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THE ROLE OF PEOPLE’S PERSONAL VALUES IN THE WORKPLACE

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Abstract

People’s personal values in organisations are a phenomenon that have captured the interest of academic researchers in organisational and business studies, psychologists, practitioners, and social scientists. Despite this consideration, there continues to be a noticeable lack of agreement on what values are, how values are perceived in the workplace and, more importantly, what the actual roles of people’s personal values are in the ways they think, feel, and act in the workplace. Hence, this paper explores how people’s personal values are perceived, and defined. It proposes that by simultaneously considering all different roles of people’s personal value models proposed by the author, values scholars can advance a more comprehensive and integrative understanding of the values phenomenon. Focusing on the constructed meanings that have been gathered from the participants’ stories and experiences, 14 narrative interviews have been conducted at senior and junior levels in two different organisations. Findings revealed that narrators placed high importance on their personal values at their workplace. The results found that there are robust links between people’s personal values and the ways they think, feel, and act. Findings from the stories reflected how people’s personal values drive, inspire, and lead them in making their decisions, building their perceptions, and shaping their attitudes and behaviour. Thus, the paper contributes to the existing knowledge on the empirical impact of people’s personal values on the way they think, feel, and act. This study contributes to the people’s values literature, which should be encouraged as one of the theoretical and empirical considerations that needs to be addressed by researchers and authors in the development of an emerging agenda within the study of values.
International Journal of Management and Applied Science, ISSN: 2394-7926 Volume-1, Issue-9, Oct.-2015
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THE ROLE OF PEOPLE’S PERSONAL VALUES IN THE
WORKPLACE
SAMER MASHLAH
Lord Ashcroft International Business School- Anglia Ruskin University- East Road –Cambridge- CB1 1PT
Social science- Business and organisational studies
E-mail: samer.mashlah@anglia.ac.uk
Abstract- People’s personal values in organisations are a phenomenon that have captured the interest of academic
researchers in organisational and business studies, psychologists, practitioners, and social scientists. Despite this
consideration, there continues to be a noticeable lack of agreement on what values are, how values are perceived in the
workplace and, more importantly, what the actual roles of people’s personal values are in the ways they think, feel, and act
in the workplace. Hence, this paper explores how people’s personal values are perceived, and defined. It proposes that by
simultaneously considering all different roles of people’s personal value models proposed by the author, values scholars can
advance a more comprehensive and integrative understanding of the values phenomenon. Focusing on the constructed
meanings that have been gathered from the participants’ stories and experiences, 14 narrative interviews have been
conducted at senior and junior levels in two different organisations. Findings revealed that narrators placed high importance
on their personal values at their workplace. The results found that there are robust links between people’s personal values
and the ways they think, feel, and act. Findings from the stories reflected how people’s personal values drive, inspire, and
lead them in making their decisions, building their perceptions, and shaping their attitudes and behaviour. Thus, the paper
contributes to the existing knowledge on the empirical impact of people’s personal values on the way they think, feel, and
act. This study contributes to the people’s values literature, which should be encouraged as one of the theoretical and
empirical considerations that needs to be addressed by researchers and authors in the development of an emerging agenda
within the study of values.
Index Terms- Personal values, workplace Organisation, Narrative inquiry.
I. INTRODUCTION
Researchers and authors/practitioners have defined
and addressed values from different perspectives.
Definitions and meanings of values have been taken
from different point of views and disciplines such as
Psychology, Theology, and Management. Values
“occupy a prominent place in the scientific and public
discourse at a number of levels” (Meglino and
Ravlin, 1998). In this paper, the author questions
what are the actual roles of people’s personal values
in the workplace? How do people perceive their
personal values? and; How might personal values
influence the way people think, feel and act? The
author is not aiming to categorise or classify values,
or examine the ranking of values. Also, it is not the
aim of this paper to define different types of values;
rather, this study explores the nature of values and
their role in keeping people more connected to each
other and to their work. This paper is based on the
following central points:
1. Values are more than ethics, morals, and virtues;
they are the foundation in how we think, act, and
feel.
2. Values have a vital role in in how we make
decisions, choose preferences, build our
perceptions, and lead and drive both individuals
and groups.
3. Understanding our personal values will increase
our awareness of their significant roles in the way
we think, feel, and act, and eventually will help us
learn to ‘know’ and ‘lead’ ourselves in the
workplace.
II. WHAT ARE VALUES?
If ten different people were asked to define ‘values’
or what they understand by the term, we might have
ten different definitions. Moore (1922) admits the
difficulties of defining values - or its indefinability -
because it is a simple quality like ‘green’. Frondizi
(1971) agrees with Moore (1922) regarding the
difficulties of defining values: however, he disagrees
with him as to why it is difficult to define. In contrast,
Frondizi (1971) posits that the difficulties of defining
values are due to their complexity, he considers
values to have a Gestalt quality, which means that
values do not just happen; instead, there is a need for
them to be represented in some form of cognitive
recognition, or via a transporter.. Regardless of the
difficulties of defining values, there is a need to have
a closer look at the different definitions or meanings
conferred on them, starting from the definition
offered in the Cambridge Dictionary (Woodford &
Jackson, 2003): “The beliefs people have about what
is right and wrong and what is most important in life,
which control their behaviour”. Values are thought to
have a considerable effect on the affective and
behavioural responses of persons (Locke, 1976;
Rokeach, 1973; Meglino & Ravlin, 1998). The study
of values can be traced back to the lessons from
Aristotle, Plato and Socrates, in the formula of virtue
morals (Jackson, 1996; O’Hear, 2000; Hosmer, 2003;
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Raz, 2003, Hemingway, 2005). Values have been
defined as the vision people have in terms of deciding
what is good for themselves and their companions; in
other words what is good for them in the lives
(Rescher, 1969). Therefore, many researchers have
linked the perception of values with moral thought,
described by Wright (1971, p. 201) as “Beliefs about
what is wrong and the values that define the positive
goals in life”. Then values have been introduced as
principles of conduct (Meglino and Ravlin, 1998),
shaped as a consequence of reward or punishment,
mostly from children’s parents (Wright, 1971;
Williams, 1979, Hemingway, 2005). In order to make
the picture clearer, there is a need to look at other
definitions and understanding of values. Fowler
(1935) defines values as outcomes of mental
development, either from human instinct through
usual responses, or from logic in the use of accepted
forms. Furthermore, he clarifies that instinct identifies
the value of basic things such as food, shelter, drink
and other basics of life. However, he emphasises that
it does not account for values beyond these basics.
Baker (1999) clarifies that the idea of values appears
to cover a collection of phenomena, extending from
any kind of an individual’s interests, to that which
people understand as good or bad. In a wider
definition of values, Schwartz and Bilsky (1987, p.
552) define values as a combination of five methods
which highlight the most common understanding of
values from different researchers: “Values are (a)
concepts or beliefs (b) about desirable end states or
behaviours (c) that transcend specific situations, (d)
guide selection or evaluation of behaviour and events,
and (e) are ordered by relative importance”.Schwartz
(1992; Schwartz & Bilsky 1987) recognises three
‘worldwide human requirements’ that form the
foundation for all values: the necessity for biological
survival; the request for social interaction; and social
and institutional demands for group wellbeing. It is
stated that the differences “in the relative importance
placed on these requirements mean they hold
potential for conflict within and between individuals
and groups” (Bourne & Jenkins, 2013, p.497).
Moreover, Ab. Halim (2005 cited in Othman al-
Habshi, 2004, p. 96) claims that values are something
you have desire for, something you would pursue
relentlessly and strive to defend and safeguard. He
explains that values come naturally, either by
adopting what others have, or what society sustains,
or by obligation of the law. Values have been referred
to as one of many ways that shape people’s
behaviour, which shape people behaviour - as Veage,
Ciarrochi and Heaven (2011, p. 1180) posit; “Human
behaviour is shaped in multiple ways. One way is
through the values we hold”.
At the organisational level, values are seen as a key
component of organisational culture (Schein, 1985;
O'Reilly & Chatman, 1996; Meglino and Ravlin,
1998), and are repeatedly defined as principles
accountable for the successful management of many
organisations (e.g., Mitchell & Oneal, 1994; Meglino
and Ravlin, 1998).. Indeed, many empirical
researchers have emphasised the need for and
advantage of considering personal values at works
and to align them with the organisational values in
order to keep the spirit of working together high and
to be developed inside the organisation (Harrington,
Preziosi, & Gooden, 2001; Kinjerski & Skrypnek,
2004; Pfeffer, 2010; Hammoudeh, 2012).
Despite the popularity of values, there is a lack of
agreement on the nature of values themselves.
Surrounded by other things, values have been seen as
goals, personality types, motivations, needs, utilities,
attitudes, non-existent mental entities, and interests
(Meglino & Ravlin, 1998). This absence of
agreement (e.g., Kluckhohn, 1951; Rokeach & Ball-
Rokeach, 1989; Williams, 1979) has produced
difficulties in interpreting the consequences of many
studies, and has encouraged the demand for larger
agreement on how values are defined, perceived, and
measured in organisational studies (Connor &
Becker, 1975, 1994; Meglino & Ravlin, 1998).
In this paper, I set out to provide some coherence
on the subject of values, particularly on people’s
personal values, by first focusing on the influence of
personal values on the way we think, feel and, act,
second prospering the people’s personal values
model, which gathers all the elements and roles of
values from wide literature of values studies, and to
be categorised and linked with the way we think, feel,
and act (see Figure 1); and third, contributing to the
existing literature and knowledge of values by
conceptualising the data collected from the narrative
interviews. Indeed, this study constitutes one of only
a few qualitative exploratory research endeavours to
adopt a narrative inquiry approach to construct
meaning in how values are perceived and defined.
A. How might understanding values make a
difference?
Personal values are believed to be located at the level
of persons who ‘have’ or possess their particular
values (Schwartz, 1992; Bourne & Jenkins, 2013).
Schwartz (2011) states that the first thing drew him to
the study of values was the the question: “Do values
make a difference? Do values affect what people do,
what they believe, what and whom they like?
“(Schwartz, 2011, p.309), Likewise the author
explores whether personal values affect how people
think, what they feel, and how they act. According to
Schwartz, hundreds of researchers have conducted
thousands of studies of values in order to shed light
on: “how and why values differ across individuals
and across cultures, and how these differences relate
to significant behaviours, attitudes, emotions,
policies, and experiences” (Schwartz, 2011, p.310).
Kluckhohn (1951 cited in Meglino & Ravlin, 1998,
p. 356) states that any activities that are incompatible
with people’s personal values are mostly avoided for
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the purpose of keeping negative feelings away:
“…any actions that are inconsistent with these values
will result in feelings of guilt, shame, or self-
depreciation… Thus, individuals will exhibit value-
related behaviour in private in order to avoid negative
internal feelings”.
Moreover, the author sees that people attach
importance to their values because they are essential
parts of the process in the way people perceive things.
In other words, individual values are recognised as
components in the progression of human mindfulness
(Postman, Bruner & McGinnies, 1948; England 1967,
Hemingway, 2005) due to their association with
social standards and feelings (Jacob, Flink &
Shuuchman, 1962). Therefore, Hemingway (2005, p.
13) highlighted that values have a significant role in
making decisions: “This highlights the importance of
values as an integral facet of human decision-
making”.
This paper proposes that the way we understand
values might play an important role in how we can
employ those values in our life and the workplace.
Some have argued that values are expressions people
show about something specific; for instance, Frondizi
(1971) states that when someone gives his opinion on
a painting such as ‘This is a beautiful painting’ he is
purely expressing his feelings. On the other hand,
Scheler (1954) points out that values and feelings are
two separate things, and a value cannot be reduced to
the expression of a feeling, since we normally pick up
values separately from the feeling we experience,
hence our ability to recognise amoral values in our
enemy.
B. Personal values, behaviour, and attitude
In this part of our journey in understanding personal
values, the author would like to shed light on how
personal values might have the ability to alter our
behaviour, actions, feelings and - most importantly -
our thinking. Baker (1999, p. 11) argues that the
values people hold are more or less directing their
instinctive behaviour. He states that those steering
values are frequently embedded in culture “The
changes thus precipitated, bring our discussion of
human agency and reflexivity around to the role of
the values people hold, in steering their reflexive
behaviour. These steering values are often embedded
in culture, influencing the actions not only of the
recipient of psychological science and its application,
but also the practitioner”.
On the other hand, values can be seen as an
influential factor in forming human attitudes. It is
argued that an attitude is a pool of beliefs and values
linked together in a certain state, or it is a value which
is more important in various circumstances (Rokeach,
1973). There is considerable empirical evidence to
show the vital role of values in our consequent
behaviour and in formatting our attitudes (e.g.,
Allport, Vernon & Lindzey, 1960; England, 1967;
Rokeach, 1968; Wright, 1971; Lusk & Oliver, 1974;
Fritzsche, 1995; Meglino & Ravlin, 1998; Agle &
Caldwell, 1999; Oliver, 1999; Hemingway, 2005).
C. Personal values and our perception
The researcher argues that the role of our personal
values might be deeper than an expression or a
reflection of our feeling. Indeed, our personal values
are an integral facet of our perception because
individual values are recognised as components in the
progression of human perception (Postman, Bruner &
McGinnies, 1948; England, 1967; Hemingway, 2005)
due to their association with social standards and
feelings (Jacob, Flink & Shuuchman, 1962). This
research states that our personal values guide and lead
us to what and how should we act and judge based on
how we perceive the world around us. Heron (1996)
agrees with this approach by arguing that values are
the directorial motive of all people’s actions.
Moreover, this research argues that values as a
guiding tool will be the standards against which we
make our judgements and to choose what is important
to us; and to meet our needs and preferences. This has
been supported by Williams (1979, p.16 cited in
Hemingway, 2005): “Values have cognitive,
affective, or directional aspects… [which when]…
fully conceptualized…become criteria for judgment,
preference and choice”.
Furthermore, Fisher and Lovell (2003, p113, cited in
Hemingway, 2005, p. 14) state that the contribution
of our values in our choices and preferences indicate
the function of personal values as an investigative
device or, for decision-making, “People edit out, or
rationalize into significance, that information which
inhibits the application of their preferred values”.
Hence, Hemingway (2005) explains how senior
managers were witnessed to be facilitating green
stakeholder influence by spreading their “interpretive
frames” (cited in Fineman & Clarke, 1996, p. 727).
For the purposes of this research, further exploration
of the role of personal values in the way we think,
and their contribution in our decisions, will serve the
study in developing a deeper understanding of values,
and how people’s personal values are perceived in the
workplace. However, there is a need to mention here
that this study is not examining the relations between
values and the decision-making process; rather it is
reviewing the varying approaches in the literature to
what the role of values is in supporting decision-
making in the organisation.. This will then enhance
the importance of this research in considering values
at the workplace to be as a mechanism for leading
organisations.
The author posits that people make decisions with
consideration of their own values. This has been
shown in an empirical piece of research conducted by
Hemingway on a comparison of personal values
between regular entrepreneurs and other managers.
“The importance of the role of personal values in an
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individual’s decision-making and subsequent
behavior was noted” (Hemingway, 2005, p.18).
Furthermore, the moral element of decision making
has been associated with personal values (Fritzche,
1995), and it has been stated that decisions which are
made by managers in organisations are influenced by
individual ethics besides the authorised business
goals (Wood, 1991; Harris & Crane, 2002;
Hemingway &Maclagan, 2004; Hemingway, 2005).
In addition, Fritzche (1995, p. 910) clearly states the
association between the moral dimension of decisions
and people’s values - “There appears to be agreement
amongst most business ethics scholars that personal
values play a role in the ethical dimension of decision
making”. The author suggests here that more
attention needs to be given to the role of people’s
personal values in the application of how people
prefer to connect with each other and to their work
and, more importantly, in how the ethical dimensions
of people’s decision making are influenced by their
own values at the workplace.
III. RESEARCH METHODS
The study used narrative inquiry of fourteen
participants who work in two different selected
organisations in Jordan. Seven participants were
chosen from each selected organisation from three
different levels as follows: CEO, three senior
managers, and three staff. The first organisation was
purposefully selected, as it has been consulted by an
expert in the study of values. The second organisation
was randomly selected. This is an exploratory
qualitative research and data were gathered through
narrative interviews. The narrative or story-telling
method applied in this research enabled the
researcher to understand how the participants
construct meaning of their lived experiences. The
narrative inquiry is chosen because it enables the
researcher to capture more details of how people
perceive their personal values in the workplace. The
story-telling technique facilitates the process of
dealing with such a complex subject as ‘values’.
This is a qualitative exploratory study, which aims to
construct meanings in how personal values play a
vital role in the way we think, feel, and act in the
workplace. Participants have provided rich data,
collected from their stories and experiences. Each
participant told seven to 14 stories during the
interviews, following which all narratives were
transcribed into roughly 130 pages in total. It took
considerable time and effort to complete the overall
process. Stories gathered were textually analysed to
evidence the storyteller’s distinctive personal
experiences.
The epistemological stance for this study adopts the
interpretive approach. From the interpretivist
perspective, it has been stated that in order to
understand the meanings of events, circumstances
and phenomena that need to be interpreted, they need
to first be understood (Denzin & Lincoln, 1994).
This leads the research in the direction of exploring
the different interpretations of people’s values in the
workplace. The ontological stance of this study
adopts the subjectivist approach: reality is explored
through acquiring an understanding how participants
provide details and tell stories in regards to their
personal values. Remenyi and colleagues (1998, p.
35) stated that there is a need to study “the details of
the situation to understand the reality or perhaps a
reality working behind them”.
A. Discussion of the role of the personal values
model
For the purposes of this paper, it is significant to
understand the role of human values in the
workplace. Participants were first asked to define
their personal values and explain where they believe
that their personal values come from. Then narrative
questions were asked to encourage participants to tell
stories from their experiences of how their personal
values influence the way they do things in the
workplace. The author claims that personal values
have a vital role in the way we think, feel and act.
Hence, in this paper, a conceptual framework has
been developed to explore the rapport between
personal values and the three phases - acting, feeling,
thinking (see Figure 1):
Acting: What is the rapport between personal values
and formatting our attitudes, driving our behaviour,
and shaping our characteristics? Participants place
considerable importance on the relation between their
personal values and their personalities. Data from the
collected stories showed that attitudes, behaviours
and characteristics are the results of practicing
personal values; for instance, the person will not be
described as an honest person unless he/she practices
honesty as a value. Then honesty will be reflected in
his/her morals, attitudes, behaviours and
characteristics.
Thinking: Participants have clearly expressed their
agreement with how their personal values contribute
to each of the following elements: make their
decisions and judgements, select their choices, choose
their preferences, build their relationships, establish
their connection with others, lead their direction, and
create or build their perceptions. Indeed, while
participants were telling their stories, they used clear
and meaningful words and phrases, which reflect
their thoughts and perception in how they
conceptualise their personal values. This has been
clearly evidenced during the narrative interviews.
Feeling: Narrative interview was an effective tool to
explore and investigate how the participants felt when
they were asked to tell stories from their experiences
on whether their personal values affect the way they
feel in the workplace. Narrators highlighted all the
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following elements during the narrative interviews:
the link between personal values and the way they are
inspired, the level and source of their Spirituality, the
source of their morals, and ethics, which make them
feel comfortable and happy, and the relation between
personal values and their souls. Personal values have
been considered by participants to be a source of
energy which drives and satisfies their spiritual needs.
The author argues that the issue of values needs to
be well read and addressed in order to acquire
concrete knowledge and awareness that allows one to
build theoretical and conceptual frameworks for
research. Therefore, it is hoped that the people’s
personal values model proposed by the author will
help researchers, and scholars in this field to advance
from the existing data and literature regarding the
phenomenon of values. The people’s personal values
model was designed to be available for those who are
interested in increasing their understanding of how
values are perceived, and what their actual roles are.
Moreover, for ease of use, the author placed all the
findings from the collected data and the literature of
the study of values in one place. This should enhance
the development of an emerging agenda within the
phenomenon of values.
Fig 1: Source: Designed by the author based on the literature and the data collected from narrative interviews.
IV. FINDINGS/RESULTS
Findings revealed that participants placed high
importance on their personal values in their
workplace. The results found that there are robust
links between people’s personal values and the way
they think, feel, and act. Narrators expressed their
thoughts and feelings in an effective and positive way
while they were telling stories regarding their
personal values.
The results revealed that there is a gap or mismatch
between how people perceive their personal values
and what their actual roles are. This has been
witnessed when participants were asked to define the
term ‘values’ and most defined their personal values
as morals, ethics, and virtues that every individual has
or holds and acts on accordingly. Despite these
definitions of their personal values, it was not clearly
evidenced from the participant’s stories that there was
any direct expression which shows that they become
more ethical or hold better morals or virtues by
practicing their personal values. In spite of that, on a
few occasions it was evidenced that there are indirect
ethical or moral implications - these were mentioned
by the participants during the narrative interviews. In
addition, religious values were evidenced as the
highest values held by the participants when they
were telling the stories of how they think, feel, and
act in the workplace. This might justify why people
firmly linked their personal values with morals and
ethics when they defined them.
Findings also showed that personal values can be
vital if they are encouraged and inspired by others.
Participants stated several times how they were more
aware of their personal values when they were
reminded of these by the people around them. This
has been evidenced in different stories and in
different organisations. These results can be useful
for those who have interests in doing training in the
issue of values.
In addition, there was evidence from the narratives
that people’s personal values do play a significant
role in inspiring, driving, and guiding people in the
workplace. Moreover, the results showed that
personal values are believed to deter people from
doing anything against these personal values. In fact,
participants emphasised how their personal values
make them feel, and think that they do not want to do
or work on something against their principles or own
values. Participants repeated on more than one
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occasion that their personal values have been the
deterrent to not think, behave, or act in a way which
they described as “unethical or not good”.
CONCLUSION
This empirical research on the issue of personal
values at the workplace shed light on the importance
of people’s personal values and their considerable
roles in the ways they think, feel, and act in the
workplace. The study used narrative inquiry, which
was found to be an effective way to construct
meaning from the participants’ stories and
experiences; therefore the author encourages the
researchers and scholars in the field of values to use
narrative inquiry as a useful method in searching such
a complicated issue such as values. For the ease of
use, it is hoped that the people’s personal values
model proposed by the author will help those who
have interest in doing research on the phenomena of
values, and enable them to acquire a clearer picture of
how our personal values influence the way we think,
feel, and act. Indeed, this study can be considered one
of the few qualitative exploratory research
endeavours, which adopts the narrative inquiry
approach in order to construct meanings of how
personal values are perceived, and defined, and, in
addition, what their actual roles in the workplace are.
Finally, the author encourages the researchers and
scholars in the phenomenon of values to have a closer
look at how people’s personal values drive, inspire,
and guide people in the workplace. This area calls for
more in-depth research, and it can be linked with
different fields and various factors in organisational
studies such as leadership, management, and
motivation. Hence, the door is open for more studies
to serve the investigation and exploration of the study
of values in the development of an emerging agenda
within the phenomenon of values.
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... The value systems of a society always determine human activity in social life, education and professional life. Values are seen as a key component of organisational culture and are repeatedly defined as the principles accountable for the successful management of the organization [5]. Arambewela and Hall [6] support the same issue, stating [7]: personal values have long been considered an important variable in understanding consumer behaviour and decision making. ...
... Another definition suggests that values are systematic and, to some extent, precise ideas that ensure the interaction of an individual with the environment [17]). Regarding the concept of personal values, Mashlah [5] and Daniela et al. (2013) [2] refer to Schwartz and Bilsky's [18] and Schwartz's [19] definition of values as a combination of five main features: values are (a) concepts or beliefs (b) about desirable end states or behaviours (c) that transcend specific situations, (d) guide the selection or evaluation of behaviour and events and (e) are ordered by relative importance. Analytical observation on the definitions of values shows that they are more or less diverse in meanings. ...
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... It only implicates that professionalism is seen not only by highly educated people but also by those who own personal values in the working world. Mashlah (2015) found a strong link between personal values and how workers think, feel, and act, which is engulfed in displaying professionalism. With this, it was then shown that nurses see the importance of possessing personal values affected by their excellent culture and morality to be professionally upright in the profession. ...
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... Mashlah [36] discusses personal values in the workplace and his model schematically illustrates the sequential effect of values on attitudes, behaviour, characteristics, decisionmaking, perceptions, motivation, morals/ethics and spirituality (See Figure 2). ...
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Studies show that personal values can influence decision making, problem solving, and behaviour. We draw from this literature and analyse the link between personal value and designs produced by civil engineering students, as part of a Human-Centred Designing assignment. We also study the influence of priming on design decisions. We collected data on Schwartz’s Personal Value Systems of first- and third year civil engineering students at a university in Wales. Students were set a conceptual design task to fulfil a variety of human needs from subsistence to freedom, with the intention of elevating the quality of life of residents by meeting as many needs as possible. We analysed which Higher Order Values were more likely to produce designs with community-orientated spaces that enable residents to interact, fulfilling communal needs, termed ‘Communal Designs’. While the majority (63.93%) of first year students were in the Higher Order Value Self Transcendence category, which is aligned with communal values, only 27.78% of them produced a Communal Design, with 50% of these having higher-than-average social desirability scores. On the other hand, the majority of Communal Designs (73.33%) were produced by those in the Higher Order Value Openness to Change category, with only 18.18% of these having higher-than-average social desirability scores. These findings lead us to either doubt the accuracy of the claimed Higher Order Value of the majority of civil engineering students, or require us to make sense of the dissonance between proclaimed values held, and the lack of acting upon it to produce Communal Designs. Priming had no significant effect on whether a student produced a Communal Design, although it seemed to have a significant decreasing influence on Empathic Concern, which is associated with prosocial, altruistic, self-transcendent acts. Our study also shows that the majority (54.84%) of third year students, also had their primary Higher Order Value as Self Transcendence. Comparative analyses were run to search for differences in personal value systems between the first year and third year civil engineering students. It was found that third year students valued Tradition more than first year students. Tradition ultimately contributes toward the Higher Order Value of Conservation, which is opposed to Openness to Change, and thus the likelihood of a student producing a Communal Design. First year students had a significant correlation between their Basic Value of Tradition and their Higher Order Value of Self Enhancement, and between Tradition and their Higher Order Value of Openness to Change. Third year students were found to have a significant correlation between Tradition and their Higher Order Value of Self Transcendence. This is an interesting finding, given that Self Enhancement and Self Transcendence are opposing in nature, and that there has been discussion of how cultural values could change within engineering education over time. We also discuss whether Sheeran & Web’s ‘Intention - Behaviour Gap’ could offer an explanation of the dissonance between the Higher Order Value and the decision to act in accordance with it (for example, a Higher Order Value of Self Transcendence, a communal value, was hypothesised to lead to designs promoting community, but this did not occur). In taking this forward, the principles behind identifying Communal Designs were found to align to ‘Placemaking’, a term used in architectural urban design to cultivate spaces for community engagement. We propose that Placemaking could be integrated into civil engineering’s conceptual design education, as it may provide a framework for civil engineers to consider social impact of design.
... This confirms the view, which we fully share, that values must be formed first in the teacher so that he will be able to teach them further on in youth. [8] regarding the importnace of personal values for those who work, as majority of youth work in parallel with their studies. ...
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Thesis
A thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements of the University of East London in collaboration with the Tavistock and Portman NHS foundation trust for the Professional Doctorate in Social Work (D60). September 2020 i Abstract Background Adoption and fostering panels are unique entities, in which members interpret both written documentation and verbal presentations. Applying regulations and guidance to reach recommendations, making life-changing judgments, based on conscious and unconscious characterisations of people. The study investigates the personal and professional interplay of individuals' judgements in the decision-making environment of panels, with emphasis on the impact of personal biography. Methodology & Methods A constructive-interpretivist stance that individuals construct knowledge and meaning through their interaction with others is taken. Case summaries of the panels observed across England and narrative interviews with panel members using the Biographical Narrative Interview Model (BNIM), were analysed using BNIM interpretive panels to generate broader interpretive perspectives. The interviews and observations were triangulated with panel minutes. Findings There was a correlation between biography and professional identity; an individual's early experiences within the family unit had a lasting effect on their role occupancy in adulthood. Biography, illustrated by personal values and beliefs, impacted on recommendation-making. Without personal reflection and external containment, conflicting positions could often be observed. Whilst panels achieved their function of providing recommendations, they had constructed a collective narrative of being impartial and balanced albeit that did not reflect reality, as demonstrated by the conduct of panel members in the performance of their roles. ii Conclusion Complex processes are at play when individuals come together in groups to make recommendations. This study rejects the view that it is possible to avoid stereotypes and generalisations, arguing that it is essential that panel members are supported to construct internal and external aptitudes to guard against unconscious influence, by the use of Effective Personal and Professional Judgement (EPPJ), intended to enable panel members to be more conscious of their own biases, and thus strive to make non-discriminatory recommendations. Agencies need to be transparent and stringent in their recruitment of panel members, examining the personal characteristics and social and personal values which drive individual and, thus, panel judgements. Key to making effective recommendations is pre-panel quality assurance to reduce adverse bias from assessors and scrutiny of reports at an effectively facilitated panel, that enables members to focus on the task.
Thesis
Background Adoption and fostering panels are unique entities, in which members interpret both written documentation and verbal presentations. Applying regulations and guidance to reach recommendations, making life-changing judgments, based on conscious and unconscious characterisations of people. The study investigates the personal and professional interplay of individuals’ judgements in the decision-making environment of panels, with emphasis on the impact of personal biography. Methodology & Methods A constructive–interpretivist stance that individuals construct knowledge and meaning through their interaction with others is taken. Case summaries of the panels observed across England and narrative interviews with panel members using the Biographical Narrative Interview Model (BNIM), were analysed using BNIM interpretive panels to generate broader interpretive perspectives. The interviews and observations were triangulated with panel minutes. Findings There was a correlation between biography and professional identity; an individual’s early experiences within the family unit had a lasting effect on their role occupancy in adulthood. Biography, illustrated by personal values and beliefs, impacted on recommendation-making. Without personal reflection and external containment, conflicting positions could often be observed. Whilst panels achieved their function of providing recommendations, they had constructed a collective narrative of being impartial and balanced albeit that did not reflect reality, as demonstrated by the conduct of panel members in the performance of their roles. Conclusion Complex processes are at play when individuals come together in groups to make recommendations. This study rejects the view that it is possible to avoid stereotypes and generalisations, arguing that it is essential that panel members are supported to construct internal and external aptitudes to guard against unconscious influence, by the use of Effective Personal and Professional Judgement (EPPJ), intended to enable panel members to be more conscious of their own biases, and thus strive to make non-discriminatory recommendations. Agencies need to be transparent and stringent in their recruitment of panel members, examining the personal characteristics and social and personal values which drive individual and, thus, panel judgements. Key to making effective recommendations is pre-panel quality assurance to reduce adverse bias from assessors and scrutiny of reports at an effectively facilitated panel, that enables members to focus on the task. Keywords Decision (theory & making), values, beliefs, groups, panels, fostering/foster carers, adoption/adopters, thinking/thought. (Appendix 1)
Article
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Research
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Background: Personal Value is characterized by way of ability to end up fascinated in things and persons; to do things for their very own sake, to supply love to other persons. Family Pathology is the potential to respond to the environment in a suitable manner. This response is normally realized as an alternative than instinctive, and is no longer decided with the aid of one's age. By keeping these things in mind the researcher has planned to study of personal value and family pathology among the high economic status and low economic status person. Aims: The aim and objective of the study is to analyze the personal value and family pathology among the high economic status and low economic status person. Method: The sample was selected to match the study and help in achieving the purpose of the study. The researcher has selected 60 subjects by quota sampling method from Haridwar district of Uttarakhand. The researcher has used Family Pathology Scale (FPS) constructed by Vimla Veeraraghavan and Archana Dogra and Personal Value Questionnaire (PVQ) constructed by Dr. G.P. Sherry and Prof. R.P. Verma for data collection. Statistical Analysis Used: Data emerging from the mentioned studies have been statistically analyzed for comparing mean scores by using Graph-Pad Quick-Calcs: t test calculator and computing the magnitude on personal value and family pathology among the high economic status and low economic status person respectively. Findings: The finding of the study reported that there was significant difference in various areas of personal value and family pathology among the high economic status and low economic status person. Keywords: Family Pathology, Personal Value & Person’s Economic Status
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Abstract: The role of the armed forces has been evolving since the end of the Cold War. However, the decline in interstate conflicts over time has brought about an unprecedented change in the responsibilities assigned to the military. Operação Acolhida is the main focus of our article, where Armed Forces are the principal responsible for the first humanitarian mission in this dimension in the Brazilian territory.