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Developing a bioeconomic model to foster discussions among stakeholders. An application to Indonesian Blue Swimming Crab fisheries

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  • Gingerfish Ltd

Abstract and Figures

Blue swimming crab fisheries in Indonesia have been under high pressure for several years: quasi- open access, weak management and weak enforcement are some of the key reasons explaining the recent a stark increase in catch jeopardizing the sustainability of the resource. In January 2015, a multi stakeholder workshop was organized in Semarang to discuss potential management measures. A bioeconomic model was developed specifically for the workshop to be used during discussions, allowing direct feedback on the potential effect of various management measure mixes proposed by stakeholders. This paper presents the model developed for the workshop and how it was used to inform the discussions among stakeholders. The model describes a crab fishery in the Demak area (central Java) targeted by three gear-types (net, trap, trawl) and includes seven types of management measures that can be combined to create a pool of rules. The principal management measure mixes that were discussed during the workshop are presented and compared, notably in terms of potential short-term losses, which in the Indonesian context are strong drivers for weak compliance with new rules. Measure mixes need to be carefully phased to exert maximum effect. Since this workshop, several regulatory changes have been introduced by the Indonesian administration, notably the introduction of a minimum landing size, a ban on landing berried female and a ban on trawling. This paper also explores the potential need for further regulatory changes to reach a sustainable level of exploitation, notably the added value of a spatial approach.
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Developing*a*bioeconomic model*to*foster*
discussions*among*stakeholders.*
An*application*to*Indonesian*
Blue*Swimming*Crab*fisheries
Sébastien*Metz1,*Dessy Anggraeni2,*Geoff*Tingley2,*Jack*Whalen2,*Juan*Manuel*
Garcia-Caudillo2,* Jim*Cannon2
Affiliations:*
1*Sakana*Consultants*
2*Sustainable Fisheries Partnership Foundation
With the*financial support*of*the*The*Rockefeller*Foundation
Objective*of*this*work
Supporting*transition*work*in*Indonesia*by*
providing*a*tool*to*foster*discussion*among*
stakeholders
for*expert*led*meetings
to*implement*“serious”*games
This*presentation*is*about*how*we’ve*built*a*
bieconomic model*for*a*meeting*held*in*
Semarang*at*the*beginning*of*2015
Context:
Blue*Swimming*Crab*(BSC)*in*Indonesia
~65,000*fishermen
~13,000*pickers*working*in*
miniplantsand*cooking*stations
Production*in*2009:*35,000*
tonnes of,*more*than*7*times*the*
landings*in*1990
Mainly*exported,*representing*
8%*of*fishery*product*export*
value*in*2011
Main*market*=*USA*(more*than*
50%*of*exports)
Weak*management*framework
FIP*initiated*in*2008
Our*case*study*is*
based*on*the*
Betahwalang
village*(central*
Java)
Supply*chain*structure
Fishing*boats
Cooking stations
Miniplants
Processors
Exporters
Artisanal*fleet:*wooden*boat,*
from*6*to*12-13*meters
Three*gear*type:*Net*Trap*
Trawl
Crew:*from*1*to*3
Day*boat,*except*for*large*trap*
vessels*(cook*crab*onboard)
Crab*cooked*few*hours*after*the*
catch
Crab*peeled*in*miniplants
Main*issue:*no*effective*
management
Model*Structure:*the*fishery
Biological*Box
Blue*Swimming*Crab*Stock
Age*structured
Male*&* Female
Quick*growth*=>*not*annual*
but* monthly* step
Economic*Box
3*gear*segments
(trap,*gillnet,* minitrawl)
Va ri abl e* & *fix ed* c os ts
Market*(different* price*for*
different* gear)
Production*Box
Harvest*(catch/landing)
Discards
Regulation*Box
Minimum* size
Season/area*closure
Fishing* gear*restriction
Quota*and*effort* restrictions
Stock*enhancement
The*usual*suspects
𝑁"#∆" = 𝑁"& 𝑒()&∆"
𝐶𝑎𝑡𝑐ℎ"= 𝑊
"& 𝑁"& 𝑒(0&∆"
𝑃𝑟𝑜𝑓𝑖𝑡"=𝐶𝑎𝑡𝑐"&𝑃𝑟𝑖𝑐𝑒"− 𝐸𝑓𝑓𝑜𝑟𝑡"& 𝑉𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑡𝑠 + 𝐹𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑡𝑠
Key*assumptions
Simulation*model*over*15*years*(180*periods)
36*age*classes
Monospecific*fishery
Fishery*is*isolated:*no*other*fleet*segment*involved
2*areas*onshore*(small*crab)*/*offshore*(large*crab)
Fishermen*=*price*takers:*the*local*supply*has*little*to*no*
effect*on*ex-vessel*price
Fishermen*are*owning*their*vessels*in*reality,*this*may*be*
slightly*different*as*there*might*be*some*vertical*
integration*(miniplant owners*partly/fully*owning*boats)
Management*Options
1. Minimum*Legal*Size
2. Forbid*the*landing*of*berried*females
3. Impose*the*closing*of*inshore*zone
4. Impose*seasonal*closure
5. Catch*limitation*(quota)
6. Effort*restriction*(less*fishing*days)*
7. Modify*the*gears*(selectivity)
8. Stock*enhancement
The*workshop*setting
All*types*of*stakeholders*
represented:
Fishermen*(the*3*gear*
groups)
Head*of*the*local*village
Local*scientists
Local*and*central*
administration
Exporters
Model*projected*on*
screen*(excel*file)
Depending*on*
discussion,*conditions*of*
the*model*are*adjusted*
to*show*potential*
outcome
Setting*a*minimum*landing*size*at*10*cm
Ban*on*mini*trawl
Mixed*approach:*gradual*increase*of*MLS,*seasonal*
closure,*gear*change*(trawl)
Next*steps
Implementation*of*control*document,*to*force*
the*implementation*of*minimum*landing*size,*
ban*on*berried*female*landings*and*ban*of*trawls
Project*started*on*three*areas*(East*Lampung,*
Madura,*South*East*Sulawesi)
Aim:*evaluating*the*effect*of*the*control*document
Data*collection*biology*&*economy
Data*Integration*in*model(s)*
Developing*a*bioeconomic model*to*foster*
discussions*among*stakeholders.*
An*application*to*Indonesian*
Blue*Swimming*Crab*fisheries
Sébastien*Metz1,*Dessy Anggraeni2,*Geoff*Tingley2,*Jack*Whalen2,*Juan*Manuel*
Garcia-Caudillo2,* Jim*Cannon2
Affiliations:*
1*Sakana*Consultants*
2*Sustainable Fisheries Partnership Foundation
With the*financial support*of*the*The*Rockefeller*Foundation
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