.
40(3):211235.
Noormets A, Epron D, Domec JC, McNulty SG, Fox T, Sun G, King JS. 2015.
Effects of forest management on productivity and carbon sequestra-
tion: a review and hypothesis. For Ecol Manage. 355:124140.
Peng Y, Thomas SC, Tian D. 2008. Forest management and soil respiration:
implications for carbon sequestration. Environ Rev. 16(NA):93111.
Penman J, Gytarsky M, Hiraishi T, Krug T, Kruger D, Pipatti R, Buendia, l,
Miwa, K, Ngara, T, Tamabe K, Wagner F, editors. 2003. Good practice
guidance for land use, land-use change and foresty. Institute for
Global Environmental Strategies (IGES). http://www.ipcc.ch. Retrieved
from: http://proxying.lib.ncsu.edu/index.php?url=http://search.proqu
est.com/docview/18034700?accountid=12725
Pretty J, Ball A. 2001. Agricultural influences on carbon emissions and
sequestration: a review of evidence and the emerging trading
options. Centre for Environment and Society Occasional Paper. 3:31.
Prodanovic P, Simonovic SP. 2003. Fuzzy compromise programming for
group decision making. IEEE Trans Syst Man Cybern A Syst Hum. 33
(3):358365.
Solberg B. 1997. Forest biomass as carbon sink-economic value and forest
management/policy implications. Crit Rev Environ Sci Technol. 27
(S1):323333.
680 J. P. ROISE ET AL.
... While this kind of survey method is highly precise and is broadly implemented by forestry departments worldwide, it is also time-consuming, laborious, and destructive to the surveyed vegetation to a certain extent. Moreover, the survey results may not accurately reflect the current state of forest resources across a large area [9]. Alternatively, the reflectance in each band of an optical remote sensing image can indicate the chlorophyll content and growth status of a stand, and these features are closely related to forest parameters [10]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) as platforms for light detection and ranging (LiDAR) sensors offers the efficient operation and advantages of active remote sensing; hence, UAV-LiDAR plays an important role in forest resource investigations. However, high-precision individual tree segmentation, in which the most appropriate individual tree segmentation method and the optimal algorithm parameter settings must be determined, remains highly challenging when applied to multiple forest types. This article compared the applicability of methods based on a canopy height model (CHM) and a normalized point cloud (NPC) obtained from UAV-LiDAR point cloud data. The watershed algorithm, local maximum method, point cloud-based cluster segmentation, and layer stacking were used to segment individual trees and extract the tree height parameters from nine plots of three forest types. The individual tree segmentation results were evaluated based on experimental field data, and the sensitivity of the parameter settings in the segmentation methods was analyzed. Among all plots, the overall accuracy F of individual tree segmentation was between 0.621 and 1, the average RMSE of tree height extraction was 1.175 m, and the RMSE% was 12.54%. The results indicated that compared with the CHM-based methods, the NPC-based methods exhibited better performance in individual tree segmentation; additionally, the type and complexity of a forest influence the accuracy of individual tree segmentation, and point cloud-based cluster segmentation is the preferred scheme for individual tree segmentation, while layer stacking should be used as a supplement in multilayer forests and extremely complex heterogeneous forests. This research provides important guidance for the use of UAV-LiDAR to accurately obtain forest structure parameters and perform forest resource investigations. In addition, the methods compared in this paper can be employed to extract vegetation indices, such as the canopy height, leaf area index, and vegetation coverage.
... So far, deterministic models have been widely applied for solving diverse forest planning problems (Roise et al., 2016;dos Santos et al., 2019;Simonenkova et al., 2020). However, there has been an ongoing debate about the effect of random changes on the solution. ...
Article
We solve two related problems: i) the harvest scheduling problem and ii) the forest road maintenance scheduling problem. The main objective is to evaluate the effect of stochastic delays of forest road maintenance on forest harvesting. We built a control scenario to evaluate a deterministic model without road maintenance delay and measured the impacts of the delay through a stochastic programming model and simulations. The example used has 400 stands of planted Pinus sp. managed for pulp production. The considered road network is approximately 570 km. A deterministic programming model was formulated for the forest regulation problem, maximizing the number of harvested stands. A Monte Carlo simulation was applied to generate a random seed disturbance. In the tested instances, the number of stands that would have been harvested according to the deterministic schedule but were not harvested, due to delays in the maintenance of segments of the roads, varied from 1 to 400. The timber volume harvested over the planning horizon varied considerably, with periods in which the value was even zero. The stochastic model proposed can be useful to assist managers in decision making. In addition, the approach may help with road classification and reducing risks for better management practices.
... Traditional forest resource survey methods are limited by human factors; they require considerable labor and material resources and often have long measurement cycles, poor Remote Sens. 2021, 13, 1442 2 of 20 timeliness, and high measurement error. Only point data can be obtained through such surveys, and it is difficult to obtain data at regional or larger scales [7,8]. However, the rapid development of remote sensing technology has created favorable conditions for forest resource monitoring. ...
Article
Full-text available
Detecting and segmenting individual trees in forest ecosystems with high-density and overlapping crowns often results in bias due to the limitations of the commonly used canopy height model (CHM). To address such limitations, this paper proposes a new method to segment individual trees and extract tree structural parameters. The method involves the following key steps: (1) unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)-scanned, high-density laser point clouds were classified, and a vegetation point cloud density model (VPCDM) was established by analyzing the spatial density distribution of the classified vegetation point cloud in the plane projection; and (2) a local maximum algorithm with an optimal window size was used to detect tree seed points and to extract tree heights, and an improved watershed algorithm was used to extract the tree crowns. The proposed method was tested at three sites with different canopy coverage rates in a pine-dominated forest in northern China. The results showed that (1) the kappa coefficient between the proposed VPCDM and the commonly used CHM was 0.79, indicating that performance of the VPCDM is comparable to that of the CHM; (2) the local maximum algorithm with the optimal window size could be used to segment individual trees and obtain optimal single-tree segmentation accuracy and detection rate results; and (3) compared with the original watershed algorithm, the improved watershed algorithm significantly increased the accuracy of canopy area extraction. In conclusion, the proposed VPCDM may provide an innovative data segmentation model for light detection and ranging (LiDAR)-based high-density point clouds and enhance the accuracy of parameter extraction.
... It is recommended that the promotion and development of a 'UN Carbon Offset Platform' like program be prioritized amongst CSOs to engage more local leaders, small-scale forest owners, industrial investors and government officials in the fight against escalated illegal logging and forest conversion happening during the COVID-19 pandemic phase (Roise et al., 2016;Hou et al., 2019;Freedman and Keith, 1996). Previous studies have shown that carbon credit platforms can provide long-term funding for communities, help fund micro-enterprises for income generation opportunities and subsequently reduce community dependence on forest-based products (Holmes et al., 2008). ...
Article
Afforestation/reforestation (A/R) programs spearheaded by Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) play a significant role in reaching global climate policy targets and helping low-income nations meet the United Nations (UN) Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). However, these organizations face unprecedented challenges due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Consequently, these challenges affect their ability to address issues associated with deforestation and forest degradation in a timely manner. We discuss the influence COVID-19 can have on previous, present and future A/R initiatives, in particular, the ones led by International Non-governmental Organizations (INGOs). We provide thirty-three recommendations for exploring underlying deforestation patterns and optimizing forest policy reforms to support forest cover expansion during the pandemic. The recommendations are classified into four groups - i) curbing deforestation and improving A/R, ii) protecting the environment and mitigating climate change, iii) enhancing socio-economic conditions, and iv) amending policy and law enforcement practices.
... Several initiatives to couple models for strategic forest management planning to models of forest carbon dynamics have emerged in the North American and Scandinavian research literature. Model objectives and applications typically fit into one of the following categories: (i) maximize carbon stocks in the forest (e.g., Meng et al. 2003); (ii) maximize carbon stocks in the forest and in the forest products (e.g., Neilson et al. 2008, Hennigar and MacLean 2010, Cintas et al. 2016, Pukkala 2017, 2018; (iii) maximize carbon storage together with net revenues from wood products (e.g., Neilson et al. 2006, Bourque et al. 2007, Roise et al. 2016); (iv) maximize carbon storage in forest and in wood products with consideration of avoided emissions from product substitution (e.g., Hennigar et al. 2008, Cameron et al. 2013, Brunet-Navarro et al. 2016); (v) maximize forest carbon stocks and soil expectation value (e.g., Gharis et al. 2015); and (vi) optimize the economic value for carbon sequestration (e.g., Backéus et al. 2006). ...
Article
Strategic forest management planning models designed to maintain existing carbon stocks and maximize capacity for future sequestration can help identify underused opportunities to increase carbon stocks without diminishing other forest products. This study proposed a carbon stock unit that allows summing up the stocks in the different forest pools even if the decomposition far exceeds the planning horizon. This unit is used to integrate the methods and algorithms from the Carbon Budget Model of the Canadian Forest Sector (CBM-CFS3) model into a wood supply model. The resulting model could be used to predict changes in carbon stocks, transfers between carbon pools, and greenhouse gas emissions that would result from every forest management activity. We tailored this model to meet different strategies: maximizing carbon storage in the forest, maximizing high-sustained timber yield, and achieving the dual objectives of yield and carbon storage. A range of management scenarios were simulated using the data of a 485,000 hectares mixed-wood forest in Quebec, Canada. Our results demonstrate that, with the reduction in the harvest rates, the increase in the ecosystem carbon storage is insufficient to offset the carbon losses associated with the increase in the harvest rates.
... Forest plantations cover approximately 7% of the global forested area, including around 80 million ha in tropical and subtropical countries, and Eucalyptus spp. is one of the most widely cultivated species due to their fast growth rate [1][2][3]. In the context of sustainability, these plantations help to offset natural forest exploitation, restore some ecological services offered by natural forests, and mitigate climate change by storing carbon [4][5][6]. As economic endeavors, careful monitoring of forest plantation growth and productivity is critical for efficient and optimal management, with the objective of generating maximal yields while minimizing production costs and environmental disturbances. ...
Article
Full-text available
Fast-growing Eucalyptus spp. forest plantations and their resultant wood products are economically important and may provide a low-cost means to sequester carbon for greenhouse gas reduction. The development of advanced and optimized frameworks for estimating forest plantation attributes from lidar remote sensing data combined with statistical modeling approaches is a step towards forest inventory operationalization and might improve industry efficiency in monitoring and managing forest resources. In this study, we first developed and tested a framework for modeling individual tree attributes in fast-growing Eucalyptus forest plantation using airborne lidar data and linear mixed-effect models (LME) and assessed the gain in accuracy compared to a conventional linear fixed-effects model (LFE). Second, we evaluated the potential of using the tree-level estimates for determining tree attribute uniformity across different stand ages. In the field, tree measurements, such as tree geolocation, species, genotype, age, height (Ht), and diameter at breast height (dbh) were collected through conventional forest inventory practices, and tree-level aboveground carbon (AGC) was estimated using allometric equations. Individual trees were detected and delineated from lidar-derived canopy height models (CHM), and crown-level metrics (e.g., crown volume and crown projected area) were computed from the lidar 3-D point cloud. Field and lidar-derived crown metrics were combined for ht, dbh, and AGC modeling using an LME. We fitted a varying intercept and slope model, setting species, genotype, and stand (alone and nested) as random effects. For comparison, we also modeled the same attributes using a conventional LFE model. The tree attribute estimates derived from the best LME model were used for assessing forest uniformity at the tree level using the Lorenz curves and Gini coefficient (GC). We successfully detected 96.6% of the trees from the lidar-derived CHM. The best LME model for estimating the tree attributes was composed of the stand as a random effect variable, and canopy height, crown volume, and crown projected area as fixed effects. The %RMSE values for tree-level height, dbh, and AGC were 8.9%, 12.1%, and 23.7% for the LFE model and improved to 7.3%, 7.1%, and 13.6%, respectively, for the LME model. Tree attributes uniformity was assessed with the Lorenz curves and tree-level estimations, especially for the older stands. All stands showed a high level of tree uniformity with GC values approximately 0.2. This study demonstrates that accurate detection of individual trees and their associated crown metrics can be used to estimate Ht, dbh, and AGC stocks as well as forest uniformity in fast-growing Eucalyptus plantations forests using lidar data as inputs to LME models. This further underscores the high potential of our proposed approach to monitor standing stock and growth in Eucalyptus—and similar forest plantations for carbon dynamics and forest product planning.
... Forest inventory and monitoring is critical to plantation owners due to its usage in identifying, quantifying and tracking forest cover, growth stages, fruit production rates, wood stocks, optimal harvest times, land characteristics and resource allocation of their plantations (Wulder et al., 2012;Silva et al., 2017aSilva et al., , 2017bRoise et al., 2016;Schreuder et al., 1993). Over the years, development of remote sensing techniques, computer software and machine learning algorithms, have significantly improved inventory and monitoring methods applied to plantation forestry, and have helped in characterizing forest structure vertically across the landscapes (Ferraz et al., 2015(Ferraz et al., , 2016Hall et al., 2011;Jaafar et al., 2018). ...
Article
Forest inventory and monitoring is indispensable for coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) forest plantation owners as it allows them in assessing tree growth, fruit production rates and vitality of plantations, as well as assists to meet up with the rising market demands by ensuring better yields. Nonetheless, the use of remote sensing techniques for optimizing the management and production of coconut plantations is still at a latent stage. In this paper, we present an airborne laser scanning (lidar) based tree detection method applied for automatically identifying individual coconut trees in a plantation in southeast Brazil. This method locates individual trees by searching treetops on canopy height models (CHM) derived from lidar data through a moving window having fixed treetop window size (TWS). Here, an adaptive TWS approach was implemented as a function of lidar-derived canopy cover (COV, %) along with additional smoothening window sizes (SWS) for enhancing tree detection accuracy. A total of 19 plots characterized by varying levels of canopy cover were used for testing the accuracy of our framework and we were able to obtain an average tree detection accuracy of 86.22%. From a total of 341 trees, 294 trees were detected correctly by the algorithm using adaptive TWS. A low TWS (3x3) value was found to perform best in study plots having COV > 80% and for rest of the cases, a higher TWS (7x7) was perceived suitable. Results were further analyzed and compared, to evaluate the relationship of Individual Tree Detection (ITD) accuracy with varying canopy cover levels, within-plot tree distribution patterns, TWS and SWS values. Proceedings from our work show that appropriate combination of lidar-derived CHMs, local maxima (LM) algorithm and window sizes have the potential to satisfactorily (F-score˜0score˜score˜0.90) detect plantation species having irregular canopies such as coconut trees. As an extension of the ITD, estimation of forest uniformity, which gives a measure of the level of homogeneity or heterogeneity of stands, is also performed.
... Forest plantations cover approximately 50 million ha in the tropics (1% of total global forest area) and are expected to continue expanding at rapid rates in the coming years due to their multiple benefits -such as the ability to offset natural forest exploitation, simplify otherwise complex forest ecosystems, meet energy, pulp and paper, and several wood products demand, restore ecological services initially offered by natural forests, as well as to offset greenhouse gas increases and combat climate change by sequestering carbon or by avoiding deforestation [1][2][3][4][5][6]. In this context, monitoring and tracking the growth and productivity of forest plantations has become a high priority. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Forest plantations cover a large part of tropical countries such as Brazil and eucalyptus plantations in particular account for 57% of Brazil's reforested area. As plantations offer multiple benefits-such as an option to offset natural forests, simplify otherwise complex forest ecosystems, meet energy, pulp, and paper demands, restore ecological services and combat climate change by sequestering carbon-to the society, monitoring and tracking the growth and productivity of forest plantations should be given high priority. In this regard, remote sensing techniques have been found highly efficient. The core objective of this study is to estimate individual tree attributes, such as tree height, diameter at breast height (dbh) and above ground carbon (AGC) stocks of eucalyptus plantations from lidar data using linear mixed effects (LME) models; Ordinary Least Square (OLS) regression models are also built for comparison purposes. From our results, it can be inferred that hierarchy existing within the plantation datasets can be well handled by LME models and predictive models, for tracking tree level AGC and forest productivity, with satisfactory accuracies possible by combining lidar and LME modeling techniques.
Article
Full-text available
To promote Bio-Energy with Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage (BECCS), which aims to replace fossil fuels with bio energy and store carbon underground, and Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+), which aims to reduce the carbon emissions produced by forest degradation, it is important to build forest management plans based on the scientific prediction of forest dynamics. For Measurement, Reporting and Verification (MRV) at an individual tree level, it is expected that techniques will be developed to support forest management via the effective monitoring of changes to individual trees. In this study, an end-to-end process was developed: (1) detecting individual trees from Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) derived digital images; (2) estimating the stand structure from crown images; (3) visualizing future carbon dynamics using a forest ecosystem process model. This process could detect 93.4% of individual trees, successfully classified two species using Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) with 83.6% accuracy and evaluated future ecosystem carbon dynamics and the source-sink balance using individual based model FORMIND. Further ideas for improving the sub-process of the end to end process were discussed. This process is expected to contribute to activities concerned with carbon management such as designing smart utilization for biomass resources and projecting scenarios for the sustainable use of ecosystem services.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Forest Inventory and monitoring are important for coconut plantation owners as it helps them in tracking forest growth, fruit production rates, and plantation vitality. From this aspect, automated Individual Tree Detection (ITD) is very helpful as it makes the aforementioned processes less time-consuming, affordable, and efficient; however, applications of ITD is still at a latent stage in several emerging economies such as Brazil. Herein, we combined Light Detection and Ranging (lidar) and local maxima algorithm to automatically detect coconut tree tops from a plantation having plots of varying canopy cover densities. Our accuracy assessment results (average tree detection accuracy = 79.77%) shows that application of local maxima algorithm on lidar-derived canopy height models (CHM)-along with suitable filter window sizes and fixed window sizes, according to plantation density and within-plot tree distribution-can predict coconut trees with satisfiable accuracy (F-score > 0.85) and thereby assist the plantation sector's monitoring practices.
Article
Full-text available
Carbon storage utilizing forests is one of the most important strategies for implementing climate change mitigation. Considering the potential of carbon storage in forests owned by nonindustrial private forest (NIPF) landowners, it is imperative to understand their views regarding climate change and carbon sequestration. This study segments NIPF landowners in the southern United States on the basis of their beliefs toward climate change and carbon sequestration. A K-means cluster analysis was used to segment their climate change and carbon sequestration beliefs into three broad clusters: skeptic, supportive, and neutral landowners. The results indicated that a majority of southern landowners (47%) held neutral beliefs, whereas the proportions of supportive and skeptical clusters were 35 and 18%, respectively. These belief clusters differ with respect to landowner income and education as well as their landownership and management characteristics. In terms of the future impact of climate change, 40% of landowners in the supportive cluster expected timber yield to fluctuate more than 5% on average but only 12% in the skeptic cluster expected it, whereas 24% of landowners in neutral cluster anticipated the same impact. Results of this study provide insights on the current beliefs of NIPF landowners toward climate change and carbon sequestration as well as strategies for effectively communicating climate change and carbon sequestration information to them.
Article
Full-text available
Background: Trends in forest cover and land use intensity Increasing global population and expanding land use mean that an ever greater percentage of human needs for wood products are being met by managed forests (Foley et al., 2005). Currently, about 7% of world’s forests are plantations and 57% are secondary forests recovering from anthropogenic disturbance (FAO, 2010). From 2000 to 2005 the rate of increase in the area of planted forests was 2% yr-1 and is accelerating (FAO, 2009), whereas total forest decreased at a rate of about 6% per decade. A recent analysis of Landsat TM data series concluded that forest use is intensifying in time, with 30% of the forestland in the southeastern US having been harvested and re-grown between 2000 and 2012 (Hansen et al., 2013). This is consistent with the typical rotation lengths in the region (discussed below), and an estimate that over 50% of the world’s industrial plantations are in the SE-US (Allen et al., 2005). While the exact interplay between factors effecting forest cover change vary by region, and can respond to both local development and global economic forces (Drummond and Loveland, 2010), the trends described above are likely to continue unless the valuation of forest products and services changes dramatically. As the primary metric of a forest’s value has been its merchantable productivity, plantation forestry has long selected species and genotypes to maximize this one trait. For the most intensively studied species, like loblolly pine (Pinus taeda), it has been estimated that a typical plantation is about 3-5 times more productive than a natural stand, and that growth gains of up to 20-fold can be achieved in intensive culture and outside the species’ natural range (Cubbage et al., 2007; Ryan et al., 2010). Fox and coworkers (Fox et al., 2007a) estimated that, on average, the productivity of commercial P. taeda plantations is more than 4-fold higher than of natural P. taeda stands, with planting, site preparation, competition control, fertilization and genetic improvement contribute 13%, 10%, 13%, 17% and 23% of the total productivity, respectively. The productivity eucalypts in Brazil has nearly doubled over the past 20 years, owing to intensive management techniques (Goncalves et al., 2013). However, in global databases the management effects are confounded with temperature (Litton et al., 2007), and it remains unclear, whether or how the contribution of forests to global C cycling may change with their transition from natural to managed state (Piao et al., 2009; Stinson et al., 2011). Of the explicit management-related effects, the increased frequency of disturbance makes for a very dynamic and rapidly changing biogeochemical exchange, to the point where age-related variability may be the predominant source of spatial variation (Desai et al., 2008), which on the global scale explains more than 90% of the variability in net ecosystem productivity (NEP; Pregitzer and Euskirchen, 2004). There are significant changes in forest structural and functional traits as related to age (Law et al., 2001a; Law et al., 2001b; 2006; Noormets et al., 2007), which have been recognized as having far greater influence on forest productivity and CO2 exchange than climate (King et al., 1999; Pregitzer and Euskirchen, 2004; Magnani et al., 2007). However, it is not only productivity that is altered during the harvesting and management cycle. Long-term accumulation/sequestration of carbon in the ecosystem is determined by the magnitude and types of input (which is part of the management strategy), and the magnitude and pathway of losses, which in turn depend on various C stabilization mechanisms. The allocation of carbon to the production of different organs changes dramatically during stand development, with greater allocation belowground early in the development (Genet et al., 2010). Second, the stimulation of respiratory losses following a harvest is well documented, and results from a number of causes, including (i) disturbance of soil (Diochon and Kellman, 2008; Diochon et al., 2009; Diochon and Kellman, 2009), (ii) production of large amount of dead biomass (Harmon et al., 1986), (iii) change in the stoichiometry of carbon pools (Harmon et al., 2011), and (iv) change in microclimate (Chen et al., 1993; Noormets et al., 2007). These changes have both short- and long-term consequences, as they affect both the pool sizes, and fluxes of carbon between these pools. However, the decomposition of harvest residues sustains both tree growth and soil properties (Laclau et al., 2010; Versini et al., 2013) and thus contributes to maintaining ecosystem C stocks (Huang et al., 2013). As none of these effects are included in the global land surface models, their estimates of allometric proportions between different C pools are often inconsistent with observations (Wolf et al., 2011a and references therein), particularly in the young stands, and the allocation patterns may be outside the spread of data (Malhi et al., 2011). Although the process-level understanding of carbon partitioning has made strides in the past decade (section: Soil carbon dynamics), a cohesive modeling framework that would tie them all together is yet to emerge (Franklin et al., 2012). Chen et al. (2014) analyzed a number of global ecosystem models, and traced the allocation submodels back to that used by Friedlingstein et al. (1999), who had acknowledged that the modeled biomass estimates were very sensitive to the allocation algorithms used – with nearly 6-fold range in the root:shoot ratio at low-NPP sites. Thus, it is critical that the dynamic responses in allocation, and disturbance-related changes in different C fluxes be realistically depicted in land surface models. The goal of the current study is to (i) evaluate available information on the controls of photosynthetic carbon gain, allocation, and respiration in forest ecosystems, the responses of these processes to disturbance and management-related drivers, (ii) develop testable hypothesis about carbon cycling in managed/plantation forests, based on the results of (i), and (iii) explore the usability of existing global databases for answering these questions. The main focus is on on-site carbon sequestration potential, as estimated by expected changes in belowground allocation, rate of decomposition, and mechanisms of stabilization. All trends are viewed in the context of expected global increases in nitrogen deposition (Ndep), [CO2] and temperature.
Article
Full-text available
A large proportion of the tropical rain forests of central Africa undergo periodic selective logging for timber harvesting. The REDD+ mechanism could promote less intensive logging if revenue from the additional carbon stored in the forest compensates financially for the reduced timber yield. Carbon stocks, and timber yields, and their associated values, were predicted at the scale of a forest concession in Gabon over a project scenario of 40 yr with reduced logging intensity. Considering that the timber contribution margin (i.e. the selling price of timber minus its production costs) varies between 10 and US$40 m −3, the minimum price of carbon that enables carbon revenues to compensate forgone timber benefits ranges between US$4.4 and US$25.9/tCO 2 depending on the management scenario implemented. Where multiple suppliers of emission reductions compete in a REDD+ carbon market, tropical timber companies are likely to change their management practices only if very favourable conditions are met, namely if the timber contribution margin remains low enough and if alternative management practices and associated incentives are appropriately chosen.
Article
Full-text available
European forests are seen as a clear example of vegetation rebound in the Northern Hemisphere; recovering in area and growing stock since the 1950s, after centuries of stock decline and deforestation. These regrowing forests have shown to be a persistent carbon sink, projected to continue for decades, however, there are early signs of saturation. Forest policies and management strategies need revision if we want to sustain the sink.
Chapter
This book contains 28 chapters grouped into six sections providing information on forests interact with the other components of the physical and natural world with the human society, and how we could manage forests globally to make the most of their contribution to mitigation of climate change along with the established objective of sustainable management to maximize the full range of economic and non-market benefits which forests provide. Topics covered include: introduction on the interaction between forests and climate change; climate change, forestry and science-policy interface; forestry options for contributing to climate change mitigation; options for adaptation due to impacts of climate change on forests; current and future policy of national and international frameworks; and implications for future forestry and related environmental and development policy.
Article
Policy makers need research based decision analysis models that include carbon sequestration and forest products in order to make policies that are both economically viable and effective. Forests and wood products have been identified as important mechanisms for carbon sequestration and storage. Policies often cover carbon sequestration but not product storage and substitution. Furthermore, many researchers have developed and published models on carbon management. However, a gap exists in operational level models that include product substitution. We developed a model to investigate optimal stand level management with competing objectives of maximizing soil expectation value, carbon storage in the forest, and carbon dioxide emission savings from product storage and substitution. Our purpose was to produce an accurate and usable analytical product for Southeastern U.S. foresters growing loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) in the presence of carbon policies. The decision variables were traditional stand level management variables: planting density, thinning timing and density, and rotation length. Over time these variables influence the proportion of wood going into pulp, chip-n-saw, and sawtimber where each of these classes has an expected use (carbon storage) life. Compromise programming was employed to solve the multiple-objective problem and to demonstrate the tradeoffs between the competing objectives. This type of model demonstrates a practical method for comparing tradeoffs associated with adjusting forest management for a carbon market. The difference in costs among objectives is important for decision makers considering climate change policies, as it represents the minimum value a rational landowner would accept to sequester a unit of carbon.
Article
Interviews: 1,001 Adults (18+) Margin of error: +/-3 percentage points at the 95% confidence level. NOTE: All results show percentages among all respondents, unless otherwise labeled. Totals may occasionally sum to more than 100 percent due to rounding.
Article
We reviewed the experimental evidence for long-term carbon (C) sequestration in soils as consequence of specific forest management strategies. Utilization of terrestrial C sinks alleviates the burden of countries which are committed to reducing their greenhouse gas emissions. Land-use changes such as those which result from afforestation and management of fast-growing tree species, have an immediate effect on the regional rate of C sequestration by incorporating carbon dioxide (CO(2)) in plant biomass. The potential for such practices is limited in Europe by environmental and political constraints. The management of existing forests can also increase C sequestration, but earlier reviews found conflicting evidence regarding the effects of forest management on soil C pools. We analyzed the effects of harvesting, thinning, fertilization application, drainage, tree species selection, and control of natural disturbances on soil C dynamics. We focused on factors that affect the C input to the soil and the C release via decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM). The differentiation of SOM into labile and stable soil C fractions is important. There is ample evidence about the effects of management on the amount of C in the organic layers of the forest floor, but much less information about measurable effects of management on stable C pools in the mineral soil. The C storage capacity of the stable pool can be enhanced by increasing the productivity of the forest and thereby increasing the C input to the soil. Minimizing the disturbances in the stand structure and soil reduces the risk of unintended C losses. The establishment of mixed species forests increases the stability of the forest and can avoid high rates of SOM decomposition. The rate of C accumulation and its distribution within the soil profile differs between tree species. Differences in the stability of SOM as a direct species effect have not yet been reported.