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Discrimination against Fathers in Greek Child Custody Proceedings: Failing the Child’s Best Interests

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... Four articles use developmental neuroscience in various civil law contexts, including child custody determination (Bantekas, 2016), the risks of sharing personal information online and the capacity to contract in the online context (Costello, McNiel, & Binder, 2016), statutes of limitations for lawsuits arising from child abuse (La Puma, 2016), and the use of civil lawsuits for child sex trafficking (Smith, 2016). ...
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Infants, parental separation, custody, and overnight care: a vexed combination of issues and needs that has long perplexed the family law field. Carol George and Judith Solomon have conducted the only published observational study of infant attachment in light of postseparation overnight care arrangements. Here they revisit that study and bring more than three decades of experience to bear on questions concerning very young children implicated in family law disputes. Currently a professor of psychology at Mills College, California, George is an author and coauthor of several notable attachment measures and has over 50 research publications in the area of attachment. Judith Solomon is both a clinical psychologist and a researcher in the attachment field, specializing in the study of early attachment relationships and representations, most recently in the Department of Pediatrics, Bridgeport Hospital. George and Solomon are associate editors of the journal, Attachment and Human Development, reviewers on multiple developmental journals, and both consult and teach internationally.
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Alternating residence for children with separated parents has become increasingly popular in Sweden over the last few decades. In this article, a brief background to the use of alternating residence in Sweden will be provided. Relevant legislation will be described and some of the apparent problems in connection to this kind of living arrangement will also be discussed.It is estimated that approximately one out of every five children with separated parents today are living alternately with both parents. The high frequency of alternating residence can probably be explained, to a great extent, by determined legislative work to ensure that joint custody is the main rule for separated parents. Joint custody after separation encourages parents to take a more active part in the child’s life. Alternating residence can be seen as the optimal way to ensure that a child is provided natural and stress-free contact with both parents in the different events of everyday life that is not possible when the child lives with one parent. However, there are also problems related to alternating residence that need to be addressed. The possibility for the courts to decide on alternating residence against the will of one of the parents appears to have little justification considering that one of the prerequisites for this form of living arrangement is that it is beneficial for children if their parents can co-operate. There are also other aspects of the regulation of alternating residence that need to be improved, in particular questions concerning the child maintenance. Different aspects of the public social security system for children with separated parents also need to be adjusted to provide just and fair solutions for children with alternating residence. Finally, since alternating residence is motivated by a desire to protect the best interests of the child, further research clarifying the experiences of children with alternating residence needs to be carried out.
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1. The Decline of the Male Breadwinner: Explanations and Interpretations 2. Obligations and Autonomy in Social Welfare 3. Dual Breadwinners: Between State and Market 4. The Modernization of Family and Motherhood in Western Europe 5. Women, Men And Non-Standard Employment: Recent Developments in the Sexual Division of Breadwinning and Caregiving in Germany, Italy and the UK 6. Attitudes, Women's Employment and the Changing Domestic Division of Labour: A Cross-National Analysis 7. Employment, Careers and Families: The Significance of Choice and Constraint in Women's Lives 8. Gender, Occupational Feminisation and Reflexivity: A Cross-National Perspective 9. The Restructuring of Gender Relations Within the Medical Professions: Theoretical and Empirical Implications 10. Discussion and Conclusions
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Contents: P. Caplan, Introduction: Anthropology and the Study of Disputes - S. F. Moore, Imperfect Communications - L. Nader, Civilization and its Negotiations - E. Colson, The Contentiousness of Disputes - C. Johnson, Gentlemanly Values: Contesting Corruption Accusations in the Cities of London and Lagos in the Mid-1950s - M. Silverman, The 'Inhabitants' vs the 'Sovereign': A Historical Ethnography of the Making of the 'Middle Class' in an Irish Corporate Borough, 1840-1 - L. Caplan, The Milieu of Disputation: Managing Quarrels in East Nepal - D. Parkin, Disputing Human Passion: The Negotiation of the Meaning of Love among the Giriama of Kenya - S. Gaetz, 'Youth Development': Conflict and Negotiations in an Urban Irish Youth Club - P. Caplan, 'Law' and 'Custom': Marital Disputes on Northern Mafia Island, Tanzania - A. Southall, Courts of Death Among the Alur of Uganda
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This study examines the involvement of a sample of working-class Irish fathers in infant caretaking from the pre-, peri-, and postnatal period to the end of the first year of life and, second, the relationship between paternal behavior and infant cognitive development. Results show that Irish fathers in this sample were substantially involved in infant caretaking over the first year and, through multiple regression analysis, that paternal involvement in caretaking had an independent effect on infant cognitive development scores at 1 year.
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Acknowledgements. Permissions Acknowledgements. List of Figures. Foreword by Steve Biddulph Introduction to the Second Edition. Part One - The Foundations: Babies and their brains 1. Before we meet them 2. Back to the beginning 3. Building a brain 4. Corrosive Cortisol. Conclusion to Part 1. Part 2 - Shaky Foundations and their Consequences 5. Trying Not to Feel 6. Melancholy Baby 7. Active Harm 8. Torment 9. Original Sin. Part 3 - Too Much Information, Not Enough Solutions 10. 'If all else fails, hug your teddy bear' 11. Birth of the Future. Bibliography. Index.
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Discusses sex-role development, cognitive development, and social confidence in terms of fathers' impact on their children. Implications for the delivery of social work services in educational settings are delineated. Research findings suggest that (1) sex-role development is influenced primarily by the father's behavior, (2) the bond between fathers and sons is stronger in intellectual growth than between fathers and daughters, and (3) father involvement affects social development in males and success in females. It is suggested that father's physical, robust approach to the child complements and contrasts with the mother's more verbal, slow-paced style. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Everett Waters is involved in a wide range of longitudinal research projects and educational programs that advance the Bowlby-Ainsworth tradition of attachment study. His empirical and theoretical knowledge is far reaching. Here, Waters explores the family law field's hopes and expectations of attachment theory, identifies a number of myths about attachment theory that may influence divorce decision making, and challenges why we ask the questions we do. His views encourage hardened supporters and detractors of attachment theory alike to identify a middle ground where the essence of attachment knowledge might best inform family law practices in divorce and separation matters.
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Every day in family law courts and mediation rooms across the world, complex decisions are made about postseparation parenting that affect the developmental outcomes of countless children. Attorneys, judges, parents, and even mental health professionals are often poorly equipped to accurately apply developmental knowledge to these decisions, including knowledge from the vast field of attachment theory. A mounting body of research from developmental psychology and neuroscience confirms attachment relationships to be a central axis of the child's developmental pathway, in every family, in every culture throughout the world. The health of a child's attachments can influence multiple and far-reaching outcomes. As such, attachment theory and knowledge deserve a place in the family court's deliberations and planning for children, but to date, that place remains ill defined. Inconsistencies and misunderstandings, conundrums and complexities of applying attachment knowledge to divorce and separation matters are evident throughout the field. This Special Issue went in search of a shared praxis of meaning about attachment. The resulting collection of papers and interviews documents the views of multiple, eminent attachment experts, who discuss advances in the theory and consider guidelines for legal and mental health practitioners in applying attachment concepts to post-separation decision making. This opening paper charts the course of this project and summarizes the major points of convergence.
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Attachment with parents is central to a child's development. It is well established that the quality of this attachment in early childhood is a strong predictor of developmental and psychological functioning throughout the life span. One of the primary issues in custody evaluations is assessing the quality of the child's attachment to each parent and the parents' capacity to foster security and to consider what this might mean for short- and medium-term decisions about their care. The nature of attachment measures is summarized, and the combined use of three attachment-caregiving instruments in a custody evaluation is illustrated through the case of a toddler whose parents were engaged in a high-conflict divorce. The case study demonstrates how, in addition to standard clinical observations, including a set of attachment-based instruments with a standardized psychological test battery provided information critical to a recommendation for custody and parent visitation.
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In this far-reaching interview, Allan Schore, renowned scientist, clinical psychologist, and clinical neuropsychologist, considers the place of neuroscience in facilitating developmental knowledge and better decision making in family law matters. He details current science on the neurology of attachment formation, the function of early caregiving relationships, gender, neuroscience perspectives on conflict and family violence, and implications for parenting arrangements. At the meta level, Schore describes the responsibilities of the family law system in promoting the development of the child. On the faculty of the Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, UCLA, Schore is on the editorial staff of 35 journals in various academic and clinical fields. His integration of neuroscience with attachment theory is documented in three seminal volumes, Affect Regulation and the Origin of the Self, Affect Dysregulation and Disorders of the Self, and Affect Regulation and the Repair of the Self, as well as numerous articles and chapters. He has justifiably earned the nickname of “America's Bowlby.”
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Confirmatory bias is the tendency to emphasize and believe experiences which support one's views and to ignore or discredit those which do not. The effects of this tendency have been repeatedly documented in clinical research. However, its ramifications for the behavior of scientists have yet to be adequately explored. For example, although publication is a critical element in determining the contribution and impact of scientific findings, little research attention has been devoted to the variables operative in journal review policies. In the present study, 75 journal reviewers were asked to referee manuscripts which described identical experimental procedures but which reported positive, negative, mixed, or no results. In addition to showing poor interrater agreement, reviewers were strongly biased against manuscripts which reported results contrary to their theoretical perspective. The implications of these findings for epistemology and the peer review system are briefly addressed.
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Although several studies have now examined the relations between mother-child and sibling interaction, the role of fathers in the development of sibling relationships is noticeably absent. The present study included assessments of both mother-child and father-child interaction in order to examine the correlates of sibling conflict and cooperation. Home observations of parent-child and sibling interaction and reports of differential parental treatment were obtained for 30 families with 2 preschool children when the firstborns were approximately 6 years old. Earlier assessments of infant-mother and infant-father attachments when firstborns were 12 and 13 months old, respectively, were also available, as were prior laboratory assessments of mothering and fathering when the oldest child was 3 years of age. Results suggested that sibling conflict and aggression were related to high levels of conflict between the mother and the 2 children at 6 years, intrusive and overcontrolling mothering at 3 years, and an insecure infant-mother attachment. Facilitative and affectionate fathering, on the other hand, was associated with prosocial sibling interaction. Early relationship experiences between parents and their firstborn children had an enduring effect on the quality of sibling relationships and interacted with differential parental treatment in predicting sibling relationship outcomes.
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