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Evaluation of Isotopic Abundance Ratio in Biofield Energy Treated Nitrophenol Derivatives Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

Authors:
  • Trivedi Global, Inc

Abstract and Figures

Nitrophenols are the synthetic organic chemicals used for the preparation of synthetic intermediates, organophosphorus pesticides, and pharmaceuticals. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of biofield energy treatment on the isotopic abundance ratios of PM+1/PM, and PM+2/PM in o- and m-nitrophenol using the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The o- and m-nitrophenol were divided into two parts - one part was control sample, and another part was considered as biofield energy treated sample, which received Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment (The Trivedi Effect®). The biofield energy treated nitrophenols having analyzed at different time intervals were designated as T1, T2, T3, and T4. The GC-MS analysis of both the control and biofield treated samples indicated the presence of the parent molecular ion peak of o- and m-nitrophenol (C6H5NO3+) at m/z 139 along with major fragmentation peaks at m/z 122, 109, 93, 81, 65, and 39. The relative peak intensities of the fragmented ions in the biofield treated o- and m-nitrophenol were notably changed as compared to the control sample with respect to the time. The isotopic abundance ratio analysis using GC-MS revealed that the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM in the biofield energy treated o-nitrophenol at T2 and T3 was significantly increased by 14.48 and 86.49%, respectively as compared to the control sample. Consequently, the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+2/PM in the biofield energy treated sample at T2 and T3 was increased by 11.36, and 82.95%, respectively as compared to the control sample. Similarly, in m-nitrophenol, the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM in the biofield energy treated sample at T1, T3, and T4 was increased by 5.82, 5.09, and 6.40%, respectively as compared to the control sample. Subsequently, the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+2/PM at T1, T2, T3 and T4 in the biofield energy treated m-nitrophenol was increased by 6.33, 3.80, 16.46, and 16.46%, respectively as compared to the control sample. Overall, the isotopic abundance ratios of PM+1/PM (2H/1H or 13C/12C or 15N/14N or 17O/16O), and PM+2/PM (18O/16O) were altered in the biofield energy treated o- and m-nitrophenol as compared to the control increased in most of the cases. The biofield treated o- and m-nitrophenol that have improved isotopic abundance ratios might have altered the physicochemical properties and could be useful in pharmaceutical and chemical industries as an intermediate in the manufacturing of pharmaceuticals and other useful chemicals for the industrial application.
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American Journal of Chemical Engineering
2016; 4(3): 68-77
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/j/ajche
doi: 10.11648/j.ajche.20160403.11
ISSN: 2330-8605 (Print); ISSN: 2330-8613 (Online)
Evaluation of Isotopic Abundance Ratio in Biofield Energy
Treated Nitrophenol Derivatives Using Gas
Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
1
, Alice Branton
1
, Dahryn Trivedi
1
, Gopal Nayak
1
, Kalyan Kumar Sethi
2
,
Snehasis Jana
2, *
1
Trivedi Global Inc., Henderson, USA
2
Trivedi Science Research Laboratory Pvt. Ltd.,
Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India
Email address:
publication@trivedisrl.com (S. Jana)
*
Corresponding Author
To cite this article:
Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Kalyan Kumar Sethi, Snehasis Jana. Evaluation of Isotopic
Abundance Ratio in Biofield Energy Treated Nitrophenol Derivatives Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. American Journal of
Chemical Engineering. Vol. 4, No. 3, 2016, pp. 68-77. doi: 10.11648/j.ajche.20160403.11
Received: May 10, 2016; Accepted: June 16, 2016; Published: July 15, 2016
Abstract:
Nitrophenols are the synthetic organic chemicals used for the preparation of synthetic intermediates,
organophosphorus pesticides, and pharmaceuticals. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of biofield energy
treatment on the isotopic abundance ratios of P
M+1
/P
M
, and P
M+2
/P
M
in o- and m-nitrophenol using the gas chromatography-mass
spectrometry. The o- and m-nitrophenol were divided into two parts - one part was control sample, and another part was
considered as biofield energy treated sample, which received Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment (The Trivedi Effect
®
). The
biofield energy treated nitrophenols having analyzed at different time intervals were designated as T1, T2, T3, and T4. The GC-
MS analysis of both the control and biofield treated samples indicated the presence of the parent molecular ion peak of o- and m-
nitrophenol (C
6
H
5
NO
3
+
) at m/z 139 along with major fragmentation peaks at m/z 122, 109, 93, 81, 65, and 39. The relative peak
intensities of the fragmented ions in the biofield treated o- and m-nitrophenol were notably changed as compared to the control
sample with respect to the time. The isotopic abundance ratio analysis using GC-MS revealed that the isotopic abundance ratio of
P
M+1
/P
M
in the biofield energy treated o-nitrophenol at T2 and T3 was significantly increased by 14.48 and 86.49%, respectively
as compared to the control sample. Consequently, the isotopic abundance ratio of P
M+2
/P
M
in the biofield energy treated sample at
T2 and T3 was increased by 11.36, and 82.95%, respectively as compared to the control sample. Similarly, in m-nitrophenol, the
isotopic abundance ratio of P
M+1
/P
M
in the biofield energy treated sample at T1, T3, and T4 was increased by 5.82, 5.09, and
6.40%, respectively as compared to the control sample. Subsequently, the isotopic abundance ratio of P
M+2
/P
M
at T1, T2, T3 and
T4 in the biofield energy treated m-nitrophenol was increased by 6.33, 3.80, 16.46, and 16.46%, respectively as compared to the
control sample. Overall, the isotopic abundance ratios of P
M+1
/P
M
(
2
H/
1
H or
13
C/
12
C or
15
N/
14
N or
17
O/
16
O), and P
M+2
/P
M
(
18
O/
16
O)
were altered in the biofield energy treated o- and m-nitrophenol as compared to the control increased in most of the cases. The
biofield treated o- and m-nitrophenol that have improved isotopic abundance ratios might have altered the physicochemical
properties and could be useful in pharmaceutical and chemical industries as an intermediate in the manufacturing of
pharmaceuticals and other useful chemicals for the industrial application.
Keywords:
Biofield Energy Treatment, the Trivedi Effect
®
, o-Nitrophenol, m-Nitrophenol, Isotopic Abundance,
Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
1. Introduction
Ortho- and meta-nitrophenol (o- and m-nitrophenol)
isomers are water-soluble solids and are manufactured
chemicals that do not occur naturally in the environment. The
nitrophenol compounds have huge applications and a widely
known group of industrial chemicals today. Nitrophenols are
69 Mahendra Kumar Trivedi et al.: Evaluation of Isotopic Abundance Ratio in Biofield Energy Treated
Nitrophenol Derivatives Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
used as intermediates in the synthesis of some
organophosphorus pesticides and pharmaceuticals, i.e.
fungicides [1-3]. o-Nitrophenol is a light yellow solid with a
peculiar sweet smell used in medicine, rubber auxiliaries,
dye, reaction intermediate, and indicator of single colour p
H
value [2, 3]. In spite of many applications o- and m-
nitrophenol, these compounds have many disadvantages.
Releases into the environment are primarily by hydrolytic
and photolytic degradation of the respective pesticides and
caused by the dry and wet deposition of airborne nitrophenol
from the atmosphere [1]. Experiment on mice revealed
clinical signs following oral exposure were unspecific and
included dyspnoea, staggering, trembling, somnolence,
apathy, and cramps [4, 5]. Over the last several years,
numerous articles and books have specifically addressed the
toxicity and mutagenicity of o- and m-nitrophenol [6-9].
Therefore, it is a very important challenge with respect to
scientific concern to check the toxicity and hazardous effect
of o- and m-nitrophenol by means of physicochemical,
thermal, and structural modification.
The introduction of heavier stable isotopes to a molecule
might be an alternative approach for physicochemical,
thermal, and structural modification of o- and m-nitrophenol.
The stable isotopic ratio analysis widely used in several
fields such as geographical, agricultural, food authenticity,
biochemistry, metabolism, medical research, and sports, etc.
[10-14]. The isotopic abundance of a molecule can be altered
by means of chemical reactions [11, 15]. Mr. Trivedi’s
biofield energy treatment has the remarkable capability to
alter the isotopic abundance ratios of various compounds [16-
20]. For e.g. the isotopic abundance ratio of P
M+1
/P
M
(
13
C/
12
C
or
2
H/
1
H or
15
N/
14
N) in 4-bromoaniline was increased after
biofield energy treatment up to 368.3% [18]. The isotopic
abundance ratio of P
M+2
/P
M
(
18
O/
16
O or
37
Cl/
35
Cl) in biofield
treated 2,4-dichlorophenol was increased by 40.57%,
respectively [20]. Biofield energy is an electromagnetic field
existed in an around the human body [21-23]. The energy can
be harnessed from the universe and then, it can be applied by
the healing practitioner on living or non-living objects to
achieve the alterations in the characteristic properties. The
applications of The Trivedi Effect
®
have gained significantly
scientific attention in the field of materials science [24-31],
agriculture [32-34], biotechnology [35-37], pharmaceuticals
[38-40], and medical sciences [41, 42].
The choice for the isotope ratio analysis is the mass
spectrometry (MS) technique [43]. The gas chromatography-
mass spectrometry (GC-MS) can perform isotope ratio
measurement at low micro molar concentration levels [43-
46]. Recently, it has been reported that Mr. Trivedi’s biofield
energy treatment (The Trivedi Effect
®
) has the amazing
capability to alter the physicochemical and thermal properties
of nitrophenol such as crystallite size, particle size and
thermal stability that might affect the rate of chemical
reaction [24]. Based on all these aspects, the current study
was designed to investigate the isotopic abundance ratios of
P
M+1
/P
M
and P
M+2
/P
M
in the biofield energy treated o- and m-
nitrophenol using the GC-MS technique.
2. Materials and Method
2.1. Chemicals and Reagents
o-Nitrophenol and m-nitrophenol were procured from
Loba Chemie Pvt. Ltd., India. All the other chemicals used in
this experiment were analytical grade purchased from the
local vendors.
2.2. Biofield Energy Treatment Strategies
o-Nitrophenol and m-nitrophenol were divided into two
parts; one was kept as a control (un-treated) while another
part was subjected to biofield energy treatment and coded as
treated sample. The treatment groups in sealed pack were
handed over to Mr. Trivedi for biofield treatment under
standard laboratory condition. Mr. Trivedi provided the
biofield energy treatment through his unique energy
transmission process approximately for 5 minutes without
touching the samples. The biofield treated samples were
returned in similar sealed condition for further analysis.
2.3. Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS)
GC-MS analysis was conducted on Perkin Elmer/Auto
system XL with Turbo mass, USA. The GC-MS was
accomplished in a silica capillary column. It was furnished
with a quadrupole detector with pre-filter. The mass
spectrometer was functioned in an electron ionization (EI)
+ve/-ve, and chemical ionization mode at 70 eV. Mass range:
10-650 Daltons (amu), stability: ± 0.1 m/z mass accuracy
over 48 hours. The characterization was performed by the
comparison of retention time and the mass spectra of
identified substances with references.
2.4. Methods of GC-MS Analysis and Calculation of
Isotopic Abundance Ratio
The GC-MS analysis of biofield treated o-nitrophenol and
m-nitrophenol were analyzed at the different time intervals
designated as T1, T2, T3, and T4, respectively. The mass
spectra were obtained in the form of % abundance vs. mass to
charge ratio (m/z). The natural abundance of each isotope can
be predicted from the comparison of the height of the isotope
peak with respect to the base peak. The values of the natural
isotopic abundance of the common elements are obtained
from several literatures [43-46] and presented in Table 1.
Table 1. The isotopic composition (the natural isotopic abundance) of the
elements.
Element (A)
Symbol
Mass % Natural
Abundance
A + 1
Factor
A + 2
Factor
Hydrogen
1
H 1 99.9885
2
H
2 0.0115 0.015n
H
Carbon
12
C 12 98.892
13
C
13 1.108 1.1n
C
Oxygen
16
O 16 99.762
17
O 17 0.038 0.04n
O
18
O 18 0.200 0.20n
O
Nitrogen
14
N 14 99.60
15
N 15 0.40 0.40n
American Journal of Chemical Engineering 2016; 4(3): 68-77 70
Element (A)
Symbol
Mass % Natural
Abundance
A + 1
Factor
A + 2
Factor
Chlorine
35
Cl 35 75.78
37
Cl 37 24.22 32.50n
Cl
A: Element; n: no of H, C, O, Cl, etc.
The following method was used for calculating the
isotopic abundance ratio:
P
M
stands for the relative peak intensity of the parent
molecular ion [M
+
] expressed in percentage. In other way, it
indicates the probability to have A element (for e.g.
12
C,
1
H,
16
O,
14
N, etc.) contributions to the mass of the parent
molecular ion [M
+
].
P
M+1
represents the relative peak intensity of the isotopic
molecular ion [(M+1)
+
] expressed in percentage
= (no. of
13
C x 1.1%) + (no. of
15
N x 0.40%) + (no. of
2
H x
0.015%) + (no. of
17
O x 0.04%)
i.e. the probability to have A + 1 element (for e.g.
13
C,
2
H,
15
N, etc.) contributions to the mass of the isotopic molecular
ion [(M+1)
+
]
P
M+2
represents the relative peak intensity of the isotopic
molecular ion [(M+2)
+
] expressed in the percentage
= (no. of
18
O x 0.20%) + (no. of
37
Cl x 32.50%)
i.e. the probability to have A + 2 element (for e.g.
18
O,
37
Cl,
34
S, etc.) contributions to the mass of isotopic molecular
ion [(M+2)
+
]
Isotopic abundance ratio (IAR) for A + 1 element = P
M +
1
/P
M
Similarly, isotopic abundance ratio for A + 2 element =
P
M+2
/P
M
Percentage (%) change in isotopic abundance ratio =
[(IAR
Treated
– IAR
Control
)/ IAR
Control
) x 100]
Where, IAR
Treated
= isotopic abundance ratio in the treated
sample and IAR
Control
= isotopic abundance ratio in the
control sample.
3. Results and Discussion
The mass spectra obtained by the GC-MS analysis for the
control and biofield energy treated o- and m-nitrophenol
(C
6
H
5
NO
3
) in the positive-ion mode are shown in Figure 1-4.
Figure 1 indicated the presence of the parent molecular ion
peak of control o-nitrophenol at m/z 139 (calculated 139.03
for C
6
H
5
NO
3
+
) at the retention time (R
t
) of 9.87 min along
with six major fragmented peaks that were well matched with
the literature [47, 48]. The major fragmentation peaks at m/z
122, 109, 93, 81, 65, and 39 were due to the fragmentation of
o-nitrophenol into C
6
H
4
NO
2
+
, C
6
H
5
O
2
+
, C
6
H
5
O
+
, C
6
H
9
+
,
C
5
H
5
+
, and C
3
H
3
..+
, respectively. The biofield energy treated
o-nitrophenol at T1, T2, T3, and T4 exhibited the parent
molecular ion peaks (C
6
H
5
NO
3
+
) at m/z 139 at R
t
of 9.80,
9.82, 9.84, and 9.86 min and were very close to the R
t
of the
control sample. Similarly, Figure 3 indicated the presence of
the parent molecular ion peak of control o-nitrophenol at m/z
139 (calculated 139.03 for C
6
H
5
NO
3
+
) at the retention time
(R
t
) of 15.27 min along with four major fragmented peaks
that were well matched with the literature [48, 49]. The major
fragmentation peaks at m/z 93, 81, 65 and 39 were due to the
fragmentation of m-nitrophenol into C
6
H
5
O
+
, C
6
H
9
+
, C
5
H
5
+
,
and C
3
H
3
..+
, respectively. The biofield energy treated m-
nitrophenol at T1, T2, T3, and T4 shown the parent
molecular ion peaks (C
6
H
5
NO
3
+
) at m/z 139 at R
t
of 15.19,
15.19, 15.21, and 15.29 min and were very close to the R
t
of
the control sample. The biofield energy treated o- and m-
nitrophenol at T1, T2, T3, and T4 showed similar
fragmentation pattern as control (Figure 2 and 4). Only, the
relative peak intensities of both the biofield treated samples
were altered as compared to the control samples (Figure 1-4).
Figure 1. The GC-MS spectrum and different possible fragmentation of control sample of o-nitrophenol.
71 Mahendra Kumar Trivedi et al.: Evaluation of Isotopic Abundance Ratio in Biofield Energy Treated
Nitrophenol Derivatives Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Figure 2. The GC-MS spectrum of biofield energy treated o-nitrophenol analyzed at the different time intervals T1, T2, T3, and T4.
Figure 3. The GC-MS spectrum and different possible fragmentation of the control sample of m-notrophenol.
American Journal of Chemical Engineering 2016; 4(3): 68-77 72
Figure 4. The GC-MS spectrum of biofield energy treated m-nitrophenol analyzed at the different time intervals T1, T2, T3, and T4.
The molecule o- and m-nitrophenol (C
6
H
5
NO
3
) comprises
several atoms of H, C, N, and O. Calculating the relative
abundances for the isotopic contributions to the peaks in
various ion clusters at low m/z discrimination will reflect the
contributions of several different isotopes to the same peak
[45, 46, 50, 51]. The intense peak P
M
in this cluster was at
m/z 139, and all the abundance calculations were based on
this. P
M+1
and P
M+2
of o-nitrophenol can be calculated
theoretically according to the method described in the
materials and method.
P (
13
C) = [(6 x 1.1%) x 100% (the actual size of the M
+
peak)] / 100% = 6.6%
P (
2
H) = [(5 x 0.015%) x 100%] / 100%= 0.075%
P (
15
N) = [(1 x 0.40%) x 100%] / 100%= 0.4%
P (
17
O) = [(3 x 0.04%) x 100%] / 100%= 0.12%
Thus, P
M+1
i.e.
13
C,
2
H,
15
N, and
17
O contributions from
(C
6
H
5
NO
3
+
) to m/z 140 is 7.195%
P (
18
O) = [(3 x 0.2%) x 100%] / 100% = 0.6%
So, P
M+2
i.e.
18
O contributions from (C
6
H
5
NO
3
+
) to m/z 141
is 0.6%
Similarly, the P
M+1
and P
M+2
of m-nitrophenol can be
calculated theoretically according to the method described in
the materials and method.
P (
13
C) = [(6 x 1.1%) x 60.56% (the actual size of the M
+
peak)] / 100% = 3.99%
P (
2
H) = [(5 x 0.015%) x 60.56%] / 100%= 0.045%
P (
15
N) = [(1 x 0.40%) x 60.56%] / 100%= 0.24%
P (
17
O) = [(3 x 0.04%) x 60.56%] / 100%= 0.072%
Thus, P
M+1
i.e.
13
C,
2
H,
15
N, and
17
O contributions from
(C
6
H
5
NO
3
+
) to m/z 140 is 4.35%
P (
18
O) = [(3 x 0.2%) x 60.56%] / 100% = 0.36%
So, P
M+2
i.e.
18
O contributions from (C
6
H
5
NO
3
+
) to m/z 141
is 0.36%
The calculated abundance of P
M+1
and P
M+2
in o- and m-
nitrophenol matched to the experimental value obtained in
the control sample. It has been found that statistically, the
coincidental of both carbons being
13
C is approximately 1 in
10,000 [43, 44]. The deuterium did not contribute much any
of the m/z ratios in natural o- and m-nitrophenol as the
natural abundance of deuterium is too small relative to the
73 Mahendra Kumar Trivedi et al.: Evaluation of Isotopic Abundance Ratio in Biofield Energy Treated
Nitrophenol Derivatives Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
natural abundances of isotopes of carbon nitrogen and
oxygen [52-55]. From the calculations,
13
C,
15
N,
17
O, and
18
O
have the major contributions from o- and m-nitrophenol to
m/z 140 and 141.
P
M
, P
M+1
, and P
M+2
for the control and biofield energy
treated nitrophenol at m/z 139, 140, and 141, respectively
were achieved from the observed relative intensity of [M
+
],
[(M+1)
+
], and [(M+2)
+
] peaks in the GC-MS spectra,
respectively and are shown in the Table 2 and 3. The
percentage change in isotopic abundance ratios of P
M+1
/P
M
,
and P
M+2
/P
M
in the biofield treated o- and m-nitrophenol are
presented in Table 2 and 3, respectively. The isotopic
abundance ratios in the biofield energy treated o- and m-
nitrophenol (at T1 to T4) were calculated comparing to the
control sample using the mass spectrum (Table 2 and 3).
Table 2. GC-MS isotopic abundance analysis result of control and biofield energy treated o-nitrophenol.
Parameter Control Treated o-nitrophenol
T1 T2 T3 T4
P
M
at m/z 139 (%) 100 100 100 100 100
P
M+1
at m/z 140 (%) 7.18 6.83 8.22 13.39 6.67
P
M+1
/P
M
0.0718 0.0683 0.0822 0.1339 0.0667
% Change of isotopic abundance ratio (P
M+1
/P
M
) -4.87 14.48 86.49 -7.10
P
M+2
at m/z 141 (%) 0.88 0.85 0.98 1.61 0.82
P
M+2
/P
M
0.0088 0.0085 0.0098 0.0161 0.0082
% Change of isotopic abundance ratio (P
M+2
/P
M
) -3.41 11.36 82.95 -6.82
T1, T2, T3, and T4: biofield energy treated sample analyzed at different time intervals; P
M
: the relative peak intensity of the parent molecular ion [M
+
]; P
M+1
:
the relative peak intensity of the isotopic molecular ion [(M+1)
+
]; P
M+2
: the relative peak intensity of the isotopic molecular ion [(M+2)
+
].
Figure 5. Percent change in the isotopic abundance ratio of P
M+1
/P
M
and
P
M+2
/P
M
in the biofield treated o-nitrophenol as compared to the control.
The isotopic abundance ratios in o-nitrophenol using GC-
MS analysis revealed that the isotopic abundance ratio of
P
M+1
/P
M
in the biofield energy treated sample at T2 and T3
was significantly increased by 14.48 and 86.49%,
respectively in comparison to the control sample (Table 2 and
Figure 5). On the contrary, the isotopic abundance ratio of
P
M+1
/P
M
in the biofield energy treated o-nitrophenol at T1
and T4 was slightly decreased by 4.87 and 7.10%,
respectively as compared to the control sample (Table 2 and
Figure 5). Consequently, the isotopic abundance ratio of
P
M+2
/P
M
in the biofield energy treated o-nitrophenol at T2
and T3 was increased by 11.36 and 82.95%, respectively as
compared to the control sample. But, the isotopic abundance
ratio of P
M+2
/P
M
in the biofield energy treated sample at T1
and T4 were decreased by 3.41 and 6.82, respectively in
comparison to the control o-nitrophenol (Table 2 and Figure
5). Similarly, the isotopic abundance ratios of m-nitrophenol
using GC-MS analysis revealed that the isotopic abundance
ratio of P
M+1
/P
M
in the biofield energy treated sample at T1,
T3, and T4 was increased by 5.82, 5.09, and 6.40%,
respectively in comparison to the control sample (Table 3 and
Figure 6). On the other hand, the isotopic abundance ratio of
P
M+1
/P
M
in biofield energy treated m-nitrophenol at T2 was
slightly decreased by 0.29% in comparison to the control
sample (Table 3 and Figure 6). Subsequently, the isotopic
abundance ratio of P
M+2
/P
M
in biofield energy treated m-
nitrophenol at T1, T2, T3 and T4 was increased by 6.33,
3.80, 16.46, and 16.46%, respectively in comparison to the
control sample (Table 3 and Figure 5).
Table 3. GC-MS isotopic abundance ratios analysis results of control and biofield energy treated m-nitrophenol.
Parameter Control Treated m-nitrophenol
T1 T2 T3 T4
P
M
at m/z 139 (%) 60.56 62.88 80.56 86.19 81.26
P
M+1
at m/z 140 (%) 4.16 4.57 5.52 6.22 5.94
P
M+1
/P
M
0.0687 0.0727 0.0685 0.0722 0.0731
% Change of isotopic abundance ratio (P
M+1
/P
M
) 5.82 -0.29 5.09 6.40
P
M+2
at m/z 141 (%) 0.48 0.53 0.66 0.79 0.75
P
M+2
/P
M
0.0079 0.0084 0.0082 0.0092 0.0092
% Change of isotopic abundance ratio (P
M+2
/P
M
) 6.33 3.80 16.46 16.46
T1, T2, T3, and T4: biofield energy treated sample analyzed at different time intervals; P
M
: the relative peak intensity of the parent molecular ion [M
+
]; P
M+1
:
the relative peak intensity of the isotopic molecular ion [(M+1)
+
]; P
M+2
: the relative peak intensity of the isotopic molecular ion [(M+2)
+
].
American Journal of Chemical Engineering 2016; 4(3): 68-77 74
Figure 6. Percent change in the isotopic abundance of P
M+1
/P
M
and P
M+2
/P
M
in the biofield treated m-nitrophenol as compared to the control.
The Figure 4 and 5 clearly suggest that there was a
different effect of the isotopic abundance ratios (P
M+1
/P
M
and
P
M+2
) in the biofield energy treated o- and m-nitrophenol with
respect to the time. This results indicated that these biofield
treated samples had the time dependent response to the
alternation of isotopic abundance composition. These results
propose that the biofield energy might have required a certain
time for the changes in the isotopic abundance ratio of the
molecule.
Alteration of the isotopic composition of the molecule
alters the vibrational energy [56, 57]. The vibrational energy
depends on the reduced mass (µ) for a diatomic molecule as
shown in the below:
E
0
=

and reduced mass (µ) =
 
Where, E
0
= the vibrational energy of a harmonic
oscillator at absolute zero or zero point energy; f = force
constant.
The reduced mass (µ) of some probable isotopic bonds
was calculated and presented in Table 4. The results showed
that reduced mass were increased in the case of heavier
isotopes as compared to normal bond (Table 4). As per the
literature, the heavier isotopic molecules have lower
diffusion velocity, mobility, evaporation rate, thermal
decomposition and reaction rate, but having higher binding
energy than lighter molecules [56-59]. The biofield energy
treated o- and m-nitrophenol have the higher isotopic
abundance ratios. Therefore, after biofield energy treatment,
the bond strength, stability, and binding energy of o- and m-
nitrophenol molecules might be increase due to the higher
reduced mass.
Table 4. Possible isotopic bonds in o- and m-nitrophenol.
Isotopes bond Isotope type Reduced mass (µ) (m
A
.m
B
)/(m
A
+ m
B
) Zero point vibrational energy (E
0
)
12
C-
12
C Lighter 6.00 Higher
13
C-
12
C Heavier 6.24 Smaller
1
H-
12
C Lighter 0.92 Higher
2
H-
12
C
Heavier 1.71 Smaller
16
O-
1
H
Lighter 0.94 Higher
16
O-
2
H
Heavier 1.78 Smaller
17
O-
2
H
Heavier 1.79 Smaller
18
O-
2
H
Heavier 1.80 Smaller
16
O-
12
C
Lighter 6.86 Higher
16
O-
13
C
Heavier 7.17 Smaller
17
O-
12
C
Heavier 7.03 Smaller
18
O-
12
C
Heavier 7.20 Smaller
14
N-
16
O
Lighter 7.47 Higher
15
N-
18
O
Heavier 8.18 Smaller
14
N-
18
O
Heavier 7.87 Smaller
14
N-
12
C
Lighter 6.46 Higher
15
N-
12
C
Heavier 6.67 Smaller
15
N-
13
C
Heavier 6.96 Smaller
m
A
: mass of atom A; m
B
: mass of atom B, here A and B may be C or H or N or O.
The isotopic abundance ratios of P
M+1
/P
M
(
2
H/
1
H or
13
C/
12
C
or
15
N/
14
N or
17
O/
16
O), and P
M+2
/P
M
(
18
O/
16
O) in the biofield
treated o- and m-nitrophenol were significantly increased in
most of the cases as compared to the control sample. The
recent physics Noble prize winners explained that the
neutrinos change, identities which are only possible if the
neutrinos possess mass and have the ability to interchange their
phase internally from one phase to another (change of flavour).
So, the neutrinos have the ability to interact with protons and
neutrons in the nucleus. This indicated that there was a close
relation between neutrino and the isotope formation [60, 61].
The biofield energy treatment responsible for the modification
in the behaviour at atomic and molecular level by changing the
neutron to proton ratio in the nucleus possibly through the
introduction of neutrino particles. It was hypothesized that due
to changes in nuclei possibly through the interference of
neutrinos the changes in isotopic abundance. As the biofield
treated o- and m-nitrophenol had increased the stable isotopic
abundance ratio, it might have altered physicochemical and
thermal properties and reaction rate. Thus, the current findings
are well associated with the previous results [24]. The biofield
treated o- and m-nitrophenol might be useful in pharmaceutical
75 Mahendra Kumar Trivedi et al.: Evaluation of Isotopic Abundance Ratio in Biofield Energy Treated
Nitrophenol Derivatives Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
and chemical industries as an intermediate for the production
of pharmaceuticals and other useful chemicals for the
industrial uses.
4. Conclusions
The current study concluded that the biofield energy
treatment has a remarkable ability for altering the isotopic
abundance ratios in o- and m-nitrophenol. The gas
chromatography-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analysis of the
both control and biofield energy treated samples indicated the
presence of the molecular ion peak at m/z 139 (calculated
139.03 for C
6
H
5
NO
3
+
) along with major fragmented peaks at
m/z 122, 109, 93, 81, 65, and 39. Only, the relative peak
intensities of the fragmented ions in the biofield treated
samples were altered from the control samples. The isotopic
abundance ratio of biofield energy treated o-nitrophenol
exhibited that the isotopic abundance ratio of P
M+1
/P
M
at the
T2 and T3 was significantly increased by 14.48 and 86.49%,
respectively as compared to the control sample.
Subsequently, the isotopic abundance ratio of P
M+2
/P
M
in
biofield energy treated o-nitrophenol at T2 and T3 was
increased by 11.36 and 82.95%, respectively as compared to
the control sample. Similarly, the isotopic abundance ratio of
biofield treated m-nitrophenol revealed the isotopic
abundance ratio of P
M+1
/P
M
at T1, T3, and T4 was increased
by 5.82, 5.09, and 6.40%, respectively as compared to the
control sample. The isotopic abundance ratio of P
M+2
/P
M
in
the biofield energy treated m-nitrophenol at T1, T2, T3 and
T4 was increased by 6.33, 3.80, 16.46, and 16.46%,
respectively in comparison to the control sample. It was
observed that the isotopic abundance ratios of P
M+1
/P
M
and
P
M+2
/P
M
in the biofield treated samples were altered with
respect to the time. The biofield energy treated o- and m-
nitrophenol had increased isotopic abundance ratio, it might
have altered the physicochemical, thermal properties, and
could be more advantageous in pharmaceutical and chemical
industries as intermediates during the preparation of the fine
finished product.
Abbreviations
A: Element; GC-MS: Gas chromatography-mass
spectrometry; m/z: Mass-to-charge ratio; M: Mass of the
parent molecule; P
M
: the relative peak intensity of the parent
molecular ion [M
+
]; P
M+1
: the relative peak intensity of the
isotopic molecular ion [(M+1)
+
]; P
M+2
: the relative peak
intensity of the isotopic molecular ion [(M+2)
+
].
Acknowledgements
The authors would like to thank the Sophisticated
Instrumentation Centre for Applied Research and Testing
(SICART), Gujarat, India for providing the instrumental
facility. The authors are very grateful for the support from
Trivedi Science, Trivedi Master Wellness and Trivedi
Testimonials in this research work.
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... The R t , full MS spectra, and MS n were used to determine the limit of detection for each peak of compounds. By comparing reference compounds spectra and literature, fragmentation patterns in negative and positive mode were revealed 31 comps were identified tentatively in (4), Cinnamaldehyde (7), Syringaldehyde (9), 4-Hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamaldehyde (Coniferyl aldehyde) (15), 3-(4-Hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-propenoic acid (Sinapic acid) (16), Caffiec acid (20) and Sinapyl aldehyde (22). Phenols; paranitrophenol (5). ...
... Compound (16) was detected at R t 10.67 min, it showed a deprotonated ion [M-H]at m/z 233.05 mu, it could be identified as 3-(4-Hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-propenoic acid (Sinapic acid) (17) . Compound (20) was detected at Rt 12.67 min., in the positive ionization mode it showed a protonated ion [M+H] + at m/z 181.12 mu characterized by successive loss of [M+H-H 2 O] + leading to the characteristic key ion at m/z 163.0, it could be identified as Caffeic acid (18) . Compound (22) was detected at Rt 14.53 min., in the positive ionization mode it showed a protonated ion [M+H] + at m/z 209.11mu , it could be identified as Sinapyl aldehyde (19) . ...
... Compound (22) was detected at Rt 14.53 min., in the positive ionization mode it showed a protonated ion [M+H] + at m/z 209.11mu , it could be identified as Sinapyl aldehyde (19) . Phenols; Compound (5) was detected at R t 6.94 min, it showed a deprotonated ion [M-H]at m/z 138.01 mu along with major fragmentation peaks at m/z , 108.02 , 92.02, 80, 64, and 38, it could be identified as para nitrophenol (20) . ...
... The R t , full MS spectra, and MS n were used to determine the limit of detection for each peak of compounds. By comparing reference compounds spectra and literature, fragmentation patterns in negative and positive mode were revealed 31 comps were identified tentatively in (4), Cinnamaldehyde (7), Syringaldehyde (9), 4-Hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamaldehyde (Coniferyl aldehyde) (15), 3-(4-Hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-propenoic acid (Sinapic acid) (16), Caffiec acid (20) and Sinapyl aldehyde (22). Phenols; paranitrophenol (5). ...
... Compound (16) was detected at R t 10.67 min, it showed a deprotonated ion [M-H]at m/z 233.05 mu, it could be identified as 3-(4-Hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-propenoic acid (Sinapic acid) (17) . Compound (20) was detected at Rt 12.67 min., in the positive ionization mode it showed a protonated ion [M+H] + at m/z 181.12 mu characterized by successive loss of [M+H-H 2 O] + leading to the characteristic key ion at m/z 163.0, it could be identified as Caffeic acid (18) . Compound (22) was detected at Rt 14.53 min., in the positive ionization mode it showed a protonated ion [M+H] + at m/z 209.11mu , it could be identified as Sinapyl aldehyde (19) . ...
... Compound (22) was detected at Rt 14.53 min., in the positive ionization mode it showed a protonated ion [M+H] + at m/z 209.11mu , it could be identified as Sinapyl aldehyde (19) . Phenols; Compound (5) was detected at R t 6.94 min, it showed a deprotonated ion [M-H]at m/z 138.01 mu along with major fragmentation peaks at m/z , 108.02 , 92.02, 80, 64, and 38, it could be identified as para nitrophenol (20) . ...
... Other than the natural process, the isotopic abundance of a molecule can be altered by means of chemical reactions [12, 16]. The literature reported that Mr. Trivedi's biofield energy treatment has the remarkable capability to alter the isotopic abundance ratios of chemical compounds [17][18][19][20]. An electromagnetic field present in an around the human body which emits the electromagnetic waves in the form of the bio-photons, and it is commonly known as biofield [21][22][23]. ...
... The energy can be harnessed from the universe and then, it can be applied to the living and non-living objects to achieve the alterations in the characteristic properties by the healing practitioner. The applications of The Trivedi Effect ® have gained scientific attention in the field of chemical science [17][18][19][20] 24], materials science [25][26][27], agricultural science [28][29][30]genetics [31][32][33][34], biotechnology [35][36], nutraceuticals [37] pharmaceuticals [38][39][40], and medical sciences [41, 42]. The mass spectrometry (MS) technique is the main choice, and the conventional analytical technique gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) can perform isotope ratio measurement at low micro molar concentration levels with sufficient precision [43][44][45][46]. ...
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The objective of the current experiment was to evaluate the effect of biofield energy treatment on the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM (2H/1H or 13C/12C or 15N/14N) in indole using the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The sample of organic compound indole was divided into two parts - one part was designated as a control sample (untreated), and another part was considered as biofield energy treated sample, which was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment (The Trivedi Effect®). The biofield energy treated indole sample was analyzed at different time intervals and were symbolized as T1, T2, T3, and T4 to understand the effect of the biofield energy on isotopic abundance ratio with respect to the time. From the GC-MS spectra, the presence of the molecular ion peak C8H7N+ (m/z 117) along with major fragmented peaks C7H6+ (m/z 90), C7H5+ (m/z 89), C5H3+ (m/z 63), C4H2+ (m/z 50), C3H3+ (m/z 39), and C2H4 (m/z 28) were observed in both control and biofield treated samples. Only, the relative peak intensities of the fragmented ions in the biofield treated indole was notably changed as compared to the control sample with respect to the time. The isotopic abundance ratio analysis of indole using GC-MS revealed that the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM in the biofield energy treated indole at T1 and T2 was significantly decreased by 44.28 and 28.18% as compared to the control sample. On the contrary, the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM in the biofield energy treated sample at T3 and T4, was significantly increased by 41.22 and 180.88%, respectively as compared to the control sample. Overall, the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM (2H/1H or 13C/12C or 15N/14N) was significantly altered in the biofield energy treated indole as compared to the control with respect to the time. The biofield treated indole with the altered isotopic abundance ratio might have altered the physicochemical properties and rate of reaction. This biofield energy treated indole might be more useful as a chemical intermediate in the production of pharmaceuticals, chemicals, plastics, dyes, and perfumes.
... In spite of natural mechanism, the isotopic abundance of a molecule can be altered by means of chemical reactions [11, 16]. On the other hand, Mr. Trivedi's biofield energy treatment has the remarkable capability to alter the physicochemical, structural properties, and isotopic abundance ratios of many organic and inorganic compounds [17][18][19][20]. It is an economical approach for the alteration in the intrinsic properties of substance. ...
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Methyl-2-napthylether (nerolin) is an organic compound and has the applications in pharmaceutical, and perfume industry. The stable isotope ratio analysis is increasing importance in various field of scientific research. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effect of the biofield energy treatment on the isotopic abundance ratios of PM+1/PM (2H/1H or 13C/12C or 17O/16O) and PM+2/PM (18O/16O) in nerolin using the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The compound nerolin was divided into two parts - one part was control sample (untreated), and another part was considered as biofield energy treated sample which was received the biofield energy treatment through the unique biofield energy transmission process by Mr. Mahendra Kumar Trivedi (also known as The Trivedi Effect®). The biofield energy treated nerolin was analyzed at different time intervals and were represented as T1, T2, T3, and T4 in order to understand the effect of the biofield energy treatment on isotopic abundance ratio with respect to the time. From the GC-MS spectral analysis, the presence of the molecular ion peak C11H10O+ (m/z 158) along with major fragmented peaks C10H7O- (m/z 143), C10H8 (m/z 128), C9H7+ (m/z 115), C7H5+ (m/z 89), C5H3+ (m/z 63), C4H3+ (m/z 51), and C3H3+ (m/z 39) were observed in both control and biofield treated samples. Only, the relative peak intensities of the fragmented ions in the biofield treated nerolin was notably changed as compared to the control sample with respect to the time. The isotopic abundance ratio analysis of nerolin using GC-MS revealed that the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM in the biofield energy treated nerolin at T1, T2, T3, and T4 was increased by 2.38, 138.10, 13.10, and 32.14%, as compared to the control sample. Likewise, the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+2/PM at T1, T2, T3, and T4 was increased by 2.38, 138.10, 13.10, and 32.14%, respectively in the biofield treated nerolin as compared to the control sample. Overall, the isotopic abundance ratios of PM+1/PM (2H/1H or 13C/12C or 17O/16O) and PM+2/PM (18O/16O) were significantly increased in the biofield energy treated sample as compared to the control sample with respect to the time. It is concluded that Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment has the significant impact on alteration in isotopic abundance of nerolin as compared to the control sample. The biofield treated nerolin might display different altered physicochemical properties and rate of reaction and could be an important intermediate for the production of pharmaceuticals, chemicals, and perfumes in the industry.
... Briefly the results indicated that computations using X-ray diffraction on inorganics and organics showed changes in lattice parameters, volume of crystal unit cell, atomic and molecular weights and effective charge on the atom [14]. Mass spectroscopy showed the isotopic abundance of [M+1] ions increased or decreased, thereby suggesting the change in number of neutrons [28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36]. These changes in turn modified the physical characteristics of powders such as particle size, specific surface area (chemical reactivity) density, particle size distribution and thermal behavior etc. [14, 30,[37][38][39]. ...
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There has been significant data published in peer-reviewed scientific journals about Mr. Mahendra Kumar Trivedi exercising the biofield energy to change the behaviour and characteristics of living organisms including soil, seeds, plants, trees, animals, microbes, and humans, along with non-living materials including metals, ceramics, polymers, chemicals, pharmaceutical compounds and nutraceuticals, etc. This effect of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy on living beings and non-living materials is referred to as The Trivedi Effect®. The changes are attributed to changes at the atomic level and the subatomic level. Changes in atomic/molecular weights are postulated to the changes in atomic mass and atomic charge through possible mediation of neutrinos. The recent discovery of neutrino oscillations seems to give credence to our postulates. This paper discusses briefly about the neutrinos and some of Mr. Trivedi’s results and attempts to link these to biofield energy and associated signal transmissions.
... The Trivedi Effect ® biofield energy healing has recently drawn attention in the various scientific fields, such as medical science [20], biotechnology [21, 22], microbiology [23, 24], organic chemistry [25, 26], pharmaceutical [27], nutraceutical [28], materials science [29, 30], and agricultural [31, 32] due to its outstanding applicability to modify the characteristic properties of the living and non-living substances. Number of literatures [33][34][35][36]indicated that biofield energy treatment (also known as The Trivedi Effect ® ) might be a potential method for alteration of the isotopic abundance ratio in the organic compounds. An altered physicochemical and thermal properties such as increased crystallite size, enhanced thermal stability was observed in the biofield energy treated PTBP as compared to the control sample through the spectroscopic and thermal study [37]. ...
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p-tert-Butyphenol (PTBP) is a phenolic monomer used in the synthesis of numerous industrially useful chemicals. The current research work aimed to evaluate the effect of the biofield energy treatment on the isotopic abundance ratios of PM+1/PM and PM+2/PM in PTBP using gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The sample, PTBP was distributed into two parts - one part was designated as control PTBP and another part was considered as biofield energy treated PTBP. The biofield energy treatment was achieved through unique biofield energy transmission process by Mr. Trivedi (also known as The Trivedi Effect®). T1, T2, T3, and T4 were indicated to the different time interval analysis of the biofield treated PTBP. The GC-MS spectra of the both control and biofield treated PTBP showed the presence of molecular ion peak [M+] at m/z 150 (calculated 150.10 for C10H14O) along with eight major fragmented peaks at m/z 135, 107, 95, 91, 77, 65, 41, and 39, which might be due to C10H15+, C7H7O+ or C8H11+, C6H7O+, C7H7+, C6H5+, C5H5+, C3H5+, and C3H3••+ ions, respectively. The relative intensities of the parent molecule and other fragmented ions of the biofield treated PTBP were altered as compared to the control PTBP. The percentage in the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM was enhanced in the biofield treated PTBP at T2, T3 and T4 by 1.60%, 3.57%, and 120.13%, respectively while it was decreased by 4.14% in the treated sample at T1 with respect to the control PTBP. Consequently, the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+2/PM was increased in the biofield treated PTBP at T1, T3, and T4 by 1.28%, 2.56%, and 123.08%, respectively with respect to the control sample. On the other hand, it was reduced in the biofield treated sample at T2 by 1.28% as compared to the control PTBP. Concisely, 13C, 2H, and 17O contributions from (C10H14O)+ to m/z 151 and 18O contribution from (C10H14O)+ to m/z 152 in the biofield treated PTBP were changed with respect to the control sample and was found to have time dependent effect. The biofield energy treated PTBP might display isotope effects such as different physicochemical and thermal properties, rate of the reaction, selectivity and binding energy due to the changed isotopic abundance ratio as compared to the control sample. Biofield treated PTBP could be valuable for the designing new chemicals and pharmaceuticals through using its kinetic isotope effects.
... Biofield energy treatment (also known as The Trivedi Effect ® ) is now-a-days increased its scientific attention for its astounding capability to transform the physical, structural, and thermal properties of several pharmaceuticals [19,20], nutraceuticals [21], organic compounds [22][23][24], metals and ceramic in materials science [25,26], and improve the overall productivity of crops [27,28] as well as to modulate the efficacy of the various living cells [29][30][31][32][33][34]. On the other hand, it has been found from the literatures that biofield energy treatment has notable capacity for altering the isotopic abundance ratio of the organic compounds [35][36][37][38]. Recently, spectroscopic and thermal analysis in resorcinol revealed that the physicochemical and thermal properties of resorcinol was significantly altered due to the biofield energy treatment. ...
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The stable isotope ratio analysis is widely used in several scientific fields such as agricultural, food authenticity, biochemistry, metabolism, medical research, etc. Resorcinol is one of the most versatile chemicals used for the synthesis of several pharmaceuticals, dyes, polymers, organic compounds, etc. The current research work was designed to investigate the impact of the biofield energy treatment on the isotopic abundance ratios of 13C/12C or 2H/1H or 17O/16O (PM+1/PM) and 18O/16O (PM+2/PM) in resorcinol using Gas chromatograph - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique. Resorcinol was divided into two parts - one part was control and another part was considered as biofield energy treated sample. The biofield energy treatment was accomplished through unique biofield energy transmission by Mr. Mahendra Kumar Trivedi (also called as The Trivedi Effect®). T1, T2, T3, and T4 were denoted by different time interval analysis of the biofield treated resorcinol in order to understand the influence of the biofield energy treatment on isotopic abundance ratio with respect to the time. The GC-MS spectra of the both control and biofield treated resorcinol exhibited the presence of molecular ion peak [M+] at m/z 110 (calculated 110.04 for C6H6O2) along with major fragmented peaks at m/z 82, 81, 69, 53, and 39. The relative peak intensities of the fragmented ions in biofield treated resorcinol (particularly T2) was significantly changed with respect to the control sample. The stable isotope ratio analysis in resorcinol using GC-MS revealed that the percentage change of the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM was increased in the biofield treated resorcinol at T1, T2, T3 and T4 by 1.77%, 165.73%, 0.74%, and 6.79%, respectively with respect to the control sample. Consequently, the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+2/PM in the biofield treated resorcinol at T2, T3, and T4 were enhanced by 170.77%, 3.08%, and 12.31%, respectively with respect to the control sample. Briefly, 13C, 2H, 17O contributions from (C6H6O2)+ to m/z 111 and 18O contribution from (C6H6O2)+ to m/z 112 for the biofield treated resorcinol at T2 and T4 were significantly altered as compared to the control sample. For this reasons, biofield treated resorcinol might exhibit altered physicochemical properties like diffusion velocity, mobility and evaporation rate, reaction rate, binding energy, and stability. Biofield treated resorcinol could be valuable in pharmaceutical and chemical industries as intermediates during the preparation of pharmaceuticals and chemical compounds by altering its physicochemical properties, the reaction rate and selectivity, the study of the reaction mechanism and facilitating in designing extremely effective and specific enzyme inhibitors.
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Phenolic compounds are commonly used for diverse applications such as in pharmaceuticals, chemicals, rubber, dyes and pigments. The objective of present research was to study the impact of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment on physical and thermal properties of phenol derivatives such as o-nitrophenol (ONP), m-nitrophenol (MNP) and p-tertiary butyl phenol (TBP). The study was performed in two groups (control and treated). The control and treated compounds were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and surface area analysis. XRD analysis showed increase in crystallite size by 16.05% in treated ONP as compared to control. However, the treated MNP showed decrease in crystallite size by 16.17% as compared to control. The treated TBP showed increase in crystallite size by 5.20% as compared to control. DSC of treated MNP exhibited increase in melting temperature with respect to control, which may be correlated to higher thermal stability of treated sample. However, the treated TBP exhibited no significant change in melting temperature with respect to control. TGA analysis of treated ONP and TBP showed an increase in maximum thermal decomposition temperature (Tmax) as compared to control. However, the treated MNP showed slight decrease in Tmax in comparison with control sample. Surface area analysis of treated ONP showed decrease in surface area by 65.5%. However, surface area was increased by 40.7% in treated MNP as compared to control. These results suggest that biofield treatment has significant effect on physical and thermal properties of ONP, MNP and TBP.
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2,4-Dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) and 2,6-dichlorophenol (2,6-DCP) are two isomers of dichlorophenols, have been used as preservative agents for wood, paints, vegetable fibers and as intermediates in the production of pharmaceuticals and dyes. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of biofield energy treatment on the isotopic abundance ratios of 2H/1H or 13C/12C, and 18O/16O or 37Cl/35Cl, in dichlorophenol isomers using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The 2,4-DCP and 2,6-DCP samples were divided into two parts: control and treated. The control sample remained as untreated, while the treated sample was further divided into four groups as T1, T2, T3, and T4. The treated group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment. The GC-MS spectra of 2,4-DCP and 2,6-DCP showed three to six m/zpeaks at 162, 126, 98, 73, 63, 37 etc. due to the molecular ion peak and fragmented peaks. The isotopic abundance ratios (percentage) in both the isomers were increased significantly after biofield treatment as compared to the control. The isotopic abundance ratio of (PM+1)/PM and (PM+2)/PM after biofield energy treatment were increased by 54.38% and 40.57% in 2,4-DCP and 126.11% and 18.65% in 2,6-DCP, respectively which may affect the bond energy, reactivity and finally stability to the product.
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The Murashige and Skoog medium (MS media) is a chemically defined and widely used as a growth medium for plant tissue culture techniques. The present study was attempted to evaluate the impact of biofield energy treatment on the physical, thermal, and spectral properties of MS media. The study was performed in two groups; one was kept as control while another was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment and coded as treated group. Afterward, both the control and treated samples were analyzed using various analytical techniques. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed 19.92% decrease in the crystallite size of treated sample with respect to the control. The thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed the increase in onset temperature of thermal degradation (Tonset) by 9.41% and 10.69% in first and second steps of thermal degradation, respectively after the biofield energy treatment as compared to the control. Likewise, Tmax (maximum thermal degradation temperature) was increased by 17.43% and 28.61% correspondingly in the first and second step of thermal degradation in the treated sample as compared to the control. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis indicated the 143.51% increase in the latent heat of fusion of the treated sample with respect to the control sample. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectrum of treated MS media showed the alteration in the frequency such as 3165→3130 cm-1 (aromatic C-H stretching); 2813→2775 cm-1 (aliphatic C-H stretching); 1145→1137 cm-1 (C-N stretching), 995→1001 cm-1 (S=O stretching), etc. in the treated sample with respect to the control. The UV spectra of control and treated MS media showed the similar absorbance maxima (λmax) i.e. at 201 and 198 nm, respectively. The XRD, TGA-DTG, DSC, and FT-IR results suggested that Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment has the impact on physical, thermal, and spectral properties of the MS media. As a result, the treated MS media could be more stable than the control, and might be used as better media in the plant tissue culture technique.
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of biofield energy treatment on the isotopic abundance of 13C/12C or 2H/1H or 15N/14N ≡ (PM+1)/PM in aniline; and (PM+1)/PM and 81Br/79Br ≡ (PM+2)/PM in 4-bromoaniline using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Aniline and 4-bromoaniline samples were divided into two parts: control and treated. The control part remained as untreated, while the treated part was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment. The treated samples were subdivided in three parts named as T1, T2, and T3 for aniline and four parts named as T1, T2, T3, and T4 for 4-bromoaniline. The GC-MS data revealed that the isotopic abundance ratio of (PM+1)/PM in aniline was increased from -40.82%, 30.17% and 73.12% in T1, T2 and T3 samples respectively. However in treated samples of 4-bromoaniline the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM was increased exponentially from -4.36 % (T1) to 368.3% (T4) as compared to the control. A slight decreasing trend of the isotopic ratio of (PM+2)/ PM in 4-bromoaniline was observed after biofield energy treatment. The GC-MS data suggests that the biofield energy treatment has significantly increased the isotopic abundance of 2H, 13C and 15N in the treated aniline and 4-bromoaniline, while slight decreased the isotopic abundance of 81Br in treated 4-bromoaniline as compared to their respective control.
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The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment on mustard (Brassica juncea) and chick pea (Cicer arietinum) for their growth, yield, and yield attributes. Both the samples were divided into two groups. One group was remained as untreated and coded as control, while the other group (both seed and plot) was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment and referred as the treated. The result showed the plant height of mustard and chick pea was increased by 13.2 and 97.41%, respectively in the treated samples as compared to the control. Additionally, primary branching of mustard and chick pea was improved by 7.4 and 19.84%, respectively in the treated sample as compared to the control. The control mustard and chick pea crops showed high rate of infection by pests and diseases, while treated crops were free from any infection of pests and disease. The yield attributing characters of mustard showed, lucidly higher numbers of siliquae on main shoot, siliquae/plant and siliquae length were observed in the treated seeds and plot as compared with the control. Moreover, similar results were observed in the yield attributing parameters of chick pea viz. pods/plant, grains/pod as well as test weight of 1000 grains. The seed and stover yield of mustard in treated plots were increased by 61.5% and 25.4%, respectively with respect to the control. However, grain/seed yield of mustard crop after biofield energy treatment was increased by 500% in terms of kg per meter square as compared to the control. Besides, grain/seed yield of chick pea crop after biofield energy treatment was increased by 500% in terms of kg per meter square. The harvest index of biofield treated mustard was increased by 21.83%, while it was slight increased in case of chick pea. In conclusion, the biofield energy treatment could be used on both the seeds and plots of mustard and chick pea as an alternative way to increase the production and yield.
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Alphonso is the most delicious variety of mango (Mangifera indica L.) known for its excellent texture, taste, and richness with vitamins and minerals. The present study was attempted to evaluate the impact of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment on morphological characteristics, quality, yield and molecular assessment of mango. A plot of 16 acres lands used for this study with already grown mango trees. This plot was divided into two parts. One part was considered as control, while another part was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment without physically touching and referred as treated. The treated mango trees showed new straight leaves, without any distortion and infection, whereas the control trees showed very few, distorted, infected, and curly leaves. Moreover, the flowering pattern of control trees did not alter; it was on average 8 to 10 inches with more male flowers. However, the flowering pattern of treated trees was completely transformed into compact one being 4 to 5 inches in length and having more female flowers. Additionally, the weight of matured ripened mango was found on an average 275 gm, medium sized with 50% lesser pulp in the control fruits, while the fruits of biofield energy treated trees showed on average weight of 400 gm, large sized and having 75% higher pulp as compared to the control. Apart from morphology, the quality and nutritional components of mango fruits such as acidity content was increased by 65.63% in the treated sample. Vitamin C content in the treated Alphonso mango pulp was 43.75% higher than the pulp obtained from the control mango farm. The spongy tissue content in pulp of the matured ripened mangoes was decreased by 100% for two consecutive years as compared to the control. Moreover, the yield of flowers and fruits in the treated trees were increased about 95.45 and 47.37%, respectively as compared to the control. Besides, the DNA fingerprinting data using RAPD revealed that the treated sample did not show any true polymorphism as compared to the control. The overall results envisaged that the biofield energy treatment on the mango trees showed a significant improvement in the morphology, quality and overall productivity along with 100% reduction in the spongy tissue disorder. In conclusion, the biofield energy treatment could be used as an alternative way to increase the production of quality mangoes.