Japanese Policy and Programs for the Fostering of Global Entrepreneurs

Article (PDF Available) · June 2016with 455 Reads
Abstract
Knowledge plays a more important role in promoting entrepreneurship in the current information-led society than it did during the age of industrialization. Many recent studies found that entrepreneurship stimulates and generates innovation and economic growth. In response to the issues of long-term low growth, the Japa-nese government implemented several policies to encourage universities initiate entrepreneurial activities. This paper examines Japanese policies since 2014 that support universities in providing various programs for developing global entrepreneurs. Thirteen academic institutes were beneficiaries of three-year funding since the fiscal year of 2014. Each university designed its own educational programs according to their own contexts, built various forms of innovation ecosystems with domestic as well as international partner organizations , and offered entrepreneurship training courses or innovation workshops for companies to sustain its programs through broadening their funding bases. Due to the interdisciplinary nature and short history in operating the programs so far, it is difficult to evaluate the effectiveness of the programs. However, each participating university accumulated knowledge and experience while carrying out their various programs, suggesting important new directions for policymakers and education program designers in facilitating entre-preneurship and innovation.
40
STI Policy Review_Vol. 7, No. 1
Japanese Policy and Programs for the
Fostering of Global Entrepreneurs
Eunyoung Kim*
Abstract
Knowledge plays a more important role in promoting entrepreneurship in the current information-led society
than it did during the age of industrialization. Many recent studies found that entrepreneurship stimulates
and generates innovation and economic growth. In response to the issues of long-term low growth, the Japa-
nese government implemented several policies to encourage universities initiate entrepreneurial activities.
This paper examines Japanese policies since 2014 that support universities in providing various programs
for developing global entrepreneurs. Thirteen academic institutes were beneciaries of three-year funding
since the scal year of 2014. Each university designed its own educational programs according to their own
contexts, built various forms of innovation ecosystems with domestic as well as international partner orga-
nizations, and offered entrepreneurship training courses or innovation workshops for companies to sustain
its programs through broadening their funding bases. Due to the interdisciplinary nature and short history
in operating the programs so far, it is difcult to evaluate the effectiveness of the programs. However, each
participating university accumulated knowledge and experience while carrying out their various programs,
suggesting important new directions for policymakers and education program designers in facilitating entre-
preneurship and innovation.
Keywords
entrepreneurship education, global entrepreneurs, Japanese policy on entrepreneurship, national innovation system
* Specially appointed researcher, The Center for Knowledge Structuring, Tokyo, The University of Tokyo, imeun0@gmail.com
41
1. INTRODUCTION
1.1. Background
Despite their tremendous contribution to technological or theoretical innovation, academic insti-
tutions have been criticized for being slow to respond to rapid changes in the marketplace. There
were numerous attempts to shift the focus of academic institutes from the ivory tower to entrepre-
neurship. Facing long-term low growth, the United States government enacted the Bayh-Dole Act
in 1980 to provide incentives for universities to increase patenting. Shane (2004) studied the effec-
tiveness of the Bayh-Dole Act, concluding that regardless the controversies on its effect on univer-
sity patenting, the Bayh-Dole Act successfully encouraged universities to take an important role in
the national innovation system of the United States.
Japan also experienced long-term economic stagnation since the end of the bubble era of the 1990s.
In response, the Japanese government implemented a number of policies supporting university-
led innovations since the late 1990s. The Act on the Promotion of Technology Transfer from Uni-
versities to Private Industry (the TLO Act) of 1998 and the Act on Special Measures for Industrial
Revitalization of 1999 were enacted to apply the US model of the Bayh-Dole Act to Japan. In 2001,
Minister Takeo Hiranuma of the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) announced the
Hiranuma Plan to create 1,000 university-originated ventures within three years, focusing on four
sectors: information technology, environment, biotechnology, and nanotechnology (Lynskey &
Yonekura, 2003). METI budgeted ¥47.6 billion in 2002, ¥47.4 billion in 2003, and ¥61.7 billion
in 2004 for the Hiranuma Plan (Walsh, Baba, Goto, & Yasaki, 2008). As results, the Hiranuma
FIGURE 1. Number of University Ventures (1989-2015)
Source: Nomura Research Institute (2015; 2016)
Note: 2009-2013 data is not available in the source because the report did not specify the year of 723 ventures that closed its business during those 5 years, while the numbers of newly
established verntures are specied as follows: 59 in 2009; 72 in 2010;84 om 2011; 86 in 2012; 64 in 2013.
2000
1800
1600
1400
1200
1000
800
600
400
200
0
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
54 55 62 70 84 97 112 130 165 215 294
420
566
747
960
1207
1430
1627
1755 1807 1749 1773
42
STI Policy Review_Vol. 7, No. 1
Plan successfully achieved its goal (Figure 1). Since the enactment of the Hiranuma plan in 2001,
universities encouraged the commercialization of their research results. Although it contributed to
building an ecosystem of university-industry collaboration, the sustainability of these start-ups re-
main controversial. After the government decreased its support for university ventures, the number
of established businesses declined significantly, and at the same time, many university ventures
went bankrupt as a result of this cut-off in governmental subsidies.
In addition, the policy marginalized disciplines outside of the four main sectors of information
technology, environmental technology, nanotechnology and biotechnology (Figure 2). Also, the
policy was criticized for encouraging university professors to establish ventures that may lead to
the neglect of academic duties. The commercialization and licensing of research results could con-
tradict the primary mission of academic institutions, which is to create and disseminate knowledge
through research and teaching (Shane, 2004).
FIGURE 2. Sectoral Classication of the University Ventures after the Enactment of the Hiranuma Plan
Source: Working paper on the university-led venture, Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, 2009
Available at the website http://www.jst.go.jp/start/event/20121022/k02.pdf
Therefore, a different approach is required to support the role of academic institutes in the nation’s
innovation system. In this era of knowledge-based economies, universities play an important role in
initiating innovations. Clark (1998) proposed the concept of the entrepreneurial university: “pushed
and pulled by enlarging, interacting streams of demand, universities are pressured to change their
curricula, alter their faculties, and modernize their increasingly expensive physical plant and equip-
ment—and to do so more rapidly than ever” (p. xiii). Especially in the engineering school, Felder,
Woods, Stice, and Rugarcia (2000) noted that traditional instructional methods are not adequate for
Others Environmental & Energy Matarial & Mechanical IT Bio
100%
90%
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
2001 20052002 20062003 20072004 2008
14%
7%
18%
34%
27%
19%
8%
18%
23%
32%
14%
17%
20%
21%
29%
13%
6%
23%
31%
26%
20%
11%
21%
24%
24%
19%
11%
24%
21%
24%
17%
13%
22%
30%
19%
24%
8%
25%
26%
17%
43
equipping engineering graduates with the knowledge, skills, and attitudes required of them in the
coming decades. In response to those criticisms and social needs, a number of research centers and
departments during the last decades were established that focused on innovation or entrepreneur-
ship for social change.
Compared to European and North American countries, few studies exist on entrepreneurship edu-
cation for national economic growth or creating entrepreneurial mindsets in Asian countries. The
Japanese government presented many policies regarding university-led innovations, and this paper
reviews one of the most recent policies, which is the three-year program “Enhancing Development
of Global Entrepreneur” conducted from 2014 to 2016.
1.2. Theoretical Foundation
While the importance of entrepreneurship and innovation dramatically increased in recent years,
linking entrepreneurship to innovation and growth is not an easy task because entrepreneurship it-
self is a multifaceted, complex social and economic phenomenon (Audretsch, 2004). To understand
how to encourage entrepreneurship to promote innovation, this subsection examines the denitions
of innovation and entrepreneurship and reviews previous studies of entrepreneurship policies and
entrepreneurship education.
1.2.1. Entrepreneurship and Innovation
There are various denitions of innovation. In early studies, Schumpeter (1934) dened innovation
as new combinations of existing resources, which are economically more viable than the traditional
way of doing things. As an economist, he emphasized the commercialization role of innovation
which differentiating it from invention. However, innovation is not limited to markets. Brown
(2008) suggested the concept of human-centered innovation, which is powered by a thorough un-
derstanding and the direct observation of what people need in their lives. Baregheh, Rowley, and
Sambrook (2009) collected sixty definitions of innovation from literature in various disciplines.1
They analyzed the frequency of words which appeared in each set of denitions and found that the
“new” has been repeated seventy-six times where there are only sixty definitions of innovation.
Davenport (1993) defined innovation as the introduction of something new. Similarly, Tidd and
Bessant (2013) dened innovation as a process of turning opportunity into new ideas and of putting
these into widely-used practices.
Despite its importance, innovation is difficult to accomplish, and entrepreneurship is needed to
facilitate the innovation process. According to Schumpeter (1947), entrepreneurs are the very
1 Eighteen denitions from business and management (1966 to 2007); nine denitions from economics (1934 to 2004); six denitions
from organization studies (1953 to 2008); nine denitions innovation and entrepreneurship (from 1953 to 2007); thirteen denitions from
technology, science and engineering (1969 to 2005); three denitions from knowledge management (1999 to 2007); and two denitions
from marketing (1994 to 2004).
44
STI Policy Review_Vol. 7, No. 1
agents of innovation, and they are not necessarily motivated by prot but regard it as a standard for
measuring achievement or success. Kao (1993) defined entrepreneurship as the process of doing
something new and something different for the purpose of creating wealth for the individual and
adding value to society. Audretsch and Thurik (2001) noted that entrepreneurship generates growth
because it serves as a vehicle for innovation and change. In the globalization regime, more and
more enterprises are broadening their business worldwide, and entrepreneurs cross borders to be
competitive and to discover new opportunities (Isenberg, 2008).
1.2.2. Entrepreneurship Policies for Education
Public policies must promote entrepreneurial activities for economic growth. Entrepreneurship
policy stimulate entrepreneurship, aiming at the pre-start, startup and post-startup phases of the
entrepreneurial process, designed and delivered to address the areas of motivation, opportunity, and
skills, with the primary objective of encouraging more people to start their own businesses (Lund-
ström & Stevenson, 2001). To promote entrepreneurship policies, entrepreneurship education is
necessary. Alberti, Sciascia, and Poli (2004) defined entrepreneurship education as the structured
and formal conveyance of entrepreneurial competencies such as the skills, concepts and awareness
used by individuals during the process of starting and developing growth-oriented ventures.
There are several studies demonstrating entrepreneurship education’s enhancing of students’ entre-
preneurial self-efcacy (Zhao, Seibert, & Hills, 2005), entrepreneurship career intention (Krueger
& Brazeal, 1994; Tkachev & Kolvereid, 1999), and entrepreneurial abilities and skills (Gibb, 2002;
Kuratko, 2005). Peterman and Kennedy (2003) demonstrated positive relationships between expo-
sure to entrepreneurship education and the desirability and feasibility of starting a business, as well
as changes in perceptions. However, Oosterbeek, Van Praag, and Ijsselstein (2010) found a negative
impact of entrepreneurship education on the students’ intention to become an entrepreneur.
Stimulating entrepreneurship is difcult because entrepreneurship policy and entrepreneurial edu-
cation are still in the relatively immature stages. However, while entrepreneurship gained interest
and research attention in the last couple of decades, it is not a new concept. Notably, the origin of
entrepreneurship education can be found in Japan. McMullan and Long (1987) assert that Profes-
sor Shigeru Fuji of Kobe University in Japan pioneered the applied education in entrepreneurship
in 1938 for the first time in the world. However, while many western countries increased and de-
veloped entrepreneurship education since the 1960s, Asian countries have generally neglected to
research entrepreneurship education in the academic world.
According to Hofer and Potter (2010), twenty-three OECD member countries have thirteen years
of research or teaching experiences in entrepreneurship education on average. More and more uni-
versities developed entrepreneurship education to support start-ups, but almost all published stud-
ies on entrepreneurship education are based on experiences in Europe and the US. Thus, there is a
strong need for a study on entrepreneurship education in Asian countries. This paper examines one
of the most recent entrepreneurship policies in Japan that supports entrepreneurial education at the
university level.
45
1.3. Research Objectives
This study focuses on how educational programs are designed to foster entrepreneurial develop-
ment through policies enacted by the government and led by universities. Specifically, this study
aims to do the following:
First, it reviews major educational programs led by the thirteen universities under the Enhancing
Development of Global Entrepreneur (EDGE) program planned by the Ministry of Education, Cul-
ture, Sports, Science and Technology. It also describes how these programs are designed and the
progress and performances of these programs. As a result, this study builds towards a knowledge
base for developing educational programs for fostering entrepreneurs. It describes the details and
current statuses of the programs lead by universities, examining their significant results and the
structures of the programs. In addition, it explains how these programs contributed to shaping the
innovation ecosystem in Japan. Finally, this study provides implications for academic institutions
as well as policymakers for promoting innovation and fostering entrepreneurs.
2. OVERVIEW ON THE PROGRAM OF ENHANCING THE DEVELOPMENT OF
GLOBAL ENTREPRENEURS IN JAPAN
With the transition from traditional to new economies, innovation has become a key driver for na-
tional growth. In response , the Japanese government has enacted several policies to foster innova-
tions, such as the Promotions of Technology Transfer from Universities to Private Business Opera-
tors Act and the Small and Medium-size business Innovation Research System Act in 1998, and the
Special Measures for Industrial Revitalization Act, the new Small and Medium Enterprise Basic
Law, and the Law for Facilitating the Creation of New Business in 1999.
The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) enacted and
launched a number of policies for building infrastructure for innovations in Japan. The beneciaries
of these policies range from those wishing to be future scientists (such as junior high school stu-
dents) to those who are currently working in the science and technology research eld (Table 1).
TABLE 1. The MEXT Projects for Fostering Leaders in Science and Technology (2014-2016)
Beneciaries Project Title Details
Budget (mil. JPY)
’14 ’15 ’16
Post-doctoral researchers,
Doctoral students
Fostering top leaders who will
contribute to the growth of
Japan
Establishing systems for excellent researchers - - 1,000
Building consortiums for fostering leaders in science and
technology 1,027 1,327 1,327
Increasing of tenure-track faculties for hiring young scholars 3,419 2,084 1,225
Consolidating the conditions
for independent research of
excellent young researchers
Program for fostering project managers(PM) - 100 140
Research fellowship for special researchers (including
foreigners) 17,183 16,770 16,319
46
STI Policy Review_Vol. 7, No. 1
Enhancing research ethics Educating guidelines for research ethics 55 118 114
Women
researchers
Initiative for the diversity of
research circumstances
Supporting women researchers’ work-and-life balance for
childcare and maternity leave 984 1,088 1,088
Restart Postdoctoral Fellowship For those who suspended research for maternity leave 652 760 869
Graduate &
Undergraduate students
Enhancing Development of
Global Entrepreneurs
Fostering innovators by providing diverse educational
programs 907 865 705
High school & junior high
school
Super Science High School
Science contest for high school and junior high school students
3,200
2,962 2,155
Global science campus 580 625
Support for female students
wishing to become scientists
Advising female students in high school and junior high school
to choose science and technology majors 15 15 30
Source: MEXT (2015; 2016)
Among these policies, this paper covers a three-year (2014-2016) program called Enhancing De-
velopment of Global Entrepreneur (EDGE), which aims to encourage entrepreneurship, promote
skills, and knowledge for commercialization, and inspire students and young researchers to find
innovative solutions for diverse issues. This program supports universities in designing and imple-
menting education programs that encourage students to take a global view on issues and integrate
interdisciplinary knowledge. The universities foster leaders who are able to identify issues on their
own, find solutions through approaches that integrate the liberal arts, sciences, and technologies,
and realize the results of research through the collaboration of students from diverse backgrounds.
In addition, people who have experience in industries as researchers or managers take active roles
as advisors or coordinators of various projects.
MEXT budgeted ¥907 million in 2014, ¥865 million in 2015, and ¥702 million in 2016 to support
these educational programs as well as to build human and organizational networks through collabo-
ration with venture-related institutions, overseas institutions, and private companies, for shaping a
sustainable innovation ecosystem (Figure 3).
FIGURE 3. Overview of the EDGE Program
Source: MEXT (2014)
Fostering leaders for
promoting innovation
Universities in overseas
Venture capitals & companies More challengers for innovation
Practical education programs incl. Problem
Based Learning
· Entrepreneurship
· Design thinking
· Ideation skills
· Commercialization
· Sharing issues
· Workshop facilitation
· Inviting instructors
· Providing programs
Professional knowledge
& technologies as seeds
Graduate students
& Young researchers
Innovative
researchers
Entrepreneurs
within rms
Ideation
professionals
Entrepreneurs
47
Out of fifty-five proposals, the project proposals of thirteen academic institutes were accepted as
beneficiaries of three-year funding since the fiscal year of 2014. Each university designed its own
educational programs and has run them since 2014 (Table 2).
TABLE 2. The List of 13 Universities Selected for the EDGE Program
University Project title Proposed by
The University of Tokyo Fostering leaders for global innovation The i.school program at the Center for
Knowledge Structuring
Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology Fostering innovative leaders by implementing in
industries The Innovation Advancement Organization
Tokyo Institute of Technology Cross Boarder Entrepreneur Cultivating Program
Global entrepreneur ofce, Department of
Industrial Engineering & Management, Graduate
School of Decision Science and Technology
Shiga University of Medical Science The iKODE global entrepreneurship program Biomedical Innovation Center
Kyoto University Global technology entrepreneurship program Graduate School of Management
Osaka University World Tekijuku* Groundbreakers Ofce for University-Industry Collaboration
Nara Institute of Science and Technology Global Entrepreneurs in Internet Of Things Graduate School of Information Science
Hiroshima University Hiroshima Entrepreneurship program Center for Collaborative Research &
Community Cooperation
Kyushu University Shaping the ecosystem for global innovative
leaders
Robert T. Huang Entrepreneurship Center (QREC),
in collaboration with Faculty of Design; Faculty of
Medical Sciences; University Hospital; Center for
Advanced Medical Innovation; Business School;
Faculty of Information Science and Electrical
Engineering
Osaka Prefecture University Community-based sustainable innovation
ecosystem
The Industry-University Cooperative Center of
Advanced Education at the Research Organization
for 21st Century
Keio University Global Innovator Acceleration Program The Graduate School of System Design and
Management
Waseda University Co-creation for building an innovation ecosystem Faculty of Science and Engineering;
Faculty of Commerce
Ritsumeikan University Program for the Cultivation of Innovation Architect EDGE+R Program Ofce
Note*: Tekijuku was a "place of learning" established by the doctor OGATA Koan in the 19th century, a school where many ambitious young people from all over Japan gathered to learn with
the spirit of "responsible ethics, concern for people, for society"
Source: e EDGE Program, Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan
In addition, the thirteen selected schools share the knowledge and networks that form their indi-
vidual foundations while independently polishing the content and quality of their distinctive educa-
tional programs, and in doing so aim to enhance the quality of innovation education and entrepre-
neurship education and create an innovation ecosystem in Japan.
48
STI Policy Review_Vol. 7, No. 1
3. CASE STUDIES ON THE PROGRAMS DESIGNED BY EACH UNIVERSITY
3.1. Data Collection
Carrying out the research objectives stated in the previous section, this study is a case study that
collects basic information and knowledge through reviewing the major activities of each university,
holding workshops, and interviewing educational program designers. Supported by government
policies on enhancing the development of global entrepreneurs, the thirteen participating universi-
ties provide various types of programs according to their own contexts. More detailed information
on the programs is provided in the Appendix.
3.1.1. The University of Tokyo: Educational Programs for Human-Centered Innovation
Prior to launching the EDGE program, the Center for Knowledge Structuring at the University
of Tokyo established the i.school program in 2009 with the aim of fostering innovative leaders. It
provides innovation workshops using its own workshop design methods. “Innovation” in this case
means not only conventional conceptions of technology-driven innovation but also the creation of
any kind of new values: the adding of value through introducing new ideas, methods, directions,
opportunities, and solutions that meet new requirements through more effective products, pro-
cesses, services, and technologies that are readily available to users. Major beneciaries of the edu-
cational programs offered by i.school are undergraduate students and students in masters programs.
In addition to this, EDGE program in the University of Tokyo expanded its beneficiaries to young
researchers and faculty members of universities.
To cope with recent changes in academia such as fewer academic positions compared to the in-
creasing number of PhD candidates, researchers in PhD programs or postdoctoral positions need to
promote their skill sets and mindset for becoming global entrepreneurs. The EDGE programs of the
University of Tokyo by encouraging researchers to create new knowledge in interdisciplinary elds
aim to foster young researchers who are specialized and knowledgeable in their research fields,
but also open-minded and exible enough to collaborate with industry researchers. Forty-three re-
searchers participated the workshop in the scal year of 2015.
In addition, the program includes a facilitator program provided twice a year since 2015 educating
faculty in universities to become innovative educators and to disseminate the i.school innovation
workshop programs to other academic institutes. About twenty faculty members from all over the
country participated in each workshop and developed the workshop design processes according to
their contexts.
Also, as a leader of all thirteen participating universities, the University of Tokyo organizes collab-
orative projects such as EDGE Innovation Challenge Competition and EDGE Symposium.
49
3.1.2. Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology: Innovation Leader with Entrepreneur-
ship
The Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology established the Innovation Advancement
Organization in 2010 to foster innovative leaders who have the professional knowledge to propose
solutions to agricultural issues in the twenty-rst century, such as food, water, environment, popu-
lation, and infectious diseases. Since being selected as an EDGE community member, it provides
pragmatic educational programs to foster innovative entrepreneurs who can develop business plans
based on their research results. It built an innovation ecosystem with over twenty universities in
Japan, venture capitalists, manufacturing industries, distribution industries, think-tanks, and top
overseas talent. For example, it built a team of professionals from industry and doctoral students
enrolled in the EDGE program. Through this network, student researchers could meet investors
who were interested in their business plans, and researchers from the companies could improve the
students’ project while beneting from the new ideas from students.
Students are expected to create proposals that go beyond existing standard of values, and propose
and realize new values to society through collaborative works with professionals in businesses and
specialists, local communities, and overseas organizations. To fulll this expectation, various edu-
cational programs are provided as shown in the Appendix.
3.1.3. Tokyo Institute of Technology: Teamwork-Oriented Entrepreneurship
The Tokyo Institute of Technology established the Global entrepreneur ofce in collaboration with
the Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, and the Graduate School of Decision
Science and Technology. In addition, it launched the techno-entrepreneur course in the Career Ad-
vancement Professional School to recruit participants with diverse backgrounds such as industries,
business schools, and engineering schools. The project is titled “Cross Boarder Entrepreneur Culti-
vating Program” and it provides a one-year course based on design thinking, PBL (problem-based
learning), theoretical and practical entrepreneurship classes, seminars, and “start-up weekend”
events that motivate students to become global entrepreneurs.
The “start-up weekend” provided every year focuses on technology driven startups. Eighty people
participated in the rst year, while thirty people participated in the second year due to the capacity
of venue. The participants ranged from fourteen-years-old middle school students to entrepreneurs.
It presented cutting-edge technologies such as an acoustic pressure level calculator, new material
that changes its color according to the level of oxygen, an ERF micro-actuator, osmotic pressure
electricity generation, a CO2 generator, a force sensation device, and paint that changes color ac-
cording to exposure to ultra-violate lights.
3.1.4. Shiga University of Medical Science: Design Thinking for Medical and Engineering Col-
laboration
The Shiga University of Medical Science established the Biomedical Innovation Center in 2006
to promote research results from the medical school. Since the launch of the EDGE program, the
school has offered practical courses for fostering global entrepreneurs specialized in medical engi-
50
STI Policy Review_Vol. 7, No. 1
neering through design thinking that links consumer perspective to products and services develop-
ment, and regulatory science which refers to safety evaluation concerning medicines and medical
equipment as well as pharmaceutical regulations. Its EDGE program is titled “iKODE global entre-
preneurship program,” with “iKODE” standing for “igaku, kougaku, design,” which means faculty
of medicine, engineering and design in Japanese.
Through a two-day “healthcare hackathon,” students develop innovative ideas that could solve so-
cial issues caused from dementia. For example, one team suggested a “sound service for nursing”
that entertains patients and their families.
3.1.5. Kyoto University: Next Generation University-Originated New Business Creation Platform
The Graduate School of Management at Kyoto University established its Global Technology En-
trepreneurship Program (GTEP) for students and young researchers’ expertise in technologies to
encourage them to create businesses by training skillsets and mindsets. The courses are designed
to cover basic knowledge acquisition through lectures to practical entrepreneurship education and
coaching for creating a business by students themselves. To encourage students to create a new
business with global perspective, it cooperates with researchers with diverse backgrounds, special-
ists from industries, and venture capitalists.
In its annual performance assessment session, students have to demonstrate their business plans
as a group presentation. In 2015, four business plans were presented: a prototype of a robot that
can play as a sub-session for those who enjoy playing guitar alone, but want to perform as a band;
a mobile application that can improve colonic issues for women in their 20s, 30s and 40s; devices
that can adjust the level of alcohol and scent of beverage for those who want to drink customized al-
cohol according to their tastes; and a prototype of website that introduces the Kimono, the Japanese
traditional dress. After the demonstration, two teams were selected as the winning teams and were
offered intensive training for starting their business.
3.1.6. Osaka University: Social Implementation of Research Results
Osaka University established the Ofce for University-Industry Collaboration in 2008 to promote
collaborative research with industries. It titled its project for the EDGE program as “World Tekiju-
ku Groundbreakers,” because the origin of Osaka University is the private school called “Tekijuku”
founded in 1838 that contributed a great deal to the modernization of Japan. To rehabilitate the
“Tekijuku,” it built an industry-university ecosystem that supports the contribution of the research
results of the university to society. Fifty mentors or advisers from thirty companies including ven-
ture capitals participated, and more than 300 interactive meetings were carried out between students
and potential stakeholders. Various programs are provided to motivate entrepreneur candidates, and
train them with the fundamental knowledge and practical skills for creating a business.
3.1.7. Nara Institute of Science and Technology: Internet of Things
The Graduate School of Information Science and the Center for Industry-Government-Academia
Collaboration at the Nara Institute of Science and Technology established the Global Entrepreneurs
51
in Internet of Things Program in collaboration with the Advanced Telecommunications Research
Institute International (ART), Osaka Innovation Hub, and the Osaka Urban Industry Promotion
Center. To foster entrepreneurs in the field of IoT (Internet of Things), it aims to encourage stu-
dents to design and realize products or services in IoT, and create businesses with international
perspectives by learning advanced complex technologies such as software, robotics, networks, and
multimedia, and by giving them opportunities to experience entrepreneurial activities. More than
half of the masters students who took the one-year EDGE program decided to go on to the doctoral
program for further study in starting their own business based on their research results. The EDGE
program influences them to be entrepreneurs through offering opportunities for meeting with pro-
fessionals and researchers.
3.1.8. Hiroshima University: An Interdisciplinary Environment
The Center for Collaborative Research and Community Cooperation at Hiroshima University aims
to foster innovative entrepreneurs who aspire for peace, which is the founding philosophy of Hiro-
shima University, and contribute to the improvement of the people’s quality of life based on their
research results. The program focuses on encouraging students to be competent in the seven abili-
ties: tenacity, decisiveness, problem-solving and nding, challenging themselves, interdisciplinary
skills, communication skills, and risk management. To fulll its goal, it provides its Entrepreneurial
Ability Development Class, Entrepreneurship Training Class, Practical Entrepreneur Training
Class, interactive workshops and internships in an interdisciplinary environment. After taking a
one-year course, a couple of students attracted investment to start their own businesses.
3.1.9. Kyushu University: Design-Thinking and Global Entrepreneurship
The Robert T. Huang Entrepreneurship Center (QREC) was established in 2010 to encourage
students to challenge themselves to create new values through entrepreneurship education. Since
launching the EDGE program, it was developed into a regional and global innovation ecosystem for
fostering global entrepreneurs by expansion into the entire university. Specically, nine education
programs were developed by the eight participating university departments: the Robert T. Huang
Entrepreneurship Center (QREC); Faculty of Design; Faculty of Medical Sciences; University
Hospital; Center for Advanced Medical Innovation; Business School; and Faculty of Information
Science and Electrical Engineering.
In one session, the IDEO Tokyo office conducted workshops in 2014 with thirty-eight students of
various backgrounds including full-time workers on the theme of “designing a business for the
XX × YY of Fukuoka.” The students were divided into six groups with the subthemes of “senior
citizens × life,” “local communities × disaster management,” “women × work,” “local brand×
growth,” “children × learning,” and “tourists × walking around town.” The Fukuoka City govern-
ment, Dogan Investments, Toyota Kyushu, and IDEO judged the nal presentation sessions.
3.1.10. Osaka Prefecture University: Regional Collaboration and Ideation Workshops
In 2006, Osaka Prefecture University established the Research Organization for the Twenty-First
Century to enhance educational and research activities on campus. In line with this, the Industry-
52
STI Policy Review_Vol. 7, No. 1
University Cooperative Center of Advanced Education was launched to fulfill the needs of the
local community and foster an innovative model for educating highly qualied researchers. To en-
courage researchers to overview the complicated social system in a panoramic view, it adopted an
educational tool of “Koto-zukuri” developed by the Graduate Courses for System-inspired Leaders
in Material Science. In Japanese, the term “koto” is equivalent to “thing,” but here it refers to the
inclusive concept of the invisible and abstract, in contrast to “mono,” which refers to the tangible
and concrete (Yoshida, 2008). Since its launch, the EDGE program through building an innovation
ecosystem provides entrepreneurship education for graduate students or doctoral researchers in ini-
tiating their own start-ups.
It designed a one-year curriculum for doctoral researchers called “TEC (Technology-based Entre-
preneurship Course)” to foster leaders in industry and the local economy. In 2015, six students out
of those who completed the course were selected as nal presenters in the annual performance pre-
sentation.
3.1.11. Keio University: Innovative Thinking Mindset and Tool Sets
The Graduate School of System Design and Management (SDM) of Keio University established its
EDGE Program to motivate student to create value rather than necessarily become entrepreneurs.
Here, “value” has broad meaning such as adding benefit to people’s life, joy, satisfaction, pain
relief, help, excitement, or peace of mind. It provides various programs to encourage students to
create values. It also established the KEIO EDGE LAB, equipped with a wide range of tools and
equipment to prototype: CAD, a 3D printer, a textile printer, an electronic circuit printer and a laser
cutter for tangible product prototyping, applications for business simulation, video and music cre-
ation for business prototyping, 65-inch display monitors, and discussion space for service prototyp-
ing. They conducted the KEIO Innovative Thinking Workshops at the universities in Asian coun-
tries such as India, Malaysia, Indonesia, and Thailand, where students were selected to be invited to
the KEIO EDGE 2016 course held in Japan.
3.1.12. Waseda University: Social Design Workshop “Kyoso-Kan”
Waseda University established a virtual space called “Kyoso-kan” meaning a center for value co-
creation, to provide entrepreneurship education, social design workshops, and ultimately to create
new businesses through the development ideas generated by those educational programs. It built an
innovation ecosystem with twenty companies including Hitachi, four leading universities such as
Stanford University, and venture capitalists. It aims to foster global entrepreneurs knowledgeable
enough to start a business based on technologies that meet the current or future social needs from a
global perspective. To realize its goal, the program provides practical education programs such as a
competition event called “Demo Day” in which students present their business proposals to judges
from industries in order to attract investment. In 2015, ten teams developed business model ideas
based on their research results, and the team that proposed the business idea of a “healthy skincare
device for pets” won the rst prize.
53
3.1.13. Ritsumeikan University: Innovation Architect
Ritsumeikan University titled its EDGE program “Innovation Architect Development” where “in-
novation architects” mean people in interdisciplinary perspectives who create value for a globalized
and diversied society. To foster innovation architects, it built a proliferating innovation ecosystem
that brings a chain reaction of innovation by providing a full year extracurricular programs consist-
ing of hands-on seminars and overseas training through People-Based-Learning. Sponsored by GE
Healthcare Japan, the program conducts workshops for a month to create ideas such as healthcare
for pets and baby care services based on the devices provided by GE Healthcare. During the pro-
gram, two students were selected for the two-week internship program in Silicon Valley in 2014.
3.2. Summary of Comparative Analysis
Entrepreneurship education is a discipline still in the early stage of development. Many early stud-
ies simply describes courses or trends (Harfst, 2010; Peterman & Kennedy, 2003), discussing the
academic issues for developing educational processes (Alberti et al., 2004; Fiet, 2001), or evaluat-
ing courses by comparing the performances of those who competed the course with those who did
not take the course (Chrisman, 1997). To support the educational program with a theoretical back-
ground, Souitaris, Zerbinati, and Al-Laham (2007) classifies the benefits of the entrepreneurship
education programs into three types: learning, inspiration, and incubation resources, demonstrating
that inspiration is the most important predictor for motivating students in becoming entrepreneurs.
Herrmann (2008) proposed a framework strategy of entrepreneurship education within a university
based on the experts’ guiding principles, which are 1) institutional environment; 2) the engagement
of key stakeholders within and outside the institution; and 3) the development of entrepreneurial
pedagogic approaches in teaching, learning and support practices. The institutional environment
means universities can provide the appropriate environment for inspiring and motivating indi-
viduals to find opportunities, acquire resources, and take action in a variety of contexts that have
relevance to their lives or aspirations. The engagement of key stakeholders within and outside the
institution means that the stakeholders provide learning opportunities and facilitate the creation
and exchange of tacit knowledge. The development of entrepreneurial pedagogic approaches in
teaching, learning and supporting practices means that educators review what needs to be taught
and learnt and how the appropriate learning environments and approaches can be created in order
to deliver the desired entrepreneurial outcomes. Implementing Herrmann (2008)’s framework, the
programs provided by the thirteen universities can be mapped according to each guiding principles
of the framework as shown in Table 3.
54
STI Policy Review_Vol. 7, No. 1
TABLE 3. Mapping of the Programs by Herrmann (2008)’s Framework
Institutional environment The engagement of key
stakeholders
Development of pedagogic
approaches
Inspiration Learning
1. The University of Tokyo
The i.school program for young researchers Symposium
EDGE innovation challenge
competition
The facilitator program for faculty
Innovation education conference
2. Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology
Entrepreneurial mindset program
International business education Ecosystem forum
Investment negotiation & business
development program
Custom-made program for industry
demands
Intensive workshops in Steinbeis University, Germany
3. Tokyo Institute of Technology
Competition
Techno-entrepreneur course Start-up weekend Symposium and seminars
Lean Launchpad Program Innovation education conference
4. Shiga University of Medical Science
Hackathon for the healthcare sector Special lecture series Symposium of medical engineering
Workshops Traineeship in the University of Ottawa, Canada
5. Kyoto University
Intensive seminars
Educational program for launching
business
Overseas training program for
entrepreneurship
Educational program for launching
business in healthcare industry
Entrepreneurs platform for
prototyping and human networks
6. Osaka University
SRI Five Disciplines of innovation
workshop
Project Based Learning in undergraduate program
Lean Launchpad program
Business oriented research design
Exchange program to UC San Diego, USA
Global Technology Entrepreneurship
and Commercialization Program
7. Nara Institute of Science and Technology
Competition
Global entrepreneurship program Traineeship
IoT prototyping
GEIOT Symposium
Intensive seminars
8. Hiroshima University
Entrepreneurial abilities development
courses Entrepreneurship Training Class
Internship program in collaboration
with the Global Career Design Center
Leadership training Practical Entrepreneurial Training
Courses
Phoenix Entrepreneur Competition
55
9. Kyushu University
Collaborative practical design thinking training program with IDEO Tokyo Innovation education conference
Overseas students business plan
competition promotion
Collaborative innovation education program with Fukuoka City
Social business education program for emerging markets in Base of the
Pyramid
Collaborative joint PBL training program with Aalto University (Finland)
Medical innovation talent development program
Collaborative online Fab Academy program with MIT
Science & Business School
collaborative education for
commercializing technology
Industry-academia collaborative
PBL innovation talent development
program
10. Osaka Prefecture University
Innovation Forum Pragmatic PBL exercise course based on corporate consortiums
Koto-zukuri thinking / Design thinking courses Internships
Distance learning courses
Advanced courses
11. Keio University
Global innovator forum
Intensive workshops Global innovator forum
Project work with Graduate School of
System Design and Management ASIA tour Innovation education conference
Project work in Shonan Fujisawa
Campus
12. Waseda University
Value co-creation workshop
Business communication workshop in Stanford, USA
Symposium and seminars
Entrepreneurship education
Career design conference
Validating a business model
13. Ritsumeikan University
EDGE + R Seminar
Ideation workshops
Symposium –“Beats by Innovators” Internships
* Author’s conguration based on Herrmann (2008)’s framework
According to the result of this mapping, it is found that the contents of programs focus on both
learning within their university contexts and engaging stakeholders outside the institutions. To ful-
ll the goal of fostering entrepreneurs in a global context, various forms of innovation ecosystems
are established including the actors both within and outside universities, with domestic as well as
international partner organizations. To sustain its programs, many universities offer entrepreneur-
ship training courses or innovation workshops to companies in dynamic ways, which broaden their
funding bases and expand linkages between research and commercialization.
56
STI Policy Review_Vol. 7, No. 1
However, they have limitations in that little attention is allotted to the development of entrepre-
neurial pedagogic approaches in teaching, learning, and support practices, which enhances faculty
members’ competence and skills that would improve the entrepreneurship education. In addition, in
order to encourage students to be involved in value creation as entrepreneurs, more attention must
be paid to enhancing the environment of inspiration by providing educational programs rather than
teaching knowledge or skill-sets.
4. CONCLUSION
There is little guidance in understanding entrepreneurship education for policymakers, lecturers, re-
searchers, and curriculum developers, because entrepreneurship education varies depending on the
contexts or circumstances of the societies. During the last couple of decades, the Japanese govern-
ment has been characterized by a series of policy initiatives designed to promote university–indus-
try linkages and the commercialization of academic research. Still, universities need considerable
changes that are being called for by the government to create value in the global context by utilizing
their resources. This paper reviews how universities are responding to these challenges in Japan.
To promote entrepreneurship, they designed many educational programs including various types of
extracurricular programs in collaboration with their stakeholders or outside professionals.
This study has limitations because it is difficult to evaluate the effectiveness of entrepreneurship
education programs, which is measured by variables such as the number of established startups and
job creation by students who completed the courses, students’ satisfaction on the provided courses
and their performances during the classes, improvement in the aspiration, knowledge, and skills
to become an entrepreneur, and contributions to local societies (Mwasalwiba, 2010). It is hard to
nd the numerical data that indicates the performance of EDGE program because it is currently an
ongoing project. To conclude the actual effectiveness of the educational programs or their outputs,
further study is needed based on long-term monitoring as well as cross-case analyses.
Though the EDGE program has been in place for a relatively short period of time, it still has sig-
nificant implications for innovation policymakers and professors who want to design curriculums
for entrepreneurship education or innovation education. Each participating university accumulated
knowledge and experience while carrying out various activities, and all of them shaped cultural and
institutional environments for supporting innovations in sustainable ways. The best learning cases
can be described based on this study, which enable us to gain insight into designing entrepreneur-
ship educational programs. This could be used as important asset for developing the educational
content for enhancing global entrepreneurship supported by public policies and led by universities
through building an innovation ecosystem.
57
REFERENCES
Alberti, F., Sciascia, S., & Poli, A. (2004, July). Entrepreneurship education: notes on an ongoing debate. Paper proceedings
of the 14th Annual IntEnt Conference, University of Napoli Federico II, Italy.
Audretsch, D. B. (2004). Sustaining innovation and growth: Public policy support for entrepreneurship. Industry and
Innovation, 11(3), 167-191.
Audretsch, D. B., & Thurik, R. (2001). Linking entrepreneurship to growth. (OECD Science, Technology and Industry
Working Papers 2001/02), Retrieved from doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/736170038056
Baregheh, A., Rowley, J., & Sambrook, S. (2009). Towards a multidisciplinary definition of innovation. Management
Decision, 47(8), 1323-1339.
Brown, T. (2008). Design thinking. Harvard Business Review, 86(6), 84.
Chrisman, J. J. (1997). Program evaluation and the venture development program at the University of Calgary: A research
note. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 22(1), 59-74.
Clark, B. R. (1998). Creating entrepreneurial universities: Organizational pathways of transformation. Bradford, UK:
Emarld Group Publishing Limited.
Davenport, T. H. (1993). Process innovation:Reengineering work through information technology. Boston: Harvard
Business Press.
Felder, R. M., Woods, D. R., Stice, J. E., & Rugarcia, A. (2000). The future of engineering education II. Teaching methods
that work. Chemical Engineering Education, 34(1), 26-39.
Fiet, J. O. (2001). The theoretical side of teaching entrepreneurship. Journal of Business Venturing, 16(1), 1-24.
Gibb, A. (2002). In pursuit of a new ‘enterprise’ and ‘entrepreneurship’ paradigm for learning: Creative destruction, new
values, new ways of doing things and new combinations of knowledge. International Journal of Management Reviews,
4(3), 233-269. doi:10.1111/1468-2370.00086
Harfst, K. L. (2010). The evolution and implications of entrepreneurship curriculum at universities. Online Journal for
Workforce Education and Development, 1(3), 1-18.
Herrmann, K. (2008). Developing entrepreneurial graduates: Putting entrepreneurship at the centre of higher education.
National Endownment for Science, Technology and the Arts (NESTA), The National Council for Graduate Entrepreneur-
ship (NCGE), The Council for Industry and Higher Education (CIHE). Retrieved from http://ncee.org.uk/wp-content/
uploads/2014/06/developing_ entrepreneurial_graduates.1.pdf
Hofer, A., & Potter, J. (2010). University entrepreneurship support: Policy issues, good practices and recommendations. A
note prepared in November 2010 for the directing committee of the local economic and employment development pro-
gram of the OECD. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Retrieved from http://www.
oecd.org/edu/imhe/46588578.pdf
Isenberg, D. J. (2008). The global entrepreneur. Harvard business review, 86(12), 107-111.
Kao, R. W. Y. (1993). Defining entrepreneurship: Past, present and? Creativity and innovation management, 2(1), 69-70.
doi:10.1111/j.1467-8691.1993.tb00073.x
Krueger, N. F., & Brazeal, D. V. (1994). Entrepreneurial potential and potential entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurship theory and
practice, 18, 91-91.
Kuratko, D. F. (2005). The emergence of entrepreneurship education: Development, trends, and challenges. Entrepreneur-
ship theory and practice, 29(5), 577-598. doi:10.1111/j.1540-6520.2005.00099.x
58
STI Policy Review_Vol. 7, No. 1
Lundström, A., & Stevenson, L. (2001). Entrepreneurship policy for the future. Special Edition for the SME forum.
Växjö, Stockholm, Sweden: Swedish Foundation for Small Business research. March.
Lynskey, M., & Yonekura, S. (2003). Nothing ventured, nothing gained: Sustaining entrepreneurship in Japan. Paper
presented at the Entrepreneurship in Asia: Playbook for Prosperity (Proceedings of the Entrepreneurship in Asia: Expert
Workshop, 8–10 July, 2002), The Manseld Center for Pacic Affairs, Washington, DC.
McMullan, W. E., & Long, W. A. (1987). Entrepreneurship education in the nineties. Journal of Business Venturing, 2(3),
261-275.
Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) (2014). An overview of the EDGE program.
Retrieved from http://www.mext.go.jp/a_menu/jinzai/edge/1346947.htm
Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) (2015). Yearly report on fostering leaders in
science and technology. Retrieved from http://www.mext.go.jp/b_menu/shingi/gijyutu/gijyutu10/siryo/__icsFiles/aeld-
le/2015/02/03/1354864_02.pdf
Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) (2016). Yearly report on fostering lead-
ers in science and technology. Retrieved from http://www.mext.go.jp/component/b_menu/other /__icsFiles/afield-
le/2016/01/08/1365890_5.pdf
Mwasalwiba. E. S. (2010). Entrepreneurship education: a review of its objectives, teaching methods, and impact indicators.
Education + Training, 52(1), 20-47. doi:doi:10.1108/00400911011017663
Nomura Research Institute (2015). A report on the university ventures. Retrieved from www.meti.go.jp/press/
2015/04/20150410003/20150410003-2.pdf
Nomura Research Institute (2016). A report on the university ventures. Retrieved from www.meti.go.jp/press/2016/04/20160
408001/20160408001c.pdf
Oosterbeek, H., Van Praag, M., & Ijsselstein, A. (2010). The impact of entrepreneurship education on entrepreneurship skills
and motivation. European Economic Review, 54(3), 442-454.
Peterman, N. E., & Kennedy, J. (2003). Enterprise education: Inuencing students’ perceptions of entrepreneurship. Entre-
preneurship theory and practice, 28(2), 129-144.
Schumpeter, J. A. (1934). The theory of economic development: An inquiry into prots, capital, credit, interest, and the busi-
ness cycle. Cambridge, MA: Transaction Publishers. Originally published in German (1912) as Theorie der wirtschaftli-
chen Entwicklung.
Schumpeter, J. A. (1947). The creative response in economic history. The Journal of Economic History, 7(02), 149-159.
Shane. S. A. (2004). Academic entrepreneurship: University spinoffs and wealth creation. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar
Publishing.
Shane, S. (2004). Encouraging university entrepreneurship? The effect of the Bayh-Dole Act on university patenting in the
United States. Journal of Business Venturing, 19(1), 127-151. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0883-9026(02)00114-3
Souitaris, V., Zerbinati, S., & Al-Laham, A. (2007). Do entrepreneurship programmes raise entrepreneurial intention of
science and engineering students? The effect of learning, inspiration and resources. Journal of Business Venturing, 22(4),
566-591.
Tidd, J., & Bessant, J. (2013). Managing innovation: Integrating technological, market and organizational Change (5th
ed.). West Sussex: John Wiley & Sons.
Tkachev, A., & Kolvereid, L. (1999). Self-employment intentions among Russian students. Entrepreneurship & Regional
Development, 11(3), 269-280.
Walsh, J. P., Baba, Y., Goto, A., & Yasaki, Y. (2008). Promoting university–industry linkages in Japan: Faculty responses to
a changing policy environment 1. Prometheus, 26(1), 39-54.
Yoshida, N. (2008, November). Perception by body versus mind: An alternative analysis of ʻthingsʼ (Mono and Koto)
59
in Japanese discourse. Paper presented at the 9th Conference on Conceptual Structure, Discourse, & Language
(CSDL9). Cleveland, Ohio.
Zhao, H., Seibert, S. E., & Hills, G. E. (2005). The mediating role of self-efficacy in the development of entrepreneurial
intentions. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90(6), 1265.
60
STI Policy Review_Vol. 7, No. 1
Programs Provided by the University of Tokyo (http://ischool.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp/)
The EDGE Facilitator Program for faculty Provides a two-day workshop twice a year. The main beneciaries are current faculties in
universities who want to design their own innovation workshop program.
The i.school program for young researchers
Provides two-day workshops six times a year (ve basic workshops and one advanced workshop).
The main beneciaries are young researchers in graduate school, or post-doctoral positions,
lecturers, or corporate engineers and researchers.
EDGE Innovation Challenge Competition
Open competition for solving the social issues based on the understanding of human behaviors
or technology. For example, the topic of the competition in 2015 was “to improve communication
between working mothers and their children.”
Symposium and Conferences Topics related to entrepreneurship education are discussed.
Programs Provided by Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology (https://innovation.ofce.tuat.ac.jp/program/index.html#innovation)
Entrepreneurial Mind-set Program To encourage students to become global leaders who create value and realize it in the society.
Courses focusing on three abilities of ideation; human relation management; ethics.
Ecosystem forum Professionals from the related industries and researchers of overseas universities assess feasibility
and novelty of business plans proposed by a team of students.
International business education
Conducts workshops and eldwork on international business issues in overseas partnership
universities, e.g. National Chiao Tung University, Taiwan, and Cornell University, USA with students
and industry experts.
Investment negotiation & business development
program
Training program for writing business plans for investment negotiation provided by the innovative
institutes including the SRI International and world-class universities.
Intensive workshops in Steinbeis University,
Germany
PhD candidates can take courses in the Master of Business & Engineering (MBE) program at
Steinbeis University, Germany.
Custom-made program for industry demands
Customized entrepreneurship programs based on the clients’ needs and availabilities. The PhD
candidates or postdoctoral researchers will give lectures after the discussion regarding the specic
goal of the projects.
Programs Provided by Tokyo Institute of Technology (http://www.eng.titech.ac.jp/~cbe/index.html)
Techno-entrepreneur course
MBA Related Subjects: teaching knowledge, such as leadership theory, nance, intellectual property,
product design, and development as well as marketing.
Entrepreneurship Theory: teaching how to create specic business plans, with lectures on specic
cases by venture entrepreneurs and venture capitalists, along with business startup coaching by
mentors, collaborative lectures with Martin Trust Center for MIT Entrepreneurship
Start-up weekend
A 54-hour marathon event, motivating participants to pitch new ideas, team building, product
development, customer development, and business planning. On the nal day, judges from various
industries review the presented concepts and products.
Lean Launchpad Program
An innovation/business development-training program originally developed by Steven Blank, an
entrepreneur in Silicon Valley, USA, now widely accepted in Stanford Univ., Technology Venture
Program at Columbia Univ., US Berkeley and Princeton University. Based on this program, Tokyo Tech
customized the educational contents for their students to enable them to have unique experience
through six workshops during a semester to understand what are the true meaning of Innovation,
Business, Entrepreneurship, and Leadership through execution of customer development, not as just
knowledge.
APPENDIX. The Programs Provided by Thirteen Universities
61
Symposium and Seminars
A symposium: sharing current trends in entrepreneurship education in leading universities
Special Seminar: Educational approaches in design, innovation, and entrepreneurship in the Royal
College of Art, UK
Competition
All the participating seventy students formed tend teams to join the competition for solving
social issues such as “Design a joyful life for blind people.” The winning team will be sent to the
international competition, SLUSH.
Programs Provided by Shiga University of Medical Science (http://ikode-sums.com/)
Special lecture series Guest lecturers from universities share their experiences for innovations in bio-medical industry and
give lectures in various topics of business management.
Hackathon for Healthcare business
The professional facilitators expertized in innovative thinking, medical devices, and nursing provide
intensive workshops for the special topics including “a community for dementia,” and “proposing
the diagnosis methods through wearable devices and big data technologies.”
Symposium of medical engineering Special lectures presented their recent research results in collaborative research with industrial
professionals in medical devices.
Workshops
Guest lecturers conducted a series of workshops on the topic of design thinking and innovation
education. Participants carried out interviews and observation to obtain insights. In the ideation
workshop, participants generated solutions for dementia issues and proposed business models
through role playing and prototyping.
Traineeship in the University of Ottawa, Canada
It provides opportunities to learn advanced skills through the course and co-projects offered by
the Centre for Research in Biopharmaceuticals and Biotechnology at the University of Ottawa,
Canada, especially focusing on Brain and Mind Sciences, Cardiovascular Science as well as Medical
Pedagogy.
Programs Provided by Kyoto University (http://www.gsm.kyoto-u.ac.jp/gtep/)
Intensive seminars Students learn basic knowledge on the topics such as leadership, open innovation and
entrepreneurship.
Overseas training program for entrepreneurship To build an international entrepreneurship ecosystem, this program provides workshops with
researchers and people from venture capitals and start-ups at universities overseas.
Educational program for launching business
A practical course for students who want to learn the comprehensive processes of creating a
business, e.g., creating a vision, technological trends in ventures, validation of business models,
client management, prototyping, partnership, and fundraising.
Educational program for launching business in
health care industry
A hands-on educational program specialized in business creation in the eld of medical devices, and
development of business models through professionals in industries.
Entrepreneurs Platform for prototyping and human
network
Provides coaching such as building an entrepreneurship ecosystem, assessment of business ideas,
feasibility study on market and technology, business planning, and fundraising.
Programs Provided by Osaka University (http://www.uic.osaka-u.ac.jp/EDGE/)
Project Based Learning in undergraduate program The Teaching and Learning Support Center (TLSC) and Science Technology Entrepreneurship
Laboratory provide a practical problem based learning course in collaboration with industries.
Business Oriented Research Design The Leading Graduate School Program is provided to teach practical skills for writing the project
proposals to create a business that generate social values in collaboration with companies.
SRI Five Disciplines of Innovation workshop Provides the customized ve disciplines of Innovation workshop to motivate students to become an
entrepreneur based on their research results.
62
STI Policy Review_Vol. 7, No. 1
Programs Provided by Osaka University (http://www.uic.osaka-u.ac.jp/EDGE/)
Global Technology Entrepreneurship and
Commercialization (G-TEC) Program
Hosted by the University Network for Innovation and Technology Transfer (UNITT) and Osaka
University Ofce for University-Industry Collaboration, and sponsored by the Bridgebook Global, LLC,
this program is carried out by the special instructor from the Strategy and Innovation Department
in Boston University. The course provides a rigorous study of intellectual property, licensing,
the assessment of promising new technologies and technology-based entrepreneurship. Cross-
disciplinary teams of thirty students are formed to evaluate real technologies. About four to ve
technologies being developed by students were assessed through G-TEC’s technology assessment
and venture assessment projects, the results of which were used to generate commercialization
strategies for these technologies.
Exchange program to UC San Diego, USA
Fifty students selected as the beneciaries of the exchange program in the von Liebig
Entrepreneurism Center, at the University of California, San Diego that teaches the importance of
customer input early in the technology development process as well as the importance of the ability
to “fail fast,” iterate fast and to develop better solutions that t the market.
Lean Launchpad program
In collaboration with the Learning Entrepreneur’s Lab, provides workshops to nd customers and
validate the business plan using the methods such as Minimum Viable Product (MVP), Proof Of
Concept (POC), and Prototyping.
Public events Public events such as Innovation Challenge Salon, Creative session, World Tekijyuku Ground
Breakers Forum are organized.
Programs Provided by Nara Institute of Science and Technology (http://geiot.jp/)
Global entrepreneurship program
Aims to educate entrepreneurship for generating innovation by the Internet of Things through
commercializing research results, discovering issues, problem solving. It provides ideation
workshops, encouraging students to create “1” from “0.”
In addition, lectures, such as “how to write a business plan,” “business strategy for successful start-
ups,” nancing strategies, marketing, and “decision-making processes in start-ups” are provided to
promote start-ups.
In nal presentation session, students have detail feedbacks from lawyers, venture capitalists, and
entrepreneurs. Based on these feedbacks, students make prototypes.
IoT Prototyping
Type A: Students learn a basic software development using the Raspberry Pi, then, creating a
system like BOT which tweets itself by reading the data from a sensor that is connected to the
Raspberry Pi.
Type B: Students learn software architecture “publish–subscribe” system that uploads sensor data
by MQTT protocols to the clouds such as Sango, then, visualizing data using Tableau or DataSpider.
Type C: Students learn software development to control the camera for image capturing using
Raspberry Pi, and image processing using Open CV on Raspberry Pi.
Type D: Students learn basic sketching and modeling using 3D CAD, and detail modeling,
composing parts, and creating 3D prototype using 3D printer.
Intensive Seminars
Students who completed the Global Entrepreneurship Program joins a boot camp for three days.
Day 1: Writing the business plan
Day 2: Learning the presentation skills for a ve-minute elevator pitch
Day 3: Creating the video contents for attracting investment
Traineeship
Students select one of the technologies that plays important roles in the Internet of Things (Software,
Network, Security, Robotics, Multimedia Processing, Ubiquitous Computing), and visit one the
cutting-edge laboratories to learn those technologies in innovative perspectives.
Competition Students form a team to participate open competitions to improve presentation skills. This will help
them to create a business in near future.
GEIOT Symposium Lectures from the successful entrepreneurs, and discussion with professors and alumni on the topic
of “What I learned from GEIOT”
63
Programs Provided by Hiroshima University (http://www.hirodai-edge.jp/en/)
Entrepreneurial Ability Development Courses
Motivates students to start their own business, it supports group studies and give lectures on the
“Seven abilities: Tenacity, Decisiveness, Problem-solving and nding, Challenging themselves,
Interdisciplinary skills, Communication skills, and Risk management.”
Entrepreneurship Training Class
Through group learning, students learn skills for starting their own business. Lectures are given
to learn management strategy theory, nance theory, and marketing theory, as well as simulation
games that assimilate business operation risk management and BCM (business continuity
management). In practice session, students experience the actual processes for establishing their
own businesses.
Leadership Training A boot camp is conducted to motivate students to have visions by training them new ways of
thinking for becoming a leader.
Practical Entrepreneurial Training Courses
Innovation workshops are conducted with groups of ve students to create a business plan that
solves the issues of future society. To dene the issues and discover the ideas for solutions,
eldworks and internships are carried out in laboratories and companies in Japan or overseas.
Internship program in collaboration with the Global
Career Design Center
Utilizing international partnerships with corporations and institutes, it provides exchange programs
focusing on entrepreneurship.
Phoenix Entrepreneur Competition
To complete the program, all students participate in the competition, and the winner is hired as
“Phoenix Entrepreneur” at Organization for Outreach and Partnership Promotion of Hiroshima
University, and entrepreneurial activities are supported for business incubation.
Programs Provided by Kyushu University (http://qrec.kyushu-u.ac.jp/edge/)
Collaborative joint-PBL training program with Aalto
University (Finland)
A joint program between QREC & the Faculty of Design at Kyushu University and the Media Lab at
Aalto University. The director of Media Lab provides a class on the topic “Redesign of Society for
2040” in Kyushu University. Two nal presentations are held at Aalto University.
Medical innovation talent development program To foster global entrepreneurs in the healthcare industry, it provides collaborative educational
programs with Battelle Memorial Institute and 360iP, USA.
Collaborative online Fab Academy program with
MIT
As an outreach project from MIT’s Center for Bits and Atoms (CBA), the Fab Academy provides
instruction and supervises the investigation of mechanisms, applications, and implications of digital
fabrication. As a partner program, it provides a nineteen-week course that enables students to
create anything through fabrication, programming, CAD, 3D printing.
Industry-academia collaborative PBL innovation
talent development program
Aims to create a concrete product using design thinking. In 2014, the topic was “mobility × health.”
Ten Kyushu University students and ve Toyota Kyushu employees (sales planners and engineers)
divided into three groups to join the workshops and engage in eldwork. The generated solutions
were app development for a health promotion for white-collar workers; peace-of-mind for mothers
with small children; and linking travelers with local residents.
Science students and Business School collaborative
education program for commercializing technology
Students from science and technology majors, and business-related majors form a team to learn
how to create business from the technology seeds in collaboration with venture capitalists, and
industries.
Collaborative innovation education program with
Fukuoka City
Fukuoka has been designated as Japan’s National Strategic Special Zone for Global Startups
and Job Creation. To enhance the partnership with local government, Kyushu University provides
educational programs to support entrepreneurs with an initiative called “Startup City Fukuoka”
Social business education program for emerging
markets in Base of the Pyramid (BOP)
Lectures presented by three guest instructors from Bangladesh on the topic Entrepreneur Education
in Bangladesh, Entrepreneur Training in Bangladesh, and the efforts of the Grameen Group with
regard to social business and education. A panel discussion was conducted on the theme of How to
Nurture Global Entrepreneurs in Order to Promote Global Innovation.
64
STI Policy Review_Vol. 7, No. 1
Programs Provided by Kyushu University (http://qrec.kyushu-u.ac.jp/edge/)
Collaborative practical design thinking training
program with IDEO Tokyo
Workshops conducted by the guest instructors from IDEO.
In 2014, thirty-eight students of various backgrounds, including full-time workers participated in the
workshop on the theme of “designing a business for the XX × YY of Fukuoka.” The students were
divided into six groups with the subthemes of “senior citizens × life,” “local communities × disaster
management,” “women × work,” “local brand
× growth,” “children × learning,” and ‘tourists × walking around town” to carry out the project. The
Fukuoka City government, Dogan Investments, Toyota Kyushu, and IDEO judged the nal presentation
session.
Overseas students business plan competition
promotion program; Offered as a student project
Provides opportunities for students to compete with students in world-class universities and gives
them experience in the process of turning their ideas into tangible goods and practical services.
Chances for students to apply to take part in overseas business plan competitions and hackathons,
and provides mentorship and nancial aid for air fare.
Programs Provided by Osaka Prefecture University (http://www.csies.21c.osakafu-u.ac.jp/)
Pragmatic PBL exercise course based on corporate
consortiums
Provides basic courses for entrepreneurs as well as pragmatic exercises in collaboration with
manufactures, local businesses, government ofces, and Technology Research Institute of Osaka
Prefecture through discussions and presentation of the business proposals.
Koto-zukuri thinking / Design thinking courses
Through the koto-zukuri (system thinking), students have an overall perspective to utilize research
results to social innovations or for creating value. The courses are consist of design thinking
exercises, business planning exercises, management exercises.
Technology-based Entrepreneurship Course I, II, III Provides curriculum for doctoral researchers to be leaders in industry and local economy.
Advanced course
Provides practical courses that utilize research results of students through practical exercises of
Management of Technology (MOT) Consulting, technology policy making, venture business theories,
nancial plans, and internship.
Internship academy in the Supporting Technology
Transfer and Catalyzing Economic Development at
the University of New Mexico
An intensive ve-day program designed for students aiming to understand the role of a technology
transfer, and to foster an entrepreneurial mindset. This program is offered by STC’s experienced
professional staff, as well as accomplished entrepreneurs and business professionals in the
community collaborate with the Innovation Academy at the University of New Mexico.
Distance learning courses Provides remoted class from successful entrepreneurs in Silicon Valley, USA, or South East Asian
countries.
Innovation Forum Supports the community of alumni for discussions and ideation for creating innovations.
Programs Provided by Keio University (http://edge.keio.ac.jp/)
Intensive Workshop
Provides a ve consecutive day workshop to promote skill-sets, then, four days later, students have
one-day session for prototyping. Having an incubation process for a week, it provides a two-day
business design session.
Global Innovator Forum
Six guest speakers were invited from Thailand, Malaysia, India and Indonesia. All the speakers are
engaged in entrepreneurial education and/or innovation/innovator development education. Speakers
shared insights on the topic of how to nurture “innovatorship.”
Project Work with Graduate School of System
Design and Management (SDM)
A new value proposing business design project conducted by teams of four to ve people. The
teams will pursue a new value proposition and its implementation and growth with strong support
and mentoring from the SDM faculty members who are engineers, designers, and business experts.
Graduate School of Science and Technology faculty also mentor the teams with technical aspects.
Project Work in Shona Fujisawa Campus (SFC)
A project conducted by an individual with a close relationship with SFC faculty member and project
coordinator from off-campus. The project will focus on the continuous transition of product design,
systems design, and business creation. Field work in overseas related to the project is mandatory.
65
ASIA Tour
It conducted the KEIO Innovative Thinking Workshops at the universities in Asian countries (India,
Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand), a couple of students are selected and invited to the KEIO EDGE 2016
course held in Japan.
Programs Provided by Waseda University (http://waseda-edge.jp)
Entrepreneurship education
Special lectures for startups: Basic knowledge and ways of thinking for starting a company and a
new business creation
Global communication: interactive communication / presentation skills
Value co-creation workshop
Future creation design thinking workshops: a practical course that teaches thinking skills and
methodologies for revitalizing an organization and discovering future-oriented ideas quickly,
creatively and systematically.
Thinking skills for creating innovations: It teaches new ways of thinking or creation techniques that
enable discovery and creation of new needs and matching those with seeds, so that one can play an
active role in the global elds.
Business communication workshop in Stanford, USA Teaches how to communicate with ease and condence in a casual business interaction, and how to
communicate a clear and compelling message in a professional presentation.
Validating a Business Model
A pragmatic course based on new standard theories such as “the lean launch pad” for new business
startups, prototyping methods for business models. This program trains students to create one
from zero in a short period of time. It teaches not only how to make business plans, but also how to
realize plans into reality.
Conferences, Symposium and Seminars
Career design conference: matching event for graduate students to nd a job in industries
Symposium and seminars: Guest speakers from industry and academia share their experiences and
knowledge for creating innovations and entrepreneurship education.
In “Demo Day,” students present their business proposal in front of the judges from industries to
obtain the opportunity for attracting investment.
Programs Provided by Ritsumeikan University (http://www.ritsumei.ac.jp/ru_gr/edge/)
EDGE + R Seminar
It provides the lecture series “A Crevice of Innovation” twelve times a year. The invited speakers are
from global ventures, industries, or domestic ventures.
It also supports students’ team projects through mentorship and traineeship.
Ideation workshops Sponsored by GE Healthcare Japan, it conducted workshops for one month to create ideas, e.g. pets’
healthcare, and baby care services based on the devices provided by GE Healthcare.
Symposium –‘Beats by innovators’ Guest speakers from startups and public sector give lectures and feedbacks on students’ nal
presentation.
Internship In 2014, two students were selected for the two-week internship program in Silicon Valley.
This research hasn't been cited in any other publications.
  • Article
    For over a century, start-ups began by focusing on their home markets. More and more, however, are now being born global - chasing opportunities created by distance, learning to manage faraway operations, and hunting for the planet's best manufacturing locations, brightest talent, most willing investors, and most profitable customers wherever they may be - from day one. That's not easy. In his research, Harvard professor lsenberg has found that global start-ups face three challenges. First are the logistical problems and psychic barriers created by distance and by differences in culture, language, education systems, religion, and economic development levels. Even something so basic as accommodating the world's various workweek schedules can put a strain on a small start-up's staff. Second is managing the challenges (and opportunities) of context - that is, the different nations' political, regulatory, judicial, tax, and labor environments. Third, like all new ventures, global start-ups must find a way to compete with bigger incumbents while using far fewer resources. To succeed, lsenberg has found, global entrepreneurs must cultivate four competencies: They must clearly articulate their reasons for going global, learn to build alliances with more powerful partners, excel at international supply chain management, and create a multinational culture within their organization. Entrepreneurs shouldn't fear the fact that the world isn't flat. Being global may not be a pursuit for the fainthearted, but even start-ups can thrive by using distance to gain competitive advantage.
  • Article
    '. . . likely to prove exceptionally valuable for researchers in this area and as a reference for those briefing policymakers. . . essential reading for those joining technology transfer offices, particularly in the USA, and for many who are there already. It will clearly give would-be academic entrepreneurs a feel for the terrain and some clue to the causes of success or failure.' Robert Handscombe, R&D Management
  • Article
    This study was designed to evaluate the programs offered by the Venture Development Group of the University of Calgary and to discuss the manner in which program evaluations are conducted. Results show that clients of the program have (1) grown faster than the average business in Alberta, (2) perceive that the program has added value to their ventures, (3) believe the programs have met most of their expectations, and (4) often implement the advice received. Discussion of program evaluation indicates that issues of causality, generalization, control measures, nonresponse bias, and evaluator bias are among the most pressing issues that must be addressed in designing more effective impact studies.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    The present research investigated employment status choice intentions, defined as the decision to enter an occupation as a waged or salaried individual as opposed to a self-employed one. Hypotheses based on tracking models and the theory of planned behaviour were tested on a sample of 512 Russian students from three different universities in St. Petersburg. The results showed that the theory of planned behaviour, not tracking models or demographics, determined employment status choice intentions.
  • Article
    This publication contains reprint articles for which IEEE does not hold copyright. Full text is not available on IEEE Xplore for these articles.
  • Article
    In a previous article (Yonekura and Lynskey, 2000), we emphasized the need for more venture firms in Japan. On that score, there is now universal agreement. Policymakers in Japan have recognized the economic benefits of fostering the creation and development of venture firms, and have applied themselves assiduously to the task of creating a supportive environment. In this paper, we outline some of the changes that have occurred, particularly with reference to the stock exchange and the provision of venture capital funding in Japan. We also outline the government's recent ambitious plans to create a large number of venture firms and to focus on strategic industries. We suggest, however, that merely creating venture firms, even in large numbers, is not enough if they are ultimately unsustainable. What is needed are more global-scale, sustainable companies, and so there is a need to ensure the growth of venture firms beyond a critical stage. To do so, however, requires professional and specialized management teams, which are difficult for venture businesses to find in Japan. This is the result of the low rate of labor mobility, the scarcity of managers who have received a leading-edge business education, and the fact that few managers are bold enough to embrace change and risk. Consequently, we suggest that an adventurous, risk-taking approach be adopted to venture development, and that now is a good time to take such risks.
  • Article
    This research examines the effect of participation in an enterprise education program on perceptions of the desirability and feasibility of starting a business. Changes in the perceptions of a sample of secondary school students enrolled in the Young Achievement Australia (YAA) enterprise program are analysed using a pre-test post-test control group research design. After completing the enterprise program, participants reported significantly higher perceptions of both desirability and feasibility. The degree of change in perceptions is related to the positiveness of prior experience and to the positiveness of the experience in the enterprise education program. Self-efficacy theory is used to explain the impact of the program. Overall, the study provides empirical evidence to support including exposure to entrepreneurship education as an additional exposure variable in entrepreneurial intentions models.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Entrepreneurship education is assuming extraordinary relevance within academic programs all over the world, but there is very little known about it from a research perspective. This paper discusses the status of current research on entrepreneurship education, providing an overview of the academic debate on its main issues. The relationships between the core research issues are identified and avenues for further research are traced in order to foster the development of effective learning processes.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    The purpose of this study is to provide the knowledge to understand and the skills to manage innovation at the operational and strategic levels. It integrates the management of market, technological and organizational change to improve the competitiveness of firms and effectiveness of other organizations. The analysis suggests that it is no longer sufficient to focus on a single dimension of innovation, as technological, market, and organizational change interact. Instead of following the ‘one best way' school of management, this study identifies the links between the structures and processes that support innovation. One way of developing technologies, products, and processes by firms involves venturing outside their existing core competencies. Firms establish internal corporate ventures (ICVs) in order to exploit underutilized resources in new ways; to introduce competitive pressure on to internal suppliers; to divest non-core activities; to satisfy managers' ambitions; to spread the risk and cost of producst development; to combat cyclical demands of mainstream activities; and to diversify the business. However, firms may also establish ICVs in order to grow new businesses based on new technologies, products, or markets. A new corporate venture requires a clear business plan and an intrapreneur who must raise the finance, as well as manage the development and the growth of the businees. Such an intrapreneur should resemble a traditional entrepreneur in a high level of motivation and need for autonomy. However, unlike their counterparts, intrapreneurs also need to have good political and social skills in order to deal with internal politics and bureaucracy. Firms that are consistently successful at corporate venturing are characterized by four factors: (1) in assessing failed ventures, they draw a distinction between bad decisions and bad luck; (2) they measure progress of ventures against agreed milestones, and change the direction if necessary; (3) if a venture is not successful, they terminate it, rather than making further investments; and (4) they perceive venturing as a learning process, and learn from both failures and successes. The present study examines the nature of innovative small firms and the issues particular to their creation, management, and growth. Focuses on a subset of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) which are based on new technologies, and differ from other SMEs because they are usually established by highly qualified personnel, require large amounts of capital, and face greater technical and market risk. While new independent ventures and corporate ventures have similar requirements concerning management and organization, certain differences exist. While corporate entrepreneurs have the advantage of the financial, technical, and marketing resources of the parent firm, they must seek high levels of affiliation and need great social skills in order to deal with internal politics and bureaucracy. Their independent counterparts, on the other hand, must raise finance and develop functional expertise, but have the advantage of independence and managerial and technical autonomy. (AT)