Conference Paper

Measurement and verification of the Eskom irrigation pumping standard product programme: Evaluation of crop load factors

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Abstract

Eskom Integrated Demand Management (IDM) also included irrigation in the Standard Product Programme (SPP) to cater for smaller irrigation Energy Efficient (EE) projects. The irrigation sector is a large energy consumer in South Africa and may have a large EE potential. The unique characteristics of irrigation projects create significant challenges for Measurement and Verification (M&V) under the SPP. Previous M&V studies assessed a large sample of irrigation pumping Variable Speed Drive (VSD) SPP projects. These assessments were conducted to verify project impact availability, project viability and achieved savings credibility. A further study was required to quantify attainable project impacts over the whole project life by incorporating crop Load Factors (LF). This paper focuses specifically on the evaluation and validation of crop LFs as well as its applicability and use in SPP irrigation projects. The evaluation was conducted through a comprehensive crop LF analysis. The aim of this analysis was to determine the typical LF of a large sample of real world pumps and compare these with the Eskom proposed crop LFs.

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... In Ref. Storm et al. (2013) the design, development, and performance analysis of a solar system for water pumping is presented along with its technical, environmental, and economic benefits as compared to diesel generator or power grid. ...
... Small farming activities in South Africa can be charged as commercial due to the shape of the load profile as well as to the size of the demand when it is less than 100 kVA (Storm et al., 2013). In general, there is a need to decrease the running cost of the electrical equipment to contribute to maximization of the total return of the farming activity. ...
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This paper develops a model which can be used to minimize the electricity cost of South African farms through the usage of a wind pump with pico hydro generator and a borehole in pumped hydro storage configuration referred to as “hydro aeropower”. This model will optimally schedule the generation power flow from the pico turbine given the demand, the state of water level in the reservoir as well as the electricity pricing period. This model can be implemented to control the power flow in small farming activities where boreholes and windmill are available. Therefore, a 2kW hydro aeropower using groundwater in a farming environment and operating under the Time of Use in South Africa is used to evaluate the possible cost reduction linked to the electricity usage achievable compared to the grid. Therefore, the problem can be seen as a minimization of the cost of energy purchased from the main electricity supplier, and the maximization of the energy used by the load directly supplied by the hydro aeropower in a dynamic pricing environment. Afterwards, the techno-economic performance of the proposed system is analysed using Matlab software. The results have revealed that up to 63.62% can be saved on the cost of energy consumed using the developed setup rather than supplying the load demand by the grid exclusively.
M&Vof an irrigation pumping project: Case study ICUE conference proceedings, Cape Town
  • M E Storm
Storm, M.E. " M&Vof an irrigation pumping project: Case study, " ICUE conference proceedings, Cape Town, May 2008. pp. 333-336.
The Measurement and Verification Guideline for the Standard Product Programme
  • C A Van Der Merve
Van der Merve, C.A. "The Measurement and Verification Guideline for the Standard Product Programme," NWU, Potchefstroom, 2012.
M&V of the Eskom irrigation pumping SPP Programme" ICUE conference proceedings, Cape Town
  • M E Storm
Storm, M.E. "M&V of the Eskom irrigation pumping SPP Programme" ICUE conference proceedings, Cape Town, Aug 2013. pp. 249-254.
M&Vof an irrigation pumping project: Case study
  • M E Storm
Storm, M.E. "M&Vof an irrigation pumping project: Case study," ICUE conference proceedings, Cape Town, May 2008. pp. 333-336.