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Integrating women fully into educational leadership positions remains one of the major challenges facing many countries. Growing literature documents that female educational administrators tend to conduct more unscheduled meetings by others, be more consistent presence in the school, and keep more abreast of instructional programs than men.
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... This model implies that men are more competent than women because men are chosen for administrative positions so often. In the literature, this model is also compared to Schmuck's, (1980) "individual perspective", Shakeshaft's "internal barriers", and Ortiz & Marshall's, (1988) "person-centered explanations". Despite these multiple labels, all seek to explain the persistent and continuing gender segregation in the teaching profession from a psychological orientation. ...
... Because women enter administration later than men, and have generally taught longer than men, female administrators not only have more experience in the classrooms, but they also have more knowledge of curriculum, qualities that are vital for an administrator. Ortiz and Marshall (1988) summarize extensive research documenting female leaders' strengths in management and teaching and their emphasis on instructional leadership. In a study of 142 female educators aspiring to positions of leadership, the authors note "an overriding concern for children's welfare propels the women in this study to become school leaders." ...
... Another explanation involves women's lack of access to informal processes socializing individuals toward administration. Sponsorship is particularly important for aspirants to administrative posts (Ortiz & Marshall, 1988), and women have traditionally had difficulty obtaining sponsorship from men (Ortiz, 1982). This has been compounded by the small number of female role models for women, from which sponsors might be drawn (Carlson & Schmuck, 1981;Tibbets, 1979). ...
... Almost all recent appointees reported becoming known in their districts because of their teaching, and their activities and leadership at the school and district levels. They were noticed by supervisors and their attention-getting (GASing: getting the attention of superiors, cited in Ortiz, 1982;Ortiz & Marshall, 1988;Wolcott, 1973) was active and deliberate: "I personally was hired because I covered every base that I had to to become a principal. And I have to tell you that I did that as a strategy." ...
This study sought to determine if and how the experiences of recently appointed women principals differ from those of earlier appointees in the Lower Mainland of British Columbia. Interviews revealed both differences and similarities. Although recent women principals continue to face sex-role stereotyping from outsiders, they are now accepted and supported by their male peers. They demonstrate greater career initiative than their earlier counterparts and have a wider range of experience in both teaching and administration. Both groups are well-educated, expert teachers. They focus on learning for themselves, developing collegial relationships with teachers and caring relationships with children, who are their priority. They are career-oriented women whether mothers and wives or not. They perceive themselves as women principals whose leadership is characterized by their gender and accentuated by their feminine qualities. They are redefining the world of educational administration to include the woman's voice. /// La recherche menée par les auteurs visait à déterminer si les expériences de directrices d'école nommées récemment diffèrent de celles de directrices nommées antérieurement dans le Lower Mainland de la Colombie-Britannique. Des entrevues ont permis de révéler à la fois des différences et des similitudes. Bien que les directrices en poste depuis plus récemment continuent à faire face à des stéréotypes reliés au sexe et au rôle de la part de personnes extérieures, elles sont maintenant acceptées et appuyées par leurs pairs de sexe masculin. Elles font preuve d'une plus grande initiative vis-à-vis de leur carrière que leurs homologues précédentes et ont une plus vaste expérience de l'enseignement et de l'administration. Les deux groupes sont constitués d'enseignantes chevronnées. Ces dernières mettent l'accent sur l'auto-apprentissage et l'établissement de relations collégiales avec les enseignants et de liens chaleureux avec les enfants, qui sont leur priorité. Il s'agit de femmes pour qui la carrière revêt une grande importance, qu'elles soient ou non mères ou épouses. Elles se perçoivent comme des femmes dont le leadership est caractérisé par leur sexe et accentué par leurs qualités féminines. Elles sont en train de redéfinir le monde de l'administration scolaire afin de donner aux femmes une voix au chapitre.
... which have been well documented in the literature (Marshall, 1993;McGee Banks, 1995;Ortiz & Marshall, 1988;Schmuck 1995Schmuck , 1996Shakeshaft, 1989Shakeshaft, , 1999. However, there is increasing evidence that concerns about work-family conflicts among women administrators in the United States (Clark, Cafarella, & Ingram, 1999;Gardiner, Enomoto, & Grogan, 2000;Grogan, 1999;Hall, 1996;Newton, Giesen, Freeman, Bishop, & Zeitoun, 2003;Smulyan, 2000), and even in Great Britain (Coleman, 2002;Haughton, 2002), may be overshadowed by these frequently cited barriers. ...
Background: Concerns about work-family conflicts are becoming an increasing problem for women administrators. Yet these concerns have been overshadowed in the educational leadership scholarship, which has focused on barriers related to discrimination in hiring and promotion and lack of sponsoring and mentoring.
Purpose: To illuminate differences and commonalities in how women administrators from different generations and racial/ethnic identities negotiate work-family conflicts.
Research Methodology: A qualitative life course design was employed in this intergenerational study of 31 Black and White women administrators.
Main Findings: The participants’ efforts to enact the multiple and competing roles of administrator, wife, mother, and caretaker proved to be conflicting across generation and race/ethnicity, especially for women born after the civil rights and women’s movements, who confronted a strikingly different gender context than did their older counterparts. To reconcile these conflicts, the participants employed various life course strategies that were distinguished by their unique generational locations and racial/ethnic identities. For example, women in the “older” generation were compelled to prioritize family above professional pursuits more so than women in the “younger” generation. With respect to race/ethnicity, Black administrators relied on extended women kinship ties for child care and household support whereas White administrators primarily sought spousal support.
Implications for Research and Policy: Further investigation is needed on the work-family conflicts confronting contemporary women and men administrators. From a policy perspective, there is an urgent need for more employer-supported child and elder care, flexible scheduling, and family-leave policies.
The central aim of this thesis is to examine the extent to which the growing pressures for equal opportunity between the sexes has forced Japanese companies to adapt and modify their employment and personnel management practices in recent years. It analyses the major social and economic factors prompting Japanese companies to adopt more open
employment policies towards women since the mid-1970s and the change programmes introduced by management. The thesis especially looks at how companies have reacted to the 1985 Equal Employment Opportunity Law and in the light of this considers how far the present legislation will bring about fundamental changes in the Japanese employment system
towards more egalitarian treatment of women workers.
A detailed case study was conducted at Seibu Department Stores Ltd., both before and after the introduction of the EEO Law, as a critical test of the possibility of introducing equal opportunities for women in a large Japanese company. Seibu was chosen because it is a big employer of women and is a company operating in an industry which has strong economic and- commercial incentives to offer women better career opportunities. All the more important, Seibu is regarded as a 'leading edge' company in personnel management reforms. The study reveals that
despite many economic and social reasons that were in favour of change towards greater sexual equality in Seibu, and especially after the introduction of the EEO Law, change towards more egalitarian treatment of women has been very limited.
This study illustrates the depth of the resistance to change in the core employment practices in large Japanese companies. The present EEO Law has little potential for undermining the structural mechanisms which perpetúate sexual job segregation in the employment system. The
final part of the thesis speculates on the future prospects of introducing equal opportunities for women in Japanese companies. In the light of the present socio-legal constraints, the author puts forward a number of practical policy suggestions for engendering more pervasive
long-term changes towards equal employment for Japanese women.
Introduction - Suzan Lewis Dual-Earner Families in Context PART ONE: INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVES Culture, Policy, and Women in Dual-Earner Families in Israel - Dafna N Izraeli Middle-Class Dual-Earner Families and Their Support Systems in Urban India - Uma Sekaran Dual-Earner Families in Singapore - Edith C Yuen and Vivien Lim Issues and Challenges Sweden's Sex-Role Scheme and Commitment to Gender Equality - Karin Sandqvist Dual-Earner Families in Hungary - Christine Clason Past, Present and Future Perspectives PART TWO: IN THE FAMILY British Households after Maternity Leave - Julia Brannen and Peter Moss Financial Affairs - Rosanna Hertz Money and Authority in Dual-Earner Marriage Dual-Earner Families in the United States and Adolescent Development - Lucia Albino Gilbert and L Suzanne Dancer Dual-Earner Families and the Care of the Elderly in Japan - Jeanette Taudin Chabot PART THREE: WORK AND THE FAMILY: IMPLICATIONS FOR ORGANIZATIONAL POLICY Beyond 1992 - Helen M Hootsmans Dutch and British Corporations and the Challenge of Dual-Career Couples Can Work Requirements Accommodate to the Needs of Dual-Earner Families? - Alice H Cook Towards Balanced Lives and Gender Equality - Suzan Lewis, Dafna N Izraeli and Helen M Hootsmans
The teaching of young children has long been dominated by women. This global phenomenon is firmly rooted in issues relating to economic development, urbanisation, the position of women in society, cultural definitions of masculinity and the value of children and childcare. There have been expressions of concern by the media, by government ministers, and others, in a number of countries about the level of feminisation of the teaching profession. This paper focuses on this important issue. It reviews current research and critically analyses international patterns of gender variations in the teaching profession and considers why they occur. It gives particular consideration to a number of key questions that have arisen in debates on feminisation: Do boys need male teachers in order to achieve better? Do boys need male teachers as role models? Are female teachers less competent than male teachers? Does feminisation result in a reduction in the professional status of teaching?
Abstract In this essay, Morwenna Griffiths considers the effect of feminization on the practices of education. She outlines a feminist theory of practice that draws critically on theories of embodiment, diversity, and structures of power to show that any practice is properly seen as fluid, leaky, and viscous. Examining different and competing understandings of “feminization”— referring either to the numbers of women in teaching or to a culture associated with women — Griffith argues that concerns about increasing number of women teachers are misplaced. She complicates the cultural question, observing that masculine practices have a hegemonic form while feminized practices have developed in resistance to these, and she ultimately argues that hegemonic masculinity, not feminization, is the problem because it drives out diversity. Griffiths concludes that the leaky, viscous practices of teaching would benefit from the increased diversity and decreased social stratification feminization brings to the profession.
In her highly-acclaimed book, The End of Men: And the Rise of Women, Hanna Rosin (2012) declared that the struggle for gender equality had been won. According to Rosen, Americans have entered a new era, where women would routinely claim the advantages that once belonged to men. But as this chapter will show, the outlook is not quite as rosy as Rosin has described. There have been important gains, but significant barriers still dampen US prospects for closing leadership gender gaps.
This article looks at the relationsship between family and professional commitments in teachers of young children. Using classroom observation and interviews, the authors examine the expeiences and perceptions of these teachers. The stude focuses on gender-related differences in the balance between home and work in the lives of these teachers on these theachers and on the developement of commitment. The authors offer some ideas for making teaching more of an experience with greater oppurtunity for part-time work, job sharing, leaves of absence, support and in-service training.
This booklet presents findings of the fifth survey conducted by the American Association of School Administrators (AASA), which tracked the representation of women and racial minorities in school administration. Data were derived from a survey mailed to chief state school officers across the United States. Responses were received from 49 states and Washington, D.C. Findings indicate that women and racial minorities made slight gains in the superintendency since 1990. However, this increase was the least upward movement when compared with other administrative positions. Women and racial minorities also made modest gains in the assistant superintendency. The highest gains were made in the principalship. Overall, the increases in the representation of women were greater than the increases in the representation of racial minorities in school administration. Finally, representation of racial minorities was highest in those geographic regions where the racial groups are predominant in the population. Six charts, 10 tables, and a list of reporting states are included. (LMI)
This book presents letters, a personal narrative, and a diary relating the experiences of nine women teachers who traveled from the East to teach on western frontiers before the Civil War. During 1846-56, the National Popular Education Board recruited 600 experienced teachers from New England and New York State; trained them in Hartford, Connecticut; and sent them to teach in frontier communities from western Pennsylvania to eastern Nebraska Territory, and also in Oregon. Part 1 discusses the economic, religious, and other personal reasons why many single women decided to migrate west, the training they received, and common aspects of their teaching experiences. The second section presents the diary of Arozina Perkins, who traveled from Connecticut to Fort Des Moines, Iowa, in 1850. Her diary, which details her life from November 1848 to June 1851, reveals her agonizing decision to go west, training in Hartford, struggles to succeed as a teacher in Iowa, and disillusionment with life in the West. The third section presents the letters of seven pioneer teachers that also express the problems of single working women in a pioneer society, and describe in detail where they lived and taught, which religious groups they encountered, and how they related to men. The last chapter in this section includes the personal narrative of Mary Gray McLench, one of five women teachers who traveled by ship to the Oregon Territory in 1851, a unique and and perilous journey. Appendices include materials from the National Popular Education Board, profiles of pioneer women teachers, and information on the lives of 224 pioneer women teachers. Contains photographs, illustrations, a bibliography, and an index. (LP)
Based on the premise that women are important to school reform, this book focuses on changes that women educators can bring to schools. Following the introduction, chapter 1 discusses schools and the people in them as mosaic, tapestry, and web. The public character of the school and changing characteristics of school constituents are addressed through the contradiction of constancy and change, showing that most change programs are merely variations on traditional themes. Chapter 2 focuses on women in schools and on "being" and "becoming" in the increasingly diverse educational environment. The significance of women as resources is contrasted with the number of women represented in school administration. Women's socialization, formal and informal barriers, women and leadership, motivation and mission, and priorities and practices are addressed with respect to gender as a cultural phenomenon. The third chapter explores issues in creating empowering cultures in schools, for which women can be instrumental. The issues of power and powerlessness, networks and relationships, and patterns of communication are discussed as they relate to the significance of bringing people into a variety of roles. The final chapter focuses on leadership and learning communities. An examination of effective leadership is presented, with defining qualities exemplified by women educators. The significance of modeling, mentoring, vision, and reflection are discussed as they relate to leadership as teaching and learning. Each chapter includes a set of reflective questions; three figures are included. (Contains 36 references; 10 of them are annotated.) (LMI)
This book describes a model of leadership drawn from the experience of women educational leaders. It examines the qualities that women bring to leadership roles and shows how these can be used to improve the practice and teaching of educational leadership for men and women. Using 11 case studies, the book describes how women conceptualize leadership and practice it in their roles as educational leaders. The double helix is used as a metaphor to identify and explore the essence of leadership grounded in women's experience and to develop the concept of "relational leadership." The new model integrates both traditional and relational leadership practices to create a more comprehensive, responsive repertory of skills for all leaders. Following the foreword and preface, chapter 1 introduces the six ideas that have led to the writing of the book. Chapter 2 describes two metaphors of culture undergirding the assertion that the experience of women as school leaders has value and should be disseminated to all school leaders. Chapters 3 and 4 discuss the feminist attributes of leadership and analyze the practice of school leaders using the framework of the feminist attributes of collaboration, caring, courage, intuition, and vision. The fifth chapter describes the process of constructing knowledge from women's experience and the development of the Northeast Coalition of Educational Leaders (NECEL). Chapter 6 places the concepts into a historical perspective. The seventh chapter looks at some of the possibilities for change initiated by both men and women through the application and practice of relationship leadership in schools. An index and two figures are included. (Contains 70 references.) (LMI)
This paper undertakes a critique of the gendered nature of leadership in modern universities in Kenya. The paper argues that the inclusive nature of African feminism makes it easier for both men and women to join in this discussion since African feminism demands a more holistic perspective that does not pit men against women but encourages them to work together to address gender inequalities. The review shows that there is a need to develop policies and strategies both at national and local level geared towards increasing women's participation in decision making and leadership in higher education in Kenya. The paper provides an opportunity for reflection on problems related to the participation of academic women in leadership in higher education in Kenya and comparable systems through the changing times and settings.
examine three aspects of gender differentiation in paid employment in the United States / what jobs individuals hold, their earnings, and the nonmonetary rewards they receive from their work (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Within the next decade, women will constitute around half of the total workforce in the UK [United Kingdom]. However, despite the introduction of sex discrimination and equal pay legislation, the majority of women are still concentrated in low pay, low status, gender segregated jobs.
I believe that equal opportunities is a key issue for the 1990s, which will be a decade when the promotion of women's opportunities in the workplace will be far higher than ever before on the business and the boardroom agenda.
"Shattering the Glass Ceiling—The Woman Manager" is a highly welcome publication which will be of use to employers and to all women who would like to pursue a career in management and business.
This book clearly illustrates that equal opportunities is no longer a marginal issue, but a European and, of course, a national mainstream economic, as well as a social issue. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
The percentage of women in the labour force in many parts of the world, and the proportion of managers who are female has increased, especially in North America. Women have not, however, made it to the top in governments or corporations. The current status of women in management can be explained in part by the types of 'solutions' that have been implemented to increase women's opportunities in management. Proposed solutions depend on one's explanation for the problem. Four explanations for women's employment status and solutions consistent with each explanation are presented. Implementation of the more feasible but less far-reaching change strategies may help explain the current status of women in management.