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Abstract

The aims of this study were to analyze the relationship between maximum isometric strength levels in different upper and lower limb joints and serve velocity in competitive tennis players as well as to develop a prediction model based on this information. Twelve male competitive tennis players (mean ± SD; age: 17.2 ± 1.0 years; body height: 180.1 ± 6.2 cm; body mass: 71.9 ± 5.6 kg) were tested using maximum isometric strength levels (i.e., wrist, elbow and shoulder flexion and extension; leg and back extension; shoulder external and internal rotation). Serve velocity was measured using a radar gun. Results showed a strong positive relationship between serve velocity and shoulder internal rotation (r = 0.67; p < 0.05). Low to moderate correlations were also found between serve velocity and wrist, elbow and shoulder flexion - extension, leg and back extension and shoulder external rotation (r = 0.36 - 0.53; p = 0.377 - 0.054). Bivariate and multivariate models for predicting serve velocity were developed, with shoulder flexion and internal rotation explaining 55% of the variance in serve velocity (r = 0.74; p < 0.001). The maximum isometric strength level in shoulder internal rotation was strongly related to serve velocity, and a large part of the variability in serve velocity was explained by the maximum isometric strength levels in shoulder internal rotation and shoulder flexion.
Journal of Human Kinetics volume 53/2016, 63-71 DOI: 10.1515/hukin-2016-0028 63
Section I – Kinesiology
1 - Sport Performance Analysis Research Group, University of Vic – Central University of Catalonia, Barcelona, Spain.
2 - Insitut Nacional d’Educació Física de Catalunya, University of Lleida, Lleida, Spain.
3 - Sports Sciences Faculty, University of Extremadura, Cáceres, Spain.
4 - Sports Research Centre, Miguel Hernandez University, Elche, Spain.
.
Authors submitted their contribution to the article to the editorial board.
Accepted for printing in the Journal of Human Kinetics vol. 53/2016 in September 2016.
The Relationship Between Maximum Isometric Strength
and Ball Velocity in the Tennis Serve
by
Ernest Baiget1, Francisco Corbi2, Juan Pedro Fuentes3, Jaime Fernández-Fernández4
The aims of this study were to analyze the relationship between maximum isometric strength levels in different
upper and lower limb joints and serve velocity in competitive tennis players as well as to develop a prediction model
based on this information. Twelve male competitive tennis players (mean ± SD; age: 17.2 ± 1.0 years; body height:
180.1 ± 6.2 cm; body mass: 71.9 ± 5.6 kg) were tested using maximum isometric strength levels (i.e., wrist, elbow and
shoulder flexion and extension; leg and back extension; shoulder external and internal rotation). Serve velocity was
measured using a radar gun. Results showed a strong positive relationship between serve velocity and shoulder internal
rotation (r = 0.67; p < 0.05). Low to moderate correlations were also found between serve velocity and wrist, elbow and
shoulder flexion – extension, leg and back extension and shoulder external rotation (r = 0.36 – 0.53; p = 0.377 – 0.054).
Bivariate and multivariate models for predicting serve velocity were developed, with shoulder flexion and internal
rotation explaining 55% of the variance in serve velocity (r = 0.74; p < 0.001). The maximum isometric strength level in
shoulder internal rotation was strongly related to serve velocity, and a large part of the variability in serve velocity was
explained by the maximum isometric strength levels in shoulder internal rotation and shoulder flexion.
Key words: serve velocity, isometric testing, shoulder internal rotation.
Introduction
Nowadays, the serve stroke is the most
important shot in competitive tennis, allowing the
player to win the point directly through an ace or
dominate the rally since the beginning (Gillet et
al., 2009; Kovacs and Ellenbecker, 2011b). This
stroke involves a patterned, repetitive motion that
is kinetically linked, and needs to be performed
with appropriate technique (Jayanthi and Esser,
2013). From a biomechanical perspective, the
tennis serve needs to activate all components of
the kinetic chain (i.e., feet, lower limbs, trunk,
shoulder, elbow, wrist and hand) (Bonato et al.,
2014; Eygendaal et al., 2007). Competitive players
should train physical aspects like strength, speed,
power, flexibility, local muscular endurance and
muscular balance, which could potentially reduce
the risk of injury (Kovacs and Ellenbecker, 2011b;
Reid and Schneiker, 2008). Specifically, strength
training has become vital in contemporary tennis
as the velocity and power deployed in the game
continue to increase (Abrams et al., 2011; Cardoso
Marques, 2005). Strength training programs
involving different methods (e.g., elastic tubing,
medicine ball exercises, resistance training or
lightweight dumbbell training) have been shown
to increase serve velocity in elite male junior
tennis players and in male and female college
tennis players (Fernandez-Fernandez et al., 2013;
Kraemer et al., 2003; Treiber et al., 1998).
The relationship between strength levels
64 The relationship between maximum isometric strength and ball velocity in the tennis serve
Journal of Human Kinetics - volume 53/2016 http://www.johk.pl
and serve velocity has been reported using
isokinetic testing (Cohen et al., 1994; Pugh et al.,
2003; Signorile et al., 2005), but there is little
information on the relationships between
maximum isometric strength and ball velocity.
Due to mechanical and neural significant
differences between dynamic and static muscular
actions, the use of isometric tests has been
considered inappropriate for predicting dynamic
performance (Bazyler et al., 2015; Wilson and
Murphy, 1996). However, it has been also
proposed that multi-joint isometric tests
conducted at specific joint angles may be
appropriate to assess dynamic performance
(Bazyler et al., 2015). In various athletic
populations (i.e., soccer players and wrestlers),
strong relationships between isometric strength
and performance (i.e., jumping and throwing
ability) have been found (Kraska et al., 2009;
McGuigan et al., 2006; McGuigan and Winchester,
2008; Stone et al., 2003, 2004). Although previous
studies have analyzed the relationship between
maximal isometric handgrip strength of the
dominant arm and serve velocity (Bonato et al.,
2014; Pugh et al., 2003), there is still a paucity of
studies analyzing the relationship between
maximal isometric strength and different upper
and lower limb joints involved in the kinetic chain
(i.e., wrist, elbow, shoulder, leg and back).
Therefore, the aims of this study were (a) to
analyze the relationship between maximum
isometric strength levels in different upper and
lower limb joints involved in the service kinetic
chain and serve velocity in competitive tennis
players, and (b) to determine a prediction model
based on the relationship between these variables.
Material and Methods
Participants
Twelve male high-performance tennis
players (mean ± SD; age: 17.2 ± 1.0 years; body
height: 180.1 ± 6.2 cm; body mass: 71.9 ± 5.6 kg)
with International Tennis Numbers (ITN) ranging
from 1 (elite) to 2 (advanced) volunteered to
participate in the study. All the players
participated in an average of 20 to 25 hours of
training per week, which focused on tennis-
specific training (i.e., technical and tactical skills),
aerobic and anaerobic training (i.e., on- and off-
court exercises) and strength training. All players
had a minimum of five years of prior only tennis-
specific training oriented to age category
competition (i.e., Under [U]12, U14 and U16).
Inclusion criteria for all subjects required each
participant to be a healthy tennis player with no
history of upper extremity surgery, no shoulder,
back or knee pain for the past 12 months and no
rehabilitation for the past 12 months. No vigorous
physical activity was performed in the 24 hours
before testing. All the players were right-handed.
No caffeine ingestion was allowed in the 24 hours
before testing. Before participating, all subjects
provided written informed consent, and
experimental procedures as well as potential risks
were explained. Parental written informed
consent was obtained for subjects under 18 years
of age. The scientific committee of the Research
and Health Education Foundation of Osona
approved the study.
Procedures
The study was divided into two testing
sessions: (a) serve velocity and (b) maximum
isometric strength tests, which were performed on
the same day, with 30 min rest periods between
sessions. On the one hand, this procedure was
used to determine to what extent maximum
isometric strength related to serve velocity. On the
other hand, multiple regression analyses were
used to develop models that were most effective
at predicting serve velocity. Before any baseline
testing, all participants attended two
familiarization sessions to introduce the testing
procedures and to ensure that any learning effect
was minimal for the study measures. To reduce
the interference of uncontrolled variables, all the
subjects were instructed to maintain their habitual
lifestyle and normal dietary intake before and
during the study. The subjects were told not to
exercise the day before testing and to consume
their last (caffeine-free) meal at least three hours
before the scheduled test time.
Serve Velocity Testing
Testing was conducted on a hard-surface
tennis court (GreenSet surface, Worldwide S.L.,
Barcelona, Spain) with stable wind conditions (air
velocity < 2 m·s-1), using new tennis balls (Head
ATP, Spain). Before the serving test, all subjects
performed a warm-up protocol (i.e., dynamic
movements in the shoulder, plus 8 to 12 slow
serves). Each player was instructed to hit two sets
of six flat serves (i.e., with a minimum amount of
spin) on each side of the court with 60 s rest
by Ernest Baiget et al. 65
© Editorial Committee of Journal of Human Kinetics
periods between sets. Only the services that were
“in” were registered. In this regard, we assumed
that the direction and service target (T, body and
wide) significantly affected the execution of the
serve (Reid et al., 2011) and this fact might
influence the test reliability. Peak ball velocity
(km·h-1) was measured in real time by a hand-held
radar gun (Stalker Pro, EUA; frequency: 34.7 GHz
[Ka-Band] ± 50 MHz). The radar was positioned at
the center of the baseline, 4 m behind the server,
aligned with the approximate height of ball
contact (~ 2.2 m), and pointing down the center of
the court. For data analysis, the average values of
serves in play were recorded. Subjects were
encouraged to hit the ball as hard as possible
using a normal tennis serve form. Direct feedback
of velocities was provided to encourage maximal
effort. Inter-trial reliability for serve velocity was
3.1 ± 1.1%.
Isometric Strength Testing
Participants were asked to perform nine
maximal isometric tests (leg and back extension;
wrist and elbow flexion and extension; shoulder
flexion and extension, internal and external
rotation). Only the dominant arm was tested.
Isometric peak force was measured using a strain
gauge (MuscleLab 4000e; BoscosystemLab, Rome,
Italy). The amplified and calibrated force signal
was sampled at 200 Hz. The specific position for
each isometric pull was established before each
trial with the use of goniometry. Subjects
performed three maximal voluntary contractions
of 3-5 s duration separated by 1 min (between
sets) and 5 min (between joints) of rest. Strong
verbal encouragement was given during every
contraction to promote maximal and fast
voluntary effort. The isometric mid-thigh pull test
was performed in a closed kinetic chain position
with a multipower strength machine
(Technogym, Italy), the angle selected was 70º
(0º was fully extended). Upper limb positions
were tested in a cable jungle machine
(Technogym, Italy) with subjects seated. Similar
racket grip diameter was selected with the aim of
increasing specificity, and special attention was
placed on grip comfort during tests to avoid
strength feedback inhibition (Shim et al., 2012). In
the upper limb tests, participants sat in an upright
position with 90° of flexion at the hip, with the
thighs supported and the medial borders of the
knees placed together. All participants were
restrained by a waist band and two thoracic straps
crossing over at the sternum, which together
acted to prevent any extraneous movement.
Shoulder flexion and extension positions were
recorded with the upper extremity flexed to 90°
(Hurd and Kaufman, 2012; Hurd et al., 2011) and
the elbow extended, while the shoulder rotation
movement was performed with the shoulder
abducted and the elbow flexed to 90°. To prevent
hip extensor activity from contributing to the
isometric peak force of the lumbar extensors, the
apparatus seat height was adjusted so that the
trunk-thigh angle was 135° and the shank-thigh
angle was 90°. Elbow and wrist tests were
performed in a seated position, with the elbow
bent at 90°. In both cases, subjects were asked to
hold a U-shaped handle linked to the strain gauge
in a prone position.
Statistical Analyses
Mean values (± SD) were calculated for all
variables. The normality of variable distribution
was assessed by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test.
The relationship between quantitative variables
was described using Pearson’s product-moment
correlation coefficients (r). Multiple regression
analyses were performed to explain the variance
in the serve ball velocity, using the independent
variables of upper and lower limb positions.
Significance was tested at the 95% confidence
level (p < α 0.05). All statistical analyses were
performed using SPSS for Windows 15.0 (SPSS,
Inc., Chicago, IL, USA).
Results
Players hit a total of 144 serves (72 to the
left side and 72 to the right side). Mean (± SD)
serve velocity and serves considered good are
shown in Table 1.
The relationships between maximal
isometric strength values and serve velocity for
each of the measurements are shown in Table 2.
Serve velocity demonstrated a strong positive
relationship with shoulder internal rotation (r =
0.67; p < 0.05). None of the other quantitative
variables analyzed was significantly correlated
with serve velocity in any of the analyzed
positions, with Pearson’s r coefficients ranging
from low to moderate (r = 0.36 – 0.53).
Multiple regression analyses were
conducted to evaluate how maximal isometric
strength values predicted serve velocity. Leg and
66 The relationship between maximum isometric strength and ball velocity in the tennis serve
Journal of Human Kinetics - volume 53/2016 http://www.johk.pl
back extension, wrist and elbow flexion and
extension, shoulder flexion and extension, and
internal and external rotation were used as
independent or predictor variables, and peak ball
serve velocity as a dependent or predicted
variable. The linear combination of shoulder
flexion and internal rotation was significantly
related to serve velocity (F (2,8) = 4.784, p < 0.05).
The multiple correlation coefficient was 0.74,
indicating that approximately 55% of the variance
of the serve velocity could be accounted for by the
linear combination of shoulder flexion and
internal rotation maximal isometric strength. The
regression equation for predicting the serve
velocity was: Serve velocity = 143.86 + (0.07 x
shoulder internal rotation) + (0.068 x shoulder
flexion).
When including wrist flexion, the multiple
correlation coefficient was 0.76, indicating that the
proportion of variance in serve velocity explained
by the model increased only to 58%. When the
other strength variables were added to the model,
their ability to predict serve velocity was reduced.
Table 1
Serve velocity and serves considered good
(mean ± SD) by left, right and both sides.
Both sides
(n = 12)
Left side
(n = 6)
Right side
(n = 6)
Serves considered good
(%) 52.1 ± 15.5 59.7 ± 10.8 47.2 ± 18.1
Average service velocity
(km·h-1) 173.4 ± 8.7 173.6 ± 8.1 173.5 ± 10.6
Table 2
Maximum isometric strength variables (mean ± SD)
and correlation coefficient (r) between serve velocity.
Variables
Maximum isometric
strength
(N)
Average serve velocity
(km·h-1)
r p
Extension
Leg and back 1351 ± 469.6 0.47 0.121
Wrist 157.4 ± 47.9 0.37 0.265
Elbow 199.2 ± 66.6 0.53 0.144
Shoulder 126.1 ± 29.4 0.48 0.119
Flexion
Wrist 260.7 ± 65.3 0.52 0.085
Elbow 219.4 ± 64.3 0.36 0.377
Shoulder 197.0 ± 39.1 0.57 0.054
Rotation
Shoulder external
rotation 107.3 ± 30.1 0.50 0.117
Shoulder internal rotation 197.8 ± 62.2 0.67 0.023
by Ernest Baiget et al. 67
© Editorial Committee of Journal of Human Kinetics
Discussion
The main finding of this study was that
maximum isometric strength of shoulder internal
rotation was strongly related to serve velocity and
that shoulder flexion and internal rotation
maximum isometric strength seemed to be good
predictors of ball speed on a serve, explaining
55% of the variance in serve velocity.
The importance of maximum isometric
strength in different sports has been previously
demonstrated (McGuigan and Winchester, 2008).
To the best of our knowledge, this is the first
study that has related maximum isometric
strength of different upper and lower body joints
to serve velocity in competitive tennis players. A
strong significant relationship was found between
maximum isometric strength levels in shoulder
internal rotation and serve velocity (r = 0.67; p <
0.05), highlighting an important role that the
shoulder internal rotation plays in the serve
motion. In this regard, shoulder internal rotation
is considered a key element to developing high
racket velocities and hence, fast serves (Elliott,
2006; Elliott et al., 1995; Elliott et al., 2003). In
contrast to these results, when strength testing
was conducted using isokinetic dynamometry, the
relationship between shoulder internal rotation
and ball serve velocity was found to be low and
not statistically significant (Cohen et al., 1994;
Pugh et al., 2003; Signorile et al., 2005). This
emphasizes the differences between static
strength testing (the joint angle and muscle length
do not change during contraction) and dynamic
strength testing with limb movements at constant
velocity around the joint (the velocity of
movement is maintained constant by a special
dynamometer) (Baltzopoulos and Brodie, 1989).
On the contrary, if we compare the contribution of
speed of shoulder (~ 40%) and wrist (~ 30%) joints
to the linear racket speed prior to impact (Elliot et
al., 1995; Gordon and Dapena, 2006; Martin et al.,
2013; Sprigings et al., 1994), this contribution
coincides with the coefficients of determination
(r2) between maximum isometric strength of the
internal rotation (45%), wrist flexion (27%) and
serve velocity, showing the similarities between
these two different methods (maximum isometric
strength vs speed of joints). None of the other
quantitative variables analyzed (maximum
strength level in leg and back, wrist, elbow and
shoulder extension; wrist, elbow and shoulder
flexion; and shoulder external rotation) was
significantly correlated with serve velocity (r =
0.36 – 0.57). Although these joints and movements
are included as a part of the service kinetic chain
(Elliott, 2006), the isolated variables, without
being related with other predictor variables, are
not good predictors of ball speed during the
tennis serve. This fact denotes the limitations of
evaluating isolated joints and movements related
with serve speed; moreover, it emphasizes the
importance of an efficient kinetic chain for a high
speed tennis serve. The kinetic chain of the tennis
service starts with the feet and knees generating
ground reaction forces that can be transferred up
to legs, the trunk/back and the shoulder to the
elbow joint and finally to the wrist and the hand
(Bonato et al., 2015; Eygendaal et al., 2007). This
complex and coordinated action implies a
synchronized movement summating forces by
one joint (e.g., shoulder) to the next one (e.g.,
elbow and wrist) throughout all the joints of the
kinetic chain and out into the ball. This implies
inter-muscular coordination (magnitude and
timing) of agonist, synergist and antagonist
muscles during the powerful movement (Cormie
et al., 2014).
The multivariate analyses used to predict
player’s serve velocity have showed that
approximately half (55%) of the variability in
serve velocity can be explained by shoulder
internal rotation and shoulder flexion, suggesting
that isometric testing provides an acceptable
indication of serve velocity in tennis. In this
regard, Signorile et al. (2005) found that the
multiple regression model using diagonal
throwing peak torque was predictive of peak
serve speed (r2 = 0.69; p < 0.0001), and this
complex movement (a diagonal throw) includes
shoulder flexion and internal rotation. The
multivariate analyses conducted previously using
isokinetic dynamometry did not include shoulder
internal rotation in the best prediction model
(Cohen et al., 1994; Pugh et al., 2003), again
highlighting the differences between both
methods of strength testing (isometric versus
isokinetic dynamometry). This previous study
found that wrist flexion and elbow extension
torque production were highly related to serve
velocity (p < 0.01) (Cohen et al., 1994) and that
only around 19% of the variance in ball speed was
accounted for by knee extension, shoulder
68 The relationship between maximum isometric strength and ball velocity in the tennis serve
Journal of Human Kinetics - volume 53/2016 http://www.johk.pl
rotation and grip strength (Pugh et al., 2003).
The wrist flexion slightly assists in
generating high velocity, increasing the variance
explained in serve velocity by only 3%, indicating
that it is not one of the main contributing joint.
This low contribution may be due to the fact that
the muscle chain in the upper limb will follow
proximal to distal order of activation (Elliott et al.,
2003), and the wrist represents the final link of
this kinetic chain, not creating the power, but
transferring the final ball speed. The other
variables analyzed (leg and back, wrist and elbow
extension; elbow flexion; and shoulder external
rotation) reduced the predictive strength of our
equation, indicating that these variables were not
directly involved in the acceleration phase of the
racket to the ball. The rest of the variance in serve
velocity may be explained by the multifactorial
nature of the tennis serve motion as well as the
fact that strength is not the only factor involved in
producing ball speed during the tennis serve. Ball
speed depends on a combination of several factors
such as technique, coordination and flexibility
(Cohen et al., 1994; Pugh et al., 2003; Reid and
Schneiker, 2008). Furthermore, there are other
muscular groups that can contribute to serve
velocity. For example, it may be possible to
increase the predictive ability of the model by
introducing an assessment of trunk strength.
Experienced tennis players effectively use the
kinetic chain (i.e., rotate, extend and flex the trunk
to produce force) via a lower extremity muscle
activation to provide a stable base (Kovacs and
Ellenbecker, 2011a; Kovacs and Ellenbecker,
2011b). Additionally, the magnitude of the
angular momentum generated by the trunk in the
frontal plane during the serve helps distinguish
high-speed from low-speed servers (Bahamonde,
2000).
Maximum isometric shoulder internal
rotation and flexion seem to be good predictors of
serve velocity. Therefore, tennis coaches and
physical trainers have a choice of which static
muscular actions to use in their strength training
aimed to improve serve velocity. In this regard,
isometric strength training has been associated
with significant improvements in dynamic
strength, although it only produces adaptations at
the specific trained joint angle, with less transfer
to other muscle lengths (Folland et al., 2005). The
tennis serve is a dynamic movement where the
summation of forces from the ground up through
the kinetic chain is sustained by a stretch-
shortening cycle, and the total body perspective is
just as important as individual segments in
isolation (Kovacs and Ellenbecker, 2011b).
Therefore, on the one hand, maximal isometric
strength training should only be an additional
method and should be combined with dynamic
and ballistic methods (e.g., elastic tubing,
medicine ball exercises, resistance training or
lightweight dumbbell training). On the other
hand, it is not recommended that coaches perform
only analytical strength exercises (i.e., shoulder
rotation or shoulder flexion). In order to achieve
better results, coaches should consider using
training methods that allow for involving these
two movements within the specific kinetic chain
of service. To develop stroke velocity, other
authors have recommended the use of medicine
ball throws (plyometrics) (Earp and Kraemer,
2010; Genevois et al., 2013; Reid and Schneiker,
2008; Wakeham and Jacobs, 2009) or cable pulley
machines (Keiser pneumatic devices) (Kovacs and
Ellenbecker, 2011b; Roetert et al., 2009). These
exercises make it possible to incorporate shoulder
internal rotation and shoulder flexion into the
kinetic chain (i.e., an overhead diagonal cable or a
medicine ball throw). Exercises of this kind may
complement generic strength training and allow
to meet sport-specific demands (i.e., the plane of
movement, velocity and body positioning during
the strokes) (Earp and Kraemer, 2010).
There are certain limitations of this study.
First, as previously discussed, to improve the
predictive capacity of the model, it would be
necessary to introduce other variables such as
technique, coordination, flexibility or other
strength variables such as trunk rotation or core
stability. Second, isometric testing was conducted
using static positions and this method cannot
replicate all joint angles, specific tennis
movements and the rotation velocities of
segments in stroke production (Murphy and
Wilson, 1997). Moreover, interference of
uncontrolled variables such as different service
techniques used (i.e., foot-up and foot-back), the
type of a racket and the type and tension of
strings on the rackets used by players, could have
a direct impact on serve velocity (Bower and
Cross, 2005; Lees, 2003). Finally, the effectiveness
of tennis serve is not only determined by the ball
by Ernest Baiget et al. 69
© Editorial Committee of Journal of Human Kinetics
speed, there are important additional
performance indicators such as the ball rotation or
spin (topspin or slice serves) and accuracy
(Abrams et al., 2011; Elliot et al., 1995).
In conclusion, the present study showed
that the maximum isometric strength level in the
shoulder internal rotation was strongly related to
serve velocity in high-performance tennis players
and a large part of the variability in serve velocity
could be explained by maximum isometric
strength levels in shoulder internal rotation and
shoulder flexion.
Acknowledgements
This work was supported by Institut Nacional d’Educació Física de Catalunya. The authors thank all
the players and coaches for their enthusiastic participation. They would also like to thank the Centre
Internacional de Tennis of the Catalan Tennis Federation. The authors gratefully acknowledge the technical
assistance of Andreu Fuster, Margalida Mas and Abraham Batalla during the experiments.
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Corresponding author:
Ernest Baiget
Postal address: University of Vic – Central University of Catalonia, Sagrada Família 7, 08500, Vic, Spain
Telephone: +34 938 816 164
Fax: +34 938 891 063
E-mail address: ernest.baiget@uvic.cat
... Même si quelques contradictions subsistent dans la littérature, il est plutôt admis qu'une augmentation de la force musculaire a une incidence positive sur la vitesse du service (Fernandez-Fernandez et al., 2013;Pluim, 1999). Baiget et al. (2016) ont évalué les niveaux de force isométrique lors de différents mouvements articulaires chez 12 joueurs élites (17,2 ± 1,0 ans). Ils ont montré une corrélation significative et large entre la vitesse de balle et la force isométrique en rotation interne de l'épaule à 90° d'abduction (r = 0,67 et P < 0,05). ...
... Cette association a également été retrouvée dans l'étude de Hayes et al. (2018) (r = 0,56 et P < 0,05). À l'inverse, aucune corrélation n'a été établie entre la vitesse de balle et les niveaux de force isométrique maximale pour l'extension du dos, pour la rotation externe de l'épaule et pour la flexion et l'extension de l'épaule, du coude et du poignet (Baiget et al., 2016). L'évaluation des niveaux de force sur des mouvements isolés possède cependant certaines limites lorsqu'il s'agit d'expliquer la vitesse du service, notamment parce que le service est un mouvement complexe qui implique une action coordonnée de nombreux segments corporels (Baiget et al., 2016). ...
... À l'inverse, aucune corrélation n'a été établie entre la vitesse de balle et les niveaux de force isométrique maximale pour l'extension du dos, pour la rotation externe de l'épaule et pour la flexion et l'extension de l'épaule, du coude et du poignet (Baiget et al., 2016). L'évaluation des niveaux de force sur des mouvements isolés possède cependant certaines limites lorsqu'il s'agit d'expliquer la vitesse du service, notamment parce que le service est un mouvement complexe qui implique une action coordonnée de nombreux segments corporels (Baiget et al., 2016). En proposant un test mobilisant conjointement la force isométrique des membres inférieurs et des membres supérieurs (« isometric mid-thigh pull » test), Hayes et al. (2018) ont observé une corrélation très forte entre le niveau de force et la vitesse du service (r = 0,87 et P < 0,01). ...
Thesis
Pour les joueurs de tennis professionnels, le service est considéré comme le coup le plus important pour gagner un match. De plus, il est décrit comme un coup traumatisant qui occasionne de nombreuses blessures chroniques du membre supérieur et du tronc. Dans une logique de formation vers le haut niveau, les jeunes joueurs doivent alors acquérir le plus tôt possible une technique de service efficiente pour produire une vitesse de balle élevée tout en limitant le risque de blessures. La réalisation de ces deux objectifs représente une réelle problématique au regard de la complexité gestuelle du service et des erreurs techniques qui en découlent. Dans ce cadre, cette thèse ambitionne de répondre aux questions suivantes : comment évolue la technique de service des joueurs élites entre 12 ans et l’âge adulte ? Quels sont les critères de performance et les facteurs de risques de blessures au service chez les jeunes joueurs ? À partir de captures de mouvement en 3D, la première étude explore l’influence de l’âge et du sexe sur les variables cinématiques et dynamiques du membre supérieur dominant au cours du service. Les études 2 et 3 s’intéressent respectivement au type d’appuis et à la trajectoire de la raquette en « plateau » pour comprendre leur effet sur la performance et le risque de blessures au service. L’ensemble de ce travail fournit aux entraîneurs des recommandations concrètes sur le service pour faciliter la détection des meilleurs espoirs, individualiser les contenus d’entraînement en fonction de l’âge et du sexe, et améliorer la formation technique des jeunes joueurs pour augmenter la vitesse de balle et diminuer le risque de blessures chroniques.
... Specifically, regarding neuromuscular parameters, maximal dynamic strength (MDS) values (i.e., maximal weight mobilised in the concentric phase of the motion) or isokinetic measurements do not seem to correlate strongly to the capacity of generating high speed serves (Cohen et al., 1994;Kraemer et al., 2000Kraemer et al., , 2003. On the other hand, maximal isometric voluntary contraction (MVC) tested in specific joint positions involved in the serve kinetic chain seem to have a positive relationship with SV (Baiget et al., 2016;Hayes et al., 2018). Although static measurements may not represent in the best way highly dynamic and fast actions such as the serve (Fernandez-Fernandez et al., 2014), research has found strong associations between certain joint settings (i.e., shoulder internal rotation or shoulder and wrist flexion) and SV, especially when accounting the combination of various positions present in the motion (Baiget et al., 2016(Baiget et al., , 2021Cools et al., 2014;Hayes et al., 2018). ...
... On the other hand, maximal isometric voluntary contraction (MVC) tested in specific joint positions involved in the serve kinetic chain seem to have a positive relationship with SV (Baiget et al., 2016;Hayes et al., 2018). Although static measurements may not represent in the best way highly dynamic and fast actions such as the serve (Fernandez-Fernandez et al., 2014), research has found strong associations between certain joint settings (i.e., shoulder internal rotation or shoulder and wrist flexion) and SV, especially when accounting the combination of various positions present in the motion (Baiget et al., 2016(Baiget et al., , 2021Cools et al., 2014;Hayes et al., 2018). Added to this, explosive actions such as the serve involve an evident high number of stretch-shortening cycles (SSC), the coordination of many body segments and the effective use of elastic energy (Elliott, 2006). ...
... Prior to testing and for familiarisation, participants performed two submaximal attempts of 3 seconds of the selected positions at approximately 50%-75% maximal effort, separated by 60 seconds each (Comfort et al., 2019). SHIR, SHF and SHABD tests were performed similar to Baiget et al. (2016), on a Ercolina machine (Technogym Company, Cesena, Italy), participants sat with a 90º hip flexion and the back resting on a bench and fastened with a harness to avoid extra movement of other body segments. Only the preferred extremity was registered. ...
Article
This study aimed to investigate the associations between serve velocity (SV), maximal absolute and relative isometric voluntary contraction (MVC and RMVC), peak rate of force development (PRFD), rate of force development (RFD) and impulse (IMP) at different stages of contraction (≤200 ms). Sixteen players per- formed four maximum isometric tests in positions involved in the tennis serve motion. Variables tested included MVC, PRFD, RFD and IMP at 50, 100, 150 and 200 ms while performing a 90o shoulder internal rotation (SHIR), shoulder flexion (SHF), horizontal shoulder abduction (SHABD) and an isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP). Significant (p ≤ 0.05) moderate-to-very-large correlations were found between SV, MVC and PRFD. RFD at different time intervals showed positive associations with SV, except in the SHF0-200 ms and IMTP0-200 ms. Accordingly, IMP values positively correlated with SV in all positions except in the SHIR0-50 ms and the IMTP in late con- traction stages. Results indicate that the combination of maximum isometric strength in several body positions involved in the serve kinetic chain alongside RFD and IMP in short periods of time (≤200 ms) positively influences SV in young participants.
... Many studies have observed the relationship of serve velocity (SV) with some parameters such as anthropometric [5,7], technique [8] or physical conditioning [1]. Research has been conducted with junior [1,[9][10][11][12] and professional tennis players [13], using different isometric and dynamic strength tests with the aim of identifying the most influential factors on SV [14,15]. Regarding upper-body power tests, the medicine ball throw (MBT) overhead has been used as a possible predictor for SV [1,10,11]. ...
... Regarding handgrip strength, the results of this study found an association between handgrip and serve speed among national and all players groups (r = 0.896 and r = 0.618) although not among international level players (p > 0.05). Handgrip strength has positively correlated with SV in junior players [14] although more strongly in male than in females [1]. The wrist represents the final link of this kinetic chain, not creating the power, but transferring the final ball speed [14]. ...
... Handgrip strength has positively correlated with SV in junior players [14] although more strongly in male than in females [1]. The wrist represents the final link of this kinetic chain, not creating the power, but transferring the final ball speed [14]. This could explain the lack of correlation between handgrip and SV in international players, so it could be thought that they have a better transfer of forces than lower ranking players. ...
Article
Full-text available
The aims of this study were to examine the relationship between anthropometric variables, physical performance, and functional test with serve velocity regarding tennis players’ level and to design regression models that effectively predict serve velocity. A sample of sixteen male tennis players participated in this study (national level = 8, professional level = 7). Anthropometric measurements (body mass, height, body mass index and body segments) and physical test (hand strength, countermovement jump, jump on serve, and serve velocity) and functional test (medicine ball throw overhead and shot put) were performed. No differences in anthropometrics and physical test were found between national and professional levels. A significant positive correlation ( p < 0.05, ranging for 0.603 to 0.932) was found between some anthropometrics measurements (body mass, height, arm, forearm, and leg segments), physical parameters (hand strength, countermovement jump) and functional test (medicine ball throw shot put and overhead) with serve velocity for all tennis players. Multiple regression analysis indicated that medicine ball throw shot put was the most important test to explain serve velocity ( r 2 = 0.869). The results showed how the combination of physical and anthropometric factors have an impact on serve velocity. In addition, a new functional fitness test (medicine ball throw shot put) is proposed as an alternative to traditional medicine ball throw overhead due to its high reproducibility (inter-trial reliability) and predictive validity values, as well as by multi-segmental coordination movement similar to tennis serve.
... It has been recommended that the isometric test to assess the force-time parameters of athletic populations should be executed near or at the joint angle where the peak force is applied throughout the specific dynamic movement of interest. 16 Although previous investigations have positively correlated maximum IF and SV, 3,17 few studies have included various isometric upper-limb force-time parameters (ie, RFD or IMP) or the majority of joints and positions involved in the tennis serve motion (ie, wrist, elbow, and shoulder), limiting the possibility to evaluate the relationship between these variables and SV. Therefore, grouping and assessing those upper body joints and positions mostly involved in the serve kinetic chain could be useful to provide insights on the influence of force-time characteristics on SV. ...
... A total of 8 maximum isometric tests of joints and movements included as a part of the service kinetic chain 8 Figure 1) with the dominant arm using a strain gage (Muscle-Lab4000e; BoscosystemLab, Rome, Italy). 17 The amplified and calibrated force signal was sampled at 200 Hz. The specific position for each isometric pull was established before each trial with the use of a validated goniometer (Easyangle; Meloq AB, Stockholm, Sweden). ...
... In this regard, the utilization of medicine ball throws 6,7,28 or cable pulley machines 7,28,29 seem valid training options, as they allow to include the SHIR of the dominant upper arm present in the kinetic chain. 17 In short, programs including medicine ball throws or cable pulley machines that emphasize rotational movements executed at maximum velocity most likely improve RFD at different stages of contraction and therefore positively influence SV. Moreover, joint positions and isometric testing used here are relatively easy to include in SV assessments and could therefore be considered as valid options to evaluate and control training periodically. ...
Article
Purpose: (1) To analyze the associations between serve velocity (SV) and various single-joint upper-limb isometric force-time curve parameters, (2) to develop a prediction model based on the relationship between these variables, and (3) to determine whether these factors are capable of discriminating between tennis players with different SV performances. Method: A total of 17 high-performance tennis players performed 8 isometric tests of joints and movements included in the serve kinetic chain (wrist and elbow flexion [EF] and extension; shoulder flexion [SHF] and extension [SHE], internal [SHIR] and external rotation). Isometric force (IF), rate of force development (RFD), and impulse (IMP) at different time intervals (0-250 ms) were obtained for analysis. Results: Significant (P < .05 to P < .01) and moderate to very large correlations were found between SV and isometric force (IF), RFD and impulse (IMP) at different time intervals in all joint positions tested (except for the EF). Stepwise multiple regression analysis highlighted the importance of RFD in the SHIR from 0 to 50 milliseconds and isometric force (IF) in the SHF at 250 milliseconds on SV performance. Moreover, the discriminant analyses established SHIR RFD from 0 to 30 milliseconds as the most important factor discriminating players with different serve performances. Conclusions: Force-time parameters in upper-limb joints involved in the serve moderate to very largely influence SV. Findings suggest that the capability to develop force in short periods of time (<250 ms), especially in the shoulder joint, seems relevant to develop high SV in competition tennis players.
... Furthermore, ROM and isometric strength of the shoulders and elbow contributed to the improvement in the speed of the ball in experienced handball players, according to Van Der Tillaar and Ettema (2004). In this respect, the work published by Baiget et al. (2016) compared the maximum isometric force developed with the speed of the ball during the tennis serve. In volleyball, isokinetic force in the shoulder and its relationship with speed of the ball have been analyzed in elite athletes (Arslan and Albay, 2019). ...
... All contractions lasted between 3 and 5 s © Editorial Committee of Journal of Human Kinetics with a 1-min rest interval between sets and 5 min between exercises (Baiget et al., 2016). Only verbal support was used to motivate players to perform at their best. ...
... Thus, the present work develops a novel approach in an attempt to establish a relationship between the speed of the service and strength which athletes are capable of exercising in an isometric way. Regarding other sports, the relationship between the force developed by isometric exercise in different ROMs and the speed of the ball in motion has been studied, and the tests carried out yielded positive correlations (Baiget et al., 2016;Schwesig et al., 2016). In tennis, no strong relationship between the internal rotation of the shoulder and the speed of the service has been found using isokinetic tests (Cohen et al., 1994;Pugh et al., 2003). ...
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this study was to analyze the relationship between isometric force produced in different joints and its effects on the power kick serve speed in beach volleyball as a predictive aspect to improve sports performance. Seven athletes competing at national and international levels (mean ± standard deviation; age: 21.6 ± 3.20 years; body height: 1.87 ± 0.08 cm; body mass 80.18 ± 7.11 kg) were evaluated using maximum isometric force contractions (i.e., spinal and knee extension, grip by a hand dynamometer (handgrip), internal shoulder rotation, shoulder flexion, elbow flexion and extension, and wrist flexion). Speed of the ball was recorded with a pistol radar and force was measured with a strain gauge. Results showed a relationship between isometric force developed in the internal rotation of the shoulder and speed of the ball (r = 0.76*; p < 0.05). In the remaining isometric exercises, positive low to moderate correlations were found in the spine and knee extension (r = 0.56; p = 0.200) and elbow flexion (r = 0.41; p = 0.375). On the other hand, the remaining isometric exercises obtained weak or non-significant correlations. Force developed in the internal rotation of the shoulder highly correlated with the speed of the power kick, explaining, together with the elbow flexion and the extension of the knee and back, much of the variability of the power kick of beach volleyball athletes.
... These include an enhanced level of speed over short distances, upper and lower body strength and power alongside a greater serve velocity (SV) (Ulbricht et al., 2016). Research has related force-time characteristics around the shoulder complex (Cools et al., 2014;Baiget et al., 2016;Baiget et al., 2021;Hayes et al., 2021) and upper body power levels (Ulbricht et al., 2016), to SV. Positive correlations have also been found between lower body isometric strength measurements and sprint and serve performance (Ulbricht et al., 2016;Hayes et al., 2021). These main actions normally involve one or more stretch-shortening cycles (SSC) throughout the kinetic chain (Kibler et al., 2007), and force production is to happen in a short period of time. ...
... As a warm up and prior to testing, participants performed five minutes of dynamic mobility exercises and two submaximal trials of 3 seconds of all tested positions at approximately 50% and 75% maximal effort, separated by 60 seconds each (Comfort et al., 2019). Tests concerning upper body were performed in a similar manner as Baiget et al., (2016), sitting on an Ercolina machine (Technogym Company, Cesena, Italy). The participants sat in a position with a 90º hip flexion and the back resting on a bench. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined the alterations induced by a simulated tennis competition on maximal isometric voluntary contraction (MVC), peak rate of force development (PRFD) and rate of force development (RFD) at different stages of contraction. Twenty junior tennis players performed an 80-minute simulated tennis match and two (pre and post) muscular performance tests. Variables tested included MVC, PRFD and RFD at 50, 100, 150 and 200 ms while performing a 90º shoulder internal rotation (IR90), 90º shoulder external rotation (ER90), shoulder horizontal adduction (ADD), shoulder horizontal abduction (ABD) and isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP). Serve velocity (SV) was also registered. No significant changes were found regarding MVC, PRFD or SV. Non-significant moderate effect size (ES) towards a decrease in the IR90 RFD at 50 ms could be observed (16%; ES = 0.5) alongside an increase in the ADD and IMTP RFD at 150 ms (-15.8%,-8.2%; ES =-0.53,-0.54) and IMTP RFD at 200 ms (-13%; ES =-0.54). Results indicate that MVC, PRFD, RFD at different time intervals and SV are unaltered following an 80-minute simulated match, possibly due to insufficient alterations triggered on key factors affecting the tested variables.
... The system meets International Tennis Federation (ITF) criteria (https://www.itftennis.com/media/7365/elcevaluation-paper-revision-26.pdf) of accuracy and reliability (https:// www.itftennis.com/media/7203/line-calling.pdf) and is approved by widely explored. The influence of different nature parameters of tennis players SV such as anthropometric characteristics [5,[10][11][12], competitive level [13], isometric [5,14,15] and dynamic [5,10,[15][16][17][18][19] strength, rate of force development (RFD) [15], muscle stiffness [13], isokinetic speed [19], range of motion (ROM) [4,16], lower and upper limbs joint kinematics and muscle activity [2,11,[20][21][22][23][24], the match situation [25] or the resistance training [26] have been measured. However most of these investigations were conducted mainly in laboratory/court simulated conditions with absence of a returner [27]. ...
... Alongside a higher SV1 than SV2, the differences between S1 and S2 landing location probably occurs determined by different nature parameters [1,3], however the presented SV prediction model is based on a partial spectrum of serve performance (i.e., some anthropometric [BH and BM], ball impact and bounce variables). The model would be more accurate considering other determinant factors such as technical [39], strategical [6], range of motion [16,24] or muscle power performance [5,[14][15][16] parameters. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study aimed (i) to analyse the associations between serve velocity (SV) and anthropometric, ball impact and landing location parameters in total serves (TS) and fastest serves (FS) performed during an ATP Tour event; (ii) to observe differences between first (S1) and second (S2) serves, and (iii) to determine a SV prediction model based on the relationship between the observed variables. Using Foxtenn technology, 30 S1 and 15 S2 were registered in 14 matches in twenty-one male professional tennis players. Ball impact (impact height [IH], impact projection angle [IPA] and relative impact height [RIH]), bounce landing (width and depth) location parameters, S1 and S2 SV in TS (TSV1 and TSV2) and FS (FSV1 and FSV2) alongside anthropometric characteristics of tennis players (body height [BH], body mass [BM] and body mass index [BMI]) were analysed. Significant moderate to large associations were found between BH and BM and TSV1, FSV1 and FSV2 (r = 0.315 to 0.593; p < 0.001), and between IH and IPA and TSV1 and TSV2 (r = 0.294 to -0.409; p < 0.001). BH and BM were the unique significant contributors of FS explaining 22 to 35% of FSV1 and FSV2. Only BM appears in the model to predict FSV1 and FSV2 (r2 = 0.48 and 0.21). We concluded that all three anthropometric, ball impact and bounce landing location parameters small to moderately influence TSV. Anthropometric parameters show an impact on SV when tennis players serve at or near maximal speed, highlighting the influence of BM above BH.
Article
Improving groundstroke velocity and accuracy is critical for tennis success. However, there is limited research available on the physical and cognitive attributes required for groundstroke performance. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the physical and cognitive characteristics and their association with groundstroke performance in junior tennis players. Thirty-four competitive junior tennis players, aged 12.59 ± 2.44 years, participated in this cross-sectional study. Cognitive tests assessing processing speed, complex attention, cognitive flexibility and problem-solving capacity and physical tests assessing flexibility, speed, agility, power, strength and anaerobic and aerobic capacity were performed. Tennis groundstroke performance was evaluated using a novel tennis groundstroke assessment. Tennis groundstroke performance was associated ( p < 0.05) with the number of hours a participant practices per week, their ranking, lower and upper body power, tennis agility test (decision and total time), linear speed, upper body strength and aerobic capacity. Specifically, an estimated 83.76% of the groundstroke velocity accuracy index variability was explained by grip strength in the dominant hand and ranking. An estimated 79.63% of the groundstroke velocity accuracy error index variability was explained by the number of hours a participant practices per week and their ranking. Our study showed an association between tennis groundstroke performance and physical but not cognitive outcomes in junior tennis players. Specific attention should be dedicated to developing the upper body strength of junior tennis players for improved groundstroke velocity and accuracy. This knowledge can assist tennis coaches in planning effective training sessions.
Chapter
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Teniste Servis Hızının Önemi
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To compare the physiological and performance adaptations between periodized and nonperiodized resistance training in women collegiate tennis athletes. Thirty women (19 +/- 1 yr) were assigned to either a periodized resistance training group (P), nonperiodized training group (NV), or a control group (C). Assessments for body composition, anaerobic power, VO2(max), speed, agility, maximal strength, jump height, tennis-service velocity, and resting serum hormonal concentrations were performed before and after 4, 6, and 9 months of resistance training performed 2-3 d.wk (-1). Nine months of resistance training resulted in significant increases in fat-free mass; anaerobic power; grip strength; jump height; one-repetition maximum (1-RM) leg press, bench press, and shoulder press; serve, forehand, and backhand ball velocities; and resting serum insulin-like growth factor-1, testosterone, and cortisol concentrations. Percent body fat and VO2(max) decreased significantly in the P and NV groups after training. During the first 6 months, periodized resistance training elicited significantly greater increases in 1-RM leg press (9 +/- 2 vs 4.5 +/- 2%), bench press (22 +/- 5 vs 11 +/- 8%), and shoulder press (24 +/- 7 vs 18 +/- 6%) than the NV group. The absolute 1-RM leg press and shoulder press values in the P group were greater than the NV group after 9 months. Periodized resistance training also resulted in significantly greater improvements in jump height (50 +/- 9 vs 37 +/- 7%) and serve (29 +/- 5 vs 16 +/- 4%), forehand (22 +/- 3 vs 17 +/- 3%), and backhand ball velocities (36 +/- 4 vs 14 +/- 4%) as compared with nonperiodized training after 9 months. These data demonstrated that periodization of resistance training over 9 months was superior for enhancing strength and motor performance in collegiate women tennis players.
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In the high-velocity tennis serve, the contributions that the upper limb segments' anatomical rotations make to racket head speed at impact depend on both their angular velocity and the instantaneous position of the racket with respect to the segments' axes of rotation. Eleven high-performance tennis players were filmed at a nominal rate of 200 Hz by three Photosonics cameras while hitting a high-velocity serve. The three-dimensional (3-D) displacement histories of 11 selected landmarks were then calculated using the direct linear transformation approach, and 3-D individual segment rotations for the upper limb were calculated using vector equations (Sprigings, Marshall, Elliott, and Jennings, 1994). The major contributors to the mean linear velocity of the center of the racket head of 31.0 m·s-1 at impact were internal rotation of the upper arm (54.2%), flexion of the hand (31.0%), horizontal flexion and abduction of the upper arm (12.9%), and racket shoulder linear velocity (9.7%). Forearm extension at the elbow joint played a negative role (-14.4%) and reduced the forward velocity of the center of the racket at impact.
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The isometric squat has been used to detect changes in kinetic variables as a result of training; however, controversy exists in its application to dynamic multi-joint tasks. Thus, the purpose of this study was to further examine the relationship between isometric squat kinetic variables and isoinertial strength measures. Subjects (17 males, 1-RM: 148.2 ± 23.4 kg) performed squats 2 d·wk for 12 weeks and were tested on 1-RM squat, 1-RM partial squat, isometric squat at 90° and 120° of knee flexion. Test-retest reliability was very good for all isometric measures (ICC> 0.90); however rate of force development 250ms (RFD) at 90° and 120° appeared to have a higher systematic error (relative TEM= 8.12%, 9.44%). Pearson product-moment correlations indicated strong relationships between isometric peak force at 90° (IPF 90°) and 1-RM squat (r=0.86), and IPF 120° and 1-RM partial squat (r=0.79). Impulse 250ms (IMP) at 90° and 120° exhibited moderate to strong correlations with 1-RM squat (r=0.70, 0.58) and partial squat (r=0.73, 0.62), respectively. RFD at 90° and 120° exhibited weak to moderate correlations with 1-RM squat (r=0.55, 0.43) and partial squat (r=0.32, 0.42), respectively. These findings demonstrate a degree of joint angle specificity to dynamic tasks for rapid and peak isometric force production. In conclusion, an isometric squat performed at 90° and 120° is a reliable testing measure that can provide a strong indication of changes in strength and explosiveness during training.
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Aim: This study aims at investigating the possible relationships between anthropometric and functional parameters and maximal serve speed in professional tennis players. Methods: Eight professional male tennis players (age 23±4 [mean±SD] years;; height 181±4 cm; body mass 80±4 kg;; playing experience 14±4 years;; weekly training practice 29±6 hours) were recruited. Anthropometric parameters (height, body mass, arm--racquet length, arm muscle area), jump performance (Squat Jump, Counter Movement Jump;; Counter Movement Jump Free), handgrip strength and first and second maximal serve speed were assessed. Results: Pearson's correlation coefficient showed significant (p<0.05) positive relationships between height and ball speed in both the first (r=0.78;; p=0.02) and second (r=0.80;; p=0.017) serve, and a significant negative correlation between serve speed and arm muscle area in first serve only (r=--0.78; p=0.03). In addition, a trend towards a positive correlation was observed between string tensions and serves speed for both first and second serves (r=0.54;; p=0.16 and r=0.60;; p=0.11, respectively). No significant relationship was found between serve speed and the other variables considered, including jumping performance parameters. Conclusions: Height was confirmed to be the main anthropometric determinant of serves speed in professional tennis players.
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Isokinetic contraction is the muscular contraction that accompanies constant velocity limb movements around a joint. The velocity of movement is maintained constant by a special dynamometer. The resistance of the dynamometer is equal to the muscular forces applied throughout the range of movement. This method allows the measurement of the muscular forces in dynamic conditions and provides optimal loading of the muscles. However, during movements in the vertical plane, the torque registered by the dynamometer is the resultant torque produced by the muscular and gravitational forces. The error depends on the angular position and the torque potential of the tested muscle group. Several methods have been developed for the correction of gravitational errors in isokinetic data. The torque output also contains artefacts that are associated with the inertial forces during acceleration and deceleration periods before the development of the constant preset angular velocity. For an accurate assessment of muscle function, only constant velocity data should be analysed. The most frequently used isokinetic parameters are the maximum torque and the angular position where it was recorded, the torque output at different angular velocities of movement, the torque ratio of reciprocal muscle groups and the torque output during repeated contractions. The unique features of isokinetic dynamometry are optimal loading of the muscles in dynamic conditions and constant preselected velocity of movement. These features provide safety in the rehabilitation of patients with muscular and ligamentous injuries. Isokinetic dynamometry has also been used for the training of various muscle groups in order to improve the muscular performance in dynamic conditions. The movement velocity of different activities can be simulated during training in order to improve the training effect. Data acquisition and analysis have been improved by using computer systems interfaced to isokinetic dynamometers. Recently developed computer systems provide correction for gravitational and inertial errors, accurate computation of isokinetic parameters and real-time display of the torque output.
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Previous research has demonstrated the importance of isometric maximal strength (PF) and rate of force development (RFD) in a variety of athletic populations including track cyclists and track and field athletes. Among coaches and sports scientists there is a lack of agreement regarding how much strength is required for optimal performance in most sports. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between measures of PF, RFD and one repetition maximum (1RM) strength with other variables that might contribute to successful performance in collegiate wrestlers. Eight men (M = 20.0, SD = 0.4 years; Height M = 1.68, SD = 0. 13 m; Mass M = 78.0, SD = 4.2 kg) who were Division III college wrestlers participated in this study. They were tested for PF using the isometric mid thigh pull exercise. Explosive strength was measured as RFD from the isometric force-time curve. The 1RM for the squat, bench press and power clean exercises were determined as a measure of dynamic strength. Vertical jump height was measured to determine explosive muscular power. The wrestlers also ranked themselves and the coaches of the team also provided a ranking of the athletes. Correlations between the variables were calculated using the Pearson product moment method. Results indicated strong correlations between measures of PF and 1RM (r = 0.73 - 0.97). The correlations were very strong between the power clean 1RM and PF (r = 0.97) and squat 1RM and PF (r = 0.96). There were no other significant correlations with other variables apart from a strong correlation between RFD and coaches ranking (r = 0.62). Findings suggest that isometric mid thigh pull test does correlate well with 1RM testing in college wrestlers. RFD does not appear to be as important in college wrestlers. The isometric mid thigh pull provides a quick and efficient method for assessing isometric strength in athletes. This measure also provides a strong indication of dynamic performance in this population. The lack of strong correlations with other performance variables may be a result of the unique metabolic demands of wrestling. Key PointsIn Division III collegiate wrestlers the isometric mid thigh pull test correlates well with 1RM testing.Rate of Force Development does not appear to be as important in college wrestlers.The lack of strong correlations with other performance variables may be a result of the unique metabolic demands of wrestling.
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Previous research has demonstrated the importance of both dynamic and isometric maximal strength and rate of force development (RFD) in athletic populations. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between measures of isometric force (PF), RFD, jump performance and strength in collegiate football athletes. The subjects in this study were twenty-two men [(mean ± SD):age 18.4 ± 0.7 years; height 1.88 ± 0.07 m; mass 107.6 ± 22.9 kg] who were Division I college football players. They were tested for PF using the isometric mid thigh pull exercise. Explosive strength was measured as RFD from the isometric force-time curve. The one repetition maximum (1RM) for the squat, bench press and power clean exercises were determined as measures of dynamic strength. The two repetition maximum (2RM) for the split jerk was also determined. Vertical jump height and broad jump was measured to provide an indication of explosive muscular power. There were strong to very strong correlations between measures of PF and 1RM (r = 0.61 - 0.72, p < 0.05). The correlations were very strong between the power clean 1RM and squat 1RM (r = 0.90, p < 0.05). There were very strong correlations between 2RM split jerk and clean 1RM (r = 0.71, p < 0.05), squat 1RM (r = 0.71, p < 0.05), bench 1RM (r = 0.70, p < 0.05) and PF (r = 0.72, p < 0.05). There were no significant correlations with RFD. The isometric mid thigh pull test does correlate well with 1RM testing in college football players. RFD does not appear to correlate as well with other measures. The isometric mid thigh pull provides an efficient method for assessing isometric strength in athletes. This measure also provides a strong indication of dynamic performance in this population.