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If youre happy and you know it: Music engagement and subjective wellbeing:

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Abstract

Experiencing and engaging with music have been fundamental to all societies across the ages. This study explores the connection between habitual music engagement and subjective wellbeing. Subjective wellbeing (SWB) comprises individual evaluations of life satisfaction, and is internationally regarded at policy and government levels. The present study uses data gathered in 2014 as part of the 31st survey of the Australian Unity Wellbeing Index to provide insight into the relationship between music engagement and SWB. A stratified random sample of 1,000 participants was interviewed via telephone. The findings revealed that engaging with music by dancing or attending musical events was associated with higher SWB than for those who did not engage with music in these forms. The findings also emphasised the important role of engaging with music in the company of others with regard to SWB, highlighting an interpersonal feature of music. The study provides an overview of the general relationship between music and SWB at a population level, by contrast to most research in the area that has focused on evaluating clinical interventions involving music. The insight gained from these findings can be used to inform future interventions and to better understand how music is involved in emotional regulation.

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... Other evidence for the role of arts engagement in life satisfaction comes from observational studies. Cross-sectionally, there is extensive evidence that many forms of arts engagement are associated with enhanced life satisfaction, including dancing and attending cultural events, art clubs, museums, and heritage sites (37)(38)(39)(40)(41)(42). Longitudinally, visiting heritage sites, museums, galleries, and other cultural events has been associated with higher life satisfaction three years later (43). ...
... A very small quasi-experimental study found that participating in a short-term creative art intervention after a traumatic event substantially reduced both suicidal ideation and attempts (39). However, some types of music listening, such as to songs about suicide or to certain genres with associated subcultures, may increase people's risk of suicide (40). This can sometimes occur because the narratives in popular music provide opportunities for social learning, contributing to people's beliefs and behaviour surrounding suicide, particularly when reinforced within music-based subcultures (40). ...
... However, some types of music listening, such as to songs about suicide or to certain genres with associated subcultures, may increase people's risk of suicide (40). This can sometimes occur because the narratives in popular music provide opportunities for social learning, contributing to people's beliefs and behaviour surrounding suicide, particularly when reinforced within music-based subcultures (40). Further research is thus needed to explore how the arts can influence catastrophising and suicidal ideation. ...
... These cultural festivals are expected to demonstrate a positive effect on tourists' and festival attendees' SWB (Diener, 2009). However, research examining the influence of festival experiences on SWB, worldwide, remains limited at best (e.g., Packer & Ballantyne, 2011;Weinberg & Joseph, 2017;Yolal et al., 2016). This research addresses this gap. ...
... This not only leads to heightened levels of self-acceptance, but also forms robust social coherence (Jeon et al., 2014). With regards to music and dance as an enabler to SWB, Weinberg and Joseph (2017) in their study of 1,000 respondents from Australia found that people who engaged with music by attending events and/or dancing demonstrated higher levels of SWB when compared to those who did not engage with music in these two-aforementioned forms. Past studies also suggest that music is one of the most enjoyable and satisfying activities (Mas- Herrero et al., 2013;Morinville et al., 2013) and it is likely to have many health and well-being benefits. ...
... Against this purpose, the relationship between the study constructs was tested and established by data that were collected during a national cultural festival called Virasat, in Moodabidri, a village in Karnataka, India. Consistent with previous studies (Ballantyne et al., 2014;Packer & Ballantyne, 2011;Weinberg & Joseph, 2017), the findings that emerge from this study offer cogent empirical evidence to situate festival experience as a key correlate of SWB among the cultural festival visitors. The results, therefore, suggest that positive and favorable experiences of festivals enhance personal satisfaction among the festival attendees, which, in turn, is likely to increase their respective life happiness and subjective well-being (Yolal et al., 2016). ...
Article
This research endeavor examined the relationship between cultural festival experience and subjective well-being among festival attendees. In this connection, this study captured the perceptions of 192 festival attendees’ attending the cultural festival of ‘Virasat’ in India on the four sub-dimensions of festival experiences (i.e., music experience, festival atmosphere, social experience, separation experience) and subjective well-being. Accordingly, this study adopted structural equation modeling (SEM) and hierarchical regression analysis to examine the relationship between the study constructs. Results that emerge from this study point towards the presence of a significant positive relationship between cultural festival experience and subjective well-being. Further, of the four dimensions of festival experience, music experience and separation experience, in that order, were found to be the most potent predictors of subjective well-being. Social experience and festival atmosphere only minimally augmented predictability of subjective well-being over and above music experience and separation experience. Accordingly, the findings of this study are expected to aid cultural festival organizers to design events that elicit exhilarating festival experiences which, in its turn, is expected to augment subjective well-being among event attendees. Further, drawing extensively from subjective well-being research in India that suggests that factors like socio-demographics, personal characteristics, economic conditions, and purchasing power parity contribute only moderately, if not significantly, to the levels of subjective well-being among the residents in India, the findings of this study situates cultural festival experience as a possible trigger that augments subjective well-being among Indians in a collectivist cultural context.
... Mozart's A Little Night Music, for example, was perceived as positive and generating a sense of hope (Ziv, Chaim, & Itamar, 2011), whereas Suite for Violin and Orchestra in A Minor was linked to sadness and sorrow (Mitterschiffthaler, Fu, Dalton, Andrew, & Williams, 2007). Nevertheless, on the macro level, engaging with music in various forms is correlated with PA (Weinberg & Joseph, 2017). Since awe is conceptualized as a positive emotion, therefore, exposure to awe-eliciting stimuli should, in theory, lead to activated PAan appetitive motivational state that connotes high activation and positive valence (Thrash & Elliot, 2004;Watson, Wiese, Vaidya, & Tellegen, 1999). ...
... A number of covariates were also assessed. Specifically, participants were asked about their frequency of listening to music, whether they have played any musical instruments (Weinberg & Joseph, 2017), how closely they listened to the sound/music, and how similar the sound was to what they normally listen to (Silvia et al., 2015). ...
... When it comes to the relationship between music and individuals' subjective well-being, a number of studies have found that listening to positive music enhances a range of positive well-being variables, such as PA, meaning in life, universality, and satisfaction with life (Bhattacharya & Petsche, 2001;Hicks & King, 2007;Weinberg & Joseph, 2017;Ziv et al., 2011). Given that awe-eliciting music is largely undifferentiated from positive music in the psychology of music literature, we wondered if exposure to awe-eliciting music would significantly increase listeners' subjective well-being in comparison to amusing music. ...
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Rooted in the rich soil of positive psychology, scholarship on the uses and effects of self-transcendent media content that elicits other-oriented emotions has flourished in the past few years, covering a full range of media content such as movies, online videos, social media posts, and news stories. The current research aimed to gain a better understanding of the positive consequences of consuming self-transcendent media with a particular focus on music – a medium that is frequently identified as inspiring. Specifically, two studies were conducted to examine the degree to which self-transcendent music (manifested as awe-eliciting music) can boost listeners’ activated positive affect and prosociality relative both to the natural baseline condition (Study 1) and to amusing/hedonic condition (Study 2). Results show that while awe-eliciting music did not directly contribute to increases of well-being variables compared to amusing music, inspiration was a crucial mediator through which awe-eliciting music exerted influences on participants’ perceptions of meaning in life and universality. Results are reflected in the broader context of positive media psychology, and implications for music’s potential to inspire are discussed in detail.
... The ways people can engage with music in leisure time can be passive, such as consuming music, or active, such as making or creating music (Weinberg & Joseph, 2016). ...
... First, these prior studies have exclusively targeted between-person associations of music making and well-being. For example, in a study by Weinberg and Joseph (2016), those participants who reported more music engagement reported higher well-being. Notably, these findings cannot answer the question whether within individuals music making is associated with higher-than-usual well-being. ...
... The present study investigated the effect of music making on affective well-being in hobby musicians' everyday lives. Building on previous research demontrating positive effects of leisure activities (Kuykendall et al., 2015) and music in general (Weinberg & Joseph, 2016) on well-being, we hypothesized a positive effect of music making on affective wellbeing in terms of higher positive affect and lower negative affect both on the between-person and the within-person level of analysis. In addition, we examined fulfillment of the basic psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness (Ryan & Deci, 2017) as potential mediators of this effect and expected a mediation primarily by satisfaction rather than dissatisfaction of the needs. ...
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How music can provide a pathway to affective well-being has mostly been investigated with regard to listening to music or music therapy. Comparatively, less is known about the effects of active music making on well-being in everyday life or its underlying mechanisms. Self-Determination Theory emphasizes the importance of fulfillment of the needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness for well-being and offers a valuable framework for explaining the postulated link between music making and well-being. In the present daily diary study, 1,042 hobby musicians (age range 13 to 82 years; 65.3% female) completed online assessments of their music making, need fulfillment, and positive and negative affect each day for 10 consecutive days. Results showed that need satisfaction and positive affect were higher, while need dissatisfaction and negative affect were lower on days when participants reported music making. Multilevel structural equation models indicated that the effect of music making on positive affect was mediated by satisfaction of all three needs, with statistically significant indirect effects via autonomy and competence at both the within- and between person level, and relatedness only at the between-person level. There were no statistically significant mediation effects for negative affect. This study is the first to provide evidence for higher affective well-being of hobby musicians on days of music making. Results further suggest satisfaction of basic psychological needs as a mediating mechanism and emphasize the importance to distinguish between indicators of positive functioning (positive affect, need satisfaction) and negative functioning (negative affect, need dissatisfaction).
... Today, we can enjoy it regardless of time and place. In modern times, studies have verified that music can be used for therapy beyond enjoyment (Bruscia 2014), and can improve mental health and psychological and subjective wellbeing (Laukka 2007;Rebecchini 2021;Weinberg and Joseph 2017). However, this study focused on the use of religious music and its effects. ...
... Miller and Strongman (2002) also pointed out that the emotional effect of music plays an important role in religious experience, and explored religious services, worship, and devotional music. It was found that habitual music engagement can improve individuals' subjective well-being by making them feel happy (Weinberg and Joseph 2017). The positive influence of music on well-being may be due to the effect of emotional regulation (Chin and Rickard 2014). ...
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This study identified the relationship between preoccupation with devotional songs and spiritual well-being of religious individuals, and examined the mediating effect of intrinsic religiosity on preoccupation with devotional songs and spiritual well-being, moderated by the emotionally adaptive functions of music. The participants were 427 male and female Korean religious individuals. PROCESS Macro 3.5 Model 7 was used to analyze the moderated mediating effects. The results revealed that preoccupation with devotional songs was positively correlated with the emotionally adaptive functions of music, religiosity, and spiritual well-being, whereas emotionally adaptive functions of music were not significantly correlated with intrinsic religiosity. Intrinsic religiosity was positively correlated with spiritual well-being, whereas extrinsic social religiosity was not. In a moderated mediating model, there was a significant interaction effect of preoccupation with devotional songs and the emotionally adaptive functions of music; however, intrinsic religiosity could mediate the relationship between preoccupation with devotional songs and spiritual well-being, regardless of the level of emotionally adaptive functions of music. These findings suggest that, although there may be a slight difference depending on the level of use of emotionally adaptive functions of music, preoccupation with devotional songs can promote intrinsic religiosity and lead to the spiritual well-being of religious individuals.
... Sustainable student engagement in music education has a number of cognitive, interpersonal, and psychological advantages, including emotional regulatory control, self-identity generation, and social interaction improvement (Weinberg and Joseph, 2016). Awareness of the benefits of music education engagement, multiple studies, and reports have found that student engagement in music activities in industrialized countries is small in comparison to certain other school disciplines and that students' value of engagement in music declines over the high school years (McPherson and O'Neill, 2010). ...
... The possible reason for such outcomes lies in the fact that previously student engagement was assessed in a normal educational context, while this research evaluated the academic motivation in the context of music education and students could not be referred to as sustainably engaged in this context. It indicates that music could not establish its worth in educational institutes, even though sustainable student engagement has a lot to offer in music education, such as cognitive, interpersonal, and psychological advantages, including emotional regulatory control, self-identity generation, and social interaction improvement (Weinberg and Joseph, 2016). The other direct relationship between student engagement and academic achievement was also tested in this study, which proved that there was a significant association between sustainable student engagement and academic achievement. ...
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The overarching goal of this study was to look into the effects of academic self-efficacy and academic motivation on student long-term engagement and academic achievement. This study also sought to investigate the role of learning agility as a mediator in the relationship between academic self-efficacy and academic motivation. This study examined the impact of student sustainable engagement on student academic achievement as part of our model. A questionnaire technique was used to collect data from 325 music education students studying at various music training institutions in China. The data were analyzed using the Smart-PLS software and a structural equation modeling (SEM) technique. Academic self-efficacy and academic motivation were found to have a positive and significant relationship with student long-term engagement. The academic motivation was also found to have a positive relationship with student long-term engagement. Furthermore, learning agility was found to mediate the relationship between academic self-efficacy and student sustainable engagement. Furthermore, learning agility mediated the relationship between academic motivation and long-term student engagement. Furthermore, student sustainable engagement has a significant and positive relationship with student academic achievement. This paper made a valuable theoretical contribution by investigating the impact of academic self-efficacy and academic motivation on student sustainable engagement, as well as the impact of student sustainable engagement on student academic achievement. Furthermore, this study added to the body of knowledge by investigating the relationship through the lens of cognitive learning theory. In terms of practical implications, this paper would undoubtedly assist educational institutions in maintaining a fair and just learning environment that encourages students to be engaged and perform well. Future research can include other constructs to gain a better understanding of the factors that influence students’ academic engagement and achievement.
... Music engagement, including passive listening and active musicmaking (singing, instrument playing), impacts socio-emotional development across the lifespan (e.g., socialization, personal/ cultural identity, mood regulation, etc.), and is tightly linked with many cognitive and personality traits [1][2][3]. A growing literature also demonstrates beneficial associations between music engagement and quality of life, well-being, prosocial behavior, social connectedness, and emotional competence [4][5][6][7][8]. Despite these advances linking engagement with music to many wellness characteristics, we have a limited understanding of how music engagement directly and indirectly contributes to mental health, including at the trait-level (e.g., depression and anxiety symptoms, substance use behaviors), clinical diagnoses (e.g., associations with major depressive disorder (MDD) or substance use disorder (SUD) diagnoses), or as a treatment. ...
... engaged with music, such as singing or dancing with others or attending concerts reported greater well-being vs. those who engaged in these experiences alone or did not engage. Other types of music engagement, such as playing an instrument or composing music were not associated with well-being in this sample [4]. Earlier in life, social music experiences (including song familiarity and synchronous movement to music) are associated with a variety of prosocial behaviors in infants and children [6], as well as positive affect [7]. ...
Article
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Is engaging with music good for your mental health? This question has long been the topic of empirical clinical and nonclinical investigations, with studies indicating positive associations between music engagement and quality of life, reduced depression or anxiety symptoms, and less frequent substance use. However, many earlier investigations were limited by small populations and methodological limitations, and it has also been suggested that aspects of music engagement may even be associated with worse mental health outcomes. The purpose of this scoping review is first to summarize the existing state of music engagement and mental health studies, identifying their strengths and weaknesses. We focus on broad domains of mental health diagnoses including internalizing psychopathology (e.g., depression and anxiety symptoms and diagnoses), externalizing psychopathology (e.g., substance use), and thought disorders (e.g., schizophrenia). Second, we propose a theoretical model to inform future work that describes the importance of simultaneously considering music-mental health associations at the levels of (1) correlated genetic and/or environmental influences vs. (bi)directional associations, (2) interactions with genetic risk factors, (3) treatment efficacy, and (4) mediation through brain structure and function. Finally, we describe how recent advances in large-scale data collection, including genetic, neuroimaging, and electronic health record studies, allow for a more rigorous examination of these associations that can also elucidate their neurobiological substrates.
... Weinberg and Joseph's (2017) theory on the social component of music engagement suggests that music workshops may be of particular benefit when seeking to address the emotional dimension of deprivation identified by Ridge (2013). According to Weinberg and Joseph (2017), the social component of music engagement is a key factor contributing to the positive outcomes for wellbeing associated with music. They argue that, while research has indicated that engaging with music alone may improve physical health and emotional wellbeing, "other research has shown that engaging with music in the company of others is associated with stronger positive experiences" (ibid, p. 3). ...
... Firstly, it is obviously unfair for parental income to be the determining factor in who gets to play a musical instrument and who does not. Secondly, research indicates that affluent people have higher levels of social capital than do poorer people (Pichler & Wallace, 2009), and that group-based music enhances social capital and wellbeing (Jones, 2008;Langston & Barrett, 2008;Prest, 2016;Weinberg & Joseph, 2017;Wright, 2012). This suggests that wealthier pupils with relatively high levels of social capital are having their social capital and wellbeing further enhanced through music education, while poorer pupils with relatively low levels of social capital and wellbeing are not. ...
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This paper reports on the evaluation of the In2 music project in Darlington, England. The project ran for seven weeks from January – March 2020 and involved Year 6 pupils from four primary schools (n = 103) and Year 7 pupils from one secondary school (n = 90), working with Back Chat Brass, a professional brass ensemble. The aim of the In2 music project was to enable pupils to work with professional musicians to enjoy the benefits of group-based music, which include happiness and optimism. These emotions are strongly associated with social capital, which this study defines as the benefits that individuals and communities derive from positive interpersonal relationships. This evaluation asks if the In2 music project resulted in non-quantifiable changes that are associated with positive outcomes for pupil wellbeing and social capital. We explore our findings in relation to a policy climate of cuts to arts education, as shown by the stories in a special issue of Arts Education Policy Review. We argue that while political disregard threatens the development of social capital in economically deprived communities, funded interventions such as In2 can benefit some of the most vulnerable members of such communities.
... Caregivers reported using music at home with their child for a variety of reasons including social play routines, emotion regulation, and to support specific behaviors. A growing body of qualitative and quantitative literature examines group musical experiences as a medium for targeting community engagement, participation, and well-being for the general public as well as clinical populations (Pearce et al., 2015;Lee et al., 2016;Perkins et al., 2016Perkins et al., , 2018Weinberg and Joseph, 2017). Integrated community participation opportunities such as group music-making activities may impact well-being through creating positive emotional experiences for participants and decreasing negative attitudes or stigma from other community members. ...
... Feedback from families of children with TD and ASD in the current study was generally consistent with that provided by adults with TD and adults with medical or mental health difficulties participating in other types of group music making (e.g., community choirs or drum circles). For example, prior studies found that group musical activities were associated with increased well-being, social connection and meaning (Williams et al., 2012;Pearce et al., 2015;Lee et al., 2016;Perkins et al., 2016;Weinberg and Joseph, 2017), feelings of accomplishment, and increases in positive and decreases in negative emotions (Lee et al., 2016;Fancourt and Perkins, 2018;Perkins et al., 2018). Such constructs have also recently been examined within parent-child group music experiences. ...
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Opportunities for meaningful community participation may influence the development and well-being of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and their families as well as impact how community members perceive and understand ASD. In the current study, we aimed to understand how a parent-child integrated music class program could be used to promote community participation and family well-being. Caregivers of preschoolers (2–5 years of age) with ASD and those of peer children with typical development (TD) were interviewed about their participation in a parent-child integrated music class program. Thematic analysis of interviews revealed that all caregivers viewed program participation as positive. Caregivers emphasized increasing connections within families, such as through strengthening parent-child bonds, as well as connections across families, including increased understanding of ASD and sensitivity to the experience of parenting. Many caregivers perceived the class as supporting their parenting and impacting their children’s behavior in meaningful ways. Interview themes were supported by measures of caregiver and child program receipt, including questionnaires about family music engagement throughout their time in the class program and behavioral coding of children’s engagement during music classes. Findings suggest that integrated community experiences such as parent-child music classes may impact whole family well-being, highlighting the value of integrated community participation experiences at the level of the family system. Parent-child music classes may provide a productive and accessible context for supporting integrated community experiences.
... The Restorative Rhythms (RR) programme uses music to contribute to the holistic care environment for people afflicted by cancer (Daykin, Bunt, & McClean, 2006), thus embracing its therapeutic potential (Deraney et al., 2017;Dickerson, Robichaud, Teruya, Nagaran, & Hser, 2012;MacMillan, Maschi, & Tseng, 2012). Music is proposed to reduce stress and stimulate feelings of happiness and empowerment (Weinberg & Joseph, 2017), and these were vital elements of the RR programme. Because people who are diagnosed with serious and chronic illnesses like cancer have trouble expressing their emotions, music is recognized as an accessible channel for release and catharsis (Hart, 2009). ...
... DeNora, 2000). When each class played along to this song, in accompaniment to the instructor's singing and guitar playing, it led to a cathartic environment that created an air of positivity embraced by all (Weinberg & Joseph, 2017), thus setting the tone for open and inclusive environment, regardless of ability, and welcoming of all illness experiences and stories. ...
Article
Thirty people who were either in treatment, or in remission, from cancer and their caregivers participated in a therapeutic drumming clinic called Restorative Rhythms. As music has been proposed as a significant way to reduce stress and stimulate feelings of happiness and empowerment, it is therefore a valuable tool for coping with illnesses like cancer. Because people who are diagnosed with cancer often have trouble expressing their emotions, music can be used as an accessible channel for this necessary release. In addition to the inability to express internalized emotions derivative of the diagnosis or due to the requirements of the treatment regimen, patients often lose their sense of agency; creative expression like therapeutic drumming can help them regain their autonomy. This social, creative environment became a means to express the emotions participants were otherwise having trouble expressing, as well as a positive outlet for coming to terms with their “new normal” through music.
... Music itself has one function, namely as a means of therapy. Music therapy is widely used to overcome various problems such as to reduce stress [5], improve wellbeing [6], and so on. So it is very good for business people if they can develop their business profits by analyzing music so that the music can be liked by listeners so that it can also be used as music therapy. ...
... So far music therapy has been widely used to overcome various problems such as to reduce stress [8]. Music is also used as a medium to improve well-being [6], and as a medium of intervention to develop the abilities of autistic children [9]. In addition, music also provides relaxation media with communication through rhythm, listening to music, non-verbal cues, exploration, movement, and improvisation [10]. ...
... The use of music for emotion regulation (Juslin & Sloboda, 2010;Moore, 2013;Schäfer et al., 2013;Thoma et al., 2012) could also account for improvements derived from choir participation. Music has a powerful impact on mood (Menon & Levitin, 2005;Rickard, 2012;Schäfer et al., 2013), which appears to be heightened when shared with others (Weinberg & Joseph, 2017). A growing body of evidence indicates that choir participation improves emotional wellbeing (Clift & Hancox, 2010;Daykin et al., 2018;Sandgren, 2009), including for older adults (Coulton et al., 2015;Lamont et al., 2017;Lee et al., 2016). ...
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Community choirs can contribute to health and wellbeing, but there is less clarity about the mechanisms through which choir participation promotes positive change, or whether mechanisms are shared with other leisure activities. This research explores two possible types of mechanism: Mechanisms relating to individual characteristics pertaining to mindset and motivation, including experiences of flow, competence, autonomy, and relatedness (Study 1); and mechanisms relating to the activity experience, which include music, movement, and social opportunities (Study 2). In Study 1, middle and older aged members of choirs, exercise groups and other kinds of social groups (N = 190) completed surveys on their experience of emotional wellbeing (operationalized as positive and negative affect scores), mental wellbeing, and social cohesion (outcomes) pertaining to their group activity as well as experiences of motivation, flow, and the components of Self-Determination Theory (potential mediators). Multiple regression analyses revealed that participation in Choir or Exercise groups predicted positive emotional wellbeing, but not social cohesion. Underlying mechanisms differed, with positive affect mediated by intrinsic motivation for choir members, and by intrinsic motivation, identified regulation, and flow for Exercise group members. Mental wellbeing was correlated only with exercise group participation and was mediated by flow. Study 2 used an experience sampling methodology conducted with a sub-group from Study 1 (N = 59), which asked daily questions about wellbeing (happiness, sense of social connection, and energy levels) and participation in activities (music engagement, exercise, and social activities) experienced in their everyday lives and not directly associated with any leisure group participation. Repeated-measures t-tests revealed that participants were more likely to report higher levels of social connection on days in which they participated in music activities than on days in which they did not engage in music activities. Engaging in exercise or social activities was also associated with a greater sense of social connection, as well as higher levels of happiness and energy. In sum, the activity characteristics and individual differences of motivation and mindset towards participation correlated with greater wellbeing, reflecting an ecological model of person-activity fit, with no indication of superior benefits associated with group singing. Findings are discussed in terms of social prescribing and other settings where social opportunities are organized.
... Another model suggested that the arts enhance flourishing through four mechanisms: positive absorption in experiences, developing psychological processes (e.g., self-efficacy and autonomy), taking on social roles and identities within the community (socialization), and developing one's character, values, and beliefs (Tay et al., 2018). However, much of the previous research on arts and flourishing has focused on older adults (e.g., Fancourt & Steptoe, 2018;Menec, 2003;Tymoszuk et al., 2019;Weinberg & Joseph, 2017). Given the different "social ecology" of psychological experience in these earlier years, findings cannot simply be extrapolated to younger people (Percy-Smith, 2007). ...
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There is growing evidence on the impact of arts engagement on flourishing. However, social gradients in arts engagement and flourishing may have led to an overestimation of this impact, and there is a lack of longitudinal research in young people. We aimed to test the longitudinal associations between arts engagement and flourishing in emerging adults, accounting for observed and unobserved individual characteristics. We included 3,333 participants aged 18–28 from the Transition into Adulthood Supplement of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. We measured flourishing across emotional, psychological, and social wellbeing, and frequency of engagement in artistic, musical, or theatrical organized activities, biennially 2005–2019. We analyzed data using fixed effects regression and Arellano-Bond methods to control for bidirectional relationships. Increases in arts engagement were associated with increases in flourishing, before and after adjusting for time-varying confounders. This relationship was driven by enhanced psychological and social wellbeing. After controlling for bidirectionality, increases in arts engagement predicted subsequent improvements in flourishing and social wellbeing. In sensitivity analyses, residential area was a moderator; arts engagement was only associated with increased flourishing in metropolitan (and not non-metropolitan) areas. Increases in arts engagement are associated with enhanced flourishing within individuals, and these associations hold across many subgroups of the population. Those in non-metropolitan areas may have fewer opportunities for arts engagement. Future work must consider how funding can be distributed to ensure that the arts are accessible across communities and geographical areas, providing all young people with opportunities to experience their potential benefits.
... Art watching is an appreciation of art pieces: music, picture, and performance. Art watching revitalizes emotion, inspires, and recharges mental energy [59][60][61][62]. A vast body of literature has documented the effect of art on subjective health. ...
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This study aimed to investigate the determinants of subjective health among South Korean senior citizens. Secondary data for the year 2018 was used from the Senior Citizen Research Panel data collected by the Korea Employment Information Service. A total of 3822 valid observations were analyzed. The dependent variable was subjective health, and the independent variables were religion participation, social gathering participation, economic activity, food expenditure, leisure expenditure, travel frequency, and art watching frequency. Descriptive analysis, correlation matrix, and independent t-test were carried out for data analysis. Multiple linear regression analysis was employed using assets, age, and gender as control variables to test the research hypotheses. The results indicate that all the proposed attributes have a significant positive impact on the subjective health of Korean senior citizens, with implications for policy making.
... As a cultural and often leisure-based activity, music participation and music listening are everyday pursuits that are an integral part of many people's lives (Juslin, Liljestrom, Laukka, Vastfjall & Lundquist, 2011). Music participation as leisure, in particular, enables individuals to connect with their cultural backgrounds, traditions and family practices, and has a range of reported benefits including physical, neurological, social, and emotional benefits for people in a range of age groups; these elements are often collectively referred to under the umbrella of 'wellbeing' (MacDonald, 2013;Saarikallio, 2010;Weinberg & Joseph, 2016). Furthermore, participation in music-making has been established as promoting positive health and wellbeing in culturally diverse communities (Bartleet, Dunbar-Hall, Letts, & Schippers, 2009;Marsh, 2012). ...
... emotional level and has the potential to evoke different kinds of feelings. Music has been considered as a therapeutic tool to treat different mental disorders by regulating the emotions through multiple neurobiological pathways [7]- [10]. Further, music contributes a lot towards a rich and happy life by reducing stress and pain, elevating mood, increasing IQ and mental alertness, and improving sleep, to mention just a few benefits [11]. ...
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This paper presents a Spiking Neural Network(SNN) architecture to distinguish two musical instruments: piano and violin. The acoustic characteristics of music such as frequency and time convey a lot of information that help humans in distinguishing music instruments within few seconds. SNNs are neural networks that work effectively with temporal data. In this study, 2-layer SNN temporal based architecture is implemented for instrument (piano and violin) recognition. Further, this research investigates the behaviour of spiking neurons for piano and violin samples through different spike based statistics. Additionally, a Gamma metric that utilises spike time information and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) from the membrane potential are used for classification and recognition. SNN achieved an overall classification accuracy of 92.38% and 93.19%, indicating the potential of SNNs in this inherently temporal recognition and classification domain. On the other hand, we implemented rate-coding techniques using machine learning (ML) techniques. Through this research, we demonstrated that SNN are more effective than conventional ML methods for capturing important the acoustic characteristics of music such as frequency and time. Overall, this research showed the potential capability of temporal coding over rate coding techniques while processing spatial and temporal data.
... All participants perceived the Lockdown Composing project to have a positive impact on their health and wellbeing. This is in line with Weinberg and Joseph's (2017) study which showed that those who actively engaged with music scored higher on their subjective wellbeing scale than those who engaged passively, or not at all. They therefore deduced that active forms of music engagement offer benefits to wellbeing. ...
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This paper aims to document and analyse the response to lockdown and social isolation from sound, a new music incubator, whose energies are normally focussed on an annual 12-day festival. The UK Government’s responses to the COVID-19 outbreak regarding restriction of the spread of the virus led to an almost total cessation of creative activity for composers and performers and a cutting back of the experience of live music opportunities for audiences during 2020. Through several projects, such as the COVID-19 Sound Map, virtual networking events for composers, signposting of online music making apps and resources for school children and families, sound explored and utilized new technologies enabling a re-imagining of personal, social and musical experience in new music making and sharing, drawing together strands of music, wellbeing, education and technology. This paper focuses on sound’s Lockdown Composing project, created in response to the needs of composers who had lost creative outlet or employment since the restrictions began. Workshops were held with composers, exploring ways of creatively harnessing the constraints of the video conferencing platform Zoom, to form their compositions. The project culminated in a live performance by an ensemble of ten musicians, based across Scotland. This digitized new experience of ‘live’ is discussed alongside the process of composing, rehearsing and performing in ‘real time’. The paper draws on examples from composers, performers and audience members discussing coping strategies, experiences and potential future directions for composers, performers and organisations such as sound. The Lockdown Composing project and new experience of ‘live’ was found to be beneficial for all parties, enhancing social, personal and musical aspects. Creative application of the technologies used has led to potential new directions for composers, leading to further virtual online collaborations with a Canadian ensemble.
... Partially out of curiosity and partially out of a feeling the need to be provocative, I asked him, Participation in meaningful leisure activities has broad potential to improve one's quality of life and aspects of their physical and emotional health (Wheaton, 2016). Equally of importance is that musicmaking, as an active form of leisure, has benefits for one's subjective sense of wellbeing and has been shown to counteract negative feelings and emotions (Weinberg & Joseph, 2017). Older people have typically been expected to suppress emotions (Woodward, 2003) and have been seen as passive because of their devolving social and professional roles. ...
Article
There are few studies that have explored music as an interpretive framework, or as a moderator of emotions, both positive and negative, for late-life individuals outside of dementia-related depression. Further understanding of negative emotions that may arise during the aging process, be those emotions self-imposed or because of one’s social environment, is warranted, particularly if those negative emotions can be dealt with constructively through leisure instead of leaving them to fester in a self-destructive manner. To do so, this manuscript explores the life of one man in his 70s, Joseph, as he navigates getting older, the demise of his third marriage, falling out with lifelong friends, and ongoing troubles with his neighbours related to noise from his musicmaking. We employ a non-traditional approach to storytelling that draws from interviews over the course of two months with Joseph filtered through a methodological and stylistic approach to writing we call ‘gonzo ethnography
... Juslin & Sloboda, 2010;Moore, 2013;Schäfer et al., 2013;Thoma et al., 2012) could also account for improvements derived from choir participation. Music has a powerful impact on mood(Menon & Levitin, 2005;Rickard, 2012;Schäfer et al., 2013), which appears to be heightened when shared with others(Weinberg & Joseph, 2017). A growing body of evidence indicates that choir participation improves emotional wellbeing(Clift & Hancox, 2010;Daykin et al., 2018;Sandgren, 2009), including for older adults(Coulton et al., 2015;Lamont et al., 2017;Lee et al., 2016). ...
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Human musicality is a mystery. Theorists have proposed that it was evolutionarily adaptive through its ability to create a shared and positive emotional state, increase a sense of social cohesion, and encourage pro-social behaviours. This research found that group singing provides immediate socio-emotional wellbeing benefits but longer-term benefits are confined to emotional domains. These effects were not unique to group singing, but were similar across comparison groups. Wellbeing was facilitated by both group characteristics (music, movement, socialising) and individual mindset towards participation (motivation, flow), with greater benefits for exercise groups. Implications for social prescribing and similar interventions are discussed.
... This viewpoint is especially relevant in the context of aesthetic experiencesmusic being such an experience as it directly influences people's emotional state (Weinberg & Joseph, 2017). Alas, designs of music-playing artefacts per se may foster such an effect to a degree; more importantly, also serve as enablers of musical experiences. ...
Thesis
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Interacting with internet-enabled artefacts has become an indispensable norm of an everyday person’s life as it can reduce otherwise demanding tasks down to a flick of a finger. Whereas consumption and utilisation of a vast amount of information have also become a norm for navigating through the world’s digital commodities – rendering almost every single action an informed decision. On the other hand, music-listening is an ephemeral experience per se, yet it became a certainty to interact with extrinsic attributes thereof as prominent music-listening platforms became saturated with information, which isn’t a bad thing in itself; although, having to experience something knowledgeably can also mean forgoing certain qualities of that experience. Even though it still is possible to listen to music through less information-intensive artefacts such as a radio, the advent of technology shows promise for affording a more (subjectively) meaningful experience. The same principle pertaining to how information influences user’s future actions presented itself as a theoretical notion of user experience that is applicable to interactions with all kinds of artefacts: Explicitness of Interactions. In this study, the goal is to design a music-listening artefact that doesn’t afford utilisation of extrinsic attributes of music to users (as opposed to modern music-listening paradigms); and through that process, to empirically discover how the qualities of information relayed by an artefact may influence the user’s subsequent actions. This is done through a three-part Research through Design process consisting of a Contextmapping research with sensitisation and idea generation phases to which 12 design specialists partook; tied into a consequential well-documented solo design phase. The outcome involves an extensive literature review with discussions, a methodology for the conceptualisation of implicit/explicit artefacts, an empirically derived implicit music-listening artefact, and discussions on the Explicitness of Interactions concept.
... Such contribution could also encompass other aspects such as mood-enhancing physiological effects (e.g. Doyle et al., 2016;Sato et al., 2015;Weinberg & Joseph, 2017), increasing in life satisfaction (e.g. Ramchandani et al., 2019;Sato et al., 2016), as well as opportunities for social interactions (e.g. ...
Article
The economic and social-cultural impacts of events are well documented in the existing events literature. The emergence of quality of life (QOL), well-being and happiness in the positive psychology literature has accelerated research on events and individuals’ subjective well-being (SWB). Taking a narrative synthesis approach, this study identifies a total of 46 peer reviewed journal articles on SWB and events and reviews how SWB has been discussed and investigated in the events context. The results of this study reveal three key approaches to SWB and events. The first approach takes SWB as synonymous with the benefits and impacts of events. The second approach examines SWB in terms of its relationship with the motivations and satisfaction of event participants and local residents. The final approach to SWB examines the relationship between SWB and the event (including festivalscape) experience. The review findings also identify areas of potential weakness in the existing literature. The existing event studies relating to SWB primarily focus on sporting events, with only a few festivals, are often undertaken from a Western perspective, and generally rely on quantitative approaches. More importantly, the extant event literature appears to use the SWB concept loosely without agreement on its structure or key components. Suggestions for future research lie in further conceptualisation of SWB in the events context with validated measurement tools and conceptual models, and closer examination of the causal relationship between event (experience) and levels of SWB.
... In a sample of 1000 Australian adults, individuals who engaged with music such as singing or dancing with others or attending concerts reported greater well-being versus those who engaged in these experiences alone or did not engage. Other types of music engagement such as playing an instrument or composing music were not associated with well-being in this sample 4 . Earlier in life, social music experiences (including song familiarity and synchronous movement to music) are associated with a variety of prosocial behaviors in infants and children 6 , as well as positive affect 7 . ...
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Is engaging with music good for your mental health? This question has long been the topic of empirical clinical and nonclinical investigations, with studies indicating positive associations between music engagement and quality of life, reduced depression or anxiety symptoms, and less frequent substance use. However, many earlier investigations were limited by small populations and methodological limitations, and it has also been suggested that aspects of music engagement may even be associated with worse mental health outcomes. The purpose of this scoping review is first to summarize the existing state of music engagement and mental health studies, identifying their strengths and weaknesses. We focus on broad domains of mental health diagnoses including internalizing psychopathology (e.g., depression and anxiety symptoms and diagnoses), externalizing psychopathology (e.g., substance use), and thought disorders (e.g., schizophrenia). Second, we propose a theoretical model to inform future work that describes the importance of simultaneously considering music-mental health associations at the levels of (1) correlated genetic and/or environmental influences versus (bi)directional associations, (2) interactions with genetic risk factors, (3) treatment efficacy, and (4) mediation through brain structure and function. Finally, we describe how recent advances in large-scale data collection, including genetic, neuroimaging, and electronic health record studies, allow for a more rigorous examination of these associations that can also elucidate their neurobiological substrates.
... With regard to particular determinants and mechanisms contributing to the affective consequences of music making, past research has mainly focused on music listening, music therapy, music as a profession, or music education (e.g., Freer & Evans, 2019). Still, although music making is an integral leisure activity for a large part of the population (Weinberg & Joseph, 2017), studies on the motivation of hobby musicians and its correlates have been scarce. ...
Article
Music engagement is an essential part in many people’s everyday life. A large body of research has provided evidence for the beneficial effects of music engagement on health and well-being although studies on underlying mechanisms (e.g., flow experiences) have been scarce. Therefore, we examined in the present study the potential effects of the quality of motivation (autonomous vs. controlled) to engage in active hobby music making on flow and well-being. We tested the prediction by Self-Determination Theory that autonomous forms of motivation are related to higher well-being. Furthermore, we examined if flow experiences during music making might account for this association in an online daily diary study with 975 hobby musicians. Daily autonomous motivation to make music, flow (two subscales: fluency and absorption), and subjective well-being (life satisfaction, positive and negative affect) were assessed each day for ten consecutive days. Multilevel structural equation models indicated that there was a positive effect of autonomous motivation on life satisfaction and positive affect that was mediated by both subscales of flow, with fluency of performance at both the within- and between person level and absorption only at the within-person level. Further, there was a negative indirect effect on negative affect via fluency on the within-person level. This study provides evidence for the importance of autonomous motivation in hobby music making with regard to subjective well-being and highlights investigating the effects on a within-person level. Results further suggest the experience of flow as a potential mediating mechanism.
... Reviews of research on musical participation and wellbeing highlight numerous associations between aspects of participation and psychological outcomes that promote well-being, focusing predominately on participation in traditional music groups such as choirs and orchestras (Croom, 2015Daykin et al., 2018MacDonald, 2013). Research focusing on musical participation at a broad level, using telephone interviewing with a sample of 1000 individuals revealed that engagement with music through attending 'musical concerts, theatre or events' is positively associated with subjective well-being scores (Weinberg & Joseph, 2017). This suggests EDM-related musical event attendance may be associated with improved well-being, however, it is unclear what percentage of the sample participated in EDM events. ...
Article
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While an increasing amount of literature highlights the psychological well-being benefits of musical participation, research focusing on electronic dance music (EDM) event contexts remains scarce. This exploratory mixed methods research draws influence from interdisciplinary research on EDM culture and psychological well-being research on music festivals that suggest EDM event attendance may have a positive influence on well-being. Two studies were implemented. Semistructured interviews with regular attendees of EDM events were undertaken and analyzed thematically (Study 1, n = 7). Four main themes were identified, namely the importance of social, musical, and emotional experiences, and shared values at EDM event. These themes were then used as a basis for developing a questionnaire which explored relationships between scores on facets of EDM event attendance and measures of subjective, social, and psychological well-being (Study 2, n = 103). Results showed that all four EDM event facets were positively associated with psychological and social well-being measures. Principal component analysis was utilized to elucidate nuanced aspects of the four themes and their links to well-being scores. A four-factor model (SMEV) that encapsulates the key psychological beneficial aspects of EDM event attendance has been suggested, and the implications of this model and findings are discussed within the context of future research avenues.
... While researchers have long understood socialisation as the major motivation to attend contemporary festivals and events, it is only just being acknowledged that well-being is also a key motivator ( Weinberg & Joseph, 2017 ). Researchers in the fi eld of event studies are yet to clearly articulate 'the how, why, where, and impacts of socialisation'. ...
... A recent study by Daykin et al. (2018) confirms there is trustworthy evidence that concludes that music and singing positively contributes to subject wellbeing. Music has the potential to generate subjective wellbeing whether you engage with it alone or with others (Weinberg and Joseph 2017). Performing as a group creates a sense of belonging, in this way members develop a music identity, ensemble identity and social identity (Lamont 2012). ...
Article
Participating, learning music and performing are key factors to joining music ensembles. This paper situates itself in Melbourne (Australia) and forms part of my research project XXX where I investigated why members of an instrumental group met to share their music making and practice and how it contributes to their quality of life. I draw on a phenomenological viewpoint from questionnaire and interview data undertaken in May 2018 with the ensemble players. Data were analyzed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis that is reported thematically under three broad headings: Music learning for self as a community, wellbeing and spirituality, and sharing music for the community. The findings show that staying active as older adults (50+) contributed to members sense of wellbeing as they continued to engage with music learning and performance. Playing for personal growth contributed positively to members quality of life as a serious leisure activity. Generalization to other instrumental community groups in Australia cannot be made. Further research is required to support the perceived meanings and benefits of planning, preparing, practicing and performing as older musicians.
... Furthermore, we choose to use music genre rather than music brand (i.e., musicians) as the focus of engagement, for both theoretical and managerial reasons. While the study of customer engagement in a specific product category such as music genre is not common in the marketing field (an exception being Hollebeek et al.'s [2016] work on music consumer engagement), engagement with music has been shown to be an important construct in other aspects, such as in the formation of individual music preferences (Bonneville-Roussy et al. 2013;Greasley and Lamont 2011;Weinberg and Joseph 2017). Moreover, most marketing research tackles customer engagement as a brand-related issue, thus overlooking other possible foci of engagement such as product category, which can "lead to a partial understanding of the drivers and outcomes of engagement" (Dessart et al. 2016, 400). ...
... Preliminary conceptualisation of festival visitor type by well-being characteristics IJEFM ▪ IJEFM-03-2020-0016_proof ▪ 8 August 2020 ▪ 5:53 pm IJEFM participation contribute to psychological well-being (see, e.g. Weinberg and Joseph, 2017). Indeed, specific authors have already provided insightful findings regarding how music festivals contribute to eudaimonic characteristics, which we will review in this study. ...
Article
With the growing interest in eudaimonia in past years and the need to better understand festival visitors’ motivation in the context of music festivals, this study proposes visitor segmentation based on the values of hedonia, life satisfaction and eudaimonia. The analysis in this study employs a case research method that follows the abductive paradigm. We begin our conceptual foundation with a review of the literature on hedonia, life satisfaction and eudaimonia. We then use the preliminary conceptual foundation as the basis of rival analysis through a focus group and interviews with senior executives, government officials, communities and other related stakeholders. We also carry out an exploratory factor analysis to determine the building blocks of eudaimonic festival experiences. Last, using cluster analysis, we support our conceptual proposition from the initial qualitative inquiries. From the three studies that we performed, our findings suggest that, based on hedonia and eudaimonia, we can divide festival attendees into three distinct segments: (1) Pleasure-Seekers (i.e. visitors who look for personal pleasure, enjoyment and affection), (2) Playful-Learners (i.e. visitors who not only seek pleasure, but also consider the urgency to think about the need to grow as a person) and (3) Transcendentalists (i.e. visitors who seek a balance of pleasure, escapism, self-reflection, personal meaning and impact through attending festival activities). This study argues that the ideas of hedonia and eudaimonia are present in the context of the music festival. Theoretically, this paper suggests that festival-goers can be divided into three clusters based on the values of hedonia and eudaimonia: Pleasure-Seekers, Playful-Learners and Transcendentalists. Practically, this study suggests that festival organisers should consider developing music concert events by taking into account the eudaimonic and hedonistic desires, intrinsically possessed by the festival-goers, which is expected to add value to the produced musical event. This study is the first to present visitor segmentation in a music festival setting based on the values of eudaimonia, life satisfaction and hedonia.
... It is clear that music engagement has significant implications for the lifestyle and well-being of listeners across the lifespan. Use of music is positively associated with well-being (Laukka, 2007;Weinberg & Joseph, 2016), and regular music activities provide meaningful cognitive, emotional, and social benefits to those living with dementia (Elliott & Gardner, 2016;Särkämö et al., 2014). Shared music making activities are enjoyable and promote interpersonal connectedness not only for persons with dementia but also for their family and professional caregivers (McDermott, Orrell, & Ridder, 2014). ...
Chapter
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What are the personal and clinical implications of preserved memory for music in dementia? In light of this question, a framework is proposed for integrating basic and clinical research findings and for case formulation and theory building in music-based interventions. Elaborating on the Comprehensive Process Model of Engagement , a proposal is made for music engagement as an inclusive concept that encompasses the variety of ways in which individuals involve themselves with musical stimuli. It is argued that instances of music engagement arise through the combined influence of person, stimulus, and environment attributes. Preserved memory for melodies is discussed as an attribute of the person with particular relevance to music engagement. This approach orients naturally toward considering individual differences and, as such, lends itself well to case-based research and clinical case formulation.
... Engagement with music offers a variety of cognitive, social and emotional benefits, such as the management and regulation of emotion (Weinberg and Joseph 2017), the establishment of self-identity (North, Hargreaves, and O'Neill 2000), and the development of interpersonal relationships (North and Hargreaves 2007). Despite the many advantages of engagement with music, several studies and reports have shown that the level of student participation in music activities in developed nations is low relative to other school subjects and that students' valuing of music engagement tends to decline during the secondary school years (McPherson and O'Neill 2010). ...
Article
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This study examined 44 students’ engagement in the composition of popular and classical music in a computer-mediated environment. The study took place over the course of one school year at a government-funded secondary school in Hong Kong that had 30 iMac music workstations. Participants were 22 Form 3 students (aged 14–15) and 22 Form 4 students (aged 15–16) who composed in different genres consisting of popular music styles and classical music styles (i.e. baroque, classical and romantic period music), respectively, on the computer as part of the school’s music curriculum. At the end of the study, participants completed a retrospective assessment to examine the correlation between engagement in music learning and computer-mediated composition. The results indicated three areas that should be considered in music curriculum development: 1) sustainable engagement in learning both classical and popular music; and 2) the idea of ‘de-composing’ and ‘re-composing’ pedagogy in both classical and popular music styles. The findings suggest that ‘de-composing’ and ‘re-composing’ pedagogy in computer-mediated composition may engage students in ways that promote deeper learning by combining ‘old’ and ‘new’ musical styles through an engagement cycle that enhances an understanding of both classical and popular music.
... The benefits of Music-supported Therapy at the emotional level are in line with previous research on music-based interventions promoting well-being in patients with other conditions (Fredenburg and Silverman, 2014;Ghetti, 2011;Segall, 2018) and healthy populations (for a review, see Daykin et al., 2018). Importantly, individuals with stronger musical engagement are the ones who show larger effects on well-being after a music-based intervention (Kreutz et al., 2008;Weinberg and Joseph, 2017;Zavoyskiy et al., 2016). Therefore, if Music-supported Therapy can promote similar motor improvements as conventional therapy but patients are in a better mood and increase their quality of life after the training, this argues in favour of Music-supported Therapy over conventional approaches. ...
Article
Music-based interventions have emerged as a promising tool in stroke motor rehabilitation as they integrate most of the principles of motor training and multimodal stimulation. This paper aims to review the use of music in the rehabilitation of upper extremity motor function after stroke. First, we review the evidence supporting current music-based interventions including Music-supported Therapy, Music glove, group music therapy, Rhythm- and music-based intervention, and Musical sonification. Next, we describe the mechanisms that may be responsible for the effectiveness of these interventions, focusing on motor learning aspects, how multimodal stimulation may boost motor performance, and emotional and motivational aspects related to music. Then, we discuss methodological concerns in music therapy research related to modifications of therapy protocols, evaluation of patients and study designs. Finally, we highlight clinical considerations for the implementation of music-based interventions in clinical settings.
... Burnard and Dragovic (2015) point out that wellbeing and mental health include two key features, namely empowerment and active participation of individuals. This is as an important element contributing to the positive outcomes for wellbeing as it contributes to the social component of music engagement (Joseph & Southcott, 2018;Weinberg & Joseph, 2017;Skingley, Martin & Clift, 2016). Research has found that engaging with music offers a variety of benefits to health and wellbeing (Joseph & Southcott, 2017;Fancourt, Ockelford & Belai, 2014;Hallam, 2010;Clift, 2012). ...
Article
Music is more than just sounds; engaging in music activities in educational settings may foster a sense of wellbeing. This paper explores whether positive learning environments can change attitudes and build confidence of students undertaking the Bachelor of Education (primary) program. As part of a wider study in Melbourne (Australia), using questionnaire data, this qualitative case study reports on two overarching themes (Wellbeing and Learning, and Skill Development and Confidence). I contend that a happy and safe teaching and learning space may promote and nurture the health and wellbeing of students who lack the confidence to teach music as generalist teachers.
Article
The impact of practical instrumental music instruction on students’ psychological and sociological well-being is well documented in research literature. The extent to which these findings hold true for disadvantaged populations is unknown. Previous studies focused on young students with little to no research on disadvantaged young adults at university level. This study investigated the impact of group practical instrumental music instruction on the psychological well-being of disadvantaged university students. It particularly investigated changes in students’ optimism, self-esteem and happiness after participation in a wind ensemble. The study further looked at possible relationships between optimism, self-esteem, happiness and participation in an instrumental music ensemble. Results revealed increases in participant’s optimism, self-esteem and happiness and moderate to strong positive correlations between variables.
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Dance music shapes our communities and our culture. Clubs and festivals improve health, wellbeing, friendship and happiness. They are positive, unifying and inspiring forces in an increasingly divided world. And the creativity of the scene powers every corner of popular culture. This report synthesises cross-disciplinary research on the positive role of dance music on art and culture, communities, well-being and commerce, showcasing the importance of the often unappreciated dance music industry in our society. This report intends to be distributed as widely as possible in order to disseminate important academic research on the importance of electronic dance music to a wider audience, with the aim of showcasing the importance of the nightlife sector and positively influencing perceptions of an industry that is often neglected by policymakers. This report was published in conjunction with the Night Time Industries Association (NTIA), Association for Electronic Music (AFEM) and supported by Audience Strategies and b:electronic. It was produced by a team of academic researchers and industry experts from the University of Leeds and University of Central Lancashire: Alice O'Grady, Alinka Greasley, James Cannon and Tony Rigg. Written and edited by James Cannon and Thomas Theodore.
Article
The COVID‐19 pandemic has deeply affected the mental health of millions of people. We assessed which of many leisure activities correlated with positive mental health outputs, with particular attention to music, which has been reported to be important for coping with the psychological burden of the pandemic. Questionnaire data from about 1000 individuals primarily from Italy, Spain, and the United States during May–June 2020 show that people picked music activities (listening to, playing, singing, etc.) most often as the leisure experiences that helped them the most to cope with psychological distress related with the pandemic. During the pandemic, hours of engagement in music and food‐related activities were associated with lower depressive symptoms. The negative correlation between music and depression was mediated by individual differences in sensitivity to reward, whereas the correlation between food‐related activities and improved mental health outputs was explained by differences in emotion suppression strategies. Our results, while correlational, suggest that engaging in music activities could be related to improved well‐being with the underlying mechanism being related to reward, consistent with neuroscience findings. Our data have practical significance in pointing to effective strategies to cope with mental health issues beyond those related to the COVID‐19 pandemic. The COVID‐19 pandemic has deeply affected the mental health of millions of people. We assessed which leisure activities correlated with positive mental health outputs, with particular attention to music, which has been reported to be important for coping with the psychological burden of the pandemic. We show that people picked music activities most often as the leisure experiences that helped them the most to cope with psychological distress related with the pandemic. We further demonstrate that greater engagement with music during the pandemic is linked to lower levels of depression.
Article
People tend to participate in musical activities—whether it is making or listening to music—for reasons that are related to basic psychological needs. This study explored whether the coronavirus pandemic (Covid-19) has changed the reasons for participating in musical activities and examined the relationship between these reasons and well-being during as well as before the pandemic. In total, 246 people (between 18 and 35 years) completed a survey during the pandemic, which contained questions relating to the reasons for participating in musical activities—namely the promotion of identity and agency, mood regulation, relaxation and company, enjoyment—and to subjective and eudaimonic well-being before and after the outbreak of the pandemic. Results showed that during the pandemic compared with before, people more often chose music to promote identity and agency, mood regulation, and relaxation and company. Two of the reasons that were invoked more often—namely identity and agency and mood regulation—positively predicted eudaimonic and subjective well-being, respectively, during the pandemic as well as before. Thus, people’s reasons for participating in musical activities during the pandemic compared with before changed in a direction consistent with increasing both eudaimonic and subjective well-being.
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Purpose The current article focuses on the experiences of live music event attendees with visual impairment (VI). It outlines the factors which impact on the accessibility of events and considers how accessibility might be improved for these individuals. Design/methodology/approach The article reports on findings from a mixed-methods project utilising a structured interview study ( N = 20) and an online survey ( N = 94). Interview data were analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis, providing in-depth insight into participants’ experiences before and during events. Quantitative survey data were analysed descriptively and statistically, and Thematic Analysis of open-ended responses was carried out. Findings Attendance at live events varied amongst participants, and so too did the factors impacting on their attendance. Challenges were identified in relation to several key areas: accessing information and tickets, experiences with staff, navigation and orientation, and the use and availability of disabled facilities and specialist services. Originality/value This article is the first to offer in-depth exploration of music event accessibility for individuals with VI. It builds on existing research which has considered the experiences of deaf and disabled attendees but has not yet offered adequate representation of individuals with VI. The article offers practical recommendations for venues and organisers seeking to ensure accessible events for all and contributes to the wider discourse surrounding inclusivity at music, arts and cultural events.
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The current work seeks to characterize a unique genre of music, elevator music (Muzak), using behavioral crowd-sourcing data from Amazon Mechanical Turk. Participants rated excerpts of elevator music along with more rewarding genres of music for pleasure, valence, familiarity, and recognition. Our results demonstrate that elevator music is rated as neutrally pleasurable, with high valence, and highly familiar. Data collection is ongoing, and future experiments use computational models of music to tease apart the neutral effects of elevator music listening. Our results have practical significance in that they may provide a potential control musical stimulus to be used with self-selected rewarding music.
Article
Purpose This paper examines the under-investigated well-being outcomes of literary festival attendance. It is an exploratory study into how a festival contributes to attendees' overall well-being. Drawing from the literature on well-being and festival studies, this paper seeks to understand the well-being dimensions generated by festival attendance and the factors that promote attendees' health and well-being. Design/methodology/approach This exploratory study adopts an inductive and interpretivist approach. Observations, 45 on-site interviews and 17 follow-up interviews were undertaken at one literary festival in Ireland. Thematic analysis was used to analyse data and identify key themes. Findings The findings reveal that attendees perceived a sense of well-being that included five interconnected dimensions: social, mental, emotional, spiritual and physical. Results also show that five factors generated attendees' overall well-being: festival programme, social environment, place, weather conditions and attendees' background. Originality/value This paper presents a new comprehensive model that shows that festival attendance has the potential to generate five interconnected dimensions of attendees' well-being. The model also captures the five main factors that can promote attendees' health and well-being. The model is proposed to guide further research on attendees' overall well-being is associated with festival attendance.
Article
Community Music (hereafter CM) exists in many forms, including choral groups, instrumentalists, bands and other ensembles. The literature on community music highlights how participants in different contexts benefit from participating in community music activities. This article reports on a study in which the researchers investigated diverse forms of CM in three church settings in Port Elizabeth (now Gqeberha), Eastern Cape, South Africa. These church CM activities included a senior adult choir, a youth band, and an instrumental ensemble. A multiple case study approach was followed and data was collected through observations, unstructured interviews, audio and written materials. The thematic analysis revealed that participation in CM activities had a positive effect on the participants.
Article
There is a need to better understand protective factors for mental and psychological wellbeing beyond the absence of disease. The current review sought to synthesise empirical (qualitative and quantitative) evidence on this topic to inform the development of future mental health and wellbeing interventions for Australian adults. Systematic searches of health and behavioural science databases were conducted to identify studies on protective factors for mental and psychological wellbeing in Australian adults. A total of 38 studies were included based on the following criteria: studies conducted in Australia from 2009 to present; articles written in English; articles which reported on empirical research, articles that were peer-reviewed, and research where study participants were Australian adults (>18 years). Data extraction was conducted using Covidence, and design quality was assessed according to the Levels of Evidence hierarchy. There was consistent evidence that components of social capital, physical and other lifestyle factors, individual attributes and creative arts constitute protective factors for mental and psychological wellbeing in Australian adults. The high prevalence of cross-sectional and self-report studies suggests more randomised and longitudinal research is needed. Additional qualitative research would facilitate a more detailed understanding of participants’ lived experiences and perspectives. Existing evidence indicates a significant, positive relationship between social capital, physical and other lifestyle factors, individual attributes and creative arts engagement, and mental and psychological wellbeing among particular groups of Australian adults. Implications are considered for the development of interventions that promote mental health and wellbeing across a wide range of Australian regions and populations.
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W rozdziale tym omawiamy niedawno zdefiniowany konstrukt uzależnienia od uczenia się, które potencjalnie jest wczesną formą uzależnienia od pracy, powoli aspirującą do rozpoznania jako uzależnienie behawioralne według oficjalnych klasyfikacjach chorób i zaburzeń. Zaproponowane ramy teoretyczne, wyjaśniające patologiczne formy przeciążania się pracą i nauką, pozwalają wstępnie zintegrować obszerną literaturę i badania wskazujące na stosunkowo częste występowanie problemów zdrowotnych, zaburzeń psychicznych, uzależnień czy przedwczesnej śmierci wśród muzyków. Ponadto kreślimy sylwetkę młodego muzyka zagrożonego uzależnieniem od uczenia się i pracy, a także przedstawiamy sugestie dotyczące identyfikacji takich osób i pomysły odpowiedniego ich wsparcia w celu prewencji uzależnienia i maksymalizacji rozwoju potencjału twórczego, szczególnie istotnego w przypadku studiów i zawodów artystycznych.
Article
Work–life balance has become a buzzword in many corporate settings. This study situates itself at a higher education institute in Melbourne (Australia) where African music (singing and drumming) was used as a lever for faculty staff to “break from work” and “learn about a new music and culture”. Drawing on email communication, questionnaire data, and anecdotal feedback, a phenomenological approach was adopted to explore the benefits, challenges, and opportunities staff experienced as a recreational group music activity. Data were analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis as a tool. Two overarching themes emerged (group participation and learning, and challenges) and are discussed in the findings. The workshops proved successful and are worthy to be replicated in other places and spaces. Further research is needed to gain insight into whether regular music workshops can influence work–life balance and professional learning for staff.
Chapter
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Este artículo se centra en una propuesta para situar a la Educación Musical, como parte fundamental del Objetivo de Desarrollo Sostenible (ODS) número 4, referido a la Educación, para incidir en la mejora del resto de los 17 ODS. Nuestro trabajo parte de la hipótesis de que la educación será capaz de potenciar el resto de ODS, especialmente haciendo hincapié a la cultura, y la música como eje vertebrador para incardinar educación, cultura y ODS. En este sentido, consideramos que la formación de maestros y maestras, es fundamental para la adquisición de competencias docentes y discentes que comprendan actitudes y acciones responsables. Por esta razón consideramos que, la didáctica juega un papel relevante en esta propuesta, pues entendemos que los proyectos, van con las personas y no con las instituciones. Nos referimos a la manera de actuar de los y las docentes, su manera de hacer, de transmitir, de comunicar, que harán de su aula un referente. Para poder contestar a nuestra hipótesis, se realizará una breve revisión bibliográfica que ampare nuestra propuesta.
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The multiple conceptualizations of brand love (BL) have led to operational inconsistency. The current study addresses this conceptual disagreement by identifying and comparing three conceptualizations of BL. The study also proposes and validates the dimensions of customer engagement (CE) and consumer well-being (CWB) as direct and indirect outcomes of BL, respectively, and investigates the moderating effect of “duration of use” on the BL-CE relationship. A sample of 392 smartphone users responded to a structured questionnaire. The data were analyzed through structural equation modeling, and moderation hypotheses were tested using latent moderated structural equation modeling with Mplus. The findings indicate that conceptualizing BL as a “perfect two-way” love—dominant in extant research—is the least appropriate option. The results confirm that BL has a significant impact on all dimensions of CE and that CWB is a direct outcome of CE and an indirect outcome of BL. The study contributes to the theory of engagement, as it extends the intangible outcomes of CE and empirically validates the proposed relationships. For managers, this study offers the best ways to enact BL and advocates that BL helps ensure maximal CE, which is beneficial for both brands and customers.
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This chapter presents a novel approach to music and health that focuses on exploring health benefits within everyday life contexts, with particular consideration of possible underlying mechanisms. The focus is on listening rather than performing, and on public health rather than clinical populations. A central role is attached to emotion in bringing about desired health outcomes, and it is argued that music may be uniquely suited to managing or regulating emotions and stress in everyday life. The rest of this chapter is organized into three major sections. First, it explains the background and theoretical basis of the current approach. Then, it illustrates this approach by summarizing a set of empirical studies. Finally, it discusses the implications of the results from these studies for future research on music and health.
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The mediating effects of emotion regulation (reappraisal and suppression) were examined in the relationship between music engagement and well-being. Emotion regulation strategies (Emotion Regulation Questionnaire; Gross & John, 2003) and styles of music engagement (Music Use questionnaire; Chin & Rickard, 2012) were assessed in a large diverse sample of 637 participants. A battery of hedonic and eudaimonic well-being measures (International Positive and Negative Affect Schedule Short Form; Thompson, 2007; Satisfaction With Life Scale; Diener, Emmons, Larsen, & Griffin, 1985; Mental Health Continuum-Short Form; Keyes et al., 2008) was also administered. Results demonstrated that the path of mediation was dependent on the type of emotion regulation strategy utilized, as well as the way in which one engages with music. Findings provide initial evidence that engaging with music for the purposes of cognitive and emotion regulation may enhance wellbeing primarily through the habitual use of cognitive reappraisal. In contrast, various other aspects of music engagement (music listening, engaged production, and social connection) if coupled with a tendency to regulate emotions and thoughts by expressive suppression may yield undesirable wellbeing outcomes. This study highlights the important role emotion regulation plays in the complex relationship between music engagement and well-being.
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Emotional self-regulation is acknowledged as one of the most important reasons for musical engagement at all ages. Yet there is little knowledge on how this self-regulatory use of music develops across the life span. A qualitative study was conducted to initially explore central processes and strategies of the emotional self-regulation during adulthood. The data were collected through group interviews and analyzed through qualitative content analysis. Participants were 21 interviewees with an age range of 21-70 years. The results clarified conceptual features of music-related emotional self-regulation in adulthood and revealed two main trends. First, the basic nature of regulation, including various regulatory goals and strategies, remained highly similar throughout adulthood. Second, however, several changes were also evident, and they could be further categorized into three types: change by age, event-related fluctuations, and retirement transition. The study provided knowledge about the role of music-related emotional experiences as a functional and meaningful part of human behavior and psychosocial development during adulthood.
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This article focuses on the reported benefits of participation in music activities, identified by participants of the Music for Life Project. The participants engaged in weekly music activities offered in three locations: two centres in London and one in the North of England. Their responses were collected through questionnaires and focus group interviews. Music participants attributed improvements in quality of life to active engagement with music, and a wide range of cognitive, social, emotional and physical benefits were reported. This article offers an insight into what participants said about improved health, social interactions, emotional support and learning that occurred as a result of active involvement in music.
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Introduction Participatory music making for older people has tended to focus on singing and performance. In a community music project undertaken by Manchester Camerata (a chamber orchestra), Blacon Community Trust and a small group of older adults, participants were given the opportunity to compose individual pieces of music interactively with professional musicians. This paper reports the findings of the research project. Method An arts-based research method was adopted and incorporated action research and interpretive interactionism to articulate the experiences and perceptions of participants. Participants and Manchester Camerata musicians also worked together to represent the thematic findings of the research in a group composition. Findings The findings demonstrate that individual and group music composition contributed to a sense of wellbeing through control over musical materials, opportunities for creativity and identity making, validation of life experience and social engagement with other participants and professional musicians. Conclusion The results emphasised occupation as essential to health and wellbeing in the later stages of life. The findings also highlight the particularly innovative aspects of this research: (i) the use of music composition as a viable arts-in-health occupation for older people and (ii) the arts-based research method of group composition.
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This paper presents evidence for the existence of ‘set-points’ for subjective wellbeing. Our results derive from a 10-year longitudinal study in which subjective wellbeing has been measured using a single question of general life satisfaction. The process of data analysis is driven by logic based on the theory of subjective wellbeing homeostasis. This analysis involves the iterative elimination of raw data, from 7,356 individual respondents, based on confidence limits. All results are projected onto a 0–100 point scale. We demonstrate evidence for the existence of set-points lying between 71 and 90 points, with an average set-point-range of 18–20 points for each person. The implications and limitations of these findings are discussed.
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In this meta-analysis, we evaluated the effectiveness of dance movement therapy (DMT) and the therapeutic use of dance for the treatment of health-related psychological problems. Research in the field of DMT is growing, and 17 years have passed since the last and only general meta-analysis on DMT (Ritter & Low, 1996) was conducted. This study examines the current state of knowledge regarding the effectiveness of DMT and dance from 23 primary trials (N = 1078) on the variables of quality of life, body image, well-being, and clinical outcomes, with sub-analysis of depression, anxiety, and interpersonal competence. Results suggest that DMT and dance are effective for increasing quality of life and decreasing clinical symptoms such as depression and anxiety. Positive effects were also found on the increase of subjective well-being, positive mood, affect, and body image. Effects for interpersonal competence were encouraging, but due to the heterogenity of the data remained inconclusive. Methodological shortcomings of many primary studies limit these encouraging results and, therefore, further investigations to strengthen and expand upon evidence-based research in DMT are necessary. Implications of the findings for health care, research, and practice are discussed.
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Musical experiences are often reported to influence emotions (Juslin & Västfjäll, 2008; Sloboda, O’Neill, & Ivaldi, 2001): people consciously and unconsciously use music to change, create, maintain or enhance their emotions and moods (affect) on a daily basis for their personal benefit (DeNora, 1999; Schramm, 2005). This is known as affect regulation. However, existing research has not yet answered questions of how music regulates affect, especially beyond the expressive properties of music (Meyer, 1956). The aims of the studies presented here were to investigate (a) how music functions to regulate affect, (b) which affects it regulates, and (c) whether music listening can be considered a successful affect regulation device. A one-week diary study with interviews and a three-week diary study were conducted. The main findings were: (1) music helps through broader affect regulation strategies like distraction, introspection, and active coping; music can for example distract someone from the affect or situation, or help to think about the affect or situation in a rational way; (2) music plays a major role in creating happiness and relaxation; (3) music overall is a successful regulation device with a range of underlying mechanisms helping different strategies. The current paper is a valuable addition to the existing literature and provides several new insights into the function of music for affect regulation in everyday life. The insight gained into which strategies and underlying mechanisms are involved when music is used for affect regulation might be used for the benefit of people’s emotional wellbeing.
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Aims: This research explored the relationship between active music making and subjective well-being, in older people's lives. The research focused on how participation in making music might enhance older people's social, emotional and cognitive well-being, through meeting the basic psychological needs identified in earlier research. Method: The research comprised three case studies, each offering a variety of musical activities to older people. In each case study a sample of older people were asked to complete questionnaires and psychological needs scales related to autonomy, competence, relatedness and self-realisation before and after a substantial period of active engagement with music. Results: Principal components analysis (PCA) of responses to the CASP-12(1) and the Basic Needs Satisfaction scale(2) revealed three factors: purpose (having a positive outlook on life; autonomy and control; and social affirmation (positive social relationships, competence and a sense of recognised accomplishment). Comparisons of those engaged in music making with those participating in other activities revealed statistically significant differences on all three factors with the music groups giving more positive responses. Conclusions: The enhanced subjective well-being found among participants in music may have been due to the potential for music to provide a sense of purpose through progression in music and creative expression. Control and autonomy may be supported by the holistic nature of musical engagement, whereby meeting new musical challenges involves physical and cognitive engagement. Finally, social affirmation may be supported through social interaction; giving and receiving peer support; and performance, which confers status, a sense of giving something back to the community, pride and opportunities for positive reinforcement. Further research needs to identify the mechanisms through which music is able to achieve these effects.
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traditional roles of music (lullabies, games, work music, dancing, storytelling, ceremonies and festivals, battle, communication, personal symbol, ethnic or group identity, salesmanship, healing, trance, personal enjoyment) / court and religious music / developments (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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A B S T R AC T The aim of this study was the exploration and theoretical clarification of the role of music in adolescents' mood regulation. The phenomenon was approached through an inductive theory construction. The data were gathered from eight adolescents by means of group interviews and follow-up forms, and were then analysed using constructive grounded theory methods. The analysis resulted in a theoretical model, which describes mood regulation by music as a process of satisfying personal mood-related goals through various musical activities. The general nature of the mood regulation is described, the goals and strategies of mood regulation are examined, and finally the specific role of music in mood regulation is discussed. K E Y W O R D S : adolescence, emotion regulation, grounded theory, mood, mood regulation, music Aim and approach of the study Affective experiences are shown to be central reasons for music consumption and musical activities (DeNora, 1999; Laiho, 2004; North et al., 2000; Roe, 1985; Sloboda and O'Neill, 2001; Wells and Hakanen, 1991; Zillmann and Gan, 1997). However, the study of emotion has not been central to music psychology. Despite the recent growth of interest in the area, our under-standing of the psychological functions of the emotional experiences of music is still conceptually diverse and theoretically unstructured. Researchers have engaged in investigating emotional functions of music in everyday life but there is a serious lack of theoretical grounding of the empirical results. Sloboda and Juslin (2001) argue that theoretical development on emotional experiences of music has been hindered by the complexity of the phe-nomenon, and the reluctance of music psychologists to turn to emotion psychology for theoretical guidance. sempre :
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A B S T R AC T The aim of this study was the exploration and theoretical clarification of the role of music in adolescents' mood regulation. The phenomenon was approached through an inductive theory construction. The data were gathered from eight adolescents by means of group interviews and follow-up forms, and were then analysed using constructive grounded theory methods. The analysis resulted in a theoretical model, which describes mood regulation by music as a process of satisfying personal mood-related goals through various musical activities. The general nature of the mood regulation is described, the goals and strategies of mood regulation are examined, and finally the specific role of music in mood regulation is discussed. K E Y W O R D S : adolescence, emotion regulation, grounded theory, mood, mood regulation, music Aim and approach of the study Affective experiences are shown to be central reasons for music consumption and musical activities (DeNora, 1999; Laiho, 2004; North et al., 2000; Roe, 1985; Sloboda and O'Neill, 2001; Wells and Hakanen, 1991; Zillmann and Gan, 1997). However, the study of emotion has not been central to music psychology. Despite the recent growth of interest in the area, our under-standing of the psychological functions of the emotional experiences of music is still conceptually diverse and theoretically unstructured. Researchers have engaged in investigating emotional functions of music in everyday life but there is a serious lack of theoretical grounding of the empirical results. Sloboda and Juslin (2001) argue that theoretical development on emotional experiences of music has been hindered by the complexity of the phe-nomenon, and the reluctance of music psychologists to turn to emotion psychology for theoretical guidance. sempre :
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The Subjective Wellbeing (SWB) literature is replete with competing theories detailing the mechanisms underlying the construction and maintenance of SWB. The current study aimed to compare and contrast two of these approaches: multiple discrepancies theory (MDT) and an affective-cognitive theory of SWB. MDT posits SWB to be the result of perceived discrepancies between multiple standards of comparison. By contrast, affective-cognitive theory asserts that SWB is primarily influenced by trait affect, and indirectly influenced by personality and cognition through trait affect. Participants comprised 387 individuals who responded to the 5th longitudinal survey of the Australian Unity Wellbeing Index. Results of Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) indicated the poorest fit to the data for the MDT model. The affective-cognitive model also did not provide a good fit to the data. A purely affective model provided the best fit to the data, was the most parsimonious, and explained 66% of variance in SWB. KeywordsSubjective wellbeing-Affect-Multiple discrepancies theory-Personality-Cognition-Quality of life
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The goal of the present study was to determine whether relaxing music (as compared to silence) might facilitate recovery from a psychologically stressful task. To this aim, changes in salivary cortisol levels were regularly monitored in 24 students before and after the Trier Social Stress Test. The data show that in the presence of music, the salivary cortisol level ceased to increase after the stressor, whereas in silence it continued to increase for 30 minutes.
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This article reports the development and validation of a scale to measure global life satisfaction, the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS). Among the various components of subjective well-being, the SWLS is narrowly focused to assess global life satisfaction and does not tap related constructs such as positive affect or loneliness. The SWLS is shown to have favorable psychometric properties, including high internal consistency and high temporal reliability. Scores on the SWLS correlate moderately to highly with other measures of subjective well-being, and correlate predictably with specific personality characteristics. It is noted that the SWLS is Suited for use with different age groups, and other potential uses of the scale are discussed.
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Musical experiences are often reported to influence emotions (Juslin & Västfjäll, 2008; Sloboda, O'Neill, & Ivaldi, 2001): people consciously and unconsciously use music to change, create, maintain or enhance their emotions and moods (affect) on a daily basis for their personal benefit (DeNora, 1999; Schramm, 2005). This is known as affect regulation. However, existing research has not yet answered questions of how music regulates affect, especially beyond the expressive properties of music (Meyer, 1956). The aims of the studies presented here were to investigate (a) how music functions to regulate affect, (b) which affects it regulates, and (c) whether music listening can be considered a successful affect regulation device. A one-week diary study with interviews and a three-week diary study were conducted. The main findings were: (1) music helps through broader affect regulation strategies like distraction, introspection, and active coping; music can for example distract someone from the affect or situation, or help to think about the affect or situation in a rational way; (2) music plays a major role in creating happiness and relaxation; (3) music overall is a successful regulation device with a range of underlying mechanisms helping different strategies. The current paper is a valuable addition to the existing literature and provides several new insights into the function of music for affect regulation in everyday life. The insight gained into which strategies and underlying mechanisms are involved when music is used for affect regulation might be used for the benefit of people's emotional wellbeing.
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Research has begun to explore the nature of strong experiences of music listening, identifying a number of individual components from physiological through to psychological (Gabrielsson & Lindström Wik, 2003), but this has not yet been considered in relation to mainstream theories of happiness. Drawing on positive psychology, Seligman's (2002) framework for achieving balanced wellbeing includes the components of pleasure, engagement, and meaning. In the current study, 46 university students (median age 21) gave free reports of their strongest, most intense experiences of music listening. Accounts were analysed thematically using an idiographic approach, exploring the relevance of Seligman's framework. Most strong experiences were positive, and occurred at live events with others. A wide range of mainly familiar music was associated with reported strong experiences, from classical through jazz and folk to old and new pop music, and experiences lasted for varying time periods from seconds to hours. Unexpected musical or non-musical events were sometimes associated with strong experiences. None of the accounts could be characterized by a single route to happiness: in addition to hedonism, engagement and meaning (particularly in terms of identity) were present in every description, and the findings thus emphasize the power of music to evoke a state of authentic happiness. The importance of taking account of the music, the listener, and the situation in order to fully understand these experiences is underlined. © 2011, European Society for the Cognitive Sciences of Music. All rights reserved.
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Australia has a diverse, multilayered society that reflects its rich musical life. There are many community choirs formed by various cultural and linguistically diverse groups. This article is part of an ongoing project, Well-being and ageing: community, diversity and the arts (since 2008), undertaken by Deakin University and Monash University, that explores the cultural diversity within Australian society and how active music engagement fosters well-being. The singing groups selected for this discussion are the Skylarkers, the Bosnian Behar Choir, and the Coro Furlan. The Skylarkers and the Bosnian Behar Choir are mixed groups who respectively perform popular music from their generation and celebrate their culture through music. The Coro Furlan is an Italian male choir who understand themselves as custodians of their heritage. In these interpretative, qualitative case studies semi-structured interviews were undertaken and analyzed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. In this approach there is an exploration of participants’ understanding of their lived experiences. The analysis of the combined data identified musical and social benefits that contribute to participants’ sense of individual well-being. Musical benefits occurred through sharing, learning and singing together. Social benefits included opportunities to build friendships, overcome isolation and gain a sense of validation. Many found that singing enhanced their health and happiness. Active music making in community choirs and music ensembles continues to be an effective way to support individuals, build community, and share culture and heritage.
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The international University of the Third Age (U3A) embodies the principles of lifelong learning and personal fulfilment amongst members. The research reported in this article focused on the Choir of the U3A Hawthorn, Melbourne, Australia and the benefits perceived by members undertaking this active music engagement in non-competitive choral singing. This small-scale phenomenological qualitative case study is part of a wider study of active arts engagement by older people that began in 2008. This study was undertaken in 2013 and revealed that participants decided to join the group for a range of factors including a positive attitude to singing, convenience and a desire for social connectedness. Those interviewed considered ongoing choir membership an effective use of leisure time that also provided opportunities for shared learning and personal validation. The data were analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) and are reported under two themes: music engagement and social connections. Membership of the Hawthorn U3A choir provided participants opportunities for friendship, companionship, happiness, a sense of belonging and acceptance.
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Building on burgeoning research in the field of arts and health, this article explores the role that learning musical instruments can play in enhancing wellbeing in older adulthood. Despite an increasing focus on the role of learning in supporting mental wellbeing, there is strikingly little research that examines this in relation to music, or that explores wellbeing as a subjective phenomenon captured through mixed-methods enquiry. This research addresses this gap through two inter-related studies. Study 1 adopts questionnaire measures of wellbeing with 98 music-learning and comparison participants, concluding that learning in older adulthood offers significant wellbeing benefits, with music particularly enhancing some health-promoting behaviours. To explore in more detail what learning music means to older adults, Study 2 adopts qualitative methods with a sub-group of 21 music-learning participants, concluding that learning music can enhance subjective wellbeing through six mechanisms: (1) subjective experiences of pleasure; (2) enhanced social interactions; (3) musically-nuanced engagement in day-to-day life; (4) fulfilment of musical ambition; (5) ability to make music; and (6) self-satisfaction through musical progress. Drawing the two studies together, the article concludes by arguing for further research to contribute to the growing body of evidence placing music learning at the centre of healthy ageing agendas.
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Australia is a country of ongoing migration that embraces diversity, creative expression and cultural activity. Membership of community music groups by older people can enhance life quality, and may provide a space through which cultural and linguistic identity may be shared and celebrated. This qualitative phenomenological case study explores engagement by older members of La Voce Della Luna, an Italian women's community choir based in Melbourne, Victoria. This article presents one case study from a larger ongoing research project, Well-being and ageing: community, diversity and the arts in Victoria. In this study, data were gathered from documentary sources and by individual and focus group semi-structured interviews in 2013. Employing interpretative phenomenological analysis two significant themes emerged: Social connection and combatting isolation; and New horizons: music-making and social justice. This article describes how active music for older women provides opportunities to learn new skills, new ideas, and create for themselves a resilient community.
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Music is among the most pleasurable, motivating, and satisfying everyday artistic activities in adolescence. Although the domain of music psychology has shown that listening to music can induce happiness as an emotional state, there is a rarity of research examining whether music listening can be associated with a global happiness, namely, subjective well-being (SWB). The aim of this study was to test a self-determination model in which self-determined motivation for listening to music can be linked with more SWB among late adolescents. A Canadian sample of 229 late adolescents (M = 18.24 years old, SD = 0.95; range = 17 to 21 years old) completed measures of self-determined music listening (listening to music for autonomous motives vs. controlled motives) and of SWB (positive and negative affects, as well as life satisfaction). Results from structural equation modeling confirmed that higher levels of self-determined motivation for listening to music predicted more SWB. These findings suggest that young people may have a happier life when they listen to music for autonomous/self-determined reasons (e.g., because music is inherently pleasurable and personally meaningful). Therefore, our study draws research directions for music psychology and the psychology of positive youth development by discussing the role of music motivation in the development of happiness in youth. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved)
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Music is one of the most pleasant human experiences, even though it has no direct biological advantage. However little is known about individual differences in how people experience reward in music-related activities. The goal of the present study was to describe the main facets of music experience that could explain the variance observed in how people experience reward associated with music. To this end we developed the Barcelona Music Reward Questionnaire (BMRQ), which was administrated to three large samples. Our results showed that the musical reward experience can be decomposed into five reliable factors: Musical Seeking, Emotion Evocation, Mood Regulation, Social Reward, and Sensory-Motor. These factors were correlated with socio-demographic factors and measures of general sensitivity to reward and hedonic experience. We propose that the five-factor structure of musical reward experience might be very relevant in the study of psychological and neural bases of emotion and pleasure associated to music.
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Research has begun to explore the nature of strong experiences of music listening, identifying a number of individual components from physiological through to psychological (Gabrielsson & Lindström Wik, 2003), but this has not yet been considered in relation to mainstream theories of happiness. Drawing on positive psychology, Seligman’s (2002) framework for achieving balanced wellbeing includes the components of pleasure, engagement, and meaning. In the current study, 46 university students (median age 21) gave free reports of their strongest, most intense experiences of music listening. Accounts were analysed thematically using an idiographic approach, exploring the relevance of Seligman’s framework. Most strong experiences were positive, and occurred at live events with others. A wide range of mainly familiar music was associated with reported strong experiences, from classical through jazz and folk to old and new pop music, and experiences lasted for varying time periods from seconds to hours. Unexpected musical or non-musical events were sometimes associated with strong experiences. None of the accounts could be characterized by a single route to happiness: in addition to hedonism, engagement and meaning (particularly in terms of identity) were present in every description, and the findings thus emphasize the power of music to evoke a state of authentic happiness. The importance of taking account of the music, the listener, and the situation in order to fully understand these experiences is underlined.
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The principal aim of this study was to determine if different profiles (types) of emotional reactions following music listening (happiness and sadness) characterized different levels of emotional well-being (i.e., positive and negative affects) in adolescence. The secondary aim was to examine relationships between social congruence in music tastes with friends or parents (i.e., sharing similar music tastes and having fewer conflicts about music) and emotional well-being in adolescence. This study's sample was composed of 316 adolescents (M=15.32 and S.D.=0.90 years of age; 172 girls and 144 boys). Cluster analysis identified three profiles: (1) ‘emotionally-negative listeners’ (medium happiness and higher sadness); (2) ‘emotionally-limited listeners’ (lower happiness and lower sadness); (3) ‘emotionally-positive listeners’ (higher happiness and lower sadness). Results indicated that ‘emotionally-negative listeners’ had less emotional well-being, that ‘emotionally-positive listeners’ had more emotional well-being, and that social congruence in music tastes with both friends and parents were related to more emotional well-being.
Article
In this article, we provide an up-to-date overview of theory and research concerning expression, perception, and induction of emotion in music. We also provide a critique of this research, noting that previous studies have tended to neglect the social context of music listening. The most likely reason for this neglect, we argue, is that that most research on musical emotion has, implicitly or explicitly, taken the perspective of the musician in understanding responses to music. In contrast, we argue that a promising avenue toward a better understanding of emotional responses to music involves diary and questionnaire studies of how ordinary listeners actually use music in everyday life contexts. Accordingly, we present findings from an exploratory questionnaire study featuring 141 music listeners (between 17 and 74 years of age) that offers some novel insights. The results provide preliminary estimates of the occurrence of various emotions in listening to music, as well as clues to how music is used by listeners in a number of different emotional ways in various life contexts. These results confirm that emotion is strongly related to most people's primary motives for listening to music.
Article
Reviews the literature since 1967 on subjective well-being (SWB [including happiness, life satisfaction, and positive affect]) in 3 areas: measurement, causal factors, and theory. Most measures of SWB correlate moderately with each other and have adequate temporal reliability and internal consistency; the global concept of happiness is being replaced with more specific and well-defined concepts, and measuring instruments are being developed with theoretical advances; multi-item scales are promising but need adequate testing. SWB is probably determined by a large number of factors that can be conceptualized at several levels of analysis, and it may be unrealistic to hope that a few variables will be of overwhelming importance. Several psychological theories related to happiness have been proposed; they include telic, pleasure and pain, activity, top–down vs bottom–up, associanistic, and judgment theories. It is suggested that there is a great need to more closely connect theory and research. (7 p ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
An earlier study, based on data from Western countries, concluded that an international standard for life satisfaction could be stated as 75 2.5 percentage of the measurement scale maximum score. This study presents a similar analysis based on data from countries representing all major geographic regions. It is reported that these data yield a more inclusive standard of 70 5 percentage of scale maximum. While the major correlates of life satisfaction are found to be individualism and national wealth, the life satisfaction levels of some countries are distinctly anomalous in this regard. It is concluded that the narrow range of population data suggest that life satisfaction is held under homeostatic control. The anomalous levels of life satisfaction reported by some countries indicate caution in the interpretation of life satisfaction data as implying some desirable population state.
Article
The absence of a gold standard for subjective well-being has severely hampered the interpretation of data from empirical studies. This paper demonstrates a remarkable consistency among the results of 16 studies that have investigated life satisfaction among large samples drawn from the general population. It is concluded that a population standard for life satisfaction can be expressed as 75.02.5 percent of the measurement scale maximum score.
Article
Social scientists and policymakers have long been interested in comparing the subjective well-being (SWB) of populations over time and across countries, although SWB is hard to define and measure. Nevertheless, attempts have been made to rank countries based on SWB (e.g., Veenhoven 1996; OECD 2005). Cross-country data have also been used to study the effect on SWB of public policies, economic conditions and institutions (e.g., Alesina et al. 2002; Frey and Stutzer 2002; Blanchflower 2007). The most common measure of SWB in these studies is based on a question that asks respondents about their overall level of life satisfaction or happiness. Other measures of SWB include ecological momentary assessment (EMA; Stone et al. 1999) and the day reconstruction method (DRM; Kahneman et al. 2004). These measures collect individuals’ time use and affective experience over time, either using real-time data collection or diary recall methods. An advantage of such time-based SWB data is that they connect individuals’ reported SWB to actual events that occurred in their lives, but these measures have not been used previously in cross-country studies.
Article
This paper concerns the idea that Subjective Wellbeing (SWB) is managed by a system of psychological devices which have evolved for this purpose. It is proposed that this management is actually directed at the protection of Homeostatically Protected Mood, as the major component of SWB. We normally experience HPMood as a combination of contentment, happiness and positive arousal. A theoretical description of this construct is offered that can account for many of the commonly observed empirical characteristics of SWB data. It is further proposed that when homeostasis fails, due to the overwhelming nature of a negative challenge, people lose contact with HPMood and experience the domination of negative rather than positive affect. If this condition is chronic, people experience the clinical condition we call depression.
Article
Although the social, emotional, physical and cognitive benefits of engagement in music are well known, little research has been conducted on the psychological benefits of music in the context of music festivals. This article draws on theoretical constructs from the field of positive psychology to interpret the impact of music festival attendance on participants' psychological and social well-being. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected from a focus group and questionnaire survey with young festival-goers aged 18-29 years. Four facets of the music festival experience were identified that were associated with well-being outcomes. These are explored and discussed with reference both to participants' focus group comments and statistical analysis of questionnaire responses. A conceptual model is presented in order to guide further research in this area, and enable both festival organizers and attendees to take optimal advantage of the potential of music festivals to impact positively on young adults' psychological and social well-being.
Article
Recent research into population standards of life satisfaction has revealed a remarkable level of uniformity, with the mean values for Western populations clustering at around three-quarters of the measurement scale maximum. While this seems to suggest the presence of a homeostatic mechanism for life satisfaction, the character of such a hypothetical device is uncertain. This paper proposes that well-being homeostasis is controlled by positive cognitive biases pertaining to the self. Most particular in this regard are the positive biases in relation to self-esteem, control and optimism. Past controversies in relation to this proposition are reviewed and resolved in favour of the proposed mechanism. The empirical data to support this hypothesis are discussed in the context of perceived well-being as an adaptive human attribute.
Choral singing and psychological wellbeing: Findings from English choirs in a cross-national survey using the WHOQOL-BREF
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Clift, S., Hancox, G., Morrison, I., Hess, B., Kreutz, G., & Stewart, D. (2007). Choral singing and psychological wellbeing: Findings from English choirs in a cross-national survey using the WHOQOL-BREF. In Proceedings of the International Symposium on Performance Science (pp. 201-207). Australia: AEC.
Active ageing with music
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  • S Hallam
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Creech, A., Hallam, S., Varvarigou, M., & McQueen, H. (2014). Active ageing with music. London, UK: Institute of Education Press.
Personal Wellbeing Index manual
International Wellbeing Group. (2013). Personal Wellbeing Index manual (5th ed.). Melbourne, Australia: Deakin University.
Using multivariate statistics
  • B G Tabachnik
  • L S Fidell
Tabachnik, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2013). Using multivariate statistics (6th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.
Psychological health effects of musical experiences: Theories, studies and reflections in music health science
  • T Theorell
Theorell, T. (2014). Psychological health effects of musical experiences: Theories, studies and reflections in music health science. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer.