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Abstract

A high speed abrasive cutting machine was designed and developed. The abrasive wheel of 4mm thickness was used and the speed was 2500 rpm. It is driven by an electric motor having a power of about 3.67 kW. Tests results on the machine showed that it can cut 25mm and 60mm mild steel rods in 7.5s and 21.3s respectively; 25mm and 60mm stainless steel rods in 15.3s and 136.7s respectively. It was discovered from the tests that depending on the length of cut and material being cut, the high speed abrasive cutting machine was more efficient, in terms of cutting time, than the power hacksaw. The grinding/wear ratio was also dependent on the material being cut and the length of cut.
Journal of Engineering Research, Vol. 15, No. 3, September, 2010 S.J. Ojolo, J.I. Orisaleye
and A. O. Adelaja
1
DEVELOPMENT OF A HIGH SPEED ABRASIVE CUTTING MACHINE
S.J. OJOLO*, J.I. ORISALEYE** and A. O. ADELAJA*
* Department of Mechanical Engineering University of Lagos, Akoka, Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria
**Department of Mechanical Engineering, Lagos State University, Lagos, Nigeria.
ABSTRACT
A high speed abrasive cutting machine was designed and developed. The abrasive wheel of 4mm
thickness was used and the speed was 2500 rpm. It is driven by an electric motor having a
power of about 3.67 kW. Tests results on the machine showed that it can cut 25mm and 60mm
mild steel rods in 7.5s and 21.3s respectively; 25mm and 60mm stainless steel rods in 15.3s and
136.7s respectively. It was discovered from the tests that depending on the length of cut and
material being cut, the high speed abrasive cutting machine was more efficient, in terms of
cutting time, than the power hacksaw. The grinding/wear ratio was also dependent on the
material being cut and the length of cut.
Keywords: Abrasive wheel, discontinuous chip cutting, development, machine, high speed.
1.0 INTRODUCTION
Saws are amongst the most common of
machine tools and they are used in
contouring and cutting off. There are three
basic types of saws: hacksaw, circular and
band saw. Circular saws are made of three
types: metal saws, steel friction disks and
abrasive disks. Circular saw blades are
economical methods used for cut-off
operations that require dimensional
accuracy and a good surface finish (Sarwar
et al, 1996; Zohdi et al., 2006). Oberg and
Jones (1996) classified the cut-off machines
into types which include simple machines
which are used to cut one piece at a time,
production machines used for many
purposes such as making angle-cuts and
plate cut-offs, and those used to cut large
and tough materials. Sarwar et al, (1996)
showed that the machinability of nickel
based alloys are variable and relatively poor
and also noted that high speed saw blades
were not suitable for machining certain types
of nickel based alloys due to high localized
temperatures generated which cause plastic
deformation of tool and rapid rates of wear.
Abrasive cutting was initially regarded as a
tool room method only but it has now grown to
be a high-speed production operation, often
preferable to steel saws, shears and flame
cutting from the point of view of economy.
Closer tolerances are achieved, eliminating
subsequent finishing operation (Sahu and
Sagar, 2006). Abrasive disks are mainly
aluminium oxide grains or silicon carbide
grains bonded together. They are used to cut
ferrous and nonferrous metal (Zohdi et al,
2006). With abrasive parting-off there is no
danger of work hardening of the work prior to
the cutting action as is the case with other
forms of cutting methods.
Jain (2008) described the abrasive cut-
off sawing machine using abrasive cutter as a
special grinding machine. Radford and
Richardson (2007) suggested, however, that the
abrasive wheel can be regarded and modelled
Journal of Engineering Research, Vol. 15, No. 3, September, 2010 S.J. Ojolo, J.I. Orisaleye
and A. O. Adelaja
2
as a milling cutting tool with many teeth.
The abrasive wheel has also been classified
based on the abrasive grain types and the
bonding materials. Gill (2005) and Jain
(2008) classified abrasives into natural
abrasives and manufactured abrasives.
Natural abrasives include sand stone, garnet,
flint, emery, quartz and corundum while
manufactured abrasives are made from
synthesized chemical compounds.
Rajgopalan (1970) classified the bonding
materials as vitrified bond made of clay or
feldspar, resinoid bond made of synthetic
resins, rubber bond, shellac bond, silicate
bond and metal bond.
As an advantage over the
conventional cutting method, the abrasive
wheel has been noted to cut materials
without distortion while cut surfaces are
with minimum blur and better surface
finish. In addition to this the abrasive
cutting process does not require coolants,
loses lesser amount of power, cuts faster and
gives a better heat diffusivity property
(Blackburn, 2000). Sahu and Sagar (2002)
and Sahu (2001) also noted that many
drawbacks of conventional parting-off
wheel such as high wear ratio, high cutting
zone temperature, premature failure of
wheel due to low mechanical strength have
been eliminated by developing a fibre
glass/epoxy reinforced composite parting-
off wheel. However, the cutting disk
reduces after each cut is made due to
fracture of abrasive which comes in contact
with the metal but this creates a new cutting
edge which keeps the cutting operation
smooth (Blackburn, 2000).
The progress of the abrasive cutting
machine is at a crest that is unprecedented
by any other cutting-off technique (Shaw,
1975). This work is aimed at developing a
high speed abrasive cutting machine and
evaluating the machine for performance.
2.0 MATERIALS AND METHODS
This design considers the abrasive
cutter primarily as a grinding wheel
following Jain (2008) and secondarily as a
milling cutting tool as suggested by Radford
and Richardson (2007). The components of the
high speed abrasive cutting machine include
the frame and upper platform, the handle and
stopper, machine vice, electric motor, pulley,
shafts and housing, cutting disk, bolts and nuts,
bearings and transmission belts (Figure 1) .
2.1 Operation of the High Speed
Abrasive Cutting Machine
The high speed abrasive cutting
machine, shown in Figure 1 and Plate 1,
operates on a similar principle as other
machine tools, particularly the grinding and the
milling machine. It has a rotating tool (the
abrasive cutting wheel) which is carried on one
end of a lever, and operated by a pulley which
receives transmission from an electric motor. A
small vertical feed force at the end of a lever
carrying the cutting tool to lower the cutting
tool to, and through, the workpiece.
The workpiece is held firmly in a vice
provided on the upper platform and the
combination of the rotation of the cutting tool
and the vertical feed force causes the metal
workpiece to be split or cut through.
2.2 Specifications and Design of
Components
2.2.1 Selection of Abrasive Cutter
Jain (2008) recommended wheels
bonded by the rubber process as suitable for
fine parting off operation. An abrasive wheel,
rubber bonded, 300 mm diameter and 4 mm
thickness is selected for the design.
2.2.2 Specification of Cutting Parameters
2.2.3 Speed of Abrasive wheel (N)
Jain (2008) stated that the rubber
bonded abrasive wheel of up to 0.1 mm
thickness can be operated at speeds ranging
from 3000 to 5000 m/min. Expressed in
revolutions per minute, using,
D
U
N
60
Where, U = linear velocity at the
circumference of the wheel, and
Journal of Engineering Research, Vol. 15, No. 3, September, 2010 S.J. Ojolo, J.I. Orisaleye
and A. O. Adelaja
3
D = diameter of the abrasive cutter i.e. 300
mm
The range of speed is thus 1591 to 2652
rpm. A speed of 2500 rpm is selected which
corresponds to 39.3 m/s.
2.2.4 Feed Speed (fV)
Nagpal (2005) and Jain (2008) noted
that a typical value of feed ranges between 0.2
to 0.6 m/s. A feed speed of 0.6 m/s, which
corresponds to 100 mm/min, is chosen.
Figure 1: The High Speed Abrasive Cutting Machine
1-Machine vice; 2- Abrasive cutting disk; 3-
Stopper; 4- Cutting disk guide; 5- Electric
motor; 6- Grit collector; 7- Handle; 8- Lever
arm; 9- Driven pulley; 10- Electric motor
pulley; 11- Disk holder and bolt; 12- Spindle
shaft housing; 13- Electric motor base; 14-
Lever end stopper; 15- Bearings; 16- Machine
base.
Plate 1: The high-speed abrasive cutting
machine
Journal of Engineering Research, Vol. 15, No. 3, September, 2010 S.J. Ojolo, J.I. Orisaleye
and A. O. Adelaja
4
2.2.5 Feed Rate (f)
This is the feed of the cutter in one
revolution and is obtained using
N
f
fv
But fV = 100 mm/min; and N = 2500 rpm.
Therefore,
revmmf/04.0
2500
100
The feed rate is 0.04 mm/rev.
2.2.6 Depth of Cut (t)
This is the thickness of the layer
removed in one pass in a direction
perpendicular to the direction of feed
motion (Nagpal, 2005). The feed is across
the cross section of the workpiece. Hence,
the depth of cut equals the thickness of the
abrasive cutter.
t = 4 mm
2.2.7 Width of Cut (W)
This is taken as the greatest width of
the workpiece to be cut. A maximum width
of 100 mm is selected for the design.
2.2.8 Volume of Material removed per
Unit Time (V)
According to Singh, 2008 and Jain, 2008
this can be derived using
tWfV v
mmmm
mm
V1004
min
100
min
000,40 3
mm
V
2.2.9 Power Required (P)
This is calculated, Nagpal, 2005; Jain, 2008
using
Watts
Ve
P60
Where, e = specific energy of the material =
5.5 J/mm3 for steel with BHN 400 (Singh,
2008)
Therefore,
WP 67.3666
The power required for cutting is 3.67 kW.
2.2.10 Total Tangential Cutting Force
This is evaluated by using (Jain, 2008; Singh,
2008)
DN P
FT
000,60
2500300 67.3666000,60
T
F
NFT4.93
2.2.11 Radial Force (FR)
This is the force perpendicular to the
total tangential force (Jain, 2008) and is taken
as the required feed force. It is evaluated,
Singh, 2008, using
TR FF 2
NFR4.932
NFR8.186
2.2.12 Shaft Design
The abrasive cutting wheel, which is
mounted on one end of a shaft which is driven
by a pulley mounted on the other end. The
shaft is thus assumed to be subjected to pure
torsion.
The torsional moment, or torque, on the
shaft is evaluated, according to Sharma and
Aggarwal, 2006; Jain, 2004; Shigley and
Mischke, 2003, using
Nm
N
P
T
2
60
NmT2500267.366660
NmT14
According to Sharma and Aggarwal,
2006; Shigley and Mischke, 2003, the
minimum shaft diameter is evaluated using
2
1
16

Tn
d
Where
n = factor of safety which is taken as 4.0 for
known materials that are to be employed in
uncertain environments or subjected to
uncertain stresses and loads (Sharma and
Aggarwal, 2006; Jain, 2004; Singh, 2008).
Journal of Engineering Research, Vol. 15, No. 3, September, 2010 S.J. Ojolo, J.I. Orisaleye
and A. O. Adelaja
5
= the maximum allowable shear
stress, taken as 55 MN/m2 for commercial
steel shafting (Sharma and Aggarwal,
2006).
Therefore,
2
1
6
1055 41416
d
md 017.0
The minimum shaft diameter is 17
mm. However, a diameter of 30 mm is
chosen.
Sharma and Aggarwal (2006) recommend
that the torsional deflection of a shaft must
be less than 0.25O/m (or 0.0044 rad/m) for
machine tools. The torsional deflection of
the shaft is determined using (Sharma and
Aggarwal, 2006; Jain, 2004)
rad
GJ
TL
Where,
L = length of the shaft taken to be 190 mm
G = modulus of rigidity of steel in shear
which is approximately 80 GN/m2 (Singh,
2008; Sharma and Aggarwal, 2006)
J = Polar moment of inertia of cross-
sectional area about the axis of rotation and
is calculated using
48
4108
32 m
d
J
Thus, the deflection per unit length is
evaluated by
m
rad
GJ
T
L
m
rad
L89 1081080 14
m
rad
L0022.0
The torsional deflection per unit
length is 0.0022 rad/m which is less than the
critical torsional deflection. For the length
of shaft assumed, the total deflection is
0.00042 rad.
The housing of the shaft was
considered as a loose running fit. It is made
of a hollow cylinder with an outer diameter
of 70 mm, and is recessed at both ends to
allow for roller bearings.
2.2.13 Specification for Machine Frame and
Upper Platform
The frame was constructed by using U-
bars, flat bars and the upper platform was made
of an I-section so as to provide the required
rigidity and support for machining. The parts
of the base were joined by electric arc welding.
The height of the base was 740 mm.
2.3 Grinding/Wear Ratio
The life of an abrasive cut-off wheel is
determined by the wheel wear and is expressed
as (Sahu and Sagar, 2006)
Wheel
WP
V
V
G
Where,
WP
V
is the volume of work removed
and
Wheel
V
is the volume of wheel removed.
The grinding/wear ratio was evaluated for each
cut.
3.0 EVALUATION OF THE HIGH
SPEED ABRASIVE CUTTING MACHINE
The designed machine was built and
tested using two cylindrical workpiece each
made from mild steel and stainless steel which
are common engineering materials used for
production. A 5 hp (3.75kW) electric motor
was mounted on the machine and two v-belts
were used to transmit motion to the pulley
which drives the abrasive cutter.
Rods with diameters of 25 mm and 60
mm, each of mild steel and stainless steel were
clamped in the bench vice and cut with the
abrasive cutting machine with the feed being
applied manually. Three tests were conducted
per sample. The time taken to cut each sample
was recorded. Also, the reduction in the
diameter of the abrasive wheel during each
operation was noted and used to evaluate the
rate of wear of the abrasive wheel. One of each
rod sample was also cut using an automatically
operated power hack saw.
4.0 RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
The results of the test obtained from cutting
mild steel rod samples of 25mm diameter with
Journal of Engineering Research, Vol. 15, No. 3, September, 2010 S.J. Ojolo, J.I. Orisaleye
and A. O. Adelaja
6
the high speed abrasive cutter are presented
in table 1. While table 2 presents the results
of the test obtained from cutting mild steel
rod samples of 60mm diameter using the
high speed abrasive cutter. Tables 3 and 4
present results for test carried out when the
high speed abrasive cutter is used to cut
stainless steel rod samples of 25mm
diameter and 60mm diameter respectively.
Table 5 compares the average time taken
when the high speed abrasive cutter was
used with the time taken when the power
hacksaw was used to cut the same samples
of stainless steel and mild steel rods.
Table 1: Results obtained from cutting
25mm mild steel rod samples using the
high speed abrasive cutter
Test
no.
Tim
e of
cut
(sec)
Reductio
n in
cutting
disc
diameter
(mm)
Grinding/We
ar ratio
1
7.0
0.80
1.30
2
8.0
0.70
1.49
3
7.5
0.85
1.23
Averag
e
7.5
0.78
1.34
Table 2: Results obtained from cutting
60mm mild steel rod samples using the
high speed abrasive cutter
Test
no.
Tim
e of
cut
(sec)
Reductio
n in
cutting
disc
diameter
(mm)
Grinding/We
ar Ratio
1
25.0
1.90
3.17
2
20.0
2.00
3.01
3
19.0
1.90
3.17
Averag
e
21.3
1.93
3.12
It was observed, as presented in table 1, that
the average time taken when the abrasive
cutter was used to cut the mild steel rod
samples with diameter of 25mm was 7.5
seconds while rod samples of the same material
but with diameter of 60mm was cut in 21.3
seconds as shown in table 2. However, the
average time taken to cut stainless steel rod
samples with diameter of 25mm was 15
seconds as shown in table 3 while it was
observed, as shown in table 4, that samples of
stainless steel with diameter of 60mm took
about 136.7 seconds to be cut off with the high
speed abrasive cutter.
Table 3: Results obtained from cutting 25mm
stainless steel rod samples using the high
speed abrasive cutter
Test
no.
Tim
e of
cut
(sec)
Reductio
n in
cutting
disc
diameter
(mm)
Grinding/We
ar Ratio
1
15.0
1.30
0.80
2
17.0
1.50
0.70
3
14.0
1.20
0.87
Averag
e
15.3
1.30
0.79
Table 4: Results obtained from cutting 60mm
stainless steel rod samples using the high
speed abrasive cutter
Test no.
Time
of
cut
(sec)
Reduction
in cutting
disc
diameter
(mm)
Grinding/Wear
Ratio
1
120
3.00
2.01
2
140
3.50
1.72
3
150
3.30
1.83
Average
136.7
3.30
1.85
Journal of Engineering Research, Vol. 15, No. 3, September, 2010 S.J. Ojolo, J.I. Orisaleye
and A. O. Adelaja
7
Table 5: Comparison of results obtained
from using the high speed abrasive cutter
with the power hacksaw.
Sample
Diameter
(mm)
Time of cut (sec)
High
speed
abrasive
cutter
Power
hacksaw
Mild
Steel
25
7.5
19.8
60
21.3
59.4
Stainless
steel
25
15.3
41.2
60
136.7
550.0
Table 5 compares the operation of the
power hacksaw when used to cut similar
samples as those cut by the high speed
abrasive cutter. It was observed that
stainless steel took more time to be cut than
mild steel. It was also noticed that the high
speed abrasive cutter cut at a faster rate. The
cutting process was also found to be easier
with the high speed abrasive cutter than the
power hacksaw. The high speed abrasive
cutter also gave a better finish than the
power hacksaw.
There was a reduction in the cutting
wheel diameter with every cut. It was
noticed that when the wheel was used to cut
stainless steel, the abrasive wheel had a
greater wear than when it was used to cut
mild steel. Stainless steel commonly has a
composition of about 12% to 20% chromium
and 8% to 10.5% nickel. This makes stainless
steel as an alloy to be stronger, harder and
tougher than mild steel (DOE, 2001). Thus, it
can be deduced that the hardness of the
stainless steel caused it to take more time to be
cut and also to cause a greater wear of the
abrasive wheel.
The wear of the abrasive wheel is
comparable to the observation of Sarwar et al.
(1996) which noted that nickel based alloys,
which include stainless steel, caused a rapid
rate of wear of the circular saw blade.
However, the abrasive wheel is more suitable
than the high speed steel circular saw blade
because it gives a better surface finish,
produces minimal heat and there is no plastic
deformation of the tool caused by localized
temperatures.
The cut-off operation of the high speed
abrasive cutting machine was slower than
abrasive cut-off machines designed by Everett
(2007). Everett (2007) designed a 14 inch
abrasive cut-off which runs on a 10 hp (7.5kW)
motor and is capable of cutting a 50mm cold
rolled solid in 7 seconds, and a 20 inch
abrasive cutter which cuts 75mm cold rolled
steel in 21 seconds and 50mm stainless steel in
8 seconds.
5.0 CONCLUSION
The high speed abrasive cutter designed has
a better efficiency than the conventional cut-
off operations involving the use of power
hacksaws. The rate of wear of the abrasive
wheel depends on the hardness of the
material being cut which depends on its
composition. The high speed abrasive
cutting machine can be used as a cut-off
machine in workshops and can be fabricated
in a machine shop which is
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Ohio, U.S.A.
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... Ojolo et al. [13] found that the grinding/wear ratio and cutting time depended on the hardness and chemical composition of the material being machined. The tests were done by hard abrasive cutting of mild steel and stainless-steel rods. ...
... The analysis of the publications related to abrasive cutting shows that each abrasive cutting process is unique and could be studied from different perspectives: technological, energetic, informational, organizational, etc. Hard abrasive cutting is a wellstudied process [3], [8] to [13] and [15] to [21] and the optimum conditions for its implementation are determined, too [26] to [28]. ...
Article
Elastic abrasive cutting is a new high-performance method to produce workpieces made of materials of different hardness, which ensures lower wear of cut-off wheels and higher quality machined surfaces. However, the literature referring to elastic abrasive cutting is scarce; additional studies are thus needed. This paper proposes a new approach for modelling and optimizing the elastic abrasive cutting process, reflecting the specifics of its particular implementation. A generalized utility function has been chosen as an optimization parameter. It appears as a complex indicator characterizing the response variables of the elastic abrasive cutting process. The proposed approach has been applied to determine the optimum conditions of elastic abrasive cutting of С45 and 42Cr4 steels. To solve the optimization problem, a model of the generalized utility function reflecting the complex influence of the elastic abrasive cutting conditions has been developed. It is based on the findings of the complex study and modelling of the response variables of the elastic abrasive cutting process (cut-off wheel wear, time per cut, cut piece temperature, cut off wheel temperature and workpiece temperature) depending on the conditions of its implementation (compression force F exerted by the cut-off wheel on the workpiece, workpiece rotational frequency nw, cut off wheel diameter ds). By applying a genetic algorithm, the optimal conditions of elastic abrasive cutting of С45 and 42Cr4 steels: ds = 120 mm; F = 1 daN; nw = 63.7 min–1 and nw = 49.9 min–1, respectively for С45 and 42Cr4 steels, have been determined. They provide the best match between the response variables of the elastic abrasive cutting process.
... So only OJSC «Luga Abrasive Plant» produces more than 300 million pieces per year [1,2]. Abrasive reinforced wheels operate in combination with hand-held and portable machines [3] with a working speed of 80 m/s and are classified as high-risk tools [4]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The mechanical strength of unreinforced abrasive wheels is determined by centrifugal and bending forces, but their distribution during reinforcement is unknown. It was assumed that the stresses are distributed evenly, but a comparison of calculations on the theory of elasticity and real characteristics on a special stand showed complete discrepancy. Tensile tests of the wheels made it possible to compare the stresses results in the circumferential and radial directions. Was found that the reinforced wheel is an anisotropic body. Anisotropy can be reduced by displacing one reinforcement mesh relatively to the other by angle of 45°. In this paper, a mathematical model of the stress-strain state of the abrasive reinforced wheel was developed, taking into account the anisotropy of its properties. To determine the centrifugal forces, the theory of elasticity for an orthotropic body is applied. The bending forces that arise in the working wheel were determined during solving the problem of the distribution of deformations in the anisotropic annular plate rigidly fixed along the inner contour. As a result of experimental studies, it was found that stresses reach 8...23 MPa, which can be compared with the ultimate strength of the wheel matrix. The elastic module of the wheel matrix is noticeably greater than the elastic module of the reinforcing mesh, which practically does not perceive the load at the initial stage. The developed mathematical model of the strength indicators for abrasive reinforced wheels makes it possible to predict their reliability and safe operation.
Chapter
High temperatures during abrasive cutting lead to increased harmful gas emissions released into the environment, intensified cut-off wheel wear, microstructural changes in the machined material, and occurrence of thermal flaws. Temperature measurement in abrasive cutting is difficult due to the small size of the heated area (only tenths of mm2), high temperatures (above 1000°C), continuous change of the conditions within one cut-off cycle, large temperature gradient (more than 200°C), high cutting speed (above 50 m/s) and high mechanical load. The infrared thermography (IRT) application for thermal control of elastic abrasive cutting have been studied. The performed thermal measurements have been verified with the results obtained from the temperature models of workpiece, cut-off wheel, and cut piece depending on the conditions in elastic abrasive cutting of two structural steels C45 and 42Cr4. The parameters of effective abrasive cutting have been determined by applying multi-objective optimization.
Abrasive can be good.The tube and pipe
  • J Blackburn
Blackburn, J. (2000). Abrasive can be good.The tube and pipe Journal, Croydon Group Ltd., Illinois, pp 50-52.
Abrasive cut-off machines and wheels. Everett product catalogue
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