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Potential Bacterial Zoonotic Pathogens Isolated from a Major Abattoir and its Receiving Surface Water in Abeokuta, Nigeria

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Alexandria Journal of Veterinary Sciences 2016, July. 50 (1): 94-98 2047,-1110 ISSN 10.5455/ajvs.222912 DOI:
Potential Bacterial Zoonotic Pathogens Isolated from a Major Abattoir and its Receiving Surface
Water in Abeokuta, Nigeria
Adebowale, O. Oluwawemimo1, Jayeola Adedamola1, Adeyemo Olanike2, Kperegbeyi Eniola1
1Department of Veterinary Public Health and Reproduction, College of Veterinary Medicine, Federal University of Agriculture Abeokuta,
Abeokuta, 2Department of Veterinary Public Health and Preventive Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan
Key words:
Abattoir; Water
waste; Surface
water; Public
The rapid pace and scale of urbanization in Nigeria has led to large volumes of domestic, agricultural
and industrial wastes, which pose threats to the environment and public health. Currently, in Nigeria,
there seems to be neither sufficient measures nor facilities to treat such wastes to ensure environmental
safety or recovery of usable energy and material. This study was conducted to determine the microbial
status of the Lafenwa abattoir effluent and its receiving nearby surface water. The various waste disposal
methods at the abattoir were also assessed. The Total viable and Coliform counts (TBC and TCC) using
surface plating techniques were performed. The mean TBC and TCC for waste water during and after
slaughtering were 5.2x107, 4.9x107 and 4.26x107, 3.06x107 cfu/ml respectively. Meanwhile, the receiving
surface water during and after slaughtering had mean TBC and TCC of 4.15x107, 3.83x107, and
3.89x107, 2.87x107 cfu/ml respectively. Waste disposal at the abattoir was by open dumping of solid
wastes while effluent was discharged into a nearby Ogun River, which is also used by butchers for meat
processing. Bacterial organisms isolated from abattoir effluent included Enterobacter aerogenes,
Hafnia alvei, Erwinia mallotivora, Edwardsiella ictaluri, Enterobacter amnigenus and Escherichia coli
O157strains. Meanwhile, Proteus miriabilis, Staphylococcus spp, Pseudomonas aeruginosa,
Enterobacter intermedius, Yersinia aleksiciae, Serratia odorifera, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter
aerogens and Eschericia coli O157 were isolated from the surface water. The high microbial load and the
isolation of pathogenic organisms of public health importance especially Escherichia coli O157 strains
further demonstrates the need for adequate waste disposal and treatment. Also, the current methods of
waste disposal at the abattoir greatly reduces the quality of the surrounding environment and portends a
risk to public health and food safety.
Corresponding Author: Adebowale Oluwawemimo,
The abattoir is a specialized facility approved and
registered by regulatory authority for inspection of
animals, hygienic slaughtering, processing and
effective preservation and storage of meat products for
human consumption (Alonge, 2002). Adequate
facilities to ensure safe disposal of abattoir wastes in a
manner that will not constitute a potential hazard to
public, animal and environmental health is considered
very essential. Most abattoirs in Nigeria have no
facilities for waste treatment; wastes are either
disposed on open dumps or are discharged into nearby
streams, hence constituting an environmental menace
(Adeyemo et al., 2002).
Effluents generated from abattoirs are characterized by
the presence of a high concentration of whole blood of
slaughtered food animals and suspended particles of
semi-digested and undigested feeds within the stomach
and intestine of slaughtered and dressed food animals
(Coker et al., 2001). Abattoir effluent contains several
million colony forming units (cfu) of total aerobic
bacteria count and fecal coliforms. In addition, there
may also be the presence of pathogenic
microorganisms, such as Salmonella, Eschericia coli
(including serotype O157:H7), Shigella, parasite eggs
and amoebic cysts (Bull et al., 2001). Several past
studies have reported the isolation of pathogenic
bacteria and fungi species such as Staphylococcus
aureus, Streptococcus, Salmonella spp, Eschericia
coli, Aspergillus, Muccor, Saccarhomyces. spp and
Penicillium spp from abattoir wastewater (Coker et al.,
2001; Adesomoye et al., 2006 and Adebowale et al.,
Adebowale et al., / Alexandria Journal of Veterinary Sciences 2016, July. 50 (1): 94-98
2010). Pathogens isolated might threaten public health
by migrating into ground or surface water, or vectors
like animals, birds and arthropods which can help in
the dissemination (Gauri, 2004).
Zoonoses from abattoir wastes are yet to be fully
controlled in more than 80% public abattoirs in
Nigeria (Cadmus et al., 1999). This may be linked to
the absence or inadequate abattoir waste management
facilities, which has consequently led to large solid
wastes and untreated effluents being common sites
(Adeyemo, 2002). The risk of epidemics, water
contamination and pollution, annihilation of biotic life,
global warming and soil degradation by waste
materials are real problems confronting developing
countries where issues concerning waste management
have been grossly neglected (Adedipe, 2002; Adeyemi
and Adeyemo, 2007).
This study was conducted to examine the different
methods of waste disposal in the largest abattoir in
Abeokuta, Ogun State. We also performed
microbiological investigation to determine the
bacterial load of the abattoir effluent and receiving
surface river.
2.1. Study Area
Lafenwa abattoir is located in a commercial district of
Abeokuta North Local Government Area of Ogun
State, South-Western Nigeria. It is located on
geographical map reference Latitude 30 20’E and
Longitude 70 10’N. Lafenwa abattoir is a major
slaughtering facility in Ogun state where a total
number of 150-200 heads of cattle are slaughtered
daily for public consumption. The slaughtering
activities commences from 6. 00a.m to 12.00 noon
every day, except on Sundays.
2.2. Sample collection
Waste water samples from the major channel for
effluent outflow and water samples from the receiving
surface water, (which is also used for meat processing)
were collected for microbial investigation using
sterilized 250ml bottles. Sampling was carried out
during and post slaughtering twice a week for 3months
November 2009 to January 2010. Overall, 50 samples
were collected. After collections, samples were
transported to the laboratory in ice boxes for microbial
analyses in the Microbiology and Public Health
Laboratory of the College of Veterinary Medicine,
2.3. Microbiological Analysis
The waste water and water samples were plated and
cultured to determine the TBC and TCC using
Nutrient and MacConkey agars, respectively. Media
were prepared according to the manufacturer’s
instruction. Sterile Nutrient and MacConkey agar
plates were inoculated aseptically in duplicates with
0.1 ml aliquot of serial dilutions 10-7 and 10-8 of
samples using surface plate technique, and plates
incubated at 37°C for 24 hours (Boulter et al., 2002).
After incubation, plates were observed and distinct,
visible colonies were counted; total bacteria and total
coliforms were estimated and recorded as colony
forming units per ml.
For detection and identification of E. coli O157,
samples were inoculated on Sorbitol MacConkey-
BCIG Agar (Oxoid) supplemented with cefixime-
tellurite selective supplement (Oxoid). Plates were
incubated for 24 hours at 37oC. Straw colored
colonies suspected to be E. coli O157 were subjected
to biochemical test for E. coli identification and further
confirmed E. coli O157 using dry spot Eschericia coli
O157 test kits (Oxoid, UK).
Furthermore, identification of bacteria isolates was
performed. Briefly discrete bacterial colonies plates
were subcultured onto fresh sterile corresponding
plates and subjected to colonial characterization, Gram
staining and microscopy as well as biochemical tests
according to Cappucino and Sherma 1998. Isolates
characteristics were interpreted with an online bacteria
identification software system (ABIS 7.0) to determine
the identity of the isolates.
2.4. Methods of Abattoir waste disposal.
Information on different methods of abattoir waste and
effluent disposal were gathered by investigators
through visual observations and personal interview
with Veterinarians on duty at the abattoir.
Investigators moved round the abattoir and ways of
disposal observed, recorded and images captured using
a camera.
2.5. Data Analysis
The Mean TBC and TCC are represented as charts.
Ordinary 2-way ANOVA was performed to determine
if there were difference in the mean TBC and TCC of
abattoir effluent and receiving surface water. In all
analysis, differences were statistically significant at p
≤0.05. Graphical representations and analysis were
performed using Graphpad Prism 6.0
Adebowale et al., / Alexandria Journal of Veterinary Sciences 2016, July. 50 (1): 94-98
The results of the mean values of the TBC and TCC
are presented in Fig. 1. The mean TBC and TCC for
waste water during and after slaughtering were
5.2x107, 4.9x107 and 4.26x107, 3.06x107 cfu/ml
respectively. The contaminated receiving surface
water had mean TBC and TCC of 4.15x107, 3.83x107,
and 3.89x107, 2.87x107 cfu/ml respectively. Analysis
of variance indicated there was no difference between
the TBC and TCC estimated for Abattoir effluent and
surface water/river (P=0.27), and during and after
slaughter (p= 0.39). Bacteria isolated from both
effluent and the receiving surface water were Bacillus
spp, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas,
Enterobacter, Hafnia alvei, E. coli, Erwinia, Proteus
and Klebsiella. Table 1. represents the various bacteria
isolated from abattoir effluents and receiving surface
water. From the total 50 samples analyzed,
Escherichia coli O157 was detected in 16% (Table 2).
The types of wastes generated at the Lafenwa abattoir
included solid and liquid wastes. Solid wastes included
ruminal contents, horns, hooves, fat, meat trimmings
and most importantly, animal faeces are disposed on
open dumps around the abattoir. Condemned organs
and parts of carcasses were disposed into pits and
covered with chemicals such as formaldehyde and
lysolR. Liquid wastes including blood, urine and water
used for various activities in the abattoir were
discharged without pre-treatment into nearby surface
water, the Ogun River. As shown in Fig. 2 open dumps
were situated in and around the abattoir. Abattoir
effluents discharged into the Ogun River is represented
in Fig. 3.
Fig. 1. Bacteria and coliform counts estimated for
Abattoir effluents and receiving Surface River.
Fig. 2. Open dumps observed within and around the
Fig. 3. Abattoir liquid waste discharged nearby surface
water, Ogun River.
Table 1. Bacteria isolated from Abattoir Effluent and
the receiving Surface Water/River.
Bacillus spp
Pseudomonas spp
Hafnia alvei
Escherichia coli
Adebowale et al., / Alexandria Journal of Veterinary Sciences 2016, July. 50 (1): 94-98
Table 2. Percentage of E coli O157 isolated from
abattoir effluents and receiving water body.
Frequency of E coli O157
positive samples (n=50)
( %)
Contaminated Surface
The study revealed that abattoir waste disposal at the
Lafenwa abattoir were observed as open dumps within
and around the abattoir. There were no structured and
adequate drainages. Consequently, effluents were
discharged into the nearby surface Ogun River. Most,
if not all abattoirs in Nigeria uses these methods of
disposal (Adeyemo, 2002). These methods are
currently prohibited in most developed countries
because it provides no safeguard against risks to
human health and the environment. Unfortunately,
improper disposal of domestic or agricultural wastes is
still a huge problem in most developing countries. The
primary food safety risk associated with these methods
of disposal is the potential for pathogen, chemical
contaminants being transferred to humans directly or
through other animals. Scavengers flies, vermin, and
wild birds that feed on these wastes enhance
transmission of diseases such as Lassa fever,
Leptospirosis, Cholera, Salmonellosis (Ekugo, 1998).
The microbial analyses of the waste water and
receiving surface water showed that the mean total
bacteria and total coliform counts exceeded the
Federal Environmental Protection Agency
(FEPA,1999) and World Health Organization (W.H.O,
2004) maximum recommended and permissible limits
of 400cfu/ml and 200cfu/ml, respectively. Previous
studies conducted had shown that the receiving surface
water does not meet international standards and unfit
for meat processing (Adebowale et al., 2010). This
result serves as legible indicator of the extent of the
pollution of the water body used for meat processing at
the abattoir. The presence of Eschericia coli O157 in
both waste water from the abattoir and receiving water
body as well as other pathogens especially the
Enterobacteriaceae (many of which are associated
with gastroenteritis and opportunistic infections in
humans), indicate the need for waste water treatment
before discharge into water bodies after complying
with international limits. Detection of E coli O157
from abattoir effluents was not surprising since, it is
well documented that cattle is the chief reservoir of E.
coli O157 (Zhao et al., 1993., Renter et al., 2003;
LeJeune et al., 2004). E coli O157 is particularly
important giving the low infectious dose of this
pathogen (Prince et al., 2000). E coli O157 has been
recognized as a significant human enteric pathogen
causing sporadic cases and outbreak of infection
(Mead and Griffin, 1998). It is also the cause of life
threatening hemolytic uremic syndrome and
thrombocytopenia in children and the elderly
respectively (Padhye and Doyle, 1997). The risk is
further amplified because the receiving surface water
is also used for recreational activities including
swimming and fishing as well as a source of water for
domestic use by people living around the abattoir. The
prevalence of E coli O157 strains (8%) from the
abattoir waste water and the contaminated river (8%)
in this study poses a major concern as other studies by
various authors in Nigeria, reported lower prevalence
of 0.5 -2% (Agbogu et al., 2005 and Luga, 2006). On
the other hand, a study conducted in Egypt by El-
Gamal and EL-Bahi, 2016 reported 0% E coli O157
from abattoir environmental samples investigated.
The results obtained from the investigation showed
that effluents from the abattoir may constitute potential
hazards to the environment. The use of contaminated
surface water for meat processing by butchers may
portends serious challenges to public health and food
safety. There is therefore an urgent need to encourage
availability of adequate and clean water for meat
processing for the butchers. In addition, on the part of
the government, improvements are needed on
slaughterhouse and abattoir structures and
installations; waste and effluent treatment, potable
water supply and monitoring of abattoir workers to
ensure compliance with best practices. Better waste
disposal methods and modern technology such as
recycling and biogas technology should be adopted to
solve the issues of unhygienic waste disposal methods
that are currently being practiced at the abattoirs.
Policies that prohibit discharge of untreated animal
wastes into water bodies are suggested. Encouraging
and implementing good waste management practices
in abattoirs are important to avoid wastes constituting
persistent environmental, animal and human health
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... Moreover, abattoirs in Nigeria have no facilities for waste treatment; wastes are either disposed on open dumps or are discharged into nearby streams, hence constituting an environmental menace (Adeyemo 2002). In particular, the Lafenwa Municipal abattoir effluents and wastes are channelled into Ogun River, which is used by indigenes of surrounding communities for drinking and domestic purposes, without prior treatment to remove bacteria and other noxious substances (Adebowale et al. 2016 Although few studies have reported the bacteriological assessment of Lafenwa abattoir effluent and its receiving water, none have focused on the antibiotic-resistant potential of these pathogens. Hence, this current study aimed at investigating this gap. ...
... Effluent and water samples were collected between May and June 2019. At the abattoir, sampling points were divided into Point A (channel draining the trippery and guttery section) and Point B (main outflow channel discharging into the river) (Adebowale et al. 2016). On the river, the sampling points were divided into upstream (75 m before the point of inflow of abattoir effluent into the river), midstream (at the point of abattoir effluent release into river) and downstream (75 m after the point of effluent inflow) (Adebowale et al. 2016). ...
... At the abattoir, sampling points were divided into Point A (channel draining the trippery and guttery section) and Point B (main outflow channel discharging into the river) (Adebowale et al. 2016). On the river, the sampling points were divided into upstream (75 m before the point of inflow of abattoir effluent into the river), midstream (at the point of abattoir effluent release into river) and downstream (75 m after the point of effluent inflow) (Adebowale et al. 2016). In total, 12 effluent and 18 water samples were collected fortnightly over a 6-week period. ...
Full-text available
Untreated abattoir effluent constitutes potential reservoir for transmission of pathogenic strains of multiple antibiotic-resistant bacteria by pollution of surface and ground water sources. This study was carried out to determine the antibiotic resistance and extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) production profiles of Gram-negative bacteria isolated from effluent collected from Lafenwa municipal abattoir and its receiving surface water, Ogun River, in Abeokuta, Ogun state, Nigeria. Twelve effluent and 18 water samples were collected for this study. Total heterotrophic and coliform counts were estimated, bacterial identification was performed using standard culture-based procedures, whilst antibiotic resistance profiles of isolated bacteria against five antibiotics (ceftazidime, cefpodoxime, cefotaxime, ertapenem and amoxicillin-clavulanate) and detection of ESBLs were done using disk diffusion and double-disc synergy tests. A total of 54 Gram-negative bacteria were isolated, including Salmonella spp. (9), Escherichia coli (15), Klebsiella spp. (7), Shigella spp. (5), Pseudomonas spp. (12) and Enterobacter spp. (6). Both Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas isolates (31% and 66.6%, respectively) were resistant to all selected antibiotics except ertapenem (98% susceptibility). Overall, 77% isolates had multiple antibiotic resistance index (MARI) values, but none of the antibiotic-resistant isolates showed evidence of ESBL production. The presence of multiple antibiotic-resistant isolates in the effluent and receiving water of Lafenwa abattoir suggests a major risk to public health and food safety. Current methods of waste disposal at the abattoir are unacceptable and greatly reduce the qualities of the processed meat and contaminate the environment. There is a need for improved abattoir waste management and water treatment strategies.
... The process and practice of killing animals for production of food and packaged products is as old as humanity [2]. An abattoir could be considered as a facility, which is approved and registered by controlling authorities for hygienic slaughtering and processing of meat products for human consumption [3]. Abattoir effluent could be regarded as the waste generated from abattoir activities, such as animal faeces, blood, fat, animal trimmings, paunch content and urine [4]. ...
... Total coliform presence in the rivers could be attributed to the indiscriminate release of the abattoir waste, which contained significant amount of the slaughtered animal faeces. The results obtained corroborated that of other previous studies [2,3,21]. ...
... Studies have revealed incidences of antibiotic resistance in E. coli O157:H7 isolated from surface water, abattoir effluents [10], and raw beef [11] in Abeokuta. The use of antibiotics is paramount in the treatment of diseases caused by E. coli. ...
... In a similar study, Tanaro et al. [14] isolated E. coli O157:H7 strains from surface water near cattle feedlots. Adebowale et al. [10] also reported the isolation of E. coli O157:H7 strains from abattoir effluents and the receiving surface-water body. Further, Balogun et al. [15] reported the isolation E. coli O157:H7 and other coliforms from Ogun River. ...
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Although Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a harmless gut microbe in man, some strains of this bacterium are pathogenic due to the acquisition of virulence factors. The aim of this study is to investigate E. coli O157:H7 strains isolated from Ogun River, Abeokuta metropolis, for virulence factors and antibiotic resistance. Water samples were collected bimonthly from six different locations over a period of six months. The samples were cultured on Sorbitol MacConkey Agar and E. coli O157:H7 isolates were confirmed through serological characterization using the latex agglutination test. The presence of virulence genes (stx1, stx2, eae, and hylA) in the isolates was analyzed through polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Further, antibiotic susceptibility of the isolates was tested using the disc diffusion method. The PCR analysis revealed that the five E. coli O157:H7 strains isolated possessed Shiga toxin 1 (stx1), Shiga toxin 2 (stx2), and Haemolysin (hlyA) genes. Additionally, the isolates were resistant to Augmentin, Ceftriaxone, Nitrofurantoin, Gentamycin, Amoxicillin, and Pefloxacin. This study shows that E. coli O157:H7 strains are present in Ogun River and that these strains possess multiple virulence factors and are resistant to multiple drugs. .
... Such data can be used for informed policy to intensify reduction in economic loss associated with animal diseases. Adesokan, 2009;Tekki et al., 2012;Adebowale et al., 2016;Fasanmi et al., 2017). The poor state of national abattoirs, hygiene, management, environment and meat inspection have led to high risks for contamination of meat and meat products. ...
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Slaughterhouses are certified premises where animals are slaughtered and inspected to ensure meats are wholesome and safe for public consumption. To determine the common zoonoses encountered in a municipal slaughterhouse of Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria, a three-year retrospective study was conducted (2014–2016). During the review of slaughterhouse records, the overall throughput of cattle slaughtered was 146,794 (4077.6 ± 413.6; 95% confidence interval [CI] 3923.3–4206.7). Female animal slaughtering outweighed male ones at 5:1 ratio (p < 0.0001). The highest number of cattle were slaughtered in December 2014, December 2015, and August 2016. Of all the total cattle slaughtered, the overall observed prevalences for bovine tuberculosis (BTB), hydatidosis and fasciolosis were estimated as 9514 (6.5%, 264.3 ± 81.7; 95% CI 236.6–291.9), 1851 (1.3%, 55.8 ± 17.3; 95% CI 49.9–61.6) and 845 (0.6%, median = 19.0; 95% CI 18.7–28.3), respectively. On average the highest number of BTB cases was reported in February-March, it declined slightly in October and increased again in November. Similarly, the highest numbers of hydatidosis and fasciolosis were observed in March and February, respectively. A significant (p = 0.02) mean variation of cases of BTB was found across the period and it was higher (p = 0.03) during the wet/rainy season in 2015. Our results emphasized the need to promote coordinated active surveillance for zoonoses detection and mitigation to ensure food safety at farm and slaughterhouse levels. Adequate record keeping for specific organ/meat/carcass condemnation is crucial at postmortem, as this represents a significant loss of animal proteins and revenues. Such data can be used for informed policy to intensify reduction in economic loss associated with animal diseases.
... Also, laws are obsolete and have weaknesses which may compromise quality and safety of food animal chain systems. Abattoirs in Nigeria have been recognized not to meet the minimum hygienic standard of operation as recommended by the Codex Alimentarius and may become haven for human exposures to food-associated risks (Bello et al., 2015;Bakari et al., 2015;Adebowale et al., 2016;Fasanmi et al., 2017;Adebowale, 2019;Chukwuma et al., 2020;Odetokun et al., 2020). Nigeria's population has been constantly growing in the past decade (Aidi et al., 2016) and currently, there are over 200 million people living in the country (World Population Review, 2021). ...
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Introduction: The abattoir is a registered premise where food animals are hygienically processed and converted to meat through methodical inspection carried out by certified public health veterinarians. This study was conducted to assess the causes of organ condemnation in food animals slaughtered at the Bodija abattoir in Oyo state. Methods: A retrospective abattoir-based survey was conducted for the year 2014. The data collected included: the throughput of food animals slaughtered, various disease conditions recorded, total number of suspected and laboratory based confirmed cases (where available) respectively, and total number of condemnations (partial or total condemnation) with organs involved. Data collected were analysed using descriptive and one-way Analysis of Variance test (ANOVA). Results: A total of 9527 (433.0±144.4), 1488 (67.6±52.4), 4971(226.0±132.9), and 1195(54.3±18.6) cattle, sheep, goat and pigs were slaughtered respectively. Some of the slaughtered cattle, sheep and goat, 29.4% (n = 1822), 1.4 % (n = 1488) and 3.8% (n = 4971) respectively, had abnormal conditions that led to condemnations of organs respectively. For organ specific condemnations, 447 (21.7%) and 141 (6.8%) livers were condemned due to fasciolosis and hepatitis respectively. Pimply gut, pneumonia and nephritis accounted for 433 (21.0%) intestines, 141 (6.8%) lungs and 88(4.3%) kidneys condemnations respectively. Overall, tuberculosis accounted for 402 (19.5%) condemnations of lungs, liver, kidneys, and spleens. Significance: Organ condemnations constitute a huge meat loss and reduction in per capita animal protein consumption. It is emphasized in this work that pathological conditions encountered at the abattoir are preventable if adequate disease surveillance and control programs are implemented at critical control points of the red meat value chain.
... In this study higher coliform and enterococcal count of 3.0 × 10 7 and 3.0 × 10 5 CFU/ml were obtained respectively. Statistical analyses revealed that there is significant difference in the bacteriological parameters of the wastewaters from the abattoirs (Tables 1, 2 (20). ...
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Background and objectives: Waste water from abattoirs could harbour bacteria some of which are pathogenic. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the quality of wastewater from some abattoirs in Ilorin, Nigeria. Materials and methods: The counts of viable bacteria, total coliform, faecal coliform, enterococci, S. aureus, P. aeruginosa and Salmonella/Shigella spp. of the wastewater was determined using selective media. The sanitary condition appraisal, antibiotic susceptibility test and plasmid profile of the isolates were assessed using standard methods. Results: The highest count of viable bacteria and total coliform obtained were 9.0 × 107 and 3.0 × 107 CFU/ml respectively. Faecal coliform and enterococcal count had the same highest value of 3.0 × 105 CFU/ml. The highest count of pathogenic bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella spp. were 2.5 × 108, 1.9 × 107 and 3.0 × 104 CFU/ml respectively. The abattoirs sanitary scores ranged from 28.6-57.1%. The isolates showed multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) index ranging from 0.5-1.0. Plasmid curing with 0.1 mg/ml of acridine orange solution led to reduction in the MAR index of most of the Gram negative bacteria. Pseudomonas stutzeri was susceptible to all the antibiotics while Proteus vulgaris was resistant to all the antibiotics after curing. Most of the Gram negative bacteria isolated belong to the families Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonadaceae while the Gram positive bacteria belong to the families Staphylococcaceae, Enterococcaceae and Streptococcaceae. Conclusion: It was concluded from this study that wastewaters from the abattoirs were contaminated by bacteria with high MAR index. Most of these bacteria borne their antibiotic resistant factors in their plasmid.
... In this study, the discharge of untreated effluent into the nearby Ogun River conforms to similar observations from studies in abattoirs in Nigeria (Adeyemo, 2002 andAdebowale et al., 2016) and Ghana (Fearon et al 2014). ...
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The Ogun River is a sink for untreated effluents discharged from the Kara Cow Market, Ogun State. In this study, microbiological, physicochemical and heavy metals evaluation were carried out on effluent from the market. Standard methods were utilised for the examination of physicochemical and microbiological parameters of the effluent. The histological effects of sublethal concentrations of the effluent were assessed in the gills, intestine and skin of Poecilia reticulata (guppy fish) over a period of 56 days following standard methods and international ethical guidelines. None of the physicochemical parameters were within the set limits by the National Environmental Standards and Enforcement Agency (NESREA) for effluent discharges into surface waters. Coliforms, pathogens and fungi were observed in the effluent with a total plate count of 2.14 x 107 cfu/mL. The median lethal concentration (96 h LC50) of the effluent to P. reticulata was 71.50 mL/L (7.15%). Histological alterations such as distorted mucosal architecture with shortening and widening of intestinal villi were observed in the intestine of exposed groups of P. reticulata at day 56. The observed adverse physicochemical parameters, histological alterations and pathogenic microbes may pose ecological and public health risks to aquatic organisms and humans respectively. It is recommended that an effluent treatment plant should be installed at the market to reduce the pollutants load of the effluent before discharge into the Ogun River.
... Where abattoir effluent-polluted waters are used to grow salad crops and vegetables, transmission of infections is bound to occur because animal wastes are known to contain pathogenic organisms, causing Salmonellosis, Leptospirosis, Tularemia, Foot and mouth disease and many more [8]. Abattoir activities and management have direct and indirect effects on the built-up environment and health of people especially residents in abattoir vicinity. ...
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Abattoir activities are known to pollute the environment, posing significant public health concerns. These activities predispose the workers and nearby communities to some communicable and non-communicable diseases. In the production of animal for food, more attention should be focused on the interactions between animal production and the environment. Meat production in the Somachi main abattoir, should be carried with the best of structures to produce wholesome and safe meat, avoid environmental pollution and circumvent human health risks especially for the sake of families and communities living close by. It is recommended that there should be immediate installation of necessary standard equipment and major functional units of the abattoir such as cold rooms, skinning machines, slaughtering machines, changing rooms for workers and toilets. In the medium/ long term, there should be appropriate technology should be developed, to take care of all the wastes generated in the abattoir, including abattoir wastewater, treatment and recycling for irrigation; and compost and biogas production. The abattoir workers and management need regular updates of health information concerning the peculiar nature of their job with a view to preserving not just their health but also that of their customers and community in general.
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Wastewater is an essential reservoir of pathogenic bacteria, which include resistant strains. This study determined the antibiotics resistance pattern of Coliform bacteria isolated from slaughterhouse wastewater in Jega local government. Five different samples of wastewater from different locations of a slaughterhouse were collected using standard sample collection techniques. Coliform bacteria were isolated using the standard microbiological method. The total bacterial count was determined using plate count agar. Suspected coliforms were identified based on morphological and biochemical tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was carried out using the standard disc diffusion method. The highest bacterial count (8.4x102 CFU/ml) was observed from the wastewater collection point, and the lowest bacterial (1.2x102 CFU/ml) count from the slaughtering point. Three Gram-negative bacteria, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter aerogenes, were identified. Escherichia coli was the most frequently isolated in slaughterhouse wastewater 39 (45.8%). Among the antibiotics tested against isolated bacteria, Septrin was the most resistant antibiotics recorded against E. coli and E. aerogenes with 84.61% and 88.89% resistant, respectively. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was found to show higher resistance to Chloramphenicol and Septrin with 84.21% resistance each. The occurrence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria from slaughterhouse wastewater showed the risks associated with antimicrobial drug resistance transferred from food-producing animals to humans. Management concerns, such as local government health officers and community development officers, should increase the sensitization of slaughterhouse workers by organizing conferences or conducting radio talk to educates these slaughterhouse workers on the treatment of slaughterhouse wastewater and health risk associated with antimicrobial-drug resistance transferred from animals to humans.
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Microbial content of wastewater in two abattoirs and the impact on microbial population of receiving soil was studied in Agege and Ojo Local Government Areas in Lagos State, Nigeria. Wastewater samples were collected from each of the abattoirs over three months period and examined for microbial content. Soil samples contaminated with the wastewaters were also collected and analyzed for microbial content as compared to soil without wastewater contamination in the neighborhood (control). Some physico-chemical parameters of the samples such as total dissolved solid, chemical oxygen demand, etc., were examined. The wastewater samples from both abattoirs were highly contaminated; Agege abattoir showed mean bacterial count of 3.32 × 107 cfu/ml and Odo abattoir showed mean count of 2.7 × 107 cfu/ml. The mean fungal populations were 1.6 × 105 and 1.2 × 105 cfu/ml for Agege and Odo abattoirs respectively. In the contaminated soil sample, mean bacterial count was 3.36 × 107 cfu/ml compared to the 1.74 × 106 cfu/ml of the control sample. High microbial load in abattoir wastewater with negative effects on microbial population in soil, in this study, further confirmed the need to treat wastewater rather than discharging it to the environment.
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Escherichia coli O157:H7 is now recognized as an important human pathogen. Illnesses caused by E. coli O157:H7 infection can range from self-limited, watery diarrhea to life-threatening manifestations such as hemolytic uremic syndrome or thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. The mode of transmission is primarily through food; however, person-to-person transmission also has been identified in some day-care center and nursing home outbreaks. Studies to date indicate that cattle are an important reservoir of the organism. Although adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells and verotoxins are considered important virulence factors in the pathogenesis of the organism, more research is are necessary to determine the exact mechanism of pathogenicity. There is need for a rapid diagnostic test for the detection of E. coli O157:H7 in food and in clinical samples. Several useful research reagents have been developed for detecting E. coli O157:H7; however, they must be applied to a procedure that is specific, sensitive, rapid, easy to use, and commercially available so that microbiological laboratories can readily use them. Copyright ©, International Association of Milk, Food and Environmental Sanitarians.
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This study determined the microbiological and some physical quantities and effect of the two different water sources used for meat processing at the Lafenwa abattoir, Abeokuta, Nigeria. Water sources identified are the Lafenwa river and Tap water supply. A total of 33 samples were collected and analyzed. The total viable of bacteria count ( TVC) of the samples was determined by pour plate technique while the most probable number (MPN) of coliform count was by the multiple tube method. The mean TVC for the two spots on the river is 3.34x107 cfu/ml and the mean MPN is 1600 /100ml. For the tap water, the mean TVC and MPN were 1.56x107 cfu/ml and 890 /100ml respectively. The TVC values were significantly higher (p<0.01) for river samples when compared to that of tap water. There was no significant difference in the MPN/100ml values for SpotB of the river and tap samples (p>0.05). Potentially pathogenic Bacteria isolated from the water samples include: Eschericia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Klebsiella spp. The water samples from the river appeared creamy, highly turbid, particulate with pungent odour. The mean pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO) and Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) values were 5.4, 28.8oC, 8.1 mg/l and 7.0 mg/l respectively. The tap water samples were clear, odourless, and colorless with mean pH, temperature, DO and BOD values of 6.8, 28.1oC, 15.3mg/l and 3.1mg/l respectively. There was significant differences in the DO and BOD values of river samples compared to tap water (p<0.01) This study revealed that the two available water sources to the abattoir investigated had qualities below the recommended WHO standard for drinking water hence not safe for meat processing. It is however recommended that the use of the Lafenwa river should be discouraged by proper enlightenment programmes for the butchers and provision of adequate supply of safe water for meat processing. In addition treatment facilities for water before use should be made available at the various abattoirs in the country.
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The occurrence of verotoxin-producing Escherichia Coli 0157:H7 (VTEC 0157:H7) in abattoir effluent samples from Zango, Zaria was investigated. A total of 210 samples were obtained from 2002 to 2006. The samples were enriched at the point of collection using Modified Tryptone Soya Broth supplemented with Novobiocin and incubated at 37oC for 24 hours. The enriched samples were plated on Eosin-Methylene Blue (EMB) agar and incubated at 37oC for 24 hours. Colonies showing a greenish metallic sheen on EMB agar were biochemically screened and those that were E. Coli were stored on nutrient agar (NA) slants at 4oC. The selected colonies were later plated on Cefixime Sorbitol – MacConkey (CR-SMAC) agar and incubated at 37oC for 24 hours. Colourless colonies on CR-SMAC agar were tested for verotoxin production by reverse passive latex agglutination using VTEC-RPLA Escheriachia coli verotoxin detection kit. Isolates that produced verotoxin 1(Stx1) and/or verotoxin 2(Stx2) were finally tested serologically using Remel Wellcolex E. coli 0157:H7 Kit. E. coli 0157:H7 was detected in one sample (1/210) or 0.5%. Abattoir effluents are a risk factor to man for E. coli 0157:H7 infection and the pathogen is present in our food animals. Vegetables and fruits from abattoirs should be washed thoroughly with fresh water and/or disinfected using vinegar before consumption since it was observed that such effluents are often used for agricultural purposes on farms near the abattoirs.
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This study investigates the pollution level of surface waters in Zaria, Nigeria. The bacteriological and physicochemical analyses performed were in accordance with standard procedures. Out of 228 samples from different sites, 128 (56.1%) had counts higher than the standards. Samaru stream was the most polluted. The frequency of contamination of samples with Escherichia coli O157 was only 2.2%. There was a positive correlation between faecal coliform count with most of the physicochemical parameters. The use of the surface waters as raw water for drinking, irrigation of food crops for raw consumption and for recreational activities may be hazardous. The study therefore, stresses on the need to control the faecal pollution of the bodies of water.
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Because of high rates of resource consumption, cities face serious problems of high volumes of waste, characterized by inadequate disposal technologies, high costs of management, and the adverse impact of wastes on the environment. Abattoirs, or slaughterhouses, are a major source of water and air pollution worldwide. Waste generated by abattoirs in Nigeria includes condemned organs, carcasses, blood, hides, horns, hoofs, hairs, paunch content and carcass trimmings. The main waste disposal practice at Bodija abattoir is dumping. This paper assesses the environmental and public health implications of unhygienic waste disposal. The waste management at the Bodija abattoir is aesthetically unappealing, environmentally unsustainable and also makes the meat processed and offered for sale unwholesome. Waste disposal techniques of developed countries have been appraised. Recommendations to encourage the safe disposal of abattoir waste and limit the methods of disposal to those internationally permitted are suggested.
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Composting is the degradation of organic materials through the activities of diverse microorganisms. This research examined microbial community dynamics, population levels and identification of bacteria throughout the composting process and in storage. In addition, an evaluation was performed to determine the potential for dominant bacterial isolates to suppress selected turfgrass pathogens: Sclerotinia homoeocarpa, Pythium graminicola, Typhula ishikariensis, and Microdochium nivale, responsible for causing the turfgrass diseases dollar spot, pythium blight, typhula blight, and fusarium patch, respectively. Composts supported high population levels of bacteria with 78% of cultures tested being Gram-negative. Proteolytic activity, found in 29% of cultures tested is a potential mechanism of suppression or competition with other microorganisms. Although the Biolog system did not identify a wide range of bacteria, the main Gram-negative genera identified in mature compost were Pseudomonas (28%), Serratia (20%), Klebsiella (11%), and Enterobacter (5%). Twenty-one percent of isolates tested were not identified by Biolog, and many more had similarity indexes Pseudomonas, Serratia, and Enterobacter. All Gram-positives were identified as Bacillus spp. Phospholipid fatty acid analysis, used to estimate the diversity of microbial communities, was useful in monitoring changes in microbial population in storage and during composting, as well as estimating levels of compost maturity. Plate challenge experiments revealed a number of cultures with antagonistic activity against turfgrass pathogens. There were 52, 31, 32 and 19% of the bacterial isolates tested that exhibited antagonistic activity against S. homoeocarpa, P. graminicola, T. ishikariensis, and M. nivale, respectively. Improved understanding of microbial populations and their dynamics in composts will expand their potential to act as suppressants on pathogenic fungi or turfgrass.
Meat plant wastewater quality depends on water usage, the type of animal slaughtered, and the amount of rendering or processing that is done on site. In Ontario and Quebec, abattoir wastewater total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) ranged from 2333 to 8627 mg/L, and suspended solids (SS) from 736 to 2099 mg/L, volatile suspended solids (VSS) represented 80% of SS, and protein content varied from 444 to 2775 mg/L. Nitrogen (N) and potassium (P) averaged 6.0 and 2.3 g/100 g of TCOD, respectively. Ammonia and sulfide levels were well below the 3000 and 100 mg/L toxicity level, respectively. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) of fresh blood is high at 375,000 mg/L compared to the COD of liquid manure at 15,000–30,000 mg/L. The concentration of the wastewater can be greatly affected by the efficiency of blood recovery in the blood pit. Abattoir wastewater contains several million colony forming units (cfu) /100 mL of total coliform, fecal coliform, and Streptococcus groups of bacteria. The presence of these nonpathogenic microbes indicates the possible presence of pathogens of enteric origin such as Salmonella ssp. and Campylobacter jejuni and of gastrointestinal parasites such as Ascaris sp., Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium parvum, and enteric viruses. Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum are not a concern in poultry wastewater. Pathogens might threaten public health by migrating into groundwater or through traveling off-site by surface water, wind, or vectors (i.e., animals, birds) etc. Once the treated abattoir wastewater is applied to land, the potential for spread of any pathogens that might remain in the water or sludge varies with the type of crop and soil to which it is applied.