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Terminology and translation

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Abstract

Translators have long been term banks users; however, they are increasingly involved in developing and managing terminology resources, such as term bases that are integrated with computer-aided translation (CAT) tools. This chapter examines the role and goals of translation-oriented terminology management, beginning with a discussion of the benefits of managing terminology effectively in a translation context, as well as the risks of not doing so. Next come explanations of key concepts, which are contextualized within a discussion that considers differences in both the approach to and the results of terminology work as it is carried out by terminologists as compared to translators. This discussion identifies some challenges associated with terminology management in the context of translation, such as deciding what information to record, how to record it, which resources and tools can be used, etc. Special attention is paid to the ways in which translation-oriented terminology management is evolving in the CAT era, particularly when effective tool use requires the adaptation, or even the subversion, of conventional approaches to terminology management. This chapter concludes with thoughts on ways that translation-oriented terminology training could be modified to better prepare future translators.

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... Motivated by the need for the EHEA harmonisation and taking into account that one of the contexts in which the EHEA demonstrates all its capabilities is undoubtedly the transfer of knowledge and different forms of exchange between institutions, translation and terminology management play a key role (Arntz 1993). Therefore, this work is based on the premises of translation-oriented terminology management (Bowker 2015, Galinski and Budin 1993, ISO 21616 2002, Martínez and Faber 2009, Wright 1997a, which unlike terminology standardization and language planning approaches, is based on more functional and applied principles, and less comprehensive and prescriptive processes. ...
... Translators usually argue that one of the most common difficulties in their work is terminology, especially its lack of reference material, validity, specialization, and linguistic information available. Therefore, this work focuses on aspects of terminology, such as its function for translation, the process of preparing a terminological database with a view to its use with computer tools, information retrieval, the automation of the translation process and the consistent use of technical terminology (Arntz 1993;Bowker 2015;ISO 12616 2002;Wright 1997a). Cabré (1998) distinguishes three types of terminological work orientation depending on the type of user and use: terminology oriented to the language system (Linguistic-terminological approach), terminology oriented to language planning (Standardization approach), and translation-oriented terminology management (Translation approach). ...
Article
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Los sistemas universitarios de la Unión Europea y algunas naciones no pertenecientes a la UE, aunque alineados en teoría, no se han considerado homogéneos hasta el siglo XXI. La cooperación europea tiene un mercado común establecido para el comercio de bienes y servicios, sin embargo, la colaboración en materia de educación superior a largo plazo aún parece lejos de estar plenamente armonizada. El punto de partida de este trabajo surge de la incapacidad de incorporar una nueva dimensión basada en la completa equivalencia de todos los sistemas universitarios de los países participantes en el Proceso de Bolonia, ya que asumimos que la armonización de la terminología de la educación superior mejorará la comprensión y la cooperación dentro del EEES. Centrado en los sistemas universitarios de España y Rusia, el objetivo de este trabajo es compilar un corpus de documentos de referencia en ambos idiomas y luego extraer la terminología de la educación superior en español y ruso para posteriormente identificar el grado de equivalencia según diferentes dominios conceptuales propuestos por la red europea Eurydice.
... Los términos compuestos (tc) son característicos del discurso especializado (Arroyave Tobón y Quiroz Herrera, 2012; Bowker, 2015;Maniez, 2008); por ejemplo, aerogenerador de paso de pala fijo en el campo de la energía eólica. ...
... Los corpus comparables, redactados originalmente en la lengua de estudio, se recomiendan en las investigaciones terminológicas y traductológicas (Bowker, 2015), pues las traducciones presentes en los corpus paralelos pueden contener expresiones no idiomáticas, construcciones que no son propias de una lengua o incluso errores. Además, aunque existen corpus paralelos de temática especializada (Arce Romeral y Seghiri, 2018; Pérez Carrasco y Seghiri, 2021), estos son menos frecuentes que los corpus comparables, que existen en muchos casos y, además, pueden crearse más rápidamente. ...
Article
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Los términos compuestos son una de las principales dificultades en la traducción de los textos espe­cializados. Dado que estos términos no siempre figuran en los recursos terminológicos o lo hacen de forma poco exhaustiva, los traductores y terminólogos deben dominar diversas técnicas para resolver sus dificultades. Tradicionalmente, se han utilizado textos paralelos para extraer terminología y ad­quirir conocimientos especializados. Estos textos pueden compilarse en forma de corpus comparables (es decir, textos escritos originalmente en la lengua de origen y de llegada), que pueden utilizarse para explotar un mayor número de textos de manera más eficiente. No obstante, a menudo hay reticencia a su utilización, en algunos casos debido a la falta de conocimiento de las técnicas de consulta. En este estudio se describe una metodología para identificar en corpus comparables los equivalentes en inglés de los términos compuestos en español, con vistas a: 1) facilitar esta tarea en la labor cotidiana de los traductores y terminólogos; y 2) proporcionarles técnicas de extracción manual en corpus. Con este fin, analizamos un corpus comparable de textos especializados sobre energía eólica escritos originalmente en español e inglés. La metodología propuesta se basa en la semántica distribucional y consiste en la identificación y la comparación de elementos contextuales de los conceptos en ambos idiomas. Los resultados muestran que este procedimiento simplifica la identificación de equivalentes de los términos compuestos en corpus.
... Motivated by the need for the EHEA harmonisation and taking into account that one of the contexts in which the EHEA demonstrates all its capabilities is undoubtedly the transfer of knowledge and different forms of exchange between institutions, translation and terminology management play a key role (Arntz 1993). Therefore, this work is based on the premises of translation-oriented terminology management (Bowker 2015, Galinski and Budin 1993, ISO 21616 2002, Martínez and Faber 2009, Wright 1997a, which unlike terminology standardization and language planning approaches, is based on more functional and applied principles, and less comprehensive and prescriptive processes. ...
... Translators usually argue that one of the most common difficulties in their work is terminology, especially its lack of reference material, validity, specialization, and linguistic information available. Therefore, this work focuses on aspects of terminology, such as its function for translation, the process of preparing a terminological database with a view to its use with computer tools, information retrieval, the automation of the translation process and the consistent use of technical terminology (Arntz 1993;Bowker 2015;ISO 12616 2002;Wright 1997a). Cabré (1998) distinguishes three types of terminological work orientation depending on the type of user and use: terminology oriented to the language system (Linguistic-terminological approach), terminology oriented to language planning (Standardization approach), and translation-oriented terminology management (Translation approach). ...
Article
Full-text available
University systems of various European Union countries and some non-EU nations, while aligned in theory, have not been considered homogeneous until the twenty-first century. To put this in perspective, while the European cooperation has an established common market for goods and services, the long-term higher education collaboration still seems far from being completely harmonized. The inability to entail a new dimension based on full equivalence of all university systems of the countries involved in the Bologna Process has been selected as a starting point of this study as we assume that higher education terminology harmonization will improve understanding and cooperation within the EHEA. Focused on the case of university systems in Spain and Russia, the objective of this paper is to compile a corpus of reference documents in both languages and then extract higher education terminology in Spanish and Russian to identify the degree of equivalence according to conceptual domains proposed by the European network Eurydice.
... Motivated by the need for the EHEA harmonisation and taking into account that one of the contexts in which the EHEA demonstrates all its capabilities is undoubtedly the transfer of knowledge and different forms of exchange between institutions, translation and terminology management play a key role (Arntz 1993). Therefore, this work is based on the premises of translation-oriented terminology management (Bowker 2015, Galinski and Budin 1993, ISO 21616 2002, Martínez and Faber 2009, Wright 1997a, which unlike terminology standardization and language planning approaches, is based on more functional and applied principles, and less comprehensive and prescriptive processes. ...
... Translators usually argue that one of the most common difficulties in their work is terminology, especially its lack of reference material, validity, specialization, and linguistic information available. Therefore, this work focuses on aspects of terminology, such as its function for translation, the process of preparing a terminological database with a view to its use with computer tools, information retrieval, the automation of the translation process and the consistent use of technical terminology (Arntz 1993;Bowker 2015;ISO 12616 2002;Wright 1997a). Cabré (1998) distinguishes three types of terminological work orientation depending on the type of user and use: terminology oriented to the language system (Linguistic-terminological approach), terminology oriented to language planning (Standardization approach), and translation-oriented terminology management (Translation approach). ...
Article
Full-text available
Los sistemas universitarios de la Unión Europea y algunas naciones no pertenecientes a la UE, aunque alineados en teoría, no se han considerado homogéneos hasta el siglo XXI. La cooperación europea tiene un mercado común establecido para el comercio de bienes y servicios, sin embargo, la colaboración en materia de educación superior a largo plazo aún parece lejos de estar plenamente armonizada. El punto de partida de este trabajo surge de la incapacidad de incorporar una nueva dimensión basada en la completa equivalencia de todos los sistemas universitarios de los países participantes en el Proceso de Bolonia, ya que asumimos que la armonización de la terminología de la educación superior mejorará la comprensión y la cooperación dentro del EEES. Centrado en los sistemas universitarios de España y Rusia, el objetivo de este trabajo es compilar un corpus de documentos de referencia en ambos idiomas y luego extraer la terminología de la educación superior en español y ruso para posteriormente identificar el grado de equivalencia según diferentes dominios conceptuales propuestos por la red europea Eurydice.
... Due to several reasons (lack of time, lack of resources, urgent deadlines, limited availability of domain experts, lack of awareness of the importance of terminology management and of the potential losses if there is no terminology management strategy (Bowker, 2015;Chiocchetti, Heinisch-Obermoser, et al., 2013) and its contribution to specialised translation), terminology creation and management is mostly left to translators, who are obliged to do their own terminology research and create their own resources. Often translators carry out ad hoc terminology research, with the aim of solving specific translation problems and delivering correct translations (Thelen, 2012). ...
... Often translators carry out ad hoc terminology research, with the aim of solving specific translation problems and delivering correct translations (Thelen, 2012). This work, as well as any systematic terminology work are included in the translation process and not considered separately, which means that terminology work is often "hidden" (Bowker, 2015). ...
Thesis
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In a world where people, goods, products, services, companies, and capital move globally, specialised communication and translation play a crucial role. Legal translation is acknowledged as a complex and time-consuming task, mainly because it implies a transfer from one language to another, as well as from one legal system to another legal system. As legal concepts are culture-bound and not easily transferable, finding suitable equivalents is a source of constant problems for translators. Since existing terminological resources do not provide translators with enough information to make decisions without extensive searches and concept comparison, the main objective of this project is to create a systematic and descriptive bilingual terminology database in British English and European Portuguese in the domain of company law (company incorporation). The purpose is to understand needs in legal translation and find out what kind of information legal translators require to make informed terminology decisions, as well as to understand and decide on the most suitable strategies for finding equivalents in legal translation. The methodology is corpus-driven, rather than concept-driven. We resort to comparable corpora, semi-automatic term extraction tools and concordance tools, as well as terminology management software. The result of this project is a complete termbase with 42 terms with all the information legal translators require: simple and clear efinitions, contexts, phraseology, and usage notes, collected from reliable sources. As for the best strategy to translate legal terminology, we conclude that a pragmatic approach is needed, and legal terminology should be translated using the terminology of the target legal system. We conclude that terminology management is crucial for a specialised domain of knowledge like legal translation. Keywords: terminology, terminology work, terminology management, legal translation, legal terminology, corpora and translation
... As mentioned previously, the limitations of relying on English as the vehicular language of instruction and the one to use for illustration dictated many of our didactic choices. We hypothesized that the translation of terminology would be particularly problematic for translators with limited training, bearing in mind that it is challenging for highly-trained professionals (e.g., Bowker 2015). Thus, we warn participants that it is easy to be 'tricked' when translating terminology and that general language may need to be understood differently in specialized contexts. ...
Article
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Translators and interpreters have been shown to play an important role in supporting the activities of NGOs involved in crisis communication scenarios. However, there is little evidence of whether standardized training materials or technological assistance are required by or would be beneficial to quickly recruited ‘citizen translators’ working in these environments. This article will present a study of the design, delivery, and preliminary evaluation of a set of training materials developed for use in a citizen translation project run by New Zealand Red Cross (NZRC) with the support of the EU H2020-funded International Network on Crisis Translation (INTERACT). The article describes the training materials and discusses the epistemological and didactic issues that were faced in their design and delivery. Findings from the article will be of interest to those seeking to understand citizen translation and issues involved in working with an NGO on translator training.
... It is estimated that translators spend 20-50% of their time researching terminology (Fähndrich, 2005). When translators manage terminology well, it can enhance the quality of a translation, reduce the time and cost of the process, improve corporate branding, and prevent legal liabilities (Bowker, 2015). In the preface to his book in 2012, Kageura remarked on the rising interest "in practical and theoretical studies of terminology, in accordance with the rapid growth in universal communication and specialised knowledge" (Kageura, 2012, p. XIII). ...
Thesis
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Automatic term extraction is a task in the field of natural language processing that aims to automatically identify terminology in collections of specialised, domain-specific texts. Terminology is defined as domain-specific vocabulary and consists of both single-word terms (e.g., corpus in the field of linguistics, referring to a large collection of texts) and multi-word terms (e.g., automatic term extraction). Terminology is a crucial part of specialised communication since terms can concisely express very specific and essential information. Therefore, quickly and automatically identifying terms is useful in a wide range of contexts. Automatic term extraction can be used by language professionals to find which terms are used in a domain and how, based on a relevant corpus. It is also useful for other tasks in natural language processing, including machine translation. One of the main difficulties with term extraction, both manual and automatic, is the vague boundary between general language and terminology. When different people identify terms in the same text, it will invariably produce different results. Consequently, creating manually annotated datasets for term extraction is a costly, time- and effort- consuming task. This can hinder research on automatic term extraction, which requires gold standard data for evaluation, preferably even in multiple languages and domains, since terms are language- and domain-dependent. Moreover, supervised machine learning methodologies rely on annotated training data to automatically deduce the characteristics of terms, so this knowledge can be used to detect terms in other corpora as well. Consequently, the first part of this PhD project was dedicated to the construction and validation of a new dataset for automatic term extraction, called ACTER – Annotated Corpora for Term Extraction Research. Terms and Named Entities were manually identified with four different labels in twelve specialised corpora. The dataset contains corpora in three languages and four domains, leading to a total of more than 100k annotations, made over almost 600k tokens. It was made publicly available during a shared task we organised, in which five international teams competed to automatically extract terms from the same test data. This illustrated how ACTER can contribute towards advancing the state-of-the-art. It also revealed that there is still a lot of room for improvement, with moderate scores even for the best teams. Therefore, the second part of this dissertation was devoted to researching how supervised machine learning techniques might contribute. The traditional, hybrid approach to automatic term extraction relies on a combination of linguistic and statistical clues to detect terms. An initial list of unique candidate terms is extracted based on linguistic information (e.g., part-of-speech patterns) and this list is filtered based on statistical metrics that use frequencies to measure whether a candidate term might be relevant. The result is a ranked list of candidate terms. HAMLET – Hybrid, Adaptable Machine Learning Approach to Extract Terminology – was developed based on this traditional approach and applies machine learning to efficiently combine more information than could be used with a rule-based approach. This makes HAMLET less susceptible to typical issues like low recall on rare terms. While domain and language have a large impact on results, robust performance was reached even without domain- specific training data, and HAMLET compared favourably to a state-of-the-art rule-based system. Building on these findings, the third and final part of the project was dedicated to investigating methodologies that are even further removed from the traditional approach. Instead of starting from an initial list of unique candidate terms, potential terms were labelled immediately in the running text, in their original context. Two sequential labelling approaches were developed, evaluated and compared: a feature- based conditional random fields classifier, and a recurrent neural network with word embeddings. The latter outperformed the feature-based approach and was compared to HAMLET as well, obtaining comparable and even better results. In conclusion, this research resulted in an extensive, reusable dataset and three distinct new methodologies for automatic term extraction. The elaborate evaluations went beyond reporting scores and revealed the strengths and weaknesses of the different approaches. This identified challenges for future research, since some terms, especially ambiguous ones, remain problematic for all systems. However, overall, results were promising and the approaches were complementary, revealing great potential for new methodologies that combine multiple strategies.
... As a discipline focused on collection, analysis, definition and presentation of terms that belong to a specific professional field, the primary role of terminology is finding the right equivalents for technical terms in the source language i.e. creating relations between terms and concepts that they represent (Bowker, 2015). There is a significant number of international technical terms among the analysed lexemes that retained their meaning from the language they are taken from. ...
Article
This paper presents the analysis of two-word terminological phrases within distribution system, the specifics of word formation as well as the aspects of interrelation between expert terminology and general vocabulary. Certain lexical and semantic principles in power system terminology in Serbian were pointed out through the analysis of paradigmatic relations, as well as the variation i.e. consistency of their phrasal form upon translation into English. Cross-language influences are particulary discussed, especially foreign origin terminology penetration in the Serbian language. Research results indicate that analysed terms used in its syntactic form can hardly be applied outside the terminology circle which they belong to, given its precise reference to a specific phenomena within the power system, the mode of operation of a specific device or the entire system, an individual part or the wide range of components used in the system, the position or different circumstances peculiar to this profession.
... Unfortunately, MWTs are not always well described or even included in most specialized dictionaries and termbases (Cabezas- García and Faber, 2018). Furthermore, as Bowker (2015) argues, most translators no longer blindly trust language resources. Instead, they tend to use the results obtained in their consultations to search other resources, such as the Internet (Maniez, 2008). ...
Article
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The quality of a specialized translation depends to a great extent on the treatment of multiword terms (MWTs). Since MWTs are not always adequately described or even included in most terminological resources, translators and terminologists must find other ways to deal with them. One method involves the analysis of parallel texts. Traditionally, parallel texts have been a valuable resource for terminology extraction and knowledge acquisition. They can be compiled as comparable corpora (i.e. collections of texts originally written in the source and target languages). Nevertheless, even though comparable corpora can facilitate translation, many translators are often unfamiliar with corpus query techniques. This paper describes a method that identifies Spanish equivalents of English MWTs in corpora, and also provides translators and terminologists with a set of manual corpus query techniques that help to effectively translate MWTs. The comparable corpus compiled was composed of original English and Spanish texts on wind energy generation. The method proposed is based on distributional semantics and was used to identify and compare contextual elements of the concepts in both languages. The results of our study showed that this procedure simplifies and contributes to the accurate identification of MWT translation equivalents in corpora.
... The way terms are collected, described and presented differs according to the scope and the technology at hand. Bowker (2011Bowker ( , 2015 argues convincingly that there is a growing divide between the terminology work of terminologists and that of translators. ...
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Article
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This paper discusses the challenges and benefits of using CAT tools to ensure standardized terminology use in translations in a tertiary education institution. It aims to address the challenges faced in official document translation from Turkish into English and German using consistent terminology. Based on specific institutional needs, a server-based collaboration platform was installed, followed by the collection and assessment of institutional texts translated by various units of the university. After their alignment/import into a server-based translation memory, the core terms used in these texts were then imported into a server-based term base. Implications are discussed and suggestions are made.
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General quality aspects of machine translation (MT) such as adequacy and fluency are studied extensively, more fine-grained aspects such as the terminology translation quality have not received much attention especially in the context of translation studies. The objective of this study is to analyze the types and frequencies of terminology errors in custom statistical machine translation (SMT) and neural machine translation (NMT) with the goal of understanding how MT system type, corpus type and corpus size affect the terminology translation quality. A Turkish – English parallel corpus obtained from cardiology journal abstracts was built from scratch for training domain-specific SMT and NMT engines. Then, this domain-specific corpus is combined with a mixed domain corpus and two more engines were trained. After conducting automatic evaluation and human evaluation on these 4 engines, terminology errors were annotated based on a custom terminology error typology. It was found that the types and frequencies of terminology errors are significantly different in SMT and NMT systems, and that changes in corpus size and corpus type had more drastic impact on NMT compared to SMT. A key contribution of the dissertation to the MT research is the crafted language-agnostic terminology error typology which can be used for evaluating the relative strengths and weakness of different MT systems in terms of terminology. Besides, the finding that NMT systems exhibit different types of term errors with different frequencies implies that postediting guidelines conceived specifically for SMT systems could require changes to accommodate the behavior pattern of NMT.
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In this paper, we examine how methods for evaluating corpora in terms of technical terms can be used for characterising technical documents used as textual materials in translation training in a translation education setup. Technical documents are one of the standard types of textual materials used in translation training courses, and choosing suitable materials for learners is an important issue. In technical documents, technical terms play an essential role. Assessing how terms are used in these documents, therefore, would help translation teachers to choose relevant documents as training materials. As corpus-characterisation methods, we used self-referring measurement of the occurrence of terminology and measurement of the characteristic semantic scale of terms. To examine the practical applicability of these methods to assessing technical documents, we prepared a total of 12 short English texts from the six domains of law, medicine, politics, physics, technology and philosophy (two texts were chosen from each domain), whose lengths ranged from 300 to 1,150 words. We manually extracted terms from each text, and using those terms, we evaluated the nature and status of the textual materials. The analysis shows that even for short texts, the corpus-characterisation methods we provide useful insights into assessing textual materials.
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This article is concerned with cheese production terminology and the appropriate ways of its translation from French to Russian. The paper will analyse French texts related to cheesemaking, describe the corresponding terms registered in French and Russian, and look into the specifics of French-to-Russian rendering of the corresponding terms. Specific attention is paid to equivalent translation, transcription, transliteration, calquing and descriptive translation as methods of translation most appropriate in cases where cheese production terminology is concerned. The following methods used in translating cheese production terminology are reviewed: replacement of the French term by the Russian term bearing the same meaning; equivalent translation; transcription; transliteration; descriptive or explanatory translation; calque translation. The author encourages translators to create a system of priorities for each individual translation case and abide by the generally accepted rules that can be applied in translating terms related to cheese production in any given set of source and target languages.
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Term variation is frequently a translation problem that manifests itself at the intra-language level -given the existence of different term variants for the same concept and at the inter-language level- as a result of different translation equivalents for a term. This article presents a proposal for the development of term variation competence in student translators and interpreters in the framework ofa collaboration project between universities. The assignment consisted on documenting the VariMed term base, containing synonyms of diseases in Spanish and English, with term variants used in Chilean Spanish. A situated and collaborative teaching-learning environment was proposed, where students had to carry out a real-life assignment in a simulated professional environment. Throughout the project, students learned the methodology of ad hoc terminology management, and developed practical and theoretical knowledge about term variation and its management in translation. As a result, students created 1170 term records, 360 corresponding to variants not yet registered in VariMed. The teaching proposal was evaluated by means of a questionnaire and a self-evaluation report. The most problems were reported in the compilation of a Chilean Spanish medical corpus, the identification of term variants and the expert validation phase. Furthermore, students found the learning experience useful for their training as translators/interpreters and evaluated positively its situated nature, especially the collaboration between universities.
Conference Paper
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Translation Dictionaries for Translators: Present Situation and Perspectives for the Future Patrick Leroyer Dictionaries for translation should be conceptualised as lexicographic information tools that are specifically designed to satisfy the information needs of translators in different translation situations throughout the translation process. Leaving out for now the discussion on how translation should really be understood and defined, as scholars in modern translation studies have recently broadened its conceptual features, translation can be seen as a complex communicative and cognitive process involving different sub-processes and tasks, including research prior to translation, reception, transfer, (re)production, revision and post-editing. What are the information needs involved in these processes, and particularly, what are the communicative needs and cognitive needs? Also, translators make up a heterogeneous user-group including translation students, professional translators, and non-professional translators. Finally several variables should be taken into consideration, such as distinctions between translators working on non-specialised texts as opposed to translators working on specialised texts, translation direction, native language, choice of information technology. All these questions and variables raise a major lexicographic challenge: should an ideal dictionary for translation be designed as an autonomous, polyfunctional, standing-alone lexicographic resource, or should it be designed as a collection of interrelated, specific information resources such as collocation dictionaries, thesauruses, corpora of parallel texts, knowledge bases etc. Is it possible to tailor the lexicographic tool to the needs of the individual translator in a given, specific translation situation? This high conceptual complexity explains why dictionaries for translation have been the subject of a great number of lexicographic studies both in theory and practice, including studies of access types, data selection and structuring, data compilation and presentation, user-profiling, dictionary typology etc., as well as studies of effectiveness of different types of translation dictionaries in various usage situations (Fuertes-Olivera 2012, Fuertes-Olivera/Tarp 2014, Leroyer 2010 and 2011, Nielsen 2010, Pastor and Alcina 2010, Tarp 2013, just to name a few). The focus of this paper will lie in a critical discussion of the concepts of Dictionaries for Translation and Information needs of translators. After a brief overview of the most influential theoretical positions in lexicography and their consequences for dictionary making in the field of translation at present, the paper will discuss last-generation translation dictionaries and perspectives for the future. Pastor, V, and Alcina, A. (2010). Search Techniques in Electronic Dictionaries: A classification for translators. International Journal of Lexicography, 8-2010, 307-354. Fuertes-Olivera, Pedro (2012). Online Dictionaries for Assisting Translators of Lsp Texts: “The Accounting Dictionaries”. IJL 25 (2), 191-215. Fuertes-Olivera, Pedro & Tarp, Sven (2014). Theory and Practice of Specialised Online Dictionaries. Lexicographica Series Maior. De Gruyter. Leroyer, Patrick, L'Homme, Marie-Claude & Robichaud, Benoît (2010). Advanced Encoding for Multilingual Access in a Terminological Data Base: A Matter of Balance. In: Bhreathnach, Ú. & De Barra Cusack, F. (eds.): Presenting Terminology and Knowledge Engineering Resources Online: Models and Challenges. Dublin: Dublin City University, 33-54. Leroyer, Patrick (2011). Change of Paradigm in Lexicography: From Linguistics to Information Science and from Dictionaries to Lexicographic Information Tools. In: Fuertes-Olivera, Pedro & Bergenholtz, H. (eds.) e-Lexicography: The Internet, Digital Initiatives and Lexicography. London: Bloomsbury Academic, 121-140. Nielsen, Sandro (2010). Specialised Translation Dictionaries for Learners. In: Fuertes-Olivera, Pedro (red.), Specialised Dictionaries for Learners, Walter de Gruyter, Berlin, 69-82. Tarp, Sven (2013). How Can Dictionaries Assist Translators? In: Sin-wai, Chan, Translation and Bilingual Dictionaries. Lexicographica Series Maior. De Gruyter.
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