Anti-anemia Effect of Chlorophyll from Katuk (Sauropus androgynus) Leaves on Female Mice Induced Sodium Nitrite:

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DOI: 10.5530/pj.2016.4.10
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Abstract
Context: Sodium nitrite (NaNO2) in blood is highly reactive with haemoglobin (Hb), thus affecting hematopoiesis and induction of methemoglobinemia. Aim: This study was conducted to determine the effect of chlorophyll from katuk (Sauropus androgynus) leaves on the level of Hb, Malondialdehyde (MDA), ferritin, and schistocytes percentage in female mice induced NaNO2. Settings and Design: Experimental research was conducted using 24 female mice strain Balb-c. Methods and Material: NaNO2 0.3 ml/head/ day given during 18 days, while the chlorophyll or Cu-chlorophyllin as much as 0.7 ml/head/day given the following day for 14 days. Statistical analysis used: Results are reported as mean values ± SD and statistically analyzed by One Way Anova test with 95% significance level. Results: The Hb levels of blood plasma in the control group, NaNO2 induction, induction NaNO2 and chlorophyll of katuk leaves (NaNO2+katuk), induction of NaNO2 and Cu-chlorophyllin from K-LiquidTM (NaNO2+Cu-chlorophyllin) in sequence is 13.29 g/dl; 11.83 g/dl; 14.54 g/dl; 13.99 g/dl, whilst the MDA levels in each group is 2.10 ± 0.11 mol/L, 3.44 ± 0.38 mol/L, 2.31 ± 0.18 mol/L, 2.31 ± 0.13 mol/L, and the ferritin levels is 62.71 ± 6.42 ng/ml; 63.22 ± 7.59 ng/ml; 67.45 ± 8.03 ng/ml, and 64.74 ± 7.80 ng/ml, respectively. The fragment schistocytes percentage's in each group is 0%, 0.11%, 0.01%, 0.03%. The ferritin levels tend to increase in NaNO2+katuk. Mann Whitney test results obtained no significant difference in Hb, MDA level and schistocytes percentage between the groups of mice that received NaNO2+katuk NaNO2+Cu-chlorophyllin (p>0.05). This indicates that chlorophyll from S. androgynus leaves as effective as Cu-chlorophyllin in decrease the MDA levels after NaNO2 treatment, and although not significant, it can increase ferritin levels. Conclusion: The antioxidant activity of chlorophyll from katuk leaves are able to decrease schistocytes percentage's and MDA level. The increasing of Hb and ferritin level indicates its potential in the treatment of haemolityc anaemia. Further studies aimed at the mechanisms of action of this chlorophyll are needed.
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Original Article
Pharmacognosy Journal, Vol 8, Issue 4, Jul-Aug, 2016 375
Anti-anemia Eect of Chlorophyll from Katuk (Sauropus
androgynus) Leaves on Female Mice Induced Sodium Nitrite
Suparmi1*, Sampurna2,4, Nur Anna C.S3,4, Alvenia Meilina Ednisari5, Galuh Dea Urfani5, Iqrommatul Laila5, Heavin Rakhmat Saintika5
1Department of Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Islam Sultan Agung, Semarang 50112, INDONESIA.
2Department of Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Islam Sultan Agung, Semarang 50112, INDONESIA.
3Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Islam Sultan Agung, Semarang 50112, INDONESIA.
4Sultan Agung Islamic Hospital, Semarang 50112, INDONESIA.
5Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Islam Sultan Agung, Semarang 50112, INDONESIA.
ABSTRACT
Context: Sodium nitrite (NaNO2) in blood is highly reactive with haemoglobin
(Hb), thus affecting hematopoiesis and induction of methemoglobinemia.
Aim: This study was conducted to determine the effect of chlorophyll
from katuk (Sauropus androgynus) leaves on the level of Hb, Malondialde-
hyde (MDA), ferritin, and schistocytes percentage in female mice induced
NaNO2. Settings and Design: Experimental research was conducted using
24 female mice strain Balb-c. Methods and Material: NaNO2 0.3 ml/head/
day given during 18 days, while the chlorophyll or Cu-chlorophyllin as much
as 0.7 ml/head/day given the following day for 14 days. Statistical analysis
used: Results are reported as mean values ± SD and statistically analyzed
by One Way Anova test with 95% signicance level. Results: The Hb levels
of blood plasma in the control group, NaNO2 induction, induction NaNO2
and chlorophyll of katuk leaves (NaNO2+katuk), induction of NaNO2 and
Cu-chlorophyllin from K-LiquidTM (NaNO2+Cu-chlorophyllin) in sequence is
13.29 g/dl; 11.83 g/dl; 14.54 g/dl; 13.99 g/dl, whilst the MDA levels in each
group is 2.10 ± 0.11 mol/L, 3.44 ± 0.38 mol/L, 2.31 ± 0.18 mol/L, 2.31 ±
0.13 mol/L, and the ferritin levels is 62.71 ± 6.42 ng/ml; 63.22 ± 7.59 ng/ml;
67.45 ± 8.03 ng/ml, and 64.74 ± 7.80 ng/ml, respectively. The fragment
schistocytes percentage’s in each group is 0%, 0.11%, 0.01%, 0.03%.
The ferritin levels tend to increase in NaNO2+katuk. Mann Whitney test
results obtained no signicant difference in Hb, MDA level and schisto-
cytes percentage between the groups of mice that received NaNO2+katuk
NaNO2+Cu-chlorophyllin (p>0.05). This indicates that chlorophyll from
S. androgynus leaves as effective as Cu-chlorophyllin in decrease the MDA
levels after NaNO2 treatment, and although not signicant, it can increase
ferritin levels. Conclusion: The antioxidant activity of chlorophyll from katuk
leaves are able to decrease schistocytes percentage’s and MDA level. The
increasing of Hb and ferritin level indicates its potential in the treatment of
haemolityc anaemia. Further studies aimed at the mechanisms of action of
this chlorophyll are needed.
Key words: Anemia, Chlorophyll, Ferritin, Sodium nitrite, Schistocytes.
Corresponding author: Suparmi, Department of Biology, Faculty of
Medicine, Universitas Islam Sultan Agung, Semarang 50112, INDONESIA.
Phone no: +62-24 6583584; Fax: +62-24 6594366
Email: suparmi@unissula.ac.id
DOI : 10.5530/pj.2016.4.10
INTRODUCTION
Sodium nitrite (NaNO2) is an inorganic salt used as a common preser-
vative and color xative in cured meat products, sh and some types
of cheese and occurs naturally in many foods, particularly vegetables.
Recent studies about toxicology of NaNO2 show that sodium nitrite in
blood is highly reactive with hemoglobin, thus aecting hematopoiesis
and induction of methemoglobinemia–a condition in which there is a
reduction in hemoglobin’s ability to transport oxygen.1 e adduction of
NaNO2 in acute doses signicantly decrease the number of erythrocyte
causing a state of anaemia in rat.2 erefore, it important to prevent the
anemia due to the negative eects of NaNO2.
e rate of anaemia occurrence in Indonesia is considerably high.
According to annual report of Dinkes Prov. Jateng (2013), the rate was
40.1% in pregnant mother in 2013. e percentage of anaemia prevalence
in women is higher than that of in men, that was 23.9%.3 e condition
of anaemia that is not treated immediately will lead to complications
such as cardiomegaly since erythrocytes and blood viscosity decreased
causes an increase in cardiac output and blood ow as a result of tissue
hypoxia.4 Prevention of anaemia has been undertaken by the government
through the provision of iron supplementation.5 However, the use of the
supplementation emerge side eects such as less comfortable circum-
stances in the pit of the stomach, nausea, vomiting, and constipation.
erefore, it is needed an anaemia therapy with natural ingredients, one
of which is using chlorophyll of plants.
In Indonesia, Katuk (Sauropus androgynus) leaves are oen consumed
as a breastmilk booster. e leaves contain plenteous chlorophyll. Nurdin
et al. (2009) notied that 8% of the leaves dry weight contain chloro-
phyll-a and chlorophyll-b as much as 1136.6 mg/kg and 372.5 mg/kg of
the substances, respectively.6 Porphirin structure of the chlorophyll can
reduce diphenilpycrylhydazil (DPPH) free radical form diphenilpycrylhy-
drazine that is non radical.7 Heme structure of the chlorophyll can bind
a Magnesium (Mg) ion acting as an iron ion in human and animals.8
However, a role of chlorophyll as antioxidant with parameter hemoglobin
(Hb), Malondialdehide (MDA) and ferritin level, also schistocytes
percentages in experimental animals induced by NaNO2 as pathological
treatment for anaemia have not been investigated.
MDA is an end product of lipid peroxidation.9 State of increasing oxidative
stress in the body induces the increase of MDA level as well. Oxidative
stress which is uncompensated in normal erythrocyte will bring in
hemoglobin oxidation become methemoglobin and membrane ravage
in the form of upli of membrane permeability to cell lysis.10 is condi-
tion causes the level of iron (Fe) stock in the body decrease progressively,
reected by deation of ferritin concentration in serum.11 Examination
of routine ferritin level is carried out to determine diagnosis of iron
deciency, because it is proven that ferritin level as an earlier indicator
declines in the condition where anaemia of iron deciency occur.12 Schis-
tocytes are fragments of red blood cells (RBCs) produced by extrinsic
mechanical damage within the circulation. e detection of schistocytes
is an important morphological clue to the diagnosis of thrombotic
microangiopathic anemia (TMA).13
is study aimed to examine the eect of chlorophyll in anaemic female
mice induced NaNO2 during 18 days. Antianemia eect of chlorophyll
is observed aer Katuk leaves treatment for 14 days by measuring
Suparmi et al.: Hematological prole of sodium nitrite-induced mice administered with katuk chlorophyll
376 Pharmacognosy Journal, Vol 8, Issue 4, Jul-Aug, 2016
hemoglobin, MDA and ferritin levels of blood plasma, also the percentage
of schistocytes in blood smear. e result of this research is expected to
encourage the use of Katuk leaves chlorophyll as anaemia drug.
SUBJECTS AND METHODS
Material
Fresh leaves of katuk (Sauropus androgynus) (Figure 1) were obtained
from the inhabitant park in Penggaron Lor Village, Genuk, Semarang,
Indonesia. All chemicals were of analytical grade. Cu-chlorophyllin from
K-LiquidTM was obtained from a drug store in Semarang. Ethical clear-
ance was obtained from the Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Medicine
Universitas Islam Sultan Agung, Indonesia.
Chlorophyll Extraction
Chlorophyll crude extract was prepared from S. androgynus leaves by
extraction with acetone: methanol (7:3, v/v).13 A given amount of leaves
(200 g) was mixed with cetone: methanol (7:3, v/v) and magnetically
stirred until the pigment was removed. Ascorbic acid was added to the
solution to avoid degradation of the pigment. e extract was ltered
to remove insoluble material. e ltrate obtained was then partitioned
with diethyl ether three times sequentially. e organic phase material
resulted were added with Na2SO4 anhydrate as far as water contained
was bound maximum. e solvent removal and drying process of chlo-
rophyll used rotary evaporator and N2 gas.
Experimental design
e experiments were carried out on two-month-old female Balb-C
mice. e animals were divided into three sodium nitrite-treated groups
(n=6 in each group) and an age-matched control group (n=6). Mice were
maintained in the animal house of Faculty of Medicine Universitas Islam
Sultan Agung in standard hard bottom polypropylene cages at 23ºC ±
2ºC, 12:12 h light/dark cycle and free access to laboratory chow and tap
water throughout the study.
NaNO2 was administered orally by gavage at 3.75 mg/kg body weight
(dissolved in 1 ml aquades), refers to rate of LD50 on mice.14 NaNO2 as
much as 0.3 ml/g of body weight were given to the mice for 18 days for
treated animals (group II, III and IV).15 e control rats were injected
with the same volume of distilled water. e following days aer day 18
until day 32, the mice from group III were given with chlorophyll solution
from S. androgynus leaves, whereas the mice from group IV were given
with Cu-chlorophyllin from K-Liquid.TM e doses of chlorophyll and
Cu-chlorophyllin those were given to mice were 0.7 ml/head/day
according to the conversion of adult man doses.16
Blood collection and plasma analysis
Blood samples from the mice were taken at the day 33 to measure Hb,
MDA and ferritin level in the blood plasma. Whole blood samples were
obtained in heparinized tubes, centrifuged and plasma was stored
at -20ºC until further analysis. Hb level was measured by cyanmethe-
moglobin methods using spectrophotometer MDA level was measured
using io Barbituric Acid Reactive Substance (TBARS) test with 532 nm
wavelength spectrophotometer, whilst ferritin level was measured using
Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) method. Schistocytes
are detected in the peripheral blood smear stained using wedge proce-
dures and observed by microscopy in 100X every 1000 erytrocyte.
Statistical analysis
Results are reported as mean values ± SD and statistically analyzed by
One Way Anova test with 95% signicance level. If the data characteristics
did not allow for the One Way Anova test to be conducted, then the
Kruskal Wallis test became the alternative. A post hoc test was conducted
where needed.
Figure 1: Katuk (Sauropus androgynus).
Figure 2: Typical shapes for specic identication of schistocytes showed a
polychromatophilic erythrocyte in the white arrow.
Figure 3: Hb levels in four treatment groups after 18 days NaNO2 treatment
followed by 14 days chlorophyll from treatment. S. androgynus leaves or
Cu-chlorophyllin of K-Liquid TM.
Suparmi et al.: Hematological prole of sodium nitrite-induced mice administered with katuk chlorophyll
Pharmacognosy Journal, Vol 8, Issue 4, Jul-Aug, 2016 377
Table 1: Means of MDA and ferritin levels in four treatment groups
Treatment group Hb level (g/dL) MDA level (µmol/L) Ferritin level (ng/ml) Schistocytes (%)
Control 13,29 ± 1,06a2.10 ± 0.11a62.71 ± 6.42a0 ± 0a
NaNO2 induction 11,83 ± 0,77b3.44 ± 0.38b63.22 ± 7.59a0,11 ± 0,07b
S. androgynus leaves chlorophyll 14,54 ± 0,84a2.31 ± 0.18a67.45 ± 8.03a0,01 ± 0,04a
Cu-chlorophyllin from K-LiquidTM 13,99 ± 0,81a2.31 ± 0.13a64.74 ± 7.80a0,03 ± 0,05a
NB: Supercripts in dierent letter showed the signicantly dierent at α 5%.
Figure 4: MDA levels in four treatment groups after 18 days NaNO2 treatment
followed by 14 days chlorophyll from treatment. S. androgynus leaves or
Cu-chlorophyllin of K-Liquid TM.
Figure 5: Ferritin levels in four treatment groups.
RESULTS
e hemoglobin (Hb) decreased aer NaNO2 induction treatment group
for 18 days. In contrast, mean of, MDA, ferritin level, and schistocytes
percentages in mice which were induced with NaNO2 induction
increased draw on the control group level (Table 1). Control group
showed normal erythrocytes, whereas in the group induced NaNO2
found schistocytes (Figure 2). Katuk chlorophyll and Cu-chlorophyllin
group showed the lower schistocytes percentage compared with the
group with the induction of NaNO2.
Adduction of Katuk leaves chlorophyll and Cu-chlorophyllin proven
to increase Hb level in mice. Although it has been induced by NaNO2
(Figure 3). Adduction of Katuk leaves chlorophyll and Cu-chlorophyllin
proven to reduce MDA level in mice. Although it has been induced by
NaNO2, the levels were approaching the level of MDA in the control
group aer treatment, even Mann Whitney statistical test shown that
MDA level of Katuk leaves treatment was not dierent from the level of
control group (p>0.05). Moreover, MDA level of Katuk leaves was equal
to that of Cu-chlorophyllin from K-Liquid, with the statistical test result
shown that there was no dierences between them (p>0.05, Figure 4),
proving that chlorophyll from Katuk leaves as eective as chlorophyll
from market products. One Way Anova test resulted that there were no
dierences in ferritin levels between all groups. However, the level in
Katuk leaves (67.45 ± 8.03) tend to be higher than those of control group
and other groups, followed by Cu-chlorophyllin from K-Liquid (64.74 ±
7.80) (Figure 5).
DISCUSSION
e present study demonstrates the eect of acute NaNO2 treatment
caused a signicantly reduced decrease in hemoglobin level, as well as
increased MDA, ferritin level and schistocytes percentages. It is suggest-
ed that the decrease in hemoglobin level may be attributed to microcytic
and/or hypochromic anemia possibly as consequence of the toxic eect
of NaNO2. Natrium nitrite (NaNO2) can trigger oxidative stress condi-
tion which is indirectly caused haemolytic anaemia. It was can be seen
from the mean of Malondiadehide (MDA) level in control group compare
to those of the other groups that were induced by NaNO2. Adduction of
NaNO2 leads free radical formation from nitrite ion, and then the reaction
continues to form lipid peroxidase and produce one of some products
in the form of MDA. Natrium nitrite is one of substances that are classi-
ed as moderately toxic based on LD50. Toxic eect from NaNO2 in this
research was demonstrated by death of 4 mice which experiencing skins
discoloration, feathers loss and the eyes excreting ichor.17 e decrease
of erythrocyte is caused by lysis of membrane structure of the eryth-
rocyte by dint of nitrite ion and nitrite metabolism and as a product of
lipid peroxidase which reacted with sulydryl group from fat layer and
protein components of erythrocyte membrane. Nitrite triggers the
formation of free radicals due to its ability to stimulate iron ion oxidation
on the oxyhaemoglobin forming methemoglobin as ROS.18,19 erefore,
anaemia that comes up is not iron deciency anaemia, but rather hae-
molytic anaemia.
In case of haemolytic anaemia, receptor transferrin serum increase when
bone marrow erythropoiesis activities increase as well and found no
functional iron depletion, it means the level of serum ferritin is normal
or increase. Ferritin is an acute-phase protein, so that the value increases
in inammation condition, in pre-latent phase it is familiar known as
iron depletion or storage iron deciency. At this state, iron stock
decrease, but the iron in plasma and erythrocyte is still normal.20
Excessive oxidant compounds induce a chain reaction of free radicals or
lipid peroxidase which through several processes to form MDA. Oxidant
Suparmi et al.: Hematological prole of sodium nitrite-induced mice administered with katuk chlorophyll
378 Pharmacognosy Journal, Vol 8, Issue 4, Jul-Aug, 2016
Scientic Conference 2015 (IABS 2015) Faculty of Medicine and Health
Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 18 – 20 August 2015.
CONFLICT OF INTEREST
e authors have declared that there is no conict of interest.
ABBREVIATION USED
MDA : Malondialdehyde; SD: Standard deviation; DPPH: Diphenil-
pycrylhydazil; RBCs: Red blood cells; TMA: rombotic microangio-
pathic anemia; v/v: Volume per volume; LD50: Lethal dose 50%; TBARS:
io Barbituric Acid Reactive Substance; ELISA: Enzyme Linked Immu-
nosorbent Assay.
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compounds which successfully suppressed will not cause a continued re-
action or lipid peroxidase, so that the MDA level will decline. Oxidative
stress circumstances of NaNO2 as anaemia pathologic treatment in female
mice can be mitigated by antioxidant activities of Katuk leaves chloro-
phyll which MDA level of Katuk leaves chlorophyll treatment group is
identical to that of the control group.
Katuk leaves chlorophyll treatment can increase ferritin level in mice,
although statistically there was no signicant dierence. Among other
treatment groups, Katuk leaves treatment group gave the highest level
of ferritin compare to the control group. e increase equal to the level
of Cu-chlorophyllin from K-Liquid, however there was no signicant
dierence between them. Katuk leaves chlorophyll potentially can be
used as antioxidant, because it is able to prevent the formation of oxidant
compound excessively.9 In the state of infection and inammation, it
occur disruption of iron release from reticuloendothelial cells, conse-
quently, the level of ferritin intracellular and serum increase.21 Copper
(Cu) of Cu-chlorophyllin is a micro essential substance which serves as
part of the enzymes in the body and plays a role in iron absorption. Copper
of seruloplasmin (a glycoprotein synthesized in liver) contribute in Fe
oxidase process produce other copper femetaloproteins i.e. cytochrome
oxydase, tironase, monoamin oxidase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and
lysyl oxidase before transported into plasma.22
is is in accordance with Togatorop (2013) revealed that chlorophyll
of Katuk leaves can relieve toxic chemicals caused by cigarette smoke
including free radicals in the body. Antioxidative eect of chlorophyll
coming from porphyrin structure that is tetrapirol shaped and conjugated
polyenes which can capture oxygen singlet23 along with the existence of
Mg ion that makes free radicals tend to give electrons to the Mg, thus
neutralize free radicals.24 As a metaloenzim, SOD activities depend on
the presence of Cu, Zn, and Mn metals. Copper in erythrocyte have the
form of dismutase superoxide metaloenzyme that act as antioxidants.25
Treatment of Katuk leaves chlorophyll can decrease Malondialdehide
(MDA) level. e decrease of MDA level in Katuk leaves treatment was
very eective and signicant draw on negative control group. e decline
is also almost the same as that of the Cu-chlorophyllin treatment group
as a positive control group. According to this, chlorophyll of Katuk leaves
potentially can be used as an alternative for healing anaemia caused by
oxidative stress. e point must also be considered for future research is
necessary to assess the level of oxidative stress that is caused by NaNO2
induction. Besides, it is needed to measure quantitatively the level of
chlorophyll from Katuk leaves extract and Cu-chlorophyllin from K-Liq-
uidTM along with assessment on ferritin level in latent phase of anaemia.
CONCLUSION
e results of this study demonstrate the potential of chlorophyll from
katuk (Sauropus androgynus) leaves as antioxidant caused by oxidative
stress due to NaNO2 induction as indicated by increasing of MDA level.
Furthermore, our studies also indicate that the katuk chlorophyll may
also be useful in the treatment of haemolytic anaemia, indicated by its
ability to decrease Schistocytes percentages, also increase Hb and ferritin
level. Further studies aimed at the mechanisms of action of this chloro-
phyll are needed.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Financial support for this work was provided by the research grant from
Faculty of Medicine Universitas Islam Sultan Agung, Semarang, Indo-
nesia with contract number 22/P-KEL/UPR-FK/XI/2013, scal year
2013/2014. Suparmi would like to thank to the Indonesian Directorate
General of Higher Education (DIKTI) for granting her a supporting
fee to present this abstract in International Anatomical and Biomedical
Suparmi et al.: Hematological prole of sodium nitrite-induced mice administered with katuk chlorophyll
Pharmacognosy Journal, Vol 8, Issue 4, Jul-Aug, 2016 379
PICTORIAL ABSTRACT
Sodium nitrite (NaNO2) in blood is highly reactive with haemoglobin (Hb),
thus affecting hematopoiesis and induction of methemoglobinemia.
Chlorophyll from S. androgynus leaves was as effective as Cu-chlorophyllin
in decrease the MDA levels after NaNO2 treatment, and although not signi-
cant, it can increase ferritin levels.
Chlorophyll from S. androgynus is potential as food supplement in anemic
conditions caused by sodium nitrite consumptions.
ABOUT AUTHORS
Suparmi: Is a lecturer and researcher at Department of Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Islam Sultan
Agung, Semarang-Indonesia. She is passionates in research on chlorophyll and natural pigments, especially
its application for food, industry and health application. Since 2013, she is a member of Indonesian Pigment
Researcher Association and Indonesian Food Technologists. Currently, she is a PhD student studying food toxi-
cology in Wageningen University, The Netherlands.
Sampurna: Is positioned as a member of Department of Clinical Pathology, also a lecturer and researcher at
Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Islam Sultan Agung. He is also as a deputy director of Sultan Agung Islamic
Hospital. He is working on various aspects of tropical medical pathology specialty that is concerned with the
diagnosis of diseases based on the laboratory analysis of bodily uids, such as blood and urine.
Nur Ana CS: A lecturer and researcher at Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas
Islam Sultan Agung. She is also an internist at Sultan Agung Islamic Hospital. She has experience in the area of
tropical internal diseases and frequently become a guest speaker on national radio talkshows.
Alvenia Meilina Ednisari: Was a student at Universitas Islam Sultan Agung, Semarang-Indonesia, where she
graduated in Bachelor of Medicine. Her research focused on the effect of katuk leaves (Sauropus androgynus)
on haemoglobin level in sodium nitrite-induced mice (Mus musculus Balb/c).
Galuh Dea Urfani: Was a student at Universitas Islam Sultan Agung, Semarang-Indonesia, where she graduated
in Bachelor of Medicine. Her research focused on the effect of katuk leaves (S. androgynus) and Cu-Chlorophyllin
on malondialdehide level as an experimental assessment on sodium nitrite-induced mice.
Iqrommatul Laila: Was a student at Universitas Islam Sultan Agung, Semarang-Indonesia, where she gradu-
ated in Bachelor of Medicine. Her research focused on the comparison of katuk leaves (S. androgynus) and
Cu-Chlorophyllin effects on ferritin level on sodium nitrite-induced mice.
Heavin Rakhmat Saintika: Was a student at Universitas Islam Sultan Agung, Semarang-Indonesia, where she
graduated in Bachelor of Medicine. His research focused on the effect of katuk leaves (S. androgynus) and
Cu-Chlorophyllin on the fragment schistocyte percentages on sodium nitrite-induced mice.
SUMMARY
Klorol (Cu-Chlorophyllin) Daun Murbei (Morus alba L.) Sebagai Prototipe Bahan
Suplemen Makanan, Skripsi, Institut Pertanian Bogor.
23. Pramesti R. Aktivitas Antioksidan Ekstrak Rumput Laut Caulerpa serrulata
Dengan Metode DPPH. Buletin Oseanogra Marina April. 2013;2(2):7-15.
24. Rohimat IW, Agus T. Aktivitas Antioksidan Ekstrak Metanol Rumput Laut Coklat
(Turbina conoides dan Sargassum cristaefolium) Yang Dikoleksi Dari Pantai
Rancabuaya Garut Jawa Barat. Jurnal of Marine Research. 2014;3(3):304-13.
25. Winarsi H. 2007, Antioksidan Alami dan Radikal Bebas Potensi dan Aplikasinya
dalam Kesehatan, Yogyakarta: Kanisius Cetakan ke-5, pp. 122.
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