Chapter

Women in Teaching and Educational Administration in Kenya

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Abstract

Integrating women fully into educational leadership positions remains one of the major challenges facing many countries. Growing literature documents that female educational administrators tend to conduct more unscheduled meetings by others, be more consistent presence in the school, and keep more abreast of instructional programs than men.

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... This model implies that men are more competent than women because men are chosen for administrative positions so often. In the literature, this model is also compared to Schmuck's, (1980) "individual perspective", Shakeshaft's "internal barriers", and Ortiz & Marshall's, (1988) "person-centered explanations". Despite these multiple labels, all seek to explain the persistent and continuing gender segregation in the teaching profession from a psychological orientation. ...
... Because women enter administration later than men, and have generally taught longer than men, female administrators not only have more experience in the classrooms, but they also have more knowledge of curriculum, qualities that are vital for an administrator. Ortiz and Marshall (1988) summarize extensive research documenting female leaders' strengths in management and teaching and their emphasis on instructional leadership. In a study of 142 female educators aspiring to positions of leadership, the authors note "an overriding concern for children's welfare propels the women in this study to become school leaders." ...
... Another explanation involves women's lack of access to informal processes socializing individuals toward administration. Sponsorship is particularly important for aspirants to administrative posts (Ortiz & Marshall, 1988), and women have traditionally had difficulty obtaining sponsorship from men (Ortiz, 1982). This has been compounded by the small number of female role models for women, from which sponsors might be drawn (Carlson & Schmuck, 1981;Tibbets, 1979). ...
... Almost all recent appointees reported becoming known in their districts because of their teaching, and their activities and leadership at the school and district levels. They were noticed by supervisors and their attention-getting (GASing: getting the attention of superiors, cited in Ortiz, 1982;Ortiz & Marshall, 1988;Wolcott, 1973) was active and deliberate: "I personally was hired because I covered every base that I had to to become a principal. And I have to tell you that I did that as a strategy." ...
Article
This study sought to determine if and how the experiences of recently appointed women principals differ from those of earlier appointees in the Lower Mainland of British Columbia. Interviews revealed both differences and similarities. Although recent women principals continue to face sex-role stereotyping from outsiders, they are now accepted and supported by their male peers. They demonstrate greater career initiative than their earlier counterparts and have a wider range of experience in both teaching and administration. Both groups are well-educated, expert teachers. They focus on learning for themselves, developing collegial relationships with teachers and caring relationships with children, who are their priority. They are career-oriented women whether mothers and wives or not. They perceive themselves as women principals whose leadership is characterized by their gender and accentuated by their feminine qualities. They are redefining the world of educational administration to include the woman's voice. /// La recherche menée par les auteurs visait à déterminer si les expériences de directrices d'école nommées récemment diffèrent de celles de directrices nommées antérieurement dans le Lower Mainland de la Colombie-Britannique. Des entrevues ont permis de révéler à la fois des différences et des similitudes. Bien que les directrices en poste depuis plus récemment continuent à faire face à des stéréotypes reliés au sexe et au rôle de la part de personnes extérieures, elles sont maintenant acceptées et appuyées par leurs pairs de sexe masculin. Elles font preuve d'une plus grande initiative vis-à-vis de leur carrière que leurs homologues précédentes et ont une plus vaste expérience de l'enseignement et de l'administration. Les deux groupes sont constitués d'enseignantes chevronnées. Ces dernières mettent l'accent sur l'auto-apprentissage et l'établissement de relations collégiales avec les enseignants et de liens chaleureux avec les enfants, qui sont leur priorité. Il s'agit de femmes pour qui la carrière revêt une grande importance, qu'elles soient ou non mères ou épouses. Elles se perçoivent comme des femmes dont le leadership est caractérisé par leur sexe et accentué par leurs qualités féminines. Elles sont en train de redéfinir le monde de l'administration scolaire afin de donner aux femmes une voix au chapitre.
... which have been well documented in the literature (Marshall, 1993;McGee Banks, 1995;Ortiz & Marshall, 1988;Schmuck 1995Schmuck , 1996Shakeshaft, 1989Shakeshaft, , 1999. However, there is increasing evidence that concerns about work-family conflicts among women administrators in the United States (Clark, Cafarella, & Ingram, 1999;Gardiner, Enomoto, & Grogan, 2000;Grogan, 1999;Hall, 1996;Newton, Giesen, Freeman, Bishop, & Zeitoun, 2003;Smulyan, 2000), and even in Great Britain (Coleman, 2002;Haughton, 2002), may be overshadowed by these frequently cited barriers. ...
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Incl. bibliographical references, index
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Incl. bibl., index, notes on the contributors
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Thesis (Ph. D.)--State University of New York at Buffalo, 2003. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 114-126). Photocopy of typescript.
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