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The Importance of School Attendance: Findings From the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development on the Life-Course Effects of Truancy

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Abstract

School dropout has been extensively studied in the literature as a correlate of negative life outcomes. A precursor to school dropout is truancy, the unexcused or illegitimate student absence from school. Few studies have examined the relationship between truancy and involvement in crime and adjustment more generally over the life-course. This study extends previous work by exploring whether truancy at age 12 to 14 is related to later life outcomes such as crime, aggression, and adjustment using data from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development. Results indicate that truancy has long-lasting associations with negative life outcomes, especially for non-violent crime and problem drinking. Importantly, these findings hold for certain outcomes controlling for a comprehensive host of environmental and individual childhood risk factors.

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... Research indicates young people who engage in truancy have a higher risk of experiencing negative life outcomes relative to those who do not (Farrall et al., 2020;Garry, 1996;Maynard et al., 2012). Truancy is a notable risk-factor for violence in both adolescence and adulthood Farrall et al., 2020;Farrington, 1996;1998;Garry, 1996;Hansen, 2003;Hawkins et al., 2000;Hawkins et al 1998;Loeber & Farrington, 1998;Rocque et al., 2017;Sutphen et al., 2010;White et al., 2001;Zhang et al., 2007Zhang et al., , 2010 and is an indicator of a weak social bond to school (Hirschi, 1969;Hawkins et al., 2000, p. 4; see also Popp & Peguero, 2012). Time away from school in unstructured environments present young people with greater opportunities to engage in violence Henry et al., 1999;Henry & Huizinga, 2007a;Maimon & Browning, 2010;Monahan et al., 2014;Osgood et al., 1996). ...
... Truancy is often found to be a predictor of violence in adolescence and adulthood Farrall et al., 2020;Farrington, 1991;1998;Garry, 1996;Hansen, 2003;Hawkins et al., 2000;Hawkins et al 1998;Katsiyannis et al., 2013;Loeber & Farrington, 1998;Rocque et al., 2017;Sutphen et al., 2010;White et al., 2001;Zhang et al., 2007Zhang et al., , 2010. Being absent from school can place young people in situations that may create opportunities for violence (Henry et al., 1999;Henry & Huizinga, 2007). ...
... The interrelationships between victimization experiences, school problems, and violent offending has been noted as an important line of inquiry for researchers (Espelage, 2015;Savage & Ellis, 2019;Savage & Woznik, 2016). Bully victimization and truancy have both been identified as prevalent social issues in schools worldwide (Maynard et al., 2012Modecki et al., 2014;Rocque et al., 2017) and are both consistently associated with higher odds of violent offending in adolescence (Nansel et al., 2003;Pham et al., 2017;van Geel et al., 2014;Wallinus et al., 2016). Further, there is good evidence to show both bully victimization and truancy in adolescence are predictors of violence well-beyond adolescence into adulthood (Bender & Losel, 2011;Farrington, 1996;Ttofi et al., 2012). ...
Article
Research indicates truancy and being bullied (otherwise called bully victimization) are independently linked to violent offending. We examine the associations between truancy, bully victimization, and violent offending in a sample of young people who participated in the Ability School Engagement Program (ASEP) truancy reduction experiment. Pre-intervention, half of the sample reported missing school because they were being bullied. Experiment and control participants both exhibited significant reductions in bully victimization and missing school because of bully victimization. Neither groups exhibited significant reductions in violent offending. Contrasting expectations, participants in the control group had significantly larger reductions in missing school because of bully victimization. Post-intervention measures of bully victimization were significantly related to higher odds of violent offending. Bully victimization is a critical factor in understanding the nexus between truancy and violent offending which, if neglected in an intervention (like ASEP) can lead to backfire effects for young people.
... School truancy results in many psycho-social risk outcomes including social problems, academic achievement, mental health problems and later school dropout in middle, secondary and high schools globally (Attwood and Croll, 2015;Bridgeland et al., 2006;Burton et al., 2014;Maynard et al., 2015). School truancy not only leads to school dropout or refusal, it may also produce lingering outcomes into youth, such as enhanced risk for marital, occupational and eventual economic issues (Christenson and Thurlow, 2004;Mazerolle et al., 2018;Rasasingham, 2015;Rocque et al., 2017). ...
... These aforementioned results confirm previous findings. Numerous earlier studies found that school refusal behavior and school truancy were associated with several psycho-social risk factors such as parental supervision, self-esteem, academic achievement, aggression, bullying behavior and later school dropout in school-going adolescents (Attwood and Croll, 2015;Bridgeland et al., 2006;Burton et al., 2014;Christenson and Thurlow, 2004;Fornander and Kearney, 2020;Maynard et al., 2015;Mazerolle et al., 2018;Rasasingham, 2015;Rocque et al., 2017). ...
... Further, the findings also illustrated that academic self was positively associated with higher level of school refusal behavior in truant school-going adolescents who had high level of physical aggression. The current study results confirmed our study's second objective that these findings are consistent with the findings of prior similar research studies (Kearney, 2008a(Kearney, , 2008bKearney and Albano, 2015;Mallett, 2016;Attwood and Croll, 2015;Bridgeland et al., 2006;Burton et al., 2014;Maynard et al., 2015;Christenson and Thurlow, 2004;Mazerolle et al., 2018;Rasasingham, 2015;Rocque et al., 2017). It also supported both MTSS model (Kearney, 2019;Kearney and Graczyk, 2020) and Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory (Perron, 2017). ...
Article
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Purpose The purpose of this study is to examine the prevalence and association among school refusal behavior, self-esteem, parental school involvement and aggression in punctual and truant school-going adolescents. Design/methodology/approach A purposive sampling technique and cross-sectional design were used in the current study. Participants comprised three heterogeneous sub-groups: school truant students, park truant students and punctual students. Findings This study’s findings indicated that father and mother’s school involvement was related to more elevated level of self-esteem for school truant students. Results also indicated that male truant students had more significant probability to school refusal behavior and physical aggression as compared to female truant students. Moreover, results revealed that physical aggression fully mediated among mother’s school involvement, academic self and school refusal behavior in punctual students and school truant students. Originality/value There is more need to develop indigenous school-based preventions and interventions aimed at decreasing school truancy in Pakistani context by tackling the predisposing vulnerable factors and supporting and encouraging the protective family and internal factors.
... They may further be academically disengaged, having neither an incentive to catch up with the content of missed school lessons nor feel the need to pay attention to new class material when present (Balfanz et al., 2007;Southworth, 1992). Finally, truancy is associated with problem behaviors such as alcohol and substance abuse (Eaton et al., 2008;Hallfors et al., 2002) or crime and delinquency (Rocque et al., 2017;Zhang et al., 2007). These behaviors are, in turn, negatively associated with pupils' performance on exams and can exacerbate the detrimental impact of being absent from school on academic achievement (Fergusson & Horwood, 1995;Jeynes, 2002). ...
... In line with our theoretical considerations, three additional pathways may explain the absenteeism-achievement relationship. The first, a behavioral pathway, proposes that school absences associated with truancy exacerbate risky behaviors such as alcohol consumption, drug abuse, or criminal activities that, in turn, cause lower academic achievement (e.g., Eaton et al., 2008;Fergusson & Horwood, 1995;Flannery et al., 1999;Hallfors et al., 2002;Jeynes, 2002;Rocque et al., 2017). In other words, absences may not only be a detriment to student achievement because students are not receiving classroom instruction but also because of what they do when missing out on schooling. ...
Article
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Studies consistently show associations between school absences and academic achievement. However, questions remain about whether this link depends on the reason for children’s absence. Using a sample of the Scottish Longitudinal Study (n = 4,419), we investigated whether the association between school absenteeism and achievement in high-stakes exams at the end of compulsory and postcompulsory schooling varies with the reason for absence. In line with previous research, our findings show that overall absences are negatively associated with academic achievement at both school stages. Likewise, all forms of absences (truancy, sickness absence, exceptional domestic circumstances, and family holidays) are negatively associated with achievement at the end of compulsory and postcompulsory schooling. First difference regressions confirm these negative associations, except for family holidays. These findings suggest that, in addition to lost instruction, other mechanisms such as behavioral, health-related, and psychosocial pathways may account for the association between absenteeism and achievement. The findings have implications for designing tailored absenteeism interventions to improve pupils’ academic achievement.
... School truancy is associated with dropping out of school and many subsequent negative social and economic outcomes for youth (Belfield & Levin, 2007;Hammond et al., 2007;Henry & Huizinga, 2007;Rocque et al., 2017). For this reason, a cornerstone of intervention efforts to improve graduation outcomes and the long-term economic and social prospects for school-age children involves attempts to reduce absenteeism and truancy. ...
... At multiple grade levels, absenteeism and truancy are associated with lower academic performance, lower test scores in reading and mathematics, grade retention, internalizing and externalizing behavior disorders, dropout, and juvenile justice system involvement (Belfield & Levin, 2007;Burton et al., 2014;Hammond et al., 2007). Subsequently, dropping out of school prior to graduation predicts risk in adulthood for economic, occupational, legal, and marital problems (Christenson & Thurlow, 2004;Farrington, 2005;Onifade et al., 2010;Rocque et al., 2017). In its more extreme manifestations, this developmental cascade is referred to as the school to prison pipeline (National Juvenile Justice Network, 2011). ...
Article
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The middle school version of the Washington Assessment of Risks and Needs of Students (msWARNS) is a self-report instrument designed for use by school personnel to identify barriers to school attendance and school success for sixth- to eighth-grade students. It measures six domains relevant to improving school outcomes that include aggression-defiance, depression-anxiety, substance use, peer deviance, home environment, and school engagement. In the present study, a bifactor S − 1 model, for which the aggression-defiance domain was the reference factor for the general factor and the other domains constituted the subfactors, had good fit and better fit than several other alternative models. Results of multigroup confirmatory factor analysis revealed invariance across different groups defined by gender and race/ethnicity (Native American, African American, Hispanic, and White), with a sample of referred middle school students ( N = 2,356; ages 10–15 years). Reliability analyses support the use of the general factor to guide decision-making, the reliable use of the depression-anxiety factor for providing additional insights, and the remaining factors for guiding communication, as part of an assessment and intervention program for middle school students.
... Some measures of concentrated disadvantage have used variables and composite indices of unemployment, poverty, youth population, female-headed households with children under the age of 18, truancy, and population density ( [12,35,42,[47][48][49][50]; C. [36,51]). Population density may help to account for the number of motivated offenders and potential targets in the block. ...
... Concentrated disadvantage proxy measures exist at the city block level. We used variables that have been featured as controls in other studies on burglary crimes, such as percentage of unemployed population, percentage of femaleheaded families, percentage of minors between 6 and 14 years old not attending school (as proxy for truancy), percentage of divorced, average level of schooling (as proxy for income), and population density ( [12,35,42,[47][48][49][50]; C. [59]; C. J. [36,53]). These measures are relevant as residents of disadvantaged areas tend not to share the same expectations for the social control of public space [60] and are often dissatisfied with police protection ( [61]; C. [62,63]). ...
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Using block level data for Mexico City as case study, this article provides evidence that the type of city block type correlates with the likelihood of residential burglary. We employed five multilevel random intercept models to relate burglary incidents to city block types. We nested the 64,282 city blocks of Mexico City within their corresponding 846 local police quadrants. Our results show that Container-type city block configurations are associated with residential burglary to a greater degree than other physical and social environmental variables. Also, we find that close proximity to mass transit locations is not associated with residential burglary activity. The overall findings of this study describe fundamental dynamics between urban form and burglary.
... What might be more important than the prevalence of a health condition is how these health conditions influence behaviour, and the way these behaviours track into adulthood, as behaviour is potentially modifiable. Research in the area of tracking behaviours from adolescence to adulthood has tended to focus on antisocial behaviours in adolescence (33,34) or negative health behaviours like drinking alcohol, smoking and physical inactivity (35)(36)(37). Our findings in the Raine Study Gen2 for adolescent absenteeism behaviour being associated with both adult presenteeism behaviour (present results) and adult absenteeism behaviour (21) are consistent with the broader concept of childhood/adolescent behaviours tracking into adulthood. ...
... Given the importance of good productivity of young workers, successfully establishing more positive behavioural responses to pain as early as adolescence, could have substantial impact across the whole of working life. To do so, future research might consider co-existence of antisocial behaviours, negative health behaviours and pain-related behaviours in adolescence (33,34). If co-existence exists, then behavioural-based interventions addressing multiple behaviours might be more efficient than interventions addressing single behavioural issues. ...
Article
Objectives: This study investigated spinal pain-related absenteeism at age 17 as a potential precursor to work presenteeism at age 23. Methods: A longitudinal study was performed with Raine Study Gen2 participants (n = 451). Spinal pain-related absenteeism from school/work was collected at the 17 year follow-up. Presenteeism (due to ill-health or any other reason) was collected quarterly during one year around the age of 23. Zero-inflated binominal regression analysis was conducted. Results: Participants with adolescent spinal pain-related absenteeism reported higher work presenteeism in early adulthood than those without pain (155.7 hours/year compared to 77.7 hours/year), with an incident risk ratio (95% confidence interval) of 1.41 (1.04 to 1.92) after adjusting for sex, occupational class and multimorbidity count. Conclusions: Targeting factors associated with absenteeism behaviours during early life may have significant benefits for future work productivity.
... In that, those with lower levels of education often have compromised health, access to poor health care systems, and succumb to premature death, as compared to those who have completed school or attained higher levels of education. Increased dropout rates create larger inequalities in society, fractured societies, reduced social cohesion, engagement in risk activities, unstable families, and also perpetuates the cycle of poverty [8][9][10][11]13,17]. Thus, education plays a crucial role in human development, the wellbeing of the individual, and the wellbeing of a country [4,14]. ...
... In that, it has enormous social, psychological, economic consequences as well as intensifying income inequality affecting the economic growth and development of the country [11,19]. Additionally, there is compelling evidence in terms of research that learner dropouts may undergo a loss of self-esteem, turn to drugs, and become a financial burden to society' [11,17,20]. ...
Article
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There is strong evidence that dropping out of school has short-term and long-term effects for the individual, the family, the community, and other strata in society. In South Africa, learners dropping out of school has increased. The link between intention, motivation, and self-efficacy to drop out of school is an understudied area of research. The study aimed to determine the relationship between learners’ intention, motivation, and self-efficacy to drop out of low and high socio-economic schools. A quantitative methodological approach with a cross-sectional design was utilised. Participant’s selection included high school learners in Grades 9 and 11, at both high and low socio-economic public schools in the Western Cape, in South Africa. Most participants were female (51.2%), with a mean age of 16 years, attending schools in resource-constrained communities (50.1). Data was analysed using an independent t-test to assess a significant difference between learners in low and high socio-economic communities. Findings showed that many learners in high socio-economic schools hardly considered dropping out of school, whereas the opposite was true for learners in resource-constrained schools. Family challenges were often cited as a major reason for dropping out of school. The differences between the two groups of learners were significant.
... In academically engaging environments interest in and sense of purpose for being in school may increase student attendance (Gershenson, 2016;Simons et al., 2010). Different elements of school climate could also provide important social and emotional safeguards that support regular attendance during periods when students are at risk for higher absence (Freeman & Simonsen, 2015;Rocque et al., 2017;Williams & Richman, 2007). For instance, the transition from middle to high school is a critical point when student absenteeism spikes and the likelihood of grade failure is higher than any other academic year (Alspaugh, 1998;Barber & Olsen, 2004;Williams & Richman, 2007). ...
... This study then tests whether school-level changes in perceived school climate between middle and high school are associated with individual absences and chronic absence (Freeman & Simonsen, 2015;Rocque et al., 2017). This analysis examines results for students (n = 61,684) who were in eighth grade in 2011 and who entered a new high school as ninth-grade students in 2012. ...
Article
Nearly 15% of American students are chronically absent from school. To address absenteeism, many states have recently made chronic absence a core component of their school accountability plans. Scholars have theorized that a positive school climate can promote student attendance, but empirical support for this idea is lacking. In this study, the relationship between four student-reported measures of school climate and student attendance are investigated by analyzing two annual school climate surveys (N = 823,753) from New York City. Results indicate small associations among the four measures of perceived school climate and student attendance. Furthermore, school-level changes in perceived school climate between middle and high school were only marginally associated with student attendance.
... Truancy is a type of school presence problem that is often associated with absence in schools. The ideal solution for school to collaborate with other stakeholders in dealing with the issue of truancy is still at its infancy (Ingul, Havik, & Heyne, 2019;Rocque et al., 2017). ...
... Percent of minorities, single parent household, and percent of families living in poverty data was derived from the American Community Survey (2012-2016) (United States Census Bureau 2016). Juvenile arrest rate (continuous variable) at the zip code level was also included as a potential confounder based on prior work demonstrating higher juvenile crime and delinquency associated with higher school absenteeism and dropout rates (Hirschfield 2009;Rocque et al. 2017). Arrest data were provided by the MDC Juvenile Services Department. ...
Article
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Transportation vulnerability, defined as lack of access to transportation resulting in financial, social, or health consequences, reduces quality of life. While research has focused on the relationship between transportation vulnerability and the built environment among adults, youth have received less attention. This study examined the association between transportation vulnerability and school attendance in Miami-Dade County, Florida from 2010 to 2017 across schools that were/were not provided free transportation for students to attend a park-based physical activity afterschool program called Fit2Play (n = 289 public schools; 84% with Title I status; 41% located in high transportation vulnerable areas, 28% provided with free transportation to a program park). Adjusted longitudinal generalized linear mixed models showed a positive association between transportation vulnerability and school attendance with stronger magnitude in schools with versus without free school-to-program transportation (β = 1.16, 95% CI 0.69, 1.63). Sub-analyses showed a 3.23% (95% CI 2.45, 4.02) mean increase in school attendance for program sites with high program attendance located in high versus low transportation vulnerable areas. These findings suggest that transportation interventions have potential to improve school attendance and community-based recreation participation over time for youth exposed to high transportation vulnerability. Study results highlight the need to explore sustainable services that reduce transportation vulnerability for youth in high-need subgroups to improve school and community program participation.
... Rocque, Jennings, Piquero, Ozkan und Farrington (2017) untersuchten Daten aus der Cambridge-Studie für delinquente Entwicklung im Hinblick auf spätere Lebensverläufe von Kindern in London, die 1961 bis 1962 im Alter von 12 bis 14 Jahren die Kriterien für Schulschwänzen erfüllten. In dem Untersuchungszeitraum von 40 Jahren ergaben sich signifikante Unterschiede zwischen Schulschwänzer_innen und Nichtschulschwänzer_innen für Delinquenz, Substanzmissbrauch, aggressives Verhalten und Arbeitslosigkeit (Rocque et al., 2017;vgl. auch Dalun et al., 2010;Farrington, 1996;Henry & Huizinga, 2007;Henry, Knight & Thornberry, 2012). ...
Article
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Zusammenfassung. Fragestellung: Wie ist der Verlauf bei schulvermeidenden Patient_innen hinsichtlich Symptomatik, Schulbesuch, Funktionsniveau und Inanspruchnahmeverhalten 1.5 bis 3 Jahre nach Erstvorstellung? Welche Variablen wirken sich auf ihn aus? Methodik: Von einer Inanspruchnahme-Stichprobe von 237 Schulvermeider_innen wurden 1.5 bis 3 Jahre nach Erstvorstellung 108 für ein Telefoninterview mit den Eltern erreicht. Es wurde die Elternversion des Strenghts and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) durchgeführt und das Inanspruchnahmeverhalten sowie der aktuelle Schulbesuch erfragt. Als Prädiktoren wurden u. a. das Ausmaß der Schulvermeidung, die Diagnosen, die Art der Schulvermeidung (Schulverweigerer_innen vs. Schulschwänzer_innen vs. gemischte Gruppe) sowie die Skalen des Inventars Schulvermeidendes Verhalten (ISV) analysiert. Ergebnisse: Es wurde eine hohe Inanspruchnahme sowohl kinder- und jugendpsychiatrischer als auch von Jugendhilfemaßnahmen gefunden, bei 40.7 % kam es zu wiederholten teil- oder vollstationären Behandlungen. Beim Follow-up wurde der SDQ-Gesamtwert bei 46.3 % als grenzwertig oder auffällig angegeben, wobei emotionale Probleme und Probleme mit Gleichaltrigen dominierten. Das Funktionsniveau, insbesondere der Schulbesuch, wurde bei ca. einem Drittel als problematisch eingeschätzt. Die ISV-Skalen Aggression, Probleme mit Peers und Probleme mit Lehrer_innen sowie die Diagnose einer Störung des Sozialverhaltens waren mit Schwierigkeiten beim Schulbesuch oder erhöhten Fehlzeiten beim Follow-up assoziiert. Schlussfolgerungen: Die Ergebnisse betonen die Bedeutung externalisierender Symptome und einhergehender sozialer Belastungen für einen negativen Verlauf von Schulabsentismus. Implikationen für prospektive Verlaufsstudien werden diskutiert.
... Regular school attendance and eventual graduation/completion are associated with broad short-and long-range positive outcomes such as academic achievement, enhanced physical and mental health, and stronger lifetime earning potential (Allison and Attisha 2019; Balfanz 2016; Zaff et al. 2017). Conversely, school attendance problems and school dropout are associated with broad short-and long-range negative outcomes such as academic deficiencies, grade retention, school disengagement, impaired socioemotional functioning, mental health problems, substance use, and economic deprivation (Ansari, Hofkens, and Pianta 2020; Benner and Wang, 2014;Gakh et al. 2020;Rocque et al. 2017). School absenteeism also means less access to non-academic resources such as food and medical care (Hutt 2018). ...
Article
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Background School attendance and school attendance problems are complex and significant indicators of child and adolescent health and development. The study of school attendance/problems has a rich history but one that has bifurcated into detached systemic and analytic approaches. Objective Integrative heuristic frameworks are pursued to enhance synergy regarding school attendance/problems via shared conceptual schemas, cohesive organization of key variables, fundamental evolutionary processes, assimilated measurement tools, and coordinated intercession strategies. Method Five major domains (and themes) of the school attendance/problems literature are presented to juxtapose systemic and analytic approaches in this area: core constructs (dimensional and categorical), influencing factors (distal and proximal), trajectories (continuous and discontinuous), measurement (evaluation and assessment), and intercession (intervention and treatment). Results Systemic and analytic approaches to each major domain of school attendance/problems contain key commonalities for integrative heuristic frameworks. These frameworks include symbiotic categorical-dimensional orientations defining core constructs, shared domain architectures and ecological levels linking distal and proximal influencing factors, developmental cascade pathways accounting for continuous and discontinuous trajectories, nuanced early warning systems and data mining algorithms blending evaluation and assessment, and multi-tiered systems of support incorporating broad interventions and specific treatments. Conclusions Only by encompassing all valid panoramic and immersive perspectives and best practices can researchers, educators, policymakers, families, and other stakeholders fully comprehend and address the complicated ecosystem of school attendance/problems. Such integration is also necessary to effectively draw all youth, and particularly marginalized youth, into the educational process.
... Skinner (2014) outlined the broad impact of truancy in several areas, including school success, future employment and income, and delinquency behaviors. Longitudinal studies have found associations between chronic absenteeism and lower levels of academic achievement, employment problems, convictions, aggression, substance abuse, and other adjustment problems in adulthood (Gottfried, 2011;Rocque, Jennings, Piquero, Ozkan, & Farrington, 2016). Regular school attendance in middle school was one of the biggest predictors of success as middle school students progressed to the ninth grade (McKee & Caldarella, 2016). ...
... Seventy percent of respondents reported that they had skipped school, 47% had been suspended, 39% had dropped out of school, and 45% had failed a grade (see Figure 17). Research has shown that truancy is closely related to antisocial behavior and delinquency among youth, and programs that enhance the school engagement of youth can decrease their level of criminality (Mazerolle et al., 2018;Rocque et al., 2017) ...
Technical Report
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The Northeast Youth Violence Reduction Partnership (NYVRP), a five-year pilot project, was implemented in three communities in Northeastern Saskatchewan to reduce offending among Indigenous youth at risk for violence or gang involvement. To assess the annual achievements of the program, a process evaluation was conducted through a casefile/database review of the program youth and analysis of the program documents (e.g., meeting minutes, reports, and program forms). The evaluation included the analysis of the program outputs, the adherence of the program to its principles and goals, and satisfaction of the stakeholders with the NYVRP.
... Regular school attendance and school completion are key benchmarks of adaptive functioning in children and adolescents, having been linked to a broad array of positive physical and mental health, academic, social, civil, and economic outcomes, even into adulthood (Allison and Attisha 2019;DePaoli et al. 2018;Rocque et al. 2017). Conversely, school attendance problems, chronic school absenteeism, and school dropout are key indicators of maladaptive functioning in children and adolescents. ...
Article
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School attendance and school completion are important benchmarks of successful development. Unfortunately, school absenteeism and school dropout remain debilitating and prevalent conditions among youth. Stakeholders invested in promoting school attendance and reducing school absenteeism generally agree that multifaceted ecological frameworks are needed to account for these heterogeneous problems as well as differences across local education agencies and broader jurisdictions. A multi-tiered system of supports (MTSS) framework emphasizes many aspects that match well with school attendance and its problems, including prevention and a continuum of supports, screening, evidence-based assessment and intervention, problem-solving and data-based decision-making, implementation fidelity, and natural embedding into extant school improvement plans. This article outlines a multidimensional MTSS model for school attendance and absenteeism to account for recent developments regarding service delivery within schools. Such developments include integrated models of multi-tiered service delivery to concurrently address multiple domains of functioning, the development of more nuanced approaches for students with various challenges, and consideration of three-dimensional (pyramidal) perspectives to allow simultaneous and yet nuanced strategies for several domain clusters. Sample domain clusters common to the literature that could populate the multiple dimensions or sides of a MTSS pyramid model for school attendance and absenteeism are presented. These domain clusters include (1) school refusal/truancy/school withdrawal/school exclusion, (2) functional profiles and analysis, (3) preschool/elementary/middle/high school, (4) ecological levels of impact on school attendance and its problems, and (5) low/moderate/high absenteeism severity. Recommendations are made as well regarding broader MTSS integration and implementation science vis-à-vis school attendance and its problems.
... School absenteeism and truancy is generally considered to be one of the most important indicators of poor educational outcomes. It is associated with significant long-term deleterious effects such as criminal activity (Rocque et al., 2017) and adult psychiatric problems (Reid, 2003) and is a better predictor of school dropout than poor academic performance (Balfanz & Byrne, 2012). Absenteeism here refers to nonattendance of a scheduled school day (or part thereof) for any reason, whereas truancy normally refers to absenteeism that is unexplained or not accepted as a legitimate reason to be absent from school. ...
Article
Greater school absenteeism is associated with numerous negative educational outcomes. We used a retrospective cohort design with linked administrative data on 296,422 children to examine the relationship between school absenteeism and child protection system (CPS) involvement. Children with substantiated maltreatment had 4.1 times more unexplained and problem absences than children with no CPS involvement. In multivariate analyses, children with substantiated maltreatment had significantly greater “chronic” truancy ( OR = 3.41) and less “acceptable” levels of absences ( OR = 0.74) compared to children with no CPS involvement. Greater absenteeism was seen for children with substantiated neglect and who had their first CPS notification earlier in life. Being in out-of-home care for 3+ years was a protective factor for children who had a CPS notification before age 5. Additional adversities had a strong additive effect with CPS involvement on absenteeism and chronic truancy. This study demonstrates the potential scope for reducing problem absenteeism and helps inform the public debate regarding how the type and timing of CPS involvement might ameliorate or exacerbate harm for children.
... Based on Kearny's continuum, one should pay attention to tardiness as an imaginary part of a behavior that can develop into school absenteeism, which in turn increases the risk of dropping out [11], school failure, long-lasting associations with crime, and problematic health behavior [27]. ...
Article
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Tardiness is a common problem in many schools. It can be understood as an individual risk for future problematic behavior leading to absenteeism, school dropout, exclusion and later health problems. Tardiness can also be examined in relation to a broader social-ecological perspective on health. The aim of this study was to analyze students', school staff's and parents' views on students' tardiness in two Swedish schools. A focus group interview design was used with 21 school personnel, 21 students in grade nine and two parents. The data were analyzed by using thematic content analysis. The results illustrated the main theme-It depends on. . .-regarding what will happen if a student arrives late to school lessons. This finding is further explained by the subthemes about teachers' signals and reactions and the responses from teachers and students. The conclusion showed the importance of organizing the school day more predictably for the students. Late arrival is a sign of shortcomings in a school organization. It is necessary to develop guidelines related to how to handle students' late arrival based on predictable viewpoints but even more so on how to promote students' sense of belonging and their interest in and motivation for going to school.
... Behavioural Pathway The unique impact of truancy suggests that absences influence attainment through negative behavioural pathways. This is because truancy is associated with risky behaviours such as alcohol consumption, drug abuse or criminal activities (e.g., Eaton et al. 2008;Rocque et al., 2016) which can, in turn, lead to lower academic achievement. Sickness-related absences may signal long-term underlying health conditions that can, in turn, negatively affect academic achievement. ...
Technical Report
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Key Points School absences are detrimental to educational attainment in national exams at the end of compulsory (S4) and post-compulsory schooling (S5/S6) in Scotland. Truancy, sickness-related absences, and absences due to exceptional domestic circumstances each have a unique negative impact on educational attainment at both stages. Our findings suggest three additional pathways through which absence may affect academic achievement: a behavioural pathway, a health pathway, and a psychosocial pathway. Our research challenges previous assumptions that unexcused absences are more harmful than excused absences and calls for equal emphasis on tackling all forms of school absence. Research and interventions need to focus on mitigating the harmful consequences of school absenteeism, considering the reason for absence.
... It is common for young people with school refusal behavior (SRB) not to finish compulsory education and drop out of school, which is associated with economic, medical, psychosocial, and marital problems in adulthood [2][3][4][5][6]. In addition, SRB is a risk factor for other negative behaviors that are manifested especially in adolescence, such as poor academic performance, teenage pregnancy, violence, poor psychological well-being, substance use, and criminal behaviors [7][8][9][10]. This empirical evidence highlights the importance of an early detection of the factors or variables associated with SRB and this study was framed in this line. ...
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Not all adolescents with school attendance problems attribute their behavior to the same causes. Knowing the subtypes of students who reject school and their relationship with new variables, such as self-concept, is an unresolved task. This study aimed to identify different school refusal behavior profiles and to determine whether these profiles differed from each other based on the scores of the eleven dimensions of self-concept (Physical appearance, Physical abilities, Parent relations, Same-sex relations, Opposite-sex relations, Honesty, Emotional stability, Self-esteem, Verbal, Math, and General school). The participants were 1315 Spanish students (57.6% male) aged 12–18 years (M = 15.21; SD = 1.74). The School Refusal Assessment Scale-Revised and the Self-Description Questionnaire II-Short Form were administered. A latent class analysis revealed four school refusal behavior profiles: Moderately High School Refusal Behavior, Moderately Low School Refusal Behavior, Mixed School Refusal Behavior and Non-School Refusal Behavior. The results indicated that the Mixed School Refusal Behavior group was the most maladaptive profile and revealed the lowest mean scores on self-concept. In contrast, Non-School Refusal and Moderately Low School Refusal Behavior groups revealed the highest scores in all dimensions of self-concept. Implications for working toward the prevention of school refusal in students with low self-concept are discussed.
... Cardwell et al. (2019) noted that a greater presence of risk factors (e.g., impulsiveness, poor relationship with parents, or antisocial behavior with peers) can lead to a greater probability of engaging in violent acts during adolescence. Previous studies have suggested that the transition into adolescence coincides with a period of psychological, biological, and emotional transformation (Martínez González and Álvarez Blanco, 2005), which may explain the increase in disruptive or aggressive behavior during this life phase (Buckley et al., 2012;Peltzer and Pengpid, 2017;Rocque et al., 2017). However, no studies with Spanish student samples have been found that analyze the relationship between school refusal (from a functional model) and aggression during this period. ...
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In order to reduce school attendance problems and aggressive behavior, it is essential to determine the relationship between both variables. The aim of this study was twofold: (1) to examine the mean differences in scores on aggression, based on school refusal behavior, and (2) to analyze the predictive capacity of high scores on aggression, based on school refusal behavior factors. The sample consisted of 1455 Spanish secondary school students, aged 13–17 ( M = 14.85; SD = 1.56). The School Refusal Assessment Scale-Revised (I. Avoidance of negative affectivity, II. Escape from aversive social and/or evaluative situations, III. Pursuit of attention from significant others, and IV. Pursuit of tangible reinforcement outside of school) and the Aggression Questionnaire (I. Physical Aggression, II. Verbal Aggression, III. Anger, and IV. Hostility) were used. Results indicated that students having high levels of Physical Aggression, Verbal Aggression, Anger, and Hostility received significantly higher scores on school refusal behavior. In most cases, school refusal behavior was found to be a positive and statistically significant predictor of aggression. Students that base their school refusal on the pursuit of tangible reinforcements outside of school earned higher scores, and other functional conditions underlying school refusal behavior were found to be associated with aggression issues. The role of aggression as a risk factor for school refusal behavior is discussed.
... Short-run effects of schooling inputs on test scores do not always perfectly predict long-run effects, and it is not obvious that all forms of educational attainment would be equally affected by high school absences (e.g., high school graduation, two-year college enrollment, four-year college enrollment). The correlation between high school absences and negative long-run outcomes, such as dropout, drug use, and criminal activity, is well documented (Rumberger and Rotermund, 2012;Hawkins et al., 1998;Henry and Huizinga, 2007;Loeber and Farrington, 2000;Rocque et al., 2017). However, this research is largely correlational. ...
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We provide novel evidence on the causal impacts of student absences in middle and high school on state test scores, course grades, and educational attainment using a rich administrative dataset that tracks the date and class period of each absence. We use two similar but distinct identification strategies that address potential endogeneity due to time-varying student-level shocks by exploiting within-student, between-subject variation in class-specific absences. We also leverage information on the timing of absences to show that absences that occur after the annual window for state standardized testing do not affect test scores, providing a further check of our identification strategy. Both approaches yield similar results. We find that absences in middle and high school harm contemporaneous student achievement and longer-term educational attainment: On average, missing 10 classes reduces math or English Language Arts test scores by 3–4% of a standard deviation and course grades by 17–18% of a standard deviation. 10 total absences across all subjects in 9th grade reduce both the probability of on-time graduation and ever enrolling in college by 2%. Learning loss due to school absences can have profound economic and social consequences.
... Particularly, chronic absence is a core component of school accountability plans in many states (Hamlin, 2020). It is well established that truancy is associated with multiple school-and non-school-related negative outcomes, such as poor examination results, later unemployment, poorer levels of well-being (Attwood & Croll, 2015), early school leaving (Keppens & Spruyt, 2018), substance use (Henry & Thornberry, 2010), and criminal activity (Rocque et al., 2017). For example, Cabus and De Witte (2015) showed that 12-to 23-year-old Dutch secondary school students who truant have a 34.7% higher likelihood of dropping out of school than regular school attendees. ...
... Mallett (2015) found that mental health, substance abuse, family-related difficulties such as high mobility rates have to do with parental joblessness and general economic insecurity, and inadequate access to affordable housing, exposing students in poverty to have more unexcused absences. Truancy is a strong predictor of future arrest in school (Monahan et al., 2014), and violent, criminal behavior in adulthood (Rocque et al., 2017). In short, the extant literature on truancy points strongly to its presence being a societal issue that merits greater research and policy attention. ...
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This work selects a political cite in which the state policy reform occurs to examine reasons and underlying ideologies for some consensus on the debates regarding the need to criminalize or decriminalize truancy. Studying the legislation help to unpack the nature of relationships in social systems, with the purpose of eliminating unbalanced power relations in the politics of school discipline policy reform. Embedding whiteness as a grounded lens, we conducted critical discourse analysis and critical policy analysis to deconstruct one bill to capture major competing political discourses pertinent to school disciplinary policy reform the Texas State Legislature. Although the counter-discourse of the reform shows resistance toward change, findings reflect widespread concerns across broad constituencies about the injustice of school disciplinary policy, the necessity of decriminalizing students, and the ideologies of discipline and control. The rich discourses reveal tensions of opponents’ political stances on the issues of school-to-prison pipeline at the macro-level. With an eye toward reframing the academic discourse with respect to school disciplinary issues, we further discuss the language used in describing truancy issues and offer an in-depth understanding of the dominant discourse of discipline policy reform.
... Students who demonstrate academic success are more likely to have positive school engagement, academic motivation, and self-conceptions [37,38], all of which are positively associated with students' educational attainment [39,40]. By contrast, students who do not demonstrate academic success are more likely to disengage from school, have poor school attendance, and lower academic achievement [41,42], all which are positively associated with adolescents' externalizing behaviors [43,44]. For African American adolescents, experiences with racial discrimination especially in the school context, contributes to negative academic outcomes [6,45]. ...
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Purpose Previous studies have examined externalizing behaviors among African American youth using variable-centered approaches that study aggression and delinquency separately. However, aggression and delinquency often operate together in shaping adolescent behavior. For this reason, person-centered approaches are essential for identifying subgroups of African American youth using multiple indicators of aggression and delinquency to model the behavioral heterogeneity within this population. We examined the relationship between interpersonal, school, and parenting factors and externalizing behaviors among African American youth. Method Drawing from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health 2015–2018, we conducted latent class analysis based on 5 externalizing behavior indicator variables (i.e., serious fight, attack to harm, stealing, drug selling, handgun carrying) using a sample of 7,236 African American adolescents, aged 12–17. Results We identified a three class solution: Class #1—No Involvement (74.4%), characterized by very low levels of involvement in all of the externalizing behaviors examined; Class #2—Serious fight (23.3%), which is characterized by near-universal involvement in a serious fight, far lower levels of attack to harm, and negligible levels of stealing, drug selling, and handgun caring; and Class #3—Multidimensional externalizing (2.3%), characterized by very high levels of involvement in all of the externalizing variables examined. Conclusion Most African American youth are not involved in externalizing behaviors. It is vital to support both the large majority of African-American youth who are abstaining from externalizing behaviors and to develop/implement programs to address the contextual and interpersonal needs of youth at elevated risk for consequences related to externalizing.
... Internationally, youth who are not engaged in the education system are correlated with higher rates of delinquency and with poor life outcomes, including poverty, poor health and imprisonment (Mathur et al., 2018;Rocque et al., 2017). This pattern is described by Skiba et al. (2014) as the "school to prison pipeline," a construct used to describe policies and practices, especially with respect to school discipline, in the public schools and juvenile justice system that decrease the probability of school success for at-risk children and youth. ...
... Short-run effects of schooling inputs on test scores do not always perfectly predict long-run effects, and it is not obvious that all forms of educational attainment would be equally affected by high school absences (e.g., high school graduation, two-year college enrollment, four-year college enrollment). The correlation between high school absences and negative long-run outcomes, such as dropout, drug use, and criminal activity, is well documented (Rumberger and Rotermund, 2012;Hawkins et al., 1998;Henry and Huizinga, 2007;Loeber and Farrington, 2000;Rocque et al., 2017). However, this research is largely correlational. ...
... A recent study conducted by Maynard et al. (2017) investigated the trends in truancy rates between 2002-2014, and they found significant correlations between truancy and lower academic engagement and school grade (Maynard et al., 2017). Additionally, attendance in schools has been the best predictor of school outcomes (Rocque et al., 2017). Positive school outcomes or academic achievement is essential to ensure a positive trajectory for children's lifespan. ...
Article
There has been a dramatic increase in the rate of truancy cases throughout the United States, and despite truancy reduction efforts, truancy rates remained constant. Truancy is frequently associated with youth’s high-risk behaviors and negative academic and life outcomes. Given the negative impact of truancy, conducting research on school attendance is critical to the success of youth over the life course. The current study examined a sample of 23,459 students referred to the Truancy Assessment and Service Centers (TASC) program to understand the characteristics of elementary school children at risk for truancy by exploring gender differences in the service needs reported by truant children and their families. Results indicate the leading risk factors for truancy include child behavioral problems, educational issues, and parental practices. Also, there were no significant differences between boys and girls related to truancy risk factors nor the types of services children in the TASC program needed.
... School significantly facilitates children's growth as they build academic skills, navigate social relationships with their peers, and develop their sense of identity and self-esteem (Erikson, 1995). The benefits of education for individuals' outcomes across the life course are well documented and include reduced risk of anti-social behavior and improved employment prospects (Hatch et al., 2007;Henry & Huizinga, 2007a, 2007bRocque et al., 2017). ...
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Adult survivors of childhood cancer experience poorer long-term socioeconomic outcomes, yet the influence of educational participation during primary school years is not well understood. This review synthesizes empirical findings from seventy-four quantitative and qualitative peer-reviewed studies, published from 2000-2019 and identified through a search of nine databases. The findings point to the following recommendations to improve policy and practice: provision of teaching and learning away from school; focus on student-centeredness; strengthening home-school-hospital partnerships; facilitation of teacher and peer acceptance; school re-entry support; resources and funding; and advocacy. The findings suggest that a Life Course lens is appropriate to conceptualize the role of educational participation for mitigating long-term impacts of childhood cancer during developmental transitions from childhood to adolescence and adulthood.
... Concentrated disadvantage has been found to spatially spread from one place to another (Shimada, 2004;Zeoli et al., 2014). Some measures of concentrated disadvantage have used variables and composite measures of unemployment, poverty, youth population, female-headed households with children under the age of 18, truancy, and population density (Chamberlain & Hipp, 2015;Gerell, 2018;Kirk, 2008;Miethe & McDowall, 1993;Piza & Carter, 2018;Rocque et al., 2017;Sampson, 1983;Vilalta & Fondevila, 2019;Vilalta et al., 2021aVilalta et al., , 2021bWard et al., 2014). Younger populations have often been used to characterize socially disorganized locations (Piza & Carter, 2018;Ward et al., 2014). ...
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Previous empirical studies on the correlation between residential burglary and concentrated disadvantage (CD) in Latin America commonly omit the spatial elements of the relationship. Using Mexico City (CDMX) residential burglary data for the period 2016 to 2018, we examine the predictive capacity of concentrated disadvantage in relation to residential burglary patterns, using a Geographically Weighted Regression approach to check whether their correlation varies across CDMX police quadrants. Controlling for relevant structural variables associated with residential burglary in previous studies, we find that the relationship between CD and residential burglary is positive in 844 out of 846 police quadrants (99.7%) and significantly much steeper in some quadrants than others –up to four times the median local slope. Thus, one key implication is that as this relationship is affected by spatial heterogeneity, traditional regression-to-the-mean analyses may misinform evidence-based crime prevention policies.
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Background Exposure to family and domestic violence (FDV) in childhood can have a detrimental effect on children's health and social outcomes. However, research on the school outcomes of children exposed to FDV is scant. Objectives To investigate the impact of FDV exposure on school attendance and suspension in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children. Methods A population-based retrospective cohort study of school children, in grade 1 to 10, born from 1993 to 2006 in Western Australia (n = 26,743) using linked administrative data. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals to determine the association with school attendance and suspension outcomes for children exposed to FDV compared to non-exposed children. Results Compared to non-exposed children, children exposed to FDV have an increase of poor school attendance: Aboriginal children adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.91, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.75–2.07, non-Aboriginal children aOR = 2.42, 95%CI: 2.12–2.75. FDV-exposed children also have an increased risk of school suspension: Aboriginal children aOR = 1.60, 95%CI: 1.47–1.74, non-Aboriginal children aOR = 2.68, 95%CI: 2.35–3.05, compared to non-exposed counterparts. Conclusion Exposure to FDV is associated with an increased odds of poor school attendance and school suspension. Evidence-based and innovative strategies are needed to support children who are exposed to FDV. This involves responding in ways that does not cause further trauma to children; a restorative and trauma-informed approach is vital.
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This qualitative, phenomenological study explored four incarcerated adult females’ experiences that contributed to their human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV) status and acts of murder. The participants were purposely selected based on their HIV status and their crime, murder. Data were collected through one-on-one interviews and available secondary reports on the topic. The goal of this research was to answer two questions: (1) What contributed to the female participants’ HIV-positive status? and (2) How did the females’ HIV-positive status shape their crime of murder? A thematic analysis was used to analyse and identify the factors linked to the participants’ HIV status and their crime. The findings suggest irregular testing of HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), promiscuous behaviour, partner infidelity and ignorance of partners’ HIV status as contributory factors to the females’ HIV-positive status. Specific childhood-related and adulthood-related factors explain the murder of the participants’ partners/spouses.
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We examined the impact of family structure and family processes on engagement in multiple and co-occurring problem behaviors during adolescence (delinquency, substance use, risky sexual behavior, and truancy) while accounting for key risk factors (attachment to school, antisocial peers, self-control, and residential stability) for antisocial behavior. Using data from Waves 1 and 2 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (n = 9,992), latent class analysis identified classes of youth based on engagement in multiple forms of problem behavior. Multinomial logistic regression was then employed to test the direct and indirect effects of family structure on family processes and placement in the latent classes. Significant differences in family processes and latent class membership were identified across categories of family structure except when comparing across two types of single biological mother households (with children from one father and multipartnered fertility families). Family processes, self-control, and having antisocial peers reduced the effects of family structure on latent class membership.
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Introduction School absenteeism is increasingly recognized as a public health problem for healthcare professionals, policy makers, social workers, and educators. It is known to have short term as well as long term negative implications. This study aims at determining the prevalence and correlates of school absenteeism and its associated factors among intermediate and secondary students in Saudi Arabia (SA). Methods A national cross-sectional survey was conducted among adolescents aged 10– 19 years (n = 12,121). Data on school-absenteeism, socio-demographics and risk behaviors were obtained and a multinomial logistic regression was conducted. Results The overall rate of school absenteeism was 76.1%, defind as being absent always/often, sometimes or rarely during this school year, with one-third of students being moderate or high absence. Students who reported poor relationships with their father, adolescents with polygamist fathers, smoking cigarettes, frequent napping, sleeping more than 10 h daily during weekends, being depressed or chronically ill, using the internet for >2 h daily, or rarely having breakfast during the last 30 days were strongly associated with high absenteeism. Conclusion High absenteeism among adolescents warrants specific attention be given to it in SA. Serious efforts and prevention interventions are needed to decrease school absence.
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As many as 90 % of incarcerated children and young people enter the secure setting disengaged from education. The nature of the secure custodial setting compounds the complex and challenging needs of the children, though efforts to understand this are limited. This paper reports on an ethnographic case study in one secure children’s home in England. Findings show that children can be re-engaged with education, relatively easily within a short space of time, given the right conditions. However, the secure setting was a defining feature, shaping the extent of this engagement. The implications of these findings are discussed and recommendation made.
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Research Summary Partnerships are an integral part of the working life of police, yet not a lot is known about how such partnerships work to deter and control crime problems. This article explores the impact of a Third Party Policing Partnership involving police and schools coming together to engage with parents to address their child's truancy and antisocial behavior. We report on results from an embedded behavioral economics experiment within the Ability School Engagement Program (ASEP) Trial. ASEP involved 102 young people who were chronically truant from school and randomly allocated to the experimental partnership program (ASEP) or the business‐as‐usual condition. We find that riskier choices made by parents increase the incidence of child self‐reported antisocial behavior (SRASB). Our results show parents in the ASEP condition had greater gains in knowledge of the education laws relative to control. There was a backfire effect for parents in the control group: Their gains in knowledge of the laws led their children to have higher levels of SRASB. Policy Implications Policing partnerships are an important part of the future of policing. Police partnerships with schools are a promising approach for engaging parents and young people in a manner that clearly and fairly explains to parents their legal obligations for their child's school attendance. While we do not find that ASEP modified parental risk‐taking behavior, we do find that the ASEP intervention created an insulating effect from the negative outcomes of the business‐as‐usual condition, in which school principals delivered ad hoc bad news to parents about their child's antisocial behavior in a way that was not procedurally just. Policing partnerships are likely to deter antisocial behavior when police work with third party partners who have some type of legislative responsibility. This legislative medium creates opportunities for the police and third parties to better engage and communicate legal responsibilities and the consequences of noncompliance.
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School has an important function in providing the environment for young people to acquire many skills and knowledge required by contemporary life, but the problems of attachment to school and problematic attendance all over the world reveal an increasing statistic. It is thought that some negative processes such as anxiety sensitivity, social and adaptive functioning, and school refusal can affect this problem. On the other hand, it is considered that the academic resilience of young people has an important protective function in terms of these risk factors. For this purpose, the mediator role of academic resilience between anxiety sensitivity, social and adaptive functioning, and school refusal and school attachment were examined in a Turkish sample of 452 high school students. In the process of data collection, the school refusal assessment scale, social and adaptive functioning scale, and academic resilience scale were adapted and used in the Turkish culture. In the data analysis, the structural equation model was used to determine the direct and indirect predictive effects between the variables. The results of the study showed that academic resilience fully mediated the relationship between anxiety sensitivity and school attachment, whereas it partially mediated the relationship between social and adaptive functioning and school refusal and school attachment. Based on the results of the study, it was evaluated that high academic resilience has a strong protective function against the problems of negative school attachment and problematic school absenteeism among young people, and this finding was discussed within the context of literature.
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Objectives: To examine the associations between truancy in adolescence and sexual risk outcomes in young adulthood. Methods: Data were drawn from 2677 participants of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. Assessed when participants were aged 13-18 years, truancy was categorized as no truancy, low-level truancy and high-level truancy. When participants were aged 25-31 years, age of sexual debut, number of lifetime sexual partners and having a sexually transmitted disease (STD) in the previous 12 months were assessed. Logistic regression was used to estimate the associations. Results: Compared to non-truants, the likelihood of early sexual debut was higher among low-level truants and highest among high level truants. For lifetime number of sexual partners, low-level truants were more likely to have a high number of lifetime sexual partners compared to non-truants in young adulthood, while there was no relationship between high-level truancy and number of lifetime sexual partners. Low-level truants were just as likely as non-truants to report having an STD in the previous 12 months in young adulthood; however, high-level truants were more likely report having an STD in the same time period. Conclusions: Truancy in adolescence is associated with sexual risk outcomes in adulthood. Although not a cause of risky sexual behavior, habitual truancy presents an important point of intervention and may therefore be a useful indicator for programs that aim to prevent STDs
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Research QuestionHow can an Australian police agency best test its role in a truancy prevention programme that can help to prevent crime?DataOperational and analytic planning for testing the Ability School Engagement Partnership (ASEP) programme in Queensland that aims to increase school attendance and reduce anti-social behaviour, including offending.Methods Fulfilling the requirements for registering a randomised trial protocol with the Clinicaltrials.gov Registry (NCT04281966; date registered 24 February 2020).FindingsA protocol deploying a cluster randomised trial offers sufficient statistical power to detect a moderately large effect size as statistically significant with 80% probability.Conclusion Implementation of this protocol as planned would provide an internally valid test of the effectiveness of the ASEP programme in real-world conditions.
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The use and interpretation of educational and psychological test scores are paramount to individual outcomes and opportunities. Methods for detecting differential item functioning (DIF) are imperative for item analysis when developing and revising assessments, particularly as it pertains to fairness across populations, languages, and cultures. We discuss the practical application of third generation of DIF, which proposes an ecological framework for explaining why DIF occurs using sociological, community, and contextual variables as possible explanations of item responding. We examined school district clusters for DIF through a model‐based approach via multilevel logistic regression random‐intercept and random‐coefficient models to detect racial/ethnic DIF on a youth risk and needs assessment. We demonstrate how the use of district‐level administrative data as estimates of student's contextual environments shows promise to understand ecological sources of DIF and DIF variance. The implication of the work progresses DIF research, enhances the approach to understanding item responses, and provides a more accurate understanding of youth development through an ecological framework. Recommendations for practice and future studies are discussed.
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While individual and family factors behind students’ school absenteeism are well-researched, fewer studies have addressed school climate factors. This study investigated the association between school climate in Swedish schools and students’ absenteeism. A multi-informant survey of school climate was conducted in 101 schools and analysed in relation to the history of absenteeism of 2770 students attending those schools in the 7th grade at inception, with follow-up until completion of the compulsory school (9th grade). Data on absenteeism was extracted from schools’ registers. Student (but not teacher) positive ratings of school climate were associated with lower absenteeism between the age of 13 and the age of 16. The associations between student rated school climate and absenteeism appeared stronger among students with highly educated parents.
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The legitimacy of authorities is paramount to their ability to exercise their powers. We examine truanting students’ and their parents’ perceptions of the legitimacy of authorities in the context of the adapted family group conference component of the Ability School Engagement Program (ASEP), a police–school partnership aimed at reducing antisocial behavior. To evaluate the program, 102 truanting students were randomly allocated to a control or the ASEP condition. Students’ and their parents’ perceptions of authorities were collected to explore how this intervention component, specifically designed to encourage legitimacy views through procedural justice, impacted perceptions of police and school staff. Results indicated that parents participating in ASEP conferences showed significant changes in their perceptions of legitimacy of authorities. ASEP parents’ perceptions of police increased following the conference, but parental perceptions of school legitimacy appeared to be affected by perceptions of the procedural justness (or unjustness) of specific authority figures in the conference. Parental views of school authorities were driven by the few school representatives who failed to engage families in procedurally just ways. Students themselves showed little change in their views following the ASEP conference, suggesting the conference alone was not sufficient for bringing about changes in student perceptions of authority legitimacy.
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Although truancy has frequently been linked to delinquency, we still lack a proper understanding of how this relationship comes about. This study uses Situational Action Theory (SAT) to develop a more comprehensive, mechanism-based explanation of the truancy–delinquency nexus. The core argument is that the relationship is conditional on adolescents’ propensity for delinquency and their exposure to criminogenic settings. To test this argument, I use two kinds of data collected as part of the Peterborough Adolescent Development Study (PADS+). Drawing on unique situational data provided by space–time budgets, I find only weak evidence that the relationship between truancy and delinquency exists at the situational level. Analyses of multiple yearly waves of this panel study provide support for SAT’s potential as a theoretical framework for the truancy–delinquency relationship by showing that the effect of truancy on changes in delinquency is conditional on changes in adolescents’ delinquency propensity and their exposure to criminogenic settings.
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This study aimed to investigate the reasons for school absenteeism among students studying at different types of high schools, and school counsellors’ practices and proposed solutions for reducing school absenteeism. This was a qualitative research conducted with a phenomenological design. The study group was formed using criterion sampling, one of the purposive sampling methods. The research was conducted in Turkey during the 2018–2019 academic year with 21 school counsellors working at different types of high schools and having at least 5 years of experience. The school counsellors were asked four questions on school absenteeism using a semistructured interview form. Each interview took 30–45 minutes and interview notes were taken synchronously. According to the research findings, poor academic outcomes, parental involvement, school management and school schedules, as well as health issues and a lack of social activities are the main factors influencing school absenteeism. Potential solutions that can be offered by school counsellors include increasing family involvement, improving the school climate, addressing health issues, planning new social activities and offering flexible syllabus options for students.
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The present study aims to identify the trajectory pattern of truancy from early adolescence in South Korea and to examine the association of each trajectory pattern with social-ecological based factors. The participants were 2378 elementary school students who completed the Korean Welfare Panel Study at five time points that covered from late elementary school to the first year of high school. Latent Class Growth Analysis identified three truancy trajectories: truancy increasing group, truancy decreasing group, and non-truant group. At the individual level, the truancy increasing group was more likely to be composed of males and have higher levels of game use than non-truants. Both the truancy increasing and decreasing group were more likely to have higher levels of aggression and depression than the non-truant group. At the family level, non-traditional structures and poor parental affection were more associated with the truancy increasing group. At the peer/friend level, the truancy increasing group was more likely to have poor peer relations than the non-truant group or truancy decreasing group, and more likely to have associations with delinquent peers than the non-truant group. At the school level, the truancy increasing group reported being less likely to have positive relations with teachers, to engage in school activities, and to follow school rules than the non-truant group. These findings could allow for more specific and targeted interventions designed to meet the needs and risk factors associated with the different typologies of truants in South Korea.
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The present study identifies the potential barriers to holistic rehabilitation, including educational re-engagement, of justice-involved youth in Africa. This was done using quantitative data on the educational and other psychosocial problems presented by a cohort of justice-involved youth and qualitative data on the realities on ground in the correctional school within a youth correctional facility in Lagos, Nigeria, as an illustrative example. Findings showed a lot of cross-cutting psycho-social and systemic barriers to holistic psycho-social rehabilitation of justice-involved adolescents. These include pre-existing psychosocial problems such as, educational disengagement prior to incarceration, high prevalence rates of untreated intercurrent behavioral disorders such as conduct disorders and attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder among detained youth, and lack of community- or school-based pre-emptive interventions for school-related indicators of delinquency within the juvenile justice system. Others are lack of non-incarcerating correctional system with focus on psychosocial and educational rehabilitation, poor standard of human/ infrastructural resource-capacity within the facilities, and low level of school-engagement occasioned by poor mental and behavioral health among those enrolled in correctional schools. Context-appropriate pre-emptive and responsive strategies to address cross-cutting psycho-social and rehabilitative needs of justice-involved youth were discussed.
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This unique editorial paper is one of the first that discusses the education of incarcerated young people in an international education journal. We review the eleven papers in the Special Issue on children’s education in secure custodial settings to provide key insights with the aim of moving towards a global understanding of what effective policy and practice may look like. In examining the range of cross-disciplinary papers from a range of different cultural contexts including the UK, Germany, UAE, US, Nigeria and South Africa, we are able to illuminate some of the commonalities in the education of young people who are incarcerated as well as some of the background characteristics – many of which are strikingly similar. We employed the ideas of the bio-socio-ecological systems model to explore the proximal and distal systems that interact to affect the educational experiences of the young people. These included at the microsystemic level the importance of relationships in engaging the young people with education and learning and that, the relationships between the key actors (mesosystem) as well as the importance of effective leadership (exosystem) were critical elements in improving the experience of education in custodial settings. But rather predictably, the structural disadvantages (macrosystem) that young people who come into contact with youth justice face and how these are not appropriately addressed that came into sharp focus, possibly because many countries take a punitive approach to youth offending. We argue that there are things that can be done at each systems level but that in order to make the changes to genuinely improve the lives of these young people, we make a bold call upon the global community (macrosystem), through the UNCRC to challenge themselves for a radical overhaul of youth justice approaches which put the child as child first and offender second in order to meet the commitment in Article 28.
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School absenteeism is an important target of prevention science frameworks within the context of contributing/risk factors and tier-based intervention strategies. Little research has been done with respect to how specific aspects of school climate, academic mindset, and social emotional learning relate to different levels of absenteeism severity. Ensemble analysis, and specifically chi-square adjusted interaction detection analysis, was conducted on a measure of these constructs across multiple levels of absenteeism severity (3+%, 5+%, 10+%, 15+%, 20+%) for 128,381 students (Mage = 13.98; SD = 2.48). Pathways revealed some school climate and academic mindset items to be unique at higher levels of absenteeism severity, though item homogeneity was noted regarding key split points. The latter included items related to turning in assignments on time, liking school, and safety concerns. The findings reveal the need to examine school climate in an integrated fashion with student-based contextual learning factors, may support a dimensional approach to conceptualizing school absenteeism, and may suggest demarcations for tier-based intervention strategies. The findings may also have implications for cohesive school-based initiatives for academics and behavior. Items generated from the present study could serve as targets for school climate intervention components to enhance curriculum-based skill development, teacher care and classroom structure for students, student decision-making, personalized sessions for certain students, and acceptable school grounds. Item-level analysis of school climate may also be preferable in some cases to school-average reports given absenteeism disparities among marginalized students.
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In the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development, 411 males have been followed up from age 8 to age 50, in repeated personal interviews and criminal record searches. At age 48, 93 % of males were interviewed, and 41 % of males were convicted up to age 50. There were 39 self-reported offences for every conviction, on average. This article summarizes criminal careers, childhood risk factors at age 8-10, and adult life success outcomes at age 48. Males who desisted from offending before age 21 were similar to unconvicted males in their life success at age 48. These results suggest that crime can be reduced by interventions that target early childhood risk factors.
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This article summarizes implementation and impact findings from a recent large evaluation of federally funded dropout-prevention programs. The findings suggest that two program models, alternative middle schools for younger students and GED programs for older students, have promise. The article also suggests that striving to understand the nature of academic, social, and personal problems affecting students and tailoring services to address these problems may be a useful systemic approach to reducing dropping out.
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Truancy remains a persistent concern, with serious consequences for the individual, family, and society, as truancy is often linked to academic failure, disengagement with school, school dropout, and delinquency. This study analyzed large-scale data covering multiple years of cohorts of delinquent youths born between 1981 and 1988. Truancy offenders tend to be referred to the juvenile justice system at an earlier age, be juveniles with a family criminal history, and have received special education services. Caucasians girls, juveniles from lower income families, and juveniles who did not use drugs were more likely to be referred for truancy offenses than for other offenses. Implications of these findings for practice and future research are addressed.
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This article assesses the differences in educational deficiencies between a statewide sample of delinquent students and a matched sample of nondelinquent students. Employing a research design that controls for a series of relevant individual and school variables, the study's findings document that delinquent students are characterized by a series of disproportionate educational deficiencies as compared to their nondelinquent student counterparts. Delinquent students were found to attain lower grade point averages, have poorer school attendance records, be retained more often in the same grade, and receive more school disciplinary actions. The article concludes that these documented educational deficiencies may play an integral role in the process of delinquency and, therefore, pose a number of public policy implications in relation to the prevention and treatment of delinquency.
Book
Seven million youngsters--one in four adolescents--have only limited potential for becoming productive adults because they are at high risk for encountering serious problems at home, in school, or in their communities. This is one of the disturbing findings in this unique overview of what is known about young people aged 10 to 17 growing up in the United States today. The book explores four problem areas that are the subject of a great deal of public interest and social concern: delinquency, substance abuse, teen pregnancy, and school failure. In examining these problem areas, Dryfoos has three objectives: to present a more cogent picture of adolescents who are at risk of problem behaviors and where they fit in society; to synthesize the experience of programs that have been successful in changing various aspects of these behaviors; and to propose strategies for using this knowledge base to implement more effective approaches to helping youngsters succeed. Among the key concepts emerging from this study are the importance of intense individual attention, social skills training, exposure to the world of work, and packaging components in broad, community-wide interventions. Schools are recognized as the focal institution in prevention, not only in regard to helping children achieve academically, but in giving young people access to social support and health programs. The author also proposes comprehensive youth development initiatives at the local, state and national level, based on programs shown to be effective in real practice. This landmark, state-of-the-art study represents an indispensable resource for anyone interested in the welfare and current problems of youth, including psychologists, sociologists, school administrators, state and federal officials, policymakers, and concerned parents.
Article
Background: The school-to-prison pipeline is a relatively recent phenomenon identified by researchers as a link between negative school outcomes, such as discipline, and involvement in the justice system. Purpose: To critically examine the school-to-prison pipeline, focusing on race and discipline, as an extension of the " risk society " that has emerged in the last twenty to thirty years. Research, theory, and remaining puzzles with respect to the school-to-prison pipeline are examined. Results: Changes in education and penal policy have converged to increase the chances that students who do not succeed in school become enmeshed in the criminal justice system. The causal link between the two systems is less clear, but a focus on risk is present in both arenas. However, disparities—particularly racial disparities, much like those found in the criminal justice system—persist in school discipline that have yet to be adequately explained. Conclusions: Further research is needed to understand and explain the relationship between school and penal policies, educational outcomes and involvement with the criminal justice system. Irrespective of whether the link is causal, the disparities that exist and increasing numbers of those impacted by exclusionary discipline coupled with negative educational outcomes suggest a new approach should be explored.
Article
This 2007 book examines several contentious and under-studied criminal career issues using one of the world's most important longitudinal studies, the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development (CSDD), a longitudinal study of 411 South London boys followed in criminal records to age 40. The analysis reported in the book explores issues related to prevalence, offending frequency, specialization, onset sequences, co-offending, chronicity, career length, and trajectory estimation. The results of the study are considered in the context of developmental/life-course theories, and the authors outline an agenda for criminal career research generally, and within the context of the CSDD specifically. © Alex R. Piquero, David P. Farrington, Alfred Blumstein 2007 and Cambridge University Press, 2009.
Article
The author discusses the context in which absenteeism and truancy occur through an analysis of risk and protective mechanisms and suggests best practice methods based on a review of literature and research on several successful absenteeism and truancy prevention and reduction programs. The author suggests ways that school social workers can participate in truancy prevention and reduction projects through collaborative efforts with other school professionals, community organizations, social services agencies, parents, and school children.
Article
Much research has examined Moffitt's developmental taxonomy, focusing almost exclusively on the distinction between life-course persistent and adolescence-limited offenders. Of interest, a handful of studies have identified a group of individuals whose early childhood years were marked by extensive antisocial behavior but who seemed to recover and desist (at least from severe offending) in adolescence and early adulthood. We use data from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development to examine the adult adjustment outcomes of different groups of offenders, including a recoveries group, in late middle adulthood, offering the most comprehensive investigation of this particular group to date. Findings indicate that abstainers comprise the largest group of males followed by adolescence-limited offenders, recoveries, and life-course persistent offenders. Furthermore, the results reveal that a host of adult adjustment problems measured at ages 32 and 48 in a number of life-course domains are differentially distributed across these four offender groups. In addition, the recoveries and life-course persistent offenders often show the greatest number of adult adjustment problems relative to the adolescence-limited offenders and abstainers.
Article
The "chief purpose in this paper has been to emphasize the fact that children act as they act not because of innate badness but because of the total influence of their environment upon the particular heredity which they may have. This means that truancy is not a simple affair to be solved by locking the boy up in the Detention Home or the County Jail or haling him into court, but requires for its solution an analysis of the more fundamental relationships and ideals of the community." Statistics and examples are given to substantiate the several points that are brought out in the discussion.
Article
School absenteeism and particularly unauthorized absenteeism or truancy has been the focus of a number of, so far largely unsuccessful, recent policy initiatives. The paper draws upon two sources of data, the British Household Panel Survey and detailed interviews with a group of persistent truants, to consider the extent, consequences and explanations for truancy from secondary schools. Truancy increases steadily across the years of secondary school and, especially in the later years of compulsory schooling there is evidence that patterns of truancy established in one year carry on into the next. Truancy is strongly associated with negative outcomes in terms of not staying in education post‐16, GCSE results and becoming unemployed. Coming from families of low socio‐economic status, parents not monitoring homework, negative attitudes towards teachers and the value of education are all associated with higher levels of truancy. However, the majority of young people in these situations do not truant and there are many truants who do not have these characteristics. A major explanation given by young people themselves for their non‐attendance is poor relationships with teachers, including teachers failing to match their expectations. Other factors mentioned by young people include bullying but also a more general dislike of the atmosphere of the school, sometimes associated with a change of school. There was little evidence of negative responses to the curriculum leading to truancy. It is suggested that we can distinguish between socio‐economic and attitudinal factors which make young people vulnerable to truancy and precipitating events or processes which result in truanting behaviour.
Article
Truancy has been a persistent problem in the United States for more than 100 years. Although truancy is commonly reported as a risk factor for substance use, delinquency, dropout, and a host of other negative outcomes for youth, there has been surprisingly little empirical investigation into understanding the causes and correlates of truancy using large, nationally representative samples. Using the adolescent sample (N = 17,482) of the 2009 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), this study presents the prevalence of truancy and examines individual, school engagement, parental, and behavioral correlates of truancy. Overall, 11% of adolescents between the ages of 12-17 reported skipping school in the past 30 days. Results from multinomial logistic regression models indicate skipping school was robustly associated with an increased probability of reporting externalizing behaviors, less parental involvement, and engagement and lower grades in school. Implications for theory, prevention, and policy are discussed.
Article
Examines to what extent school absenteeism and dropout status as an adolescent have implications for performance of other roles subsequently in the life cycle. Domains of adult functioning studied among former truants and dropouts include occupational and educational attainment, health status, delinquency, and patterns of drug use. (GC)
Article
Reports on a longitudinal study of 411 normal schoolboys from age 8 to 18. 20% became convicted delinquents. Characteristics of the delinquent and nondelinquent group are compared, including family background, early behavior, and intelligence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This book presents the results of 20 years of ecological research into the nature of the relationship between the distribution of delinquency and the pattern of physical structure and social organization of 21 American cities. Uniform findings in every city confirm the hypothesis that the physical deterioration of residential areas accompanied by social disorganization is greatest in a central zone in the business district, intermediate in a middle zone, and lowest in the other zones, and that there is a progressive decline in the incidence of delinquency from the innermost zone where it is most concentrated to the peripheral areas. Delinquency is found to be highly correlated with changes in population, inadequate housing, poverty, presence of Negroes and foreign-born, tuberculosis, mental disorders, and adult criminality. The common basic factor is social disorganization or the absence of community effort to cope with these conditions. Causation of juvenile delinquency is to be sought more in terms of the community than of the individual. 107 maps pertaining to the cities studied and 118 tables relating to population and delinquency rates are included as well as a chapter describing the Chicago Area Project as a demonstration of the effective mobilization of community forces to combat delinquency and crime. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Why is there a delinquent subculture to be taken over? The 5 sections in this volume develop a theory by which to account for the factors that determine membership in gangs with special reference to working-class children who come off second best when judged in school, for example, by middle-class standards. The delinquent subculture therefore satisfies the needs of those experiencing such frustrations. The final section deals with suggestions for research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Sociological theories of delinquency offer rather divergent predictions concerning the effect of dropping out of high school on subsequent delinquent and criminal behavior. For example, strain theory suggests that dropping out decreases such behavior, especially for lower class youth, while social control theory suggests that dropping out should increase the chances of criminal activity. Moreover, empirical studies provide support for each of these views with the most influential study (Elliott and Voss, 1974) presenting evidence consistent with a strain perspective. The present investigation identifies methodological shortcomings in previous studies and reexamines the link between dropout status and subsequent criminal activity. Results indicate that dropping out of high school is positively associated with later crime, an outcome that is consistent with a control perspective.
Article
Approximately one third of U.S. high-school freshmen do not earn their high-school diploma on time. For African-American and Hispanic students, this figure nearly reaches one half. The long-term economic consequences of dropping out of school for both the student and the larger community have been well documented. It has also been argued that school dropouts put themselves at a higher risk for delinquent and criminal behavior when they leave school. Although it seems plausible that dropping out might increase the potential for delinquent conduct, another view states that dropping out is simply the final event in a long, gradual process of disenchantment and disengagement from school. Dropouts show evidence of school failure and developmental problems years in advance. It has been argued, therefore, that the actual event of finally leaving school has no causal effect on criminal or delinquent behavior because it has been so long in coming. In this article, we examine the effect of leaving school early, and the reason for dropping out, on delinquent behavior with the use of panel data models from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 Cohort (NLSY97). Through an appeal to identity theory, we hypothesize that the effect of dropping out is not uniform but varies by the reason for leaving school, gender, and time. This conjecture receives only partial empirical support. Implications for future work in the area are discussed.
Article
Does increasing the minimum dropout age reduce juvenile crime rates? Despite popular accounts that link school attendance to keeping youth out of trouble, little systematic research has analyzed the contemporaneous relationship between schooling and juvenile crime. This paper examines the connection between the minimum age at which youth can legally dropout of high school and juvenile arrest rates by exploiting state-level variation in the minimum dropout age. Using county-level arrest data for the United States between 1980 and 2006, a difference-in-difference-in-difference-type empirical strategy compares the arrest behavior over time of various age groups within counties that differ by their state’s minimum dropout age. The evidence suggests that minimum dropout age requirements have a significant and negative effect on property and violent crime arrest rates for individuals aged 16 to 18 years-old, and these estimates are robust to a range of specification checks. The results are consistent with an incapacitation effect; school attendance decreases the time available for criminal activity. A separate analysis of a nationally representative survey of high school students, however, illustrates that crime is potentially displaced from the streets to schools when the minimum dropout age is higher.
Article
The “school-to-prison pipeline” is an emerging trend that pushes large numbers of at-risk youth - particularly children of color - out of classrooms and into the juvenile justice system. The policies and practices that contribute to this trend can be seen as a pipeline with many entry points, from under-resourced K-12 public schools, to the over-use of zero-tolerance suspensions and expulsions and to the explosion of policing and arrests in public schools. The confluence of these practices threatens to prepare an entire generation of children for a future of incarceration.In this comprehensive study of the relationship between American law and the school-to-prison pipeline, co-authors Catherine Y. Kim, Daniel J. Losen, and Damon T. Hewitt analyze the current state of the law for each entry point on the pipeline and propose legal theories and remedies to challenge them. Using specific state-based examples and case studies, the authors assert that law can be an effective weapon in the struggle to reduce the number of children caught in the pipeline, address the devastating consequences of the pipeline on families and communities, and ensure that our public schools and juvenile justice system further the goals for which they were created: to provide meaningful, safe opportunities for all the nation’s children.
Article
Although most theories draw upon the construct of school engagement in their conceptualization of the dropout process, research addressing its hypothesized prospective relation with dropout remains scarce and does not account for the academic and social heterogeneity of students who leave school prematurely. This study explores the reality of different life-course pathways of school engagement and their predictive relations to dropout. Using an accelerated longitudinal design, we used growth mixture modeling to generate seven distinct trajectories of school engagement with 12- to 16-year-old students (N = 13,300). A vast majority of students were classified into three stable trajectories, distinguishing themselves at moderate to very high levels of school engagement. We refer to these as developmentally normative pathways in light of their frequent occurrence and stability. Although regrouping only one-tenth of participants, four other nonnormative (or unexpected pathways) accounted for the vast majority of dropouts. Dropout risk was closely linked with unstable pathways of school engagement. We conclude by debating the delicate investment balance between universal strategies and more selective and differentiated strategies to prevent dropout. We also discuss the need to better understand why, within normative trajectories, some students with high levels of school engagement drop out of school.
Article
BACKGROUND: High school dropout represents an important public health issue. This study assessed the 3 distinct dimensions of student engagement in high school and examined the relationships between the nature and course of such experiences and later dropout. METHODS: We administered questionnaires to 13,330 students (44.7% boys) from 69 high schools in the province of Quebec (Canada). During 3 consecutive high school years, students reported their behavioral, emotional, and cognitive engagement to school. Information on later dropout status was obtained through official records. RESULTS: Although many adolescents remained highly engaged in high school, one third reported changes, especially decreases in rule compliance, interest in school, and willingness to learn. Students reporting low engagement or important decrements in behavioral investment from the beginning of high school presented higher risks of later dropout. CONCLUSION: School-based interventions should address the multiple facets of high school experiences to help adolescents successfully complete their basic schooling. Creating a positive social-emotional learning environment promises better adolescent achievement and, in turn, will contribute to a healthier lifestyle.
Article
Although a substantial body of recent research has examined the impact of neighborhood socioeconomic distress on youth socioeconomic attainment and urban social dislocations, few studies have determined under what conditions, and for what types of adolescents, neighborhood characteristics matter most. Drawing on theories of collective socialization, social capital, and social control, we develop hypotheses regarding the conditional nature of neighborhood effects on the risk of dropping out of high school, and we then test these hypotheses by estimating event history models based on data from the 1968–1993 waves of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. We find that, among African Americans, the detrimental impact of neighborhood socioeconomic distress on school dropout has increased significantly over the past quarter-century, a probable repercussion of the increasing geographic concentration of urban poverty. The negative effect of neighborhood distress on high school completion is particularly pronounced among black adolescents from single-parent households and among white adolescents from low-income families, results broadly consistent with Wilson’s claim that exposure to neighborhood poverty reinforces the damaging consequences of individual disadvantage. Supporting the social capital perspective, among both black and white adolescents the deleterious impact of neighborhood distress on school dropout is stronger for recent in-movers than for long-term residents. The impact of neighborhood disadvantage also varies significantly by gender for both racial groups and, among whites, is stronger for younger than older adolescents. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of these findings for theories of neighborhood effects.
Article
Over the past 5 years, a great deal of attention has been paid to the development of early warning systems for dropout prevention. These warning systems use a set of indicators based on official school records to identify youth at risk for dropout and then appropriately target intervention. The current study builds on this work by assessing the extent to which a school disengagement warning index predicts not only dropout but also other problem behaviors during middle adolescence, late adolescence, and early adulthood. Data from the Rochester Youth Development Study (N = 911, 73% male, 68% African American, and 17% Latino) were used to examine the effects of a school disengagement warning index based on official 8th and 9th grade school records on subsequent dropout, as well as serious delinquency, official offending, and problem substance use during middle adolescence, late adolescence, and early adulthood. Results indicate that the school disengagement warning index is robustly related to dropout as well as serious problem behaviors across the three developmental stages, even after controlling for important potential confounders. High school dropout mediates the effect of the warning index on serious problem behaviors in early adulthood.
Article
Researchers have hypothesized that over the life course, criminal offending varies with problems in other domains, including life failure and physical and mental health.To examine this issue, the authors use data from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development, a prospective longitudinal survey of 411 South London males first studied at age 8 in 1961. Developmental trajectories of criminal activity were defined on the basis of conviction records through age 40, and these were used to predict self-report measures of life failure at age 48 obtained during personal interviews. Results indicate that offending in the first 40 years of life relates to life failure, that childhood risk factors are also implicated in adult life outcomes, and that differences emerge in how offender trajectories predict life failure after controlling for individual and environmental risk factors. This is the first longitudinal investigation to show that chronic offending is associated with life failure into the late 40s, an age period not previously reported, and it also shows that different offending trajectories have different outcomes in late middle age. Yes Yes
Article
This paper presents some findings of a study into early adult outcomes of truancy, which was based on the National Child Development Study, a longitudinal survey of all people in Great Britain born in the week 3rd-9th March 1958. It was found that truancy is associated with lower status occupations, less stable career patterns and more unemployment. Among those who were working, former truants' incomes were not lower, but they were considerably less well off once their family situation was taken into account. Differences remained after controlling for the effects of social background, educational ability, poor attendance due to other reasons, and end-of-school qualifications. The authors conclude that truancy is a predictor of employment problems, and of a more severe kind than will be experienced by others who share the disadvantaged background and low attainment which typify the truant.
Article
This paper examines early adult outcomes of truancy regarding family formation and health-related behaviour, and is based on data collected in the National Child Development Study, which surveyed all people in Great Britain born in the week 3-9 March 1958, at birth, and at ages 7, 11, 16 and 23. Truants compared to non-truants were found to be relatively more likely to have experienced marital breakdown by the age of 23. They had more children, and their age at the birth of their first child was younger. Truants differed little from non-truants regarding their drinking habits, but were more prone to being heavy smokers. They also showed an increased likelihood of depression. Differences remained after controlling for social background, prior educational attainment, school attendance and qualifications obtained. The authors conclude that truancy appears to be associated with subsequent marital and psychological problems in early adulthood.
Article
The Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development is a prospective longitudinal survey of 411 London males from ages 8 years old to 32 years old. This article investigates the prediction of adolescent aggression (ages 12-14 years old), teenage violence (ages 16-18 years old), adult violence (age 32 years old), and convictions for violence. Generally, the best predictors were measures of economic deprivation, family criminality, poor child-rearing, school failure, hyperactivity-impulsivity-attention deficit, and antisocial child behavior. Similar predictors applied to all four measures of aggression and violence. It is concluded that aggression and violence are elements of a more general antisocial tendency, and that the predictors of aggression and violence are similar to the predictors of antisocial and criminal behavior in general.
Article
Truants living in a depressed urban area are compared with Other Absentees from school living in the same area. The results show few differences in the social and financial circumstances of the two groups but considerable differences in the children's behaviour and in family relationships. The results are discussed in the light of other research which distinguishes truants from school refusers.
Article
To examine the relationship between truancy and the onset of drug use. Discrete time survival analysis was used to assess the effect of truancy on initiation of drug use after adjusting for several potential confounders from age 11 to 15 years, using data from the Denver Youth Survey, a longitudinal sample of youth who grew up in socially disorganized neighborhoods of Denver, CO. In this population, truancy was a significant predictor of initiation of alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use. The robust effect of truancy persisted after controlling for potential confounders, including school performance, school isolation, association with delinquent peers, personal delinquent values, parental monitoring, and family attachment. Although this study cannot point to a causal relationship, we argue that the effect may be at least in part due to the unsupervised, unmonitored time with peers that truancy affords a young person. Truancy prevention is a field of research that needs much more attention. Keeping youth in school every day is likely to have many beneficial effects, and effective truancy prevention efforts may also help to prevent or delay the onset of drug use among adolescents.
Offending from childhood to late middle age: Recent results from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development
  • D P Farrington
  • A R Piquero
  • W G Jennings
Farrington, D. P., Piquero, A. R., & Jennings, W. G. (2013). Offending from childhood to late middle age: Recent results from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development. New York, NY: Springer.
Urban delinquency and substance abuse: Initial findings
  • D Huizinga
  • R Loeber
  • T Thornberry
Huizinga, D., Loeber, R., & Thornberry, T. (1995). Urban delinquency and substance abuse: Initial findings. Washington, DC: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, U.S. Department of Justice.
Taking stock of delinquency: An overview of findings from contemporary longitudinal studies
  • D P Farrington
Farrington, D. P. (2003). Key results from the first 40 years of the Cambridge study in delinquent development. In T. P. Thornberry & M. D. Krohn (Eds.), Taking stock of delinquency: An overview of findings from contemporary longitudinal studies (pp. 137-183). New York, NY: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Press.
Later life outcomes of truants in the Cambridge Study
  • D P Farrington
Farrington, D. P. (1996). Later life outcomes of truants in the Cambridge Study. In I. Berg & J. Nursten (Eds.), Unwillingly to school (4th ed., pp. 96-118). London, England: Gaskell.
Out of school: Modern perspectives in truancy and school refusal
  • L N Robins
  • K S Ratcliff
Robins, L. N., & Ratcliff, K. S. (1980). The long-term outcome of truancy. In L. Hersov & I. Berg (Eds.), Out of school: Modern perspectives in truancy and school refusal (pp. 65-83). New York, NY: John Wiley Rocque, M., & Snellings, Q. (in press). The new disciplinology: Research, theory, and remaining puzzles on the school-to-prison pipeline. Journal of Criminal Justice.
Truancy: First step to a lifetime of problems
  • E M Garry
Garry, E. M. (1996). Truancy: First step to a lifetime of problems. Washington, DC: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, U.S. Department of Justice.
Out of school: Modern perspectives in truancy and school refusal
  • D P Farrington
Farrington, D. P. (1980). Truancy, delinquency, the home and the school. In I. Berg & L. Hersov (Eds.), Out of school: Modern perspectives in truancy and school refusal (pp. 49-63). Chichester, UK: Wiley.