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Antiobesity activity of Moringa oleifera leaves against high fat diet-induced obesity in rats

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www.ijbcp.com International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology | July-August 2016 | Vol 5 | Issue 4 Page 1263
IJBCP International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology
Print ISSN: 2319-2003 | Online ISSN: 2279-0780
Research Article
Antiobesity activity of Moringa oleifera leaves against high fat
diet-induced obesity in rats
Shamsun Nahar1*, Ferdous Mahmud Faisal2, Jalaluddin Iqbal3,
Md. Mizanur Rahman4, Md. Abdullah Yusuf5
INTRODUCTION
Nowadays Obesity has emerged as a major health
problem and risk factor for various disorders worldwide.1
According to the World Health Organization (WHO)
criteria, obesity is defined by a body mass index (BMI) of
30 kg/m2 or greater. A BMI above the healthy range of
18-25 kg/m2 is common in Western cultures and has been
linked to both consumption of a Western diet (i.e. high
ABSTRACT
Background:
Obesity is a condition in which excess body fat is accumulated to
an extent that health may be negatively affected. The current study was
constructed to evaluate the efficacy of Moringa oleifera leaf powder in
management of obesity induced by high cholesterol diet in rats.
Methods:
It was an animal (experimental) study and was carried out in the
department of pharmacology and therapeutics at Sir Salimullah Medical
College, Dhaka in collaboration with Bangladesh Council of Scientific and
Industrial Research (BCSIR), Dhaka from January 2009 to December 2009 for a
period of one year. 24 Adult male long Evans rats were taken as experimental
animal and were grouped as group A and group B. Group A consists of 6 rats
(lean control) treated with normal diet without any drugs for 49 days. Group B
were treated with high fat diet for 14 days then divided into three groups B1, B2
and B3. Group B1 (obese control) received high fat diet without any drugs for
49 days. Group B2 rats were treated with Moringa Oleifera leaf powder in
single dosage of 50 mg/day/ rat orally for 35 days with high fat diet. Group B3
rats were treated with Moringa Oleifera leaf powder in b.d dosage of 50
mg/day/rat orally for 35 days with high fat diet. These animals were assigned as
Moringa Oleifera treatment group.
Results:
The results revealed chronic administration of high fat diet in rats led
to an increase in body weight that is in group B1 significant increase in thoracic
(TC) and abdominal (AC) circumferences as well as body mass index (BMI) in
obese group. On the other side, in group B2 treatment with Moringa oleifera
leaf powder in single dose reduce food intake and BMI in obese groups. Group
B3 treatment with Moringa oleifera leaf powder in b.d. dose resulted in
significant decrease in BMI compared to obese control group.
Conclusions:
The data of the current study provides experimental evidence for
the anti-obesity effect of Moringa oleifera ethanol extract. Thus, present
findings reinforce the advice recommending consumption of Moringa oleifera
to modulate obesity.
Keywords: Moringa oleifera, Obesity, Rats, HFD
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2319-2003.ijbcp20162427
1Department of Pharmacology
and Therapeutics, Monno
Medical College, Manikgonj,
Bangladesh
2Department of Urology,
National Institute of Kidney
Diseases and Urology Hospital,
Dhaka, Bangladesh
3Department of Pharmacology
and Therapeutics, Sir Salimullah
Medical College, Dhaka,
Bangladesh
4Principal, Monno Medical
College, Manikgonj, Bangladesh
5Department of Microbiology,
National Institute of
Neurosciences and Hospital,
Dhaka, Bangladesh
Received: 26 May 2016
Accepted: 01 July 2016
*Correspondence to:
Dr. Shamsun Nahar,
Email: shamsunpharma1stdec
@yahoo.com
Copyright: © the author(s),
publisher and licensee Medip
Academy. This is an open-
access article distributed under
the terms of the Creative
Commons Attribution Non-
Commercial License, which
permits unrestricted non-
commercial use, distribution,
and reproduction in any
medium, provided the original
work is properly cited.
Nahar S et al. Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol. 2016 Aug;5(4):1263-1268
International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology | July-August 2016 | Vol 5 | Issue 4 Page 1264
saturated fat, high calorie content), and sedentary
lifestyles.2 Individual is considered obese when the
amount of fat tissue is increased to such an extent that
physical and mental health are affected and life
expectancy reduced.3
Overweight and obesity are also defined as abnormal or
excessive fat accumulation triggered by disproportion in
energy intake and expenditure.4-6 In addition to this
attenuation in adipogenesis and over expression of
pancreatic lipase enzyme which plays a pivotal role in
progression of obesity.7 The literature review revealed
that alteration in dietary habit and less physical exercises,
too, increase the frequency of obesity and related
disorders.8-9 Further, obesity has been found to be
associated with various disorders such as osteoarthritis.10
ischemic heart diseases (IHD) atherosclerosis, diabetes,
and hypertension.11-13 A streak of evidence indicates that
serotonin, histamine, dopamine, and their associated
receptor activities are closely associated with obesity
regulation.7 Most importantly, strong evidences are
available that elicited the role of leptin, ghrelin, and
neuropeptides in obesity.14-16
Currently, no pharmacological treatment provides
sustained weight loss with minimal adverse effects.17,18
Thus, attempts have been made to reduce body weight
with such pharmacological intervention that possesses
minimal side effects. A variety of natural products,
including crude extracts and isolated compounds from
plants, can induce body weight reduction and prevent diet
-induced obesity.19-20 Literature review has revealed that
various herbal plants such as fucus vesiculosus, citrus
aurantium, yacon syrup, curcumin, nigella sativa,
camellia synensis, green tea, and black chinese tea are
used in the management of obesity.21-24 M. O. (M.
oleifera) lam that belongs to moringaceae family is
commonly known as drumstick tree that possesses
various nutritional and medicinal values attributed to its
roots, bark, leaves, flowers, fruits, and seeds.25,27 Data
revealed that most of the parts of the plant possess
antimicrobial activity, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective and
for cardiac stimulation.28-34 Recently,
hypocholesterolemic activity of M. oleifera was explored,
but its antiobesity activity has not been investigated;
hence, the study delineated with antiobesity property of
M. oleifera leaves powder in experimentally induced
obesity.35 The current study was constructed to evaluate
the therapeutic potential and the possible mode of action
of Moringa oleifera leaf in the treatment of obesity in
adult male albino rats. This goal could be achieved
through using anthropometric measurements and testing
the hypothesis that the anthropometric index may predict
obesity adverse effects on lipid profile and the
effectiveness of the herbal therapy in the treatment of
obesity in rats.
METHODS
The study was carried out in the department of
pharmacology and therapeutics of Sir Salimullah Medical
College in collaboration with Bangladesh Council Of
Scientific and Industrial Research (BCSIR) Dhaka during
the period of January 2009 to December 2009. 24 adult
male long Evans rat, (150-180gm) were taken for this
experiment and divided into 4 groups .They were kept in
cages in room maintained at 26-290c with a 12 hours
light-dark cycle and were allowed free access to food and
water ad libitum. 24 Adult male long Evans rats were
grouped as group A and group B. Group A consists of 6
rats (lean control) treated with normal diet without any
drugs for 49 days. Group B were treated with high fat diet
for 14 days then divided into three groups B1, B2 and B3.
Group B1 (obese control) received high fat diet without
any drugs for 49 days. Group B2 rats were treated with
Moringa Oleifera leaf powder in single dosage of 50
mg/day/ rat orally for 35 days with high fat diet. Group
B3 rats were treated with Moringa Oleifera leaf powder
in b.d. dosage of 50 mg/day/rat orally for 35 days with
high fat diet. These animals were assigned as Moringa
Oleifera treatment group.
Collection and preparation of plant
Moringa oleifera leaves were obtained in large quantities
from BCSIR campus, Dhaka. Then the leaves were
shade-dried by spreading over a sheet of paper under a
ceiling fan for five days. The dried leaves were ground in
an electric mixer into fine powder and stored in clean
sterile glass container. 50 mg of M. oleifera leaf
powder/rat/day was administered with normal diet and
high fat diet according to experimental design.
Diet formula
HFD that consists of 58% fat, 25% protein and 17%
carbohydrate, lard (13%), cholesterol (1%), vitamin, and
minerals (0.6%) as a percentage of total kcal ad libitum,
respectively, was administered every HFD that consists
of 58% fat, 25% protein and 17% carbohydrate, lard
(13%), cholesterol (1%), vitamin, and minerals (0.6%) as
a percentage of total kcal ad libitum, respectively, was
administered every day 36. The composition of normal
diet consists of 58% fat, 25% protein and 17%
carbohydrate, lard (13%), cholesterol (0%), vitamin, and
minerals (0.6%). Cholesterol was purchased from Sigma
Chemical Co., USA.
Body weight and food intake
The body weight (gm) was recorded on day one and then
weekly consecutively for 49 days using a digital
weighing balance. In addition to this, the daily food
intake for each group was measured weekly for 49 days.
Anthropometrical measurements
At the end of the experimental period, rats were fasted
overnight (12-14 hours) and the abdominal circumference
(AC) (immediately anterior to the forefoot), thoracic
circumference (TC) (immediately behind the foreleg),
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International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology | July-August 2016 | Vol 5 | Issue 4 Page 1265
body length (nose-to-anus or nose-anus length) were
measured in anaesthized rats. The body weight and body
length were used to determine the body mass index.37
BMI = 

Statistical analysis
In the present study, all results were expressed as
mean±S.E. of the mean. Statistical package for the Social
Sciences (SPSS) program, version 14.0 was used to
compare significance between each two groups.
Difference was considered significant when P ˂0.05.
Percentage difference representing the percent of
variation with respect to corresponding control group was
also calculated
% Difference = 

RESULTS
The results of the current study revealed that there is
significant increase in the thoracic circumference (TC),
abdominal circumferences (AC) (P <0.05) in obese group
with respect to the lean control group. On the other hand,
there is significant decrease in TC, AC (P <0.05) of obese
groups treated with Moringa oleifera leaf powder versus
the obese control group (Table 1).
Table1: Effect of treatment with Moringa oleifera leaf powder on the anthropometric measurements of obese male
rats. Data were represented as mean±S.E of 6 rats/group.
Group
TC (cm)
Body length (cm)
Body weight (gram)
Lean control group A (6)
11.50±0.27
23.5±.67
152.50±1.70
Obese control group B1 (6)
15.00±0.27
A (30.43%)
23.5±.64
180.83±3.02
Obese+m.o single dose group B2 (6)
12.62±0.26
B1 (-15.87%)
23.5±.65
169.16±2.02
Obese+m.o b.d. dose group B3 (6)
12.12±0.23
B1 (-19.20%)
23.5±.63
169.66±1.04
The results of the current study revealed that there is
significant increase in BMI (P <0.05) in obese group with
respect to the lean control group. On the other hand, there
is significant decrease in BMI (P <0.05) of obese groups
treated with Moringa oleifera leaf powder versus the
obese control group (Table 2).
Table 2: Effect of treatment with Moringa oleifera leaf
powder on BMI of obese male rats.
Group
BMI
Lean control group A (6)
0.275±.01
A α B1
21.09%
Obese control group B1 (6)
0.333±.01
Obese+m.o single dose group
B2 (6)
0.31±.01
B1 α B2
6.90%
Obese+m.o b.d. dose group
B3 (6)
0.305±.01
B1 α B3
8.40%
DISCUSSION
A growing body of evidence indicates that natural
products having anti-obesity effects can be arranged into
five categories based on their distinct mechanisms; they
produce
Decreased lipid absorption
Decreased energy intake
Increased energy expenditure
Decreased pre-adipocyte differentiation and
proliferation, or
Decreased lipogenesis and increased lipolysis.38
The present study aimed at exploring the potential role of
Moringa oleifera in ameliorating the anthropometric
measurements, in obese rats. In view of our data, both TC
and AC showed significant increase in obese group. As
well, BMI revealed significant increase in obese group
relative to the lean control group. These findings come in
line with the previously reported data that there is fat
accumulation in the thoracic and abdominal regions due
to the high cholesterol diet.37 This indicates that the
observed increase in body weight may be due to excessive
energy intake and the adipose tissue accumulation. BMI
has been stated to be a simple reliable estimate of body fat
and obesity in rats.37 There are positive correlations
between daily lipid intake and BMI as well as fat
deposition.39
The observed reduction in these anthropometric measures
in obese rats as a result of treatment with Moringa
oleifera may be due to the inhibition of dietary lipid
utilization. Earlier report by Dongmeza and co-workers
indicated that a higher inclusion level of moringa extract
or its fractions such as saponins and tannins have been
associated with the reduced energy required for protein
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International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology | July-August 2016 | Vol 5 | Issue 4 Page 1266
and lipid biosynthesis leading to lower growth
performance and nutrient utilization. Therefore, moringa
has the ability to reduce body lipid and consequently
energy retention.40
Moringa oleifera extract has beneficial effect on lipid
profile through cholesterol reducing effect. Hassarajani et
al have investigated its mechanism of action.41
Cholesterol homeostasis is maintained by the two
processes, cholesterol biosynthesis in which HMG-Co-A
reductase catalyzes rate limiting process and cholesterol
absorption of both dietary cholesterol and cholesterol
cleared from the liver through biliary secretion. The
HMG-Co-A/mevalonate ratio has an inverse relationship
to the activity HMG-Co-A reductase. The result of Jain et
al indicated that the activity of this enzyme is
significantly depressed by the ethanolic extract of
Moringa oleifera.42 Thus, the cholesterol reducing action
of the ethanol extract of Moringa oleifera indicated its
hypolipidemic activity.
Figure 1: BMI of rats fed a high fat diet and treated
with Moringa oleifera leaf powder.
Moringa oleifera leaf is a good source of phytochemicals
including flavonoids, phenolics, carotenoids and β-
sitosterol.43 Saluja et al could isolate β-sitosterol from the
stem of a hybrid variety of Moringa oleifera.44 β-
sitosterol is a plant sterol with a structure similar to that of
cholesterol, except for the substitution of an ethyl group at
C24 of its side chain. It is believed that this compound has
the ability to lower cholesterol by lowering plasma
concentrations of LDL-C.45 Therefore β-sitosterol in the
leaves of Moringa oleifera is a bioactive
phytoconstituents that accounts for the hypolipidemic
influence of Moringa oleifera extract. Moreover, Moringa
leaves act as a good source of natural antioxidant due to
the presence of various types of antioxidant compounds
such as ascorbic acid, flavonoids, phenolics and
carotenoids.43 Therefore, Moringa oleifera could prevent
the oxidization of LDL-C with consequent increase in
HDL-C level.46
CONCLUSION
In conclusion, the present study provided experimental
evidences for the anti-obesity activity of Moringa
oleifera. This effect was documented by the improvement
of anthropometric measures Thus, from the present study
it can be concluded that M. oleifera leaf powder is
beneficial to the weight management, which supports its
traditional claim. Further, studies are carried out in order
to determine the active principle of this plant, followed by
the identification of the mechanistic approach of M.
oleifera leaf powder that helps in weight management.
Funding: No funding sources
Conflict of interest: None declared
Ethical approval: The study was approved by the
Institutional Ethics Committee
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Cite this article as: Nahar S, Faisal FM, Iqbal J,
Rahman MM, Yusuf MA. Antiobesity activity of
Moringa oleifera leaves against high fat diet-
induced obesity in rats. Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol
2016;5:1263-8.
... Composite flour is a mixture of two or more different types of flour made from legume grains or cereal grains or grounded leafy vegetables or meat products or dairy products [44]. MO leaves/ seeds contain high amounts of minerals and vitamins that help to fortify other cereal flours. ...
... Table 5 shows the influence of MO on the quality of dairy and meat products. The rate of incorporation of MO in dairy products such as yoghurt depend on the inclusion of other plant-based materials such as fruits, vegetables and sugar to improve the acceptance of the yoghurt with regards to sensory attributes such as colour, texture and taste [44]. The reason for including these plant-based materials in yoghurt is to reduce the colour changes and herbal flavour of MO leaves that might result in consumers rejecting the product [51]. ...
... They reduce cravings for food and boost metabolism. They also lower cholesterol [43,44]. ...
Chapter
Tropical neglected diseases (TNDs) are a group of parasitic infections that prevail in tropical and subtropical regions, affecting more than one billion people who live predominantly in developing countries. The poorest and marginalized populations suffer the most because of TNDs. These diseases strongly impact the local economy since billions of dollars are spent each year on public health strategies to treat or prevent these diseases. For this reason, they are often neglected by governments. Different tissues of the tree Moringa oleifera Lam. contain a set of metabolites, including proteins, vitamins, and minerals, with nutritional, pharmacological, and biotechnological potential. Several studies have described the activities of extracts and compounds isolated from the seeds, flowers, leaves, and roots of M. oleifera. Of these, lectins (carbohydrate-binding proteins), protease inhibitors, and the thiocarbamate glycoside niazinin stand out for their potential use in combating vectors and/or etiologic agents of TNDs such as dengue, African human trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, Chagas disease, Buruli ulcer, lymphatic filariasis, and schistosomiasis. Here, we provide a brief review of each of these diseases, and of the metabolites of M. oleifera with a potential to treat or prevent the spread of TNDs.
... It has various nutritional values and medicinal uses of most parts of the plant (Kumar et al., 2010). Moringa oil extract contains antioxidants (vitamin C, flavonoids, and phenolics) (Nahar et al., 2016). It possesses antimicrobial, antidiabetic, cholesterol-lowering, and liver protection properties (Caceres et al., 1992;Ghasi et al., 2000); however, its effect on obesity-induced male infertility has not been investigated. ...
... Specifically, the increased load of ROS was reported not only to induce chemical and structural changes damaging sperm nuclear structure and DNA integrity but also to disrupt seminal fluidity, which causes reduced sperm motility (Nahar et al., 2016;Pearce et al., 2019). ...
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Obesity is a condition of chronic tissue inflammation and oxidative stress that poses as a risk factor for male infertility. Moringa oleifera oil extract is known to have cholesterol-lowering properties and a potential to treat obesity, while lycopene is a potent antioxidant. We hypothesize that Moringa or lycopene may improve male fertility markers in an animal model of diet-induced obesity. Male Albino rats (n=60) were randomized to receive regular chow (RC) or high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks (n=30 each). Animals in each arm were further randomized to receive gavage treatment with corn oil (vehicle), lycopene (10 mg/kg), or Moringa (400 mg/kg) for four weeks starting on week 9 (n=10 each). Animals were sacrificed at 12 weeks, and blood was collected to assess lipid profile, serum testosterone, and gonadotropin levels. The testes and epididymides were removed for sperm analysis, oxidative stress and inflammatory markers, and histopathological assessment. In comparison to their RC littermates, animals on HFD showed an increase in body weights, serum lipids, testosterone and gonadotrophin levels, testicular oxidative stress and inflammatory markers, as well as sperm abnormalities and disrupted testicular histology. Moringa or lycopene reduced body weight, improved oxidative stress, and male fertility markers in HFD-fed animals with lycopene exhibiting better anti-antioxidant and anti-lipidemic effects. Lycopene is superior to Moringa in improving male fertility parameters, possibly by attenuating oxidative stress.
... As reported Wei et al, [2] that banana (Musa nana Lour.) have the effect of anti-obesity and lipid modulating properties. Obesity is defined as abnormal or excess body fat accumulation to the extent that it may have an adverse effect on health [5] . One of the efforts for weight loss is to reduce the absorption of energetic nutrients by inhibiting pancreatic lipase. ...
Conference Paper
In addition to its delicious taste, high nutrition and relatively affordable price, banana is a potential fruit commodity to support food security. Banana contains various bioactive compounds, such as saponins, glycosides, tannins, pectin, soluble fiber, alkaloids, antioxidants, phenolics and flavonoids. Instead of direct consumption, banana can also be converted into various produ cts. One of them is fermented banana as a new and unique banana kombucha drink. This study aims to determine the lipase inhibitory activity produced by Raja Sereh banana kombucha (Musa sapientum) enriched with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) such as: Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus plantarum and Bifidobacterium bifidum at different fermentation times at 0-48 h. The results showed that the highest lipase inhibitory activity was in fermented banana kombucha with the addition of L. plantarum, which was fermented for 48 h by 84.76%, with antioxidant activity of 90.83%, total LAB of 10.58 cfu/mL, pH 4.28, and total polyphenols of 0.43 mg GAE/mL. From these results, it showed that the banana kombucha drink with the addition of LAB and the difference in fermentation time could affect the results of pancreatic lipase activity, antioxidants and other characteristics such as total polyphenols, total LAB, pH and total acid.
... Afterwards, the absorbance of the mixture was measured at 420 nm. Te standard used was rutin (0.02-0.1 mg/mL) [28]. A favonoid in the extract was observed by the presence of pink colouration. ...
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Methods: Phytochemical screening, antioxidant activity, α-amylase, and α-lipase inhibitory assessment were carried out on Moringa oleifera extract. Results: The result of the phytochemical screening revealed the presence of total phenolic, flavonoid, tannin, and alkaloid contents of values 0.070 ± 0.005 mg gallic acid equivalent/g, 0.180 ± 0.020 mg rutin equivalent/g, 0.042 ± 0.001 mg tannic equivalent/g, and 12.17 ± 0.001%, respectively, while the total protein analysis was 0.475 ± 0.001 mg bovine serum albumin equivalent/g. Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) values were 0.534 ± 0.001 mg gallic acid equivalent/g and 0.022 ± 0.00008 mg rutin equivalent/g, respectively. Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis (ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)), and nitric oxide (NO) assays showed the extract to have a strong free radical scavenging activity. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of the lipase and amylase activities of the extract are 1.0877 mg/mL and 0.1802 mg/mL, respectively. Conclusion: However, α-lipase and α-amylase inhibiting activity of M. oleifera could be related to the phytochemicals in the extract. This research validates the ethnobotanical use of M. oleifera leaves as an effective plant-based therapeutic agent for diabetes and obesity.
... The same article also stated that following treatment of 90 days, methanolic leaf extract of MO at dosage of 500 mg/kg significantly decreased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) as well as body weight of rats. Treatment with raw leaf powder of MO at dosage of 50 mg for 35 days elicited a significant reduction in total cholesterol (TC), abdominal circumference (AC), body mass index (BMI), and body weight of rats (Nahar et al. 2016). Methanolic extract of MO at dosages of 150, 300, and 600 mg/kg for 30 days significantly reduced the atherogenic index in rats (Jain et al. 2010). ...
Article
Obesity and hyperlipidaemia are metabolic dysregulations, arising from poor lifestyle and excessive dietary intakes which may contribute to many chronic diseases if not treated. Studies have shown that plant-based supplementations can suppress this metabolic dysregulation. Moringa oleifera (MO) is a plant that is known to be nutritious and can alleviate obesity and hyperlipidaemia owing to its medicinal properties. A literature search on the effects of MO on obesity and hyperlipidaemia using electronic databases which included Ovid Medline and Scopus was performed. Specific descriptors were used to perform the search strategy. The articles were selected based on the principles that report on the effects of MO on obesity and hyperlipidaemia. Titles of the articles were screened for Moringa oleifera OR obesity OR hyperlipidaemia. Twenty-nine articles, 19 from Ovid Medline and 10 from Scopus were selected based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. A flow chart was created to represent the study selection. Based on the chosen articles, MO was shown to suppress obesity and hyperlipidaemia directly and indirectly through the regulation of gene expression, enzyme activity and adipocytokines. Through animal trials, MO demonstrated promising results in alleviating obesity and hyperlipidaemia. More human trials should be performed to strengthen the accomplished effects seen on animals. As there were no side effects identified in animal studies, it could be recommended to patients with obesity and hyperlipidaemia.
... In lower chronotropic and inotropic effects in damaged frog hearts, leaf extract had an antihypertensive effect on diseased hypertensive rodents [146,147]. Nazanin B, niazinin A, and miasmic are active ingredients for hypotensive activity [148]. In Male Wistar rats model, Isoproterenolinduced myocardial infarction was also inhibited by a leaf extract. ...
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Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) is one of the most essential medicinal plants primarily found in the rainforest area and forest ecosystem, but is now well-adapted in an organized cultivation system. Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) is well-known as Drumstick tree, Moringa kai, color, Marengo, Moringe, mulangay, Sahjan, and Sajna, which are its native names commonly used. It has nourishing, beneficial, and preventive effects when taken as food and has an extensive scope of high restorative properties with huge dietary benefits. Different parts of the M. oleifera plants, such as leaves, flowers, fruits, seeds, and roots, contain a significant amount of protein, ß-carotene, amino acids, important minerals, and various phenolic compounds. Because of its multifarious health benefits for its therapeutic value, it is considered an essential plant. The plant is found to be blessed with several medicinal characteristics such as antitumor, anti-inflammatory, antiulcer, antipyretic, antiepileptic, antispasmodic, diuretic, antihypertensive, antidiabetic, cholesterol-level down, cell reinforcement, and hepatoprotective. Moreover, it is used traditionally in the local curative system against cardiac problems, and the antifungal properties are efficiently utilized for the treatment of a wide range of ailments. The present review article was designed to explore the nutritional and economic benefits, medicinal and therapeutic applications, and the future biomedical prospects of Moringa with a view towards human wellbeing.
... The bioactive compounds found in Moringa oleifera leaves, which are the parts of the plant more frequently utilized, include tannins, saponins, flavonoids, terpenoids and glycosides. Many of these molecules have been shown to be beneficial as antioxidants, antimicrobial, anti-carcinogenic agents [1,2], as well as to be effective in treating several chronic pre-pathological conditions such as hypercholesterolemia, insulin resistance and inflammation, of which the onset is based on the increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) [3][4][5][6]. ...
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Moringa oleifera is a multi-purpose herbal plant with numerous health benefits. In skeletal muscle cells, Moringa oleifera leaf extract (MOLE) acts by increasing the oxidative metabolism through the SIRT1-PPARα pathway. SIRT1, besides being a critical energy sensor, is involved in the activation related to redox homeostasis of transcription factors such as the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2). The aim of the present study was to evaluate in vitro the capacity of MOLE to influence the redox status in C2C12 myotubes through the modulation of the total antioxidant capacity (TAC), glutathione levels, Nrf2 and its target gene heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression, as well as enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and transferase (GST). Moreover, the impact of MOLE supplementation on lipid peroxidation and oxidative damage (i.e., TBARS and protein carbonyls) was evaluated. Our results highlight for the first time that MOLE increased not only Nrf2 and HO-1 protein levels in a dose-dependent manner, but also improved glutathione redox homeostasis and the enzyme activities of CAT, SOD, GPx and GST. Therefore, it is intriguing to speculate that MOLE supplementation could represent a valuable nutrition for the health of skeletal muscles.
... In the studies discussed earlier, MO extracts were capable of reducing the body weight and BMI of obese animals. Intake of powdered MO dried leaves has shown significant influence on anthropometric parameters on adult male long Evans rats fed with HFD (Nahar, Faisal, Iqbal, Rahman, & Yusuf, 2016). The oral intake of 50 mg of MO dried leaves per day for 35 days reduced the body weight, BMI, thoracic circumference (THC), and abdominal circumference (ABC) of HFD-induced obese rats. ...
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Moringa oleifera (MO) has started to focus the attention of many researchers, especially in the last decade, due to its rich nutrient content and bioactive compounds that have numerous pharmaceutical potentials. In this systematic review, 36 research articles were included that explored the anti-obesity potential of MO through in-vitro and in-vivo studies. The research articles included 9 in-vitro studies, 27 in-vivo studies, and 3 clinical studies. The studies mainly focused on the extract of MO prepared using MO leaves and few studies particularly focused on MO isothiocyanates. The in-vitro studies were mainly based on 3T3-L1 cells, while the in-vivo studies involved a good range of male and female mice and rats. Only two research involved human studies. The major anti-obesity mechanisms of MO were through improving the lipid profile (levels of total cholesterol, tri-glycerides, low-density lipoprotein, very low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) and body weight, regulating significant genes associated with adipogenesis, glucose uptake, insulin resistance, and hormones (such as leptin, vaspin, resistin, and insulin). The clinical trials studying the anti-obesity potential of MO on humans is limited and related to the impact of MO on body mass index, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and postprandial blood glucose only.
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The imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and antioxidant defense systems leads to macromolecule and tissue damage as a result of cellular oxidative stress. This phenomenon is considered a key factor in fatigue and muscle damage following chronic or high-intensity physical exercise. In the present study, the antioxidant effect of Moringa oleifera leaf extract (MOLE) was evaluated in C2C12 myotubes exposed to an elevated hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) insult. The capacity of the extract to influence the myotube redox status was evaluated through an analysis of the total antioxidant capacity (TAC), glutathione homeostasis (GSH and GSSG), total free thiols (TFT), and thioredoxin (Trx) activity, as well as the enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and transferase (GST). Moreover, the ability of MOLE to mitigate the stress-induced peroxidation of lipids and oxidative damage (TBARS and protein carbonyls) was also evaluated. Our data demonstrate that MOLE pre-treatment mitigates the highly stressful effects of H2O2 in myotubes (1 mM) by restoring the redox status (TFT, Trx, and GSH/GSSG ratio) and increasing the antioxidant enzymatic system (CAT, SOD, GPx, GST), thereby significantly reducing the TBARs and PrCAR levels. Our study provides evidence that MOLE supplementation has antioxidant potential, allowing myotubes better able to cope with an oxidative insult and, therefore, could represent a useful nutritional strategy for the preservation of muscle well-being.
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There are no medical drugs that provide an acceptable weight loss with minimal adverse effects. This study evaluated the Moringa peregrina (MP) seed extract's anti‐obesity effect. Twenty‐four (6/each group) male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into group Ι (control), group ΙΙ (high‐fat diet [HFD]), group ΙΙΙ (HFD+ MP [250 mg/kg b.wt]), and group ΙV (HFD+ MP [500 mg/kg b.wt]). MP administration significantly ameliorated body weight gains and HFD induced elevation in cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, and reduced HDL. Moreover, MP seed oil showed high free radical‐scavenging activity, delayed β‐carotene bleaching and inhibited lipoprotein and pancreatic lipase enzymes. High‐performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) revealed three major active components: crypto‐chlorogenic acid, isoquercetin, and astragalin. Both quantitative Real‐time PCR (RT‐PCR) and western blotting revealed that MP seeds oil significantly decreased the expression of lipogenesis‐associated genes such as peroxisome proliferator‐activated receptors gamma (PPARγ) and fatty acid synthase (FAS) and significantly elevated the expression of lipolysis‐associated genes (acetyl‐CoA carboxylase1, ACCl). The oil also enhanced phosphorylation of AMP‐activated protein kinase alpha (AMPK‐α) and suppressed CCAAT/enhancer‐binding protein β (C/EBPβ). In conclusion, administration of M. peregrina seeds oil has anti‐obesity potential in HFD‐induced obesity in rats. Practical applications M. peregrina seeds oil had a potential anti‐obesity activity that may be attributed to different mechanisms. These included decreasing body weight, and body mass index and improving lipid levels by decreasing total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL‐C, and increasing HDL‐C. Also, M. peregrina seeds oil regulated adipogenesis‐associated genes, such as downregulating the expression of (PPARγ, C/EBPα, and FAS) and improving and upregulating the expression and phosphorylation of AMPKα and ACCl. Despite that M. peregrina extract has reported clear anti‐obesity potential through animal and laboratory studies, the available evidence‐based on human clinical trials are very limited. Therefore, further studies are needed that could focus on clinical trials investigating anti‐obesity potential different mechanisms of M. peregrina extract in humans.
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Obesity is not limited to developed countries and is spreading globally. Although some studies have been successful in achieving initial weight loss but most obese patients eventually regain their weight. Therefore, an effective means to sustain weight loss is still a major challenge. Ayurvedic classics give sufficient focus on obesity (sthaulya or medoroga) and advise diet to control the disease. To address the challenge, certain plants, Apamarga (Achyranthes aspera Linn.), Agnimantha [Clerodendrum multiflorum (Burm. F.) O. Ktze.], Vrikshamla [Garcinia gummigutta (L.) Robs.] and Mustak (Cyperus rotundus Linn.) reported with antiobesity properties and compound plant powder, obeloss (Apamarga agnimanthadi churna=kalpita) were clinically tested on 60 patients. Results of the study are encouraging in the management of obesity.
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The leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, are used by the Indians in their herbal medicine as a hypolipidemic agent in obese patients. Albino Wistar rats were fed with methanolic extract of M. oleifera (150, 300 and 600 mg/kg, p.o.) and simvastatin (4 mg/kg, p.o.) along with hyperlipidemic diet for 30 days. Moringa oleifera and simvastatin were found to lower the serum cholesterol, triacylglyceride, VLDL, LDL, and atherogenic index, but were found to increase the HDL as compared to the corresponding high fed cholesterol diet group (control). The Moringa oleifera methanolic extract was also investigated for its mechanism of action by estimating HMG CO-A reductase activity. Moringa oleifera was found to increase the excretion of fecal cholesterol. Thus, the study demonstrates that M. oleifera possesses a hypolipidemic effect.
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Obesity, a complex interplay between environmental and genetic factors and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Usage of herbs for the management of obesity in the recent times is attracting attention. A web and manual based literature survey was conducted to assess the amount of information available on the herbal products for weight management. Traditional literature, PubMed, Scopus, Google scholar databases were screened up to February 2012. The search words were “obesity", "herbal medicine/products/extracts”, "medicinal plants", "traditional medicine", "Ayurvedic medicine" without narrowing/limiting searching words or elements. Publications only with abstracts/full articles and books were reviewed in the search. Based on the available literature, for many of the herbal and weight loss products, there is little published information and there have been no clinical trials or the level of evidence is limited. Our literature survey also indicated that these herbal products fall under an acceptable level of evidence or with no scientific background at all, or they have a scientific rational but not to an acceptance level. Attempts were made in the review to define the features of possible herbal weight loss product. An ideal herbal anti obesity product should reduce the weight by 10% over placebo of treatment by showing an evidence of improvement of bio markers like blood pressure, lipids and glycemia without any side effects.
Article
Aqueous and alcoholic extracts of root and flower of M. olifera were screened for antihepatotoxic activity in paracetamol treated albino rats. Liver function was assessed based on liver to body weight ratio, serum levels of transaminase (SGPT, SGOT), alkaline phosphatase (SALP) and bilirubin. All extracts were found to have antihepatotoxic activity.
Article
The influence of dietary intake in body composition had not been fully established among elderly people. Previous studies had revealed a controversial association between energy, protein, carbohydrate and lipid consumption with body mass index and body composition. The present study intended to evaluate a possible relationship between antropometric data, body composition and dietary intake in elderly people from a daily care institution. Thirty four individuals sixty five or more years old participated in this cross sectional research. Anthropometric measurements such as weight, height, waist and muscular circumference were obtained and body fat mass was calculated by Brozek formula. Food consumption assessment was conducted through a daily weighting method. Daily lipid intake was significantly associated with weight, muscular and waist circumference as well as body mass index (p<0.05). However there was not found any association between body fat mass and daily lipid intake (p>0.05) which possible suggest that lipid consumption do not affect body fat mass gain neither body fat mass had seem to be associated with daily food intake (p>0.05).
Article
As the obesity epidemic increases, primary care clinicians are encountering obesity and health problems associated with obesity more frequently than ever before. In 2007, 41% of women were classified as obese, with a body mass index (BMI) of 30 or higher. Non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics are more likely to be obese than white, non-Hispanics. A wide spectrum of health problems has been associated with obesity, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, osteoarthritis, and polycystic ovary syndrome. Obesity has been shown to be a low-grade inflammatory state, which may be responsible for many of the comorbidities. The general consensus recommends screening for obesity and counseling to promote weight loss. In some cases, pharmacotherapy and or bariatric surgery may be recommended.
Article
A 10-week feeding trial was conducted in a recirculation system at (27 ± 0.5 °C) to determine the effect of a methanol extract of moringa leaf meal and its different fractions. Nine isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets containing 35% crude protein and 20 MJ kg− 1 gross energy were used. All the experimental diets contained the same amount of fish meal. The inclusion of moringa methanol extract or of moringa extract fractions occurred by replacing the wheat meal. These diets were then denoted as diets 1 (control without any moringa product), 2, 3 (containing respectively 10.6 and 17.7% of moringa leaf meal methanol extract), 4, 5 (containing respectively 9.3 and 15.4% of a tannin-reduced fraction), 6, 7 (containing respectively 2.6 and 4.3% of a saponin-enriched fraction), 8 and 9 (containing respectively 7 and 11.6% of a tannin- and saponin-reduced fraction). Thirty six fish (four fish per treatment), with mean initial body mass of 4.9–5.2 g, were kept individually. They were fed the experimental diets at the rate of 15 g feed per kg metabolic body weight (kg0.8) per day. Up to the 5th experimental week, no difference in growth performance was observed between all the groups. At the end of the experiment, a significant (P < 0.05) reduction of the growth performance of all the fish fed diets containing moringa 80% methanol extract or the extract fractions was generally observed when they were compared to the fish fed with the control diet. The whole body moisture, ash and crude protein of the fish fed diets containing moringa crude extract or extract fractions were not significantly different to those of the control group. Body lipid was significantly reduced for the fish fed the diets 2, 4, 5 and 9 when compared to control. Muscle and plasma cholesterol levels were generally reduced for the fish fed diets containing moringa extract and extract fractions (except for the group 5 which showed higher muscle cholesterol than that of the control). The fish in the groups 2 and 5 had significantly lower hepatosomatic indices when compared to control. On the other hand, the intestinalsomatic indices (ISI) of the groups 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 were generally higher than the control group and the groups 8 and 9 had lower ISI than the control group. The relatively high total phenolics and saponins in diets 2 to 9 may have contributed to the poorer growth performance in these groups.