Chapter

Fearscapes: Urban Space and the Landscapes of Fear

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the author.

Abstract

This chapter focuses on concrete urban space with the aim of exploring the spatialities interlinked with feelings and discourses of fear. An impressive amount of scholarly work has recently depicted processes of fortification, privatisation, polarisation, exclusion, segregation and control. Several attempts have been made to produce comprehensive theoretical understandings of such processes: ‘geographies of fear’, ‘military urbanism’, ‘end of public space’, ‘integral urbanism’, ‘divided cities’, to name some. This chapter sets out a fourfold taxonomy of the spatial processes connected with feelings and discourses of fear, with the aim of organising the knowledge available in literature from the perspective of macro-scale effects over urban territories. Each category is characterised by a specific spatial effect of urban restructuring: Enclosure, spaces of exclusion/seclusion; Barrier, infrastructural nets, with their longitudinal ‘splintering’ effect; Post-Public Space, privatisation and fortification of public space(s) and buildings; Control, the politics of surveillance over urban space. The theoretical discussion of each category is followed by the exemplification of a case from Palermo and/or Lisbon. The conclusions of the chapter, building on findings from Southern Europe, suggest a reframing of mainstream theories and advocate for a conceptual approach to the spatialisation of urban fear more attuned to local characterisations.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the author.

ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Article
Full-text available
The article explores systematically, albeit preliminarily, the way the concepts of security and safety are employed in scholarly urban studies literature about crime (and the prevention of it). It employs network analysis on author keywords, complemented with text analysis of abstracts, over sets of bibliographic information retrieved from Web of Science. Using a critical interpretative analysis of findings, and looking at the geography of main scholarly communities in this field, the article highlights differences (especially at the operational level) and commonalities (especially at the conceptual level) in the way scholars understand urban security and urban safety. Concluding that this field of study is dominated by operational, evidence-based approaches, the article advocates for a renewed critical engagement of scholarship in this field, through studies that would shift their attention from technical ‘solutions’ to the ‘problems’ that lead societies to demand security/safety.
Article
Full-text available
Per quanto negli ultimi tempi stia ricevendo una crescente attenzione pubblica, quello del cohousing è un fenomeno dai contorni ancora piuttosto sfumati, per il quale, ad un livello di interesse e curiosità abbastanza elevato, corrisponde uno scarso lavoro analitico ed una lettura spesso acriticamente agiografica. Scopo del presente lavoro è quindi quello di proporre una riflessione critica, che, mediante un’analisi tassonomica e una confronto con le gated communities, riconduca la coabitazione all’interno della “famiglia” a cui appartiene, quella delle comunità contrattuali (comunità residenziali a carattere privato), della quale condivide tutte le problematicità. Il paper è, a tale scopo, diviso in due sezioni. Nella prima (§ 1) si traccia una panoramica descrittiva del cohousing; nella seconda (§ 2 e 3), dopo la proposta tassonomica, se ne analizzano i caratteri tipici e se ne mettono in luce le principali criticità.
Article
Full-text available
In this article, I contribute to recent debates about the concept of neoliberalism and its use as an explanatory concept, through the analysis of urban planning and regeneration policy in Lisbon amidst crisis and austerity. Suggesting a look at neoliberalization from a threefold perspective—the project, governmentalities, and policymaking—I analyze how current austerity-policy responses to the European economic crisis can be understood as a renewed and coherent deployment of neoliberal stances. The article presents implications for urban planning in Lisbon and thus suggests an exploration of the negotiations and clashes of hegemonic neoliberal governmentalities and policies with the local social and spatial fabric. For this exploration, I select a “deviant” case—the Mouraria neighborhood, a “dense” space in which the consequences of policies diverge sharply from expectations. In conclusion, I suggest that neoliberalization (in times of crisis) should be understood as a coherent project compromised by a set of highly ambiguous governmentalities, which bring about contradictory policymaking at the local level.
Article
Full-text available
Resumen La irrupción en la calle del movimiento 15-M ha supuesto un destacable proceso de reapropiación de la calle por parte de gentes y colectivos diversos, desbordándose estructuras y dinámicas políticas tradicionales, discursos y prácticas hegemónicas e institucionales. Con el interés de analizar ese proceso social y espacial surge la propuesta de este número especial, donde se han reunido, desde diferentes enfoques y perspectivas, las experiencias y conocimientos de once jóvenes científicos y activistas en relación con el 15-M. Se trata, por tanto, de una aportación más al conocimiento y al debate público, desde la geografía y las ciencias sociales, sobre el nuevo ciclo movilizador que se vive en el Estado español, sin olvidar la función de reforzar los instrumentos de análisis y acción colectiva de movimientos sociales en los participamos desde nuestra cotidianidad.
Article
Full-text available
The article engages with theory about the processes of spatialization of fear in contemporary Western urban space (fortification, privatization, exclusion/seclusion, fragmentation, polarization) and their relation to fear of crime and violence. A threefold taxonomy is outlined (Enclosure, Post-Public Space, Barrier), and “spaces of fear” in the city of Palermo are mapped with the aim of exploring the cumulative large-scale effects of the spatialization of fear on a concrete urban territory. Building on empirical evidence, the author suggests that mainstream theories be reframed as part of a less hegemonic and more discursive approach and that theories mainly based on the analyses of global cities be deprovincialized. The author argues for the deconstruction of the concept of “spaces of fear” in favor of the more discursive concept of “fearscapes” to describe the growing landscapes of fear in contemporary Western cities.
Article
Full-text available
This guide is designed to equip local merchants and retailers with problem solving strategies aimed at reducing panhandling in and around their properties. Focusing heavily on the value of partnerships with law enforcement, the guide walks readers through the process of understanding their panhandling problem; collecting crime data; identifying potential strategies; and measuring the impact of those strategies. Several promising strategies to reduce panhandling are described, including: providing informational brochures about available social services to panhandlers; requiring all vendors to have permits; initiating civilian patrols to monitor and discourage activity; and prohibiting the sale of single servings of alcohol through a city ordinance.
Article
Full-text available
This paper provides an account of the contemporary operation of the commodity aesthetic through a critical reading of Mall of America, the largest themed retail and entertainment complex in the U.S. Inspired by Walter Benjamin's analysis of nineteenth century arcades, I argue that the modern megamall is a dreamhouse of the collectivity, where fantasies of authentic life are displaced onto commodities that are fetishized in the spatial, anthropological, and psychological senses. Vital to these processes is the construction of temporal-spatial contexts, or chronotopes of consumption, which include the spatial archetypes of Public Space, Marketplace, and Festival Setting, and temporal archetypes of original Nature, Primitiveness, Childhood, and Heritage. Within these contexts, fetishism operates through themes of transport, both bodily in terms of motion and travel, and imaginatively in the form of memory and magic. Following a critique of a failure of dialectic thinking in existing literature on commodity consumption, I provide a dialectical 'reading' of Mall of America, and outline its implications for a progressive political engagement with the contemporary retail built environment.
Book
In a post-Cold War world of political unease and economic crisis, processes of securitisation are transforming nation-states, their citizens and non-citizens in profound ways. The book shows how contemporary Europe is now home to a vast security industry which uses biometric identification systems, CCTV and quasi-military techniques to police migrants and disadvantaged neighbourhoods. This is the first collection of anthropological studies of security with a particular but not exclusive emphasis on Europe. The Anthropology of Security draws together studies on the lived experiences of security and policing from the perspective of those most affected in their everyday lives. The anthropological perspectives in this volume stretch from the frontlines of policing and counter-terrorism to border control.
Book
Research on public knowledge has found that the public knows little about crime or the criminal justice system including crime-related statistics such as crime rates, recidivism rates, and average sentences. Members of the public have little familiarity with specific laws or with their legal rights. Although some research shows that most people favor the imposition of harsher sentences on convicted offenders, more refined research reveals that the public is not more punitive than the judiciary. Research on crime seriousness reveals substantial consensus between different groups and over time. Policymakers and criminal justice professionals believe attitudes to be harsher than they are. A priority for the criminal justice system is to dispel misperceptions of crime held by the public and misperceptions of public attitudes held by professionals and policymakers.
Article
List of Maps, Illustrations, and Tables Acknowledgments Abbreviations Introduction: Anthropology with an Accent PART ONE: The Talk of Crime 1. Talking of Crime and Ordering the World Crime as a Disorganizing Experience and an Organizing Symbol Violence and Signification From Progress to Economic Crisis, from Authoritarianism to Democracy 2. Crisis, Criminals, and the Spread of Evil Limits to Modernization Going Down Socially and Despising the Poor The Experiences of Violence Dilemmas of Classification and Discrimination Evil and Authority PART TWO: Violent Crime and the Failure of the Rule of Law 3. The Increase in Violent Crime Tailoring the Statistics Crime Trends, 1973-1996 Looking for Explanations 4. The Police: A Long History of Abuses A Critique of the Incomplete Modernity Model Organization of the Police Forces A Tradition of Transgressions 5. Police Violence under Democracy Escalating Police Violence Promoting a "Tough" Police The Massacre at the Casa de Detencao The Police from the Citizens' Point of View Security as a Private Matter The Cycle of Violence PART THREE: Urban Segregation, Fortified Enclaves, and Public Space 6. Sao Paulo: Three Patterns of Spatial Segregation The Concentrated City of Early Industrialization Center-Periphery: The Dispersed City Proximity and Walls in the 198s and 199s 7. Fortified Enclaves: Building Up Walls and Creating a New Private Order Private Worlds for the Elite From Corticos to Luxury Enclaves A Total Way of Life: Advertising Residential Enclaves for the Rich Keeping Order inside the Walls Resisting the Enclaves An Aesthetic of Security 8. The Implosion of Modern Public Life The Modern Ideal of Public Space and City Life Garden City and Modernism: The Lineage of the Fortified Enclave Street Life: Incivility and Aggression Experiencing the Public The Neo-international Style: Sao Paulo and Los Angeles Contradictory Public Space PART FOUR: Violence, Civil Rights, and the Body 9. Violence, the Unbounded Body, and the Disregard for Rights in Brazilian Democracy Human Rights as "Privileges for Bandits" Debating Capital Punishment Punishment as Private and Painful Vengeance Body and Rights Appendix Notes References Index
Chapter
This chapter focuses on the issues in current city planning and rebuilding. It describes the principles and aims that have shaped modern, orthodox city planning and rebuilding. The chapter shows how cities work in real life, because this is the only way to learn what principles of planning and what practices in rebuilding can promote social and economic vitality in cities, and what practices and principles will deaden these attributes. In trying to explain the underlying order of cities, the author uses a preponderance of examples from New York. The most important thread of influence starts, more or less, with Ebenezer Howard, an English court reporter for whom planning was an avocation. Howard's influence on American city planning converged on the city from two directions: from town and regional planners on the one hand, and from architects on the other.
Book
The concept of governance has evolved into one of the most important but also controversial concepts in urban politics. While it encourages co-operation, participation and collective construction, at the same time, it has brought about new forms of public demission, oligarchic regimes and less local democracy. The dilemmas accompanying these changes are particularly relevant when observing the cities of Southern Europe, whose socio-cultural specificities very much structure local political and policy materialisations. Bringing together a team of leading scholars from across the social sciences, this volume examines the issues of urban governance in the Southern European context. Illustrated by case studies of several main cities and metropoles on the North Mediterranean coast, it introduces and critically analyses the latest theories and approaches to urban governance. It questions how the 'real' or socio-cultural notion of city seems to have been separated from that of the 'political' city and explores how more integrated socio-political forms might be developed. It looks at current structures, dynamics and cultures of governance in urban development and questions whether they are well adapted to new realities and challenges or whether there are significant imbalances causing limited or fragmented political-administrative visions. By considering both the long Mediterranean history along with the recent but enduring global economic and political developments, this book argues that Southern European cities will have to depend greatly upon its own socio-cultural networks, dynamics and cosmopolitan evolution, making the most of the region's characteristic urban strengths, as trading hubs, with rich hinterlands and large and varied population. © João Seixas, Abel Albet and the contributors 2012. All rights reserved.
Article
The relationship between space and politics is explored through a study of French urban policy. Drawing upon the political thought of Jacques Rancière, this book proposes a new agenda for analyses of urban policy, and provides the first comprehensive account of French urban policy in English. Essential resource for contextualizing and understanding the revolts occurring in the French 'badland' neighbourhoods in autumn 2005. Challenges overarching generalizations about urban policy and contributes new research data to the wider body of urban policy literature. Identifies a strong urban and spatial dimension within the shift towards more nationalistic and authoritarian policy governing French citizenship and immigration.
Article
In the Western world, cities have arguably never been more anxious: practical anxieties about personal safety and metaphysical anxieties about the uncertain place of the city in culture are the small change of journalism and political debate. Cities have long been regarded as problems, in need of drastic solutions. In this context, the contemporary revival of city centres is remarkable. But in a culture that largely fears the urban, how can the contemporary city be imagined? How is it supposed to be used or inhabited? What does it mean? Taking England since WWII as its principal focus, this provocative and original book considers the Western city at a critical moment in its history.
Article
First Published in 2003. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.
Article
In this classic work of feminist political thought, Iris Marion Young challenges the prevailing reduction of social justice to distributive justice. It critically analyzes basic concepts underlying most theories of justice, including impartiality, formal equality, and the unitary moral subjectivity. The starting point for her critique is the experience and concerns of the new social movements about decision making, cultural expression, and division of labor--that were created by marginal and excluded groups, including women, African Americans, and American Indians, as well as gays and lesbians. Iris Young defines concepts of domination and oppression to cover issues eluding the distributive model. Democratic theorists, according to Young do not adequately address the problem of an inclusive participatory framework. By assuming a homogeneous public, they fail to consider institutional arrangements for including people not culturally identified with white European male norms of reason and respectability. Young urges that normative theory and public policy should undermine group-based oppression by affirming rather than suppressing social group difference. Basing her vision of the good society on the differentiated, culturally plural network of contemporary urban life, she argues for a principle of group representation in democratic publics and for group-differentiated policies. This is a superb book which opens up many new vistas for theorists of justice. Young makes a number of insightful arguments both about the issues that need to be addressed by a theory of justice, and about the kind of theory capable of addressing them.
Article
The arguments presented by this paper are built on two underlying assertions. The first is that the assessment of surveillance measures often entails a judgement of whether any loss in privacy is legitimised by a justifiable increase in security. However one fundamental difference between privacy and security is that privacy has two attainable end-states (absolute privacy through to the absolute absence of privacy), whereas security has only one attainable end-state (while the absolute absence of security is attainable, absolute security is a desired yet unobtainable goal). The second assertion, which builds upon the first, holds that because absolute security is desirable new security interventions will continuously be developed each potentially trading a small measure of privacy for a small rise in security. When assessed individually each intervention may constitute a justifiable trade-off. However when combined together these interventions will ultimately reduce privacy to zero. To counter this outcome, when assessing the acceptability of any surveillance measure which impacts upon privacy (whether this constitutes a new technology or the novel application of existing technologies) we should do so by examining the combined effect of all surveillance measures currently employed within a society. This contrasts with the prevailing system whereby the impact of a new security technology is predominantly assessed on an individual basis by a subjective balancing of the security benefits of that technology against any reductions in concomitant rights, such as privacy and liberty. I contend that by continuing to focus on the effects of individual technologies over the combined effects of all surveillance technologies within a society, the likelihood of sleepwalking into (or indeed waking-up in) an absolute surveillance society moves from being a possible to the inevitable future.
Article
Integral Urbanism is an ambitious and forward-looking theory of urbanism that offers a new model of urban life. Nan Ellin's model stands as an antidote to the pervasive problems engendered by modern and postmodern urban planning and architecture: sprawl, anomie, a pervasive culture - and architecture - of fear in cities, and a disregard for environmental issues. Instead of the reactive and escapist tendencies characterizing so much contemporary urban development, Ellin champions an 'integral' approach that reverses the fragmentation of our landscapes and lives through proactive design solutions.
Book
In Portugal between 2005 and 2010, "modernization through technology" was the major political motto used to develop and improve the country's peripheral and backward condition. This study reflects on one of the resulting, specific aspects of this trend-the implementation of public video surveillance. The in-depth ethnography provides evidence of how the political construction of security and surveillance as a strategic program actually conceals intricate institutional relationships between political decision-makers and common citizens. Essentially, the detailed account of the major actors, as well as their roles and motivations, serves to explain phenomena such as the confusion between objective data and subjective perceptions or the lack of communication between parties, which as this study argues, underlies the idiosyncrasies and fragilities of Portugal's still relatively young democratic system.
Article
Bringing together leading planning and urban scholars, and including fascinating international case studies, this unique book investigates urban planning across the world and in different cultures.
Article
The Bedouin submission of an independent plan in 1999 was a major milestone in their long struggle for land rights and recognition and development of forty-five unrecognized villages. Bedouin interest is counter to the interest of the State, which attempted to convince them that settling in the seven towns planned until the 1980s was the best possible avenue for modernization and development. The Bedouin are, in fact, involved in a struggle for recognition of a major "public" ignored by the State. The entire process is an evolution of "planning-from-below" that began with attempts by the Bedouin to escape the planning oligarchy of the State in the early years, by resorting to various forms of planning advocacy. It continued by practicing various forms of centrifugality as an immanent component of their culture, versus the centripetal tendencies of the State. It culminated in the generation of planning empowerment actions of various types, intended to produce spatial realities that the State cannot ignore in its planning processes of Bedouin space in the Negev.
Article
Suburban sprawl transformed the political culture of the American South as much as the civil rights movement did during the second half of the twentieth century. The Silent Majority provides the first regionwide account of the suburbanization of the South from the perspective of corporate leaders, political activists, and especially of the ordinary families who lived in booming Sunbelt metropolises such as Atlanta, Charlotte, and Richmond. Matthew Lassiter examines crucial battles over racial integration, court-ordered busing, and housing segregation to explain how the South moved from the era of Jim Crow fully into the mainstream of national currents. During the 1960s and 1970s, the grassroots mobilization of the suburban homeowners and school parents who embraced Richard Nixon's label of the Silent Majority reshaped southern and national politics and helped to set in motion the center-right shift that has dominated the United States ever since. The Silent Majority traces the emergence of a "color-blind" ideology in the white middle-class suburbs that defended residential segregation and neighborhood schools as the natural outcomes of market forces and individual meritocracy rather than the unconstitutional products of discriminatory public policies. Connecting local and national stories, and reintegrating southern and American history, The Silent Majority is critical reading for those interested in urban and suburban studies, political and social history, the civil rights movement, public policy, and the intersection of race and class in modern America.
Article
This book explores the tension between universal principles of human rights and the self-determination claims of sovereign states as they affect the claims of refugees, asylum-seekers and immigrants. Drawing on the work of Kant's "cosmopolitan doctrine" and positions developed by Hannah Arendt, Seyla Benhabib explores how the topic has been analyzed within the larger history of political thought. She argues that many of the issues raised in abstract debate between universalism and multiculturalism can find acceptable solutions in practice.
Article
Since the 1980s, gated communities have been the main driver of urban housing development and the real estate market in the Istanbul Metropolitan Area. While gated communities have shaped the urban macroform and urban sprawl, they have radically transformed the inner city. The aim of this paper is to investigate the patterns of gated communities in Istanbul. By evaluating 161 gated developments, the paper aims to develop a typology for them and to evaluate their impact on the urban macroform. The results offer useful lessons for other dynamic metropolitan cities.
Article
Space and society in Zombie cinema The Zombie is a creature that originated within the colonial context of Haiti and, more specifically, the voodoo mysticism. Resulting from the syncretism between the culture of the African black slaves and the colonial Catholicism, he became a western myth throughout the second half of the XXth century. The basic change between the “original” Haitian Zombie and his western reinvention consists in the loss of his mystic-spiritual feature in favor of a more laic vision which makes the walking-corpse the victim of a virus rather than witchcraft or a spell. The creator of the western Zombie is the American film director G.A. Romero who lays the foundations of the Monster par excellence, with strong political and social connotation and a great importance given to space. The movies which have been analyzed (Romero’s Tetralogy and 28 Days later by the English director Danny Boyle) clearly show how the powerful socio-political metaphor embodied by the Zombie may have evident spatial relevance. First of all, the anthropophagous monster is essentially an urban creature. The city, the metropolis, the great agglomerations are his favorite territory. Great attention to the characteristics of urban spaces, particularly the North-American ones, is constantly found in Romero’s movies where the same relevance is given to both downtown and periurban spaces. The city often becomes the Zombie’s favourite habitat whereas the survivors are compelled to move towards a safer place outside the city. The two other basic elements of space in the Zombie cinema are segregation and fragmentation. The Zombie becomes the new dominating creature of the planet and segregation is the price men have to pay for their survival. Be it a Mall, a country house, a bunker or a fortified citadel, the space rather recalls an Early Middle-Ages context, when the price of safety was often the loss of freedom. This opposition lies not only in a simple inside-outside, man/zombie dialectics ; if the Zombies are homogeneous and coherent like their life, Humans appear as continuously torn by conflicts, troubles for the leadership and social conflicts. Their spaces fully reflect this conflictual condition. The humans’ space is fragmented and the opposition ends not only in man versus zombie but also and especially in man versus man. As a matter of fact, in all the movies which have been analyzed the Zombies are able to overcome the barrier because of the survivors’ internal contrasts. If unity is strength, division means defeat. Urbaphobia, gated communities, fragmentation, segregation, limitation of public spaces, different kinds of conflicts, all of them are recurrent elements in the corpus. To sum up, we can claim that the socio-spatial problems of contemporary urban spaces are a basic interpretation of Zombie cinema.
Article
Although Mediterranean cities have inherent differences on a local scale, together they offer a kaleidoscopic overview of distinctive morphologies and patterns of socio-spatial segregation. In this study, we explore the distribution of residential swimming pools as indicators of the use of land and water at the metropolitan scale, in relation to recent changes in the socio-spatial structure of a large Mediterranean city (Athens, Greece). Our results indicate a polarized spatial distribution of swimming pools, still considered a luxury affordable only for a minor segment of the Greek population. The analysis highlights the spatial linkages between concentration of residential pools, class segregation and low-density settlements, indicating that the socio-spatial structure of Athens remains characterized by persistent disparities between rich and poor neighborhoods. Comparison with another Mediterranean city (Barcelona) demonstrates the peculiarity of Athens’ recent development as reflected in the fragmented and polarized urban structure. The study provides an alternative reading of recent Mediterranean urban growth by considering pools as a “landmark” for urban sprawl, producing contested landscapes of localized social segregation.
Book
This completes Ed Sojaa s trilogy on urban studies, which began with Postmodern Geographies and continued with Thirdspace. It is the first comprehensive text in the growing field of critical urban studies to deal with the dramatically restructured megacities that have emerged world--wide over the last half of the twentieth--century.