Conference PaperPDF Available

Abstract and Figures

The use of massive Machine to Machine (M2M) communications on future mobile networks may lead to a signaling traffic explosion. Small Data Transmission (SDT) procedure appears as an efficient option for M2M small data transfer in Long Term Evolution (LTE). However, this procedure entails more processing load in the Mobility Management Entity (MME). Moreover, the fixed capacity in current LTE core hardware-based infrastructure can limit the scalability of this solution. To overcome this, we propose to: i) virtualize hardware dedicated MME (vMME) using Network Function Virtualization (NFV), ii) prioritize the vMME processing of Human to Human (H2H) signaling messages by means of priority queues, and iii) use the Differentiated Services Code Point (DSCP) field to identify priorities. The results show that, by increasing the number of NFV instances, the vMME capacity can be raised to manage the massive M2M SDT requests. Additionally, they show that the delay increase of H2H control plane procedures, caused by M2M communications, can be mitigated. Therefore, we conclude that our solution eases the deployment of massive M2M communications in future mobile networks.
No caption available
… 
No caption available
… 
No caption available
… 
No caption available
… 
No caption available
… 
Content may be subject to copyright.
MME Support for M2M
Communications using Network
Function Virtualization
Pilar Andres-Maldonado, Pablo Ameigeiras, Jonathan Prados-Garzon,
Juan Jose Ramos-Munoz and Juan Manuel Lopez-Soler
Email: pam91@correo.ugr.es
Department of Signal Theory, Telematics, and Communications
University of Granada
Granada, Spain
The Twelfth Advanced International Conference on Telecommunications
In Long Term Evolution (LTE), the transmission of data from an idle User Equipment (UE) requires the use of the Service Request
procedure to allocate UE's network resources.
One efficient option to convey this type of data packets is Small Data Transmission (SDT), proposed by the 3GPP.
Outline of the presentation
Introduction
Objective
System Model
Proposal
Evaluation and results
Conclusion
Department of Signal Theory, Telematics, and Communications
University of Granada
M2M
Machine to Machine
H2H
Human to Human
UE
User
Equipment
LTE
Long
Term Evolution
MME
Mobility
Management Entity
SDT
Small Data
Transmission
RRC
Radio
Resource Control
NFV
Network
Function Virtualization
In Long Term Evolution (LTE), the transmission of data from an idle User Equipment (UE) requires the use of the Service Request
procedure to allocate UE's network resources.
One efficient option to convey this type of data packets is Small Data Transmission (SDT), proposed by the 3GPP.
Introduction
Massive Machine to Machine (M2M) communications on mobile
networks may lead to a signaling traffic explosion.
Signaling procedures in Long Term Evolution (LTE) generate excessive
signaling for small data transmissions.
Department of Signal Theory, Telematics, and Communications
University of Granada
One of the 3GPP proposals is a
dedicated procedure to convey
this type of data packets, named
as Small Data Transmission (SDT).
Simplified SDT procedure sequence [1].
In Long Term Evolution (LTE), the transmission of data from an idle User Equipment (UE) requires the use of the Service Request
procedure to allocate UE's network resources.
One efficient option to convey this type of data packets is Small Data Transmission (SDT), proposed by the 3GPP.
Objective
Problem: The adoption of the SDT procedure increases Mobile
Management Entity (MME) functionalities. This, combined the fixed
capacity of current core LTE hardware-based infrastructure, can limit
the scalability of the SDT solution.
The objective of this work is to propose a solution to handle the
foreseen increase of signaling traffic in MME entities due to massive
M2M communications deployment.
Department of Signal Theory, Telematics, and Communications
University of Granada
Architecture reference model for 1:N mapping [1].
System Model
Department of Signal Theory, Telematics, and Communications
University of Granada
We consider a LTE network, with a MME, which handles UEs control
procedures requests.
Two types of communications: Human to Human (H2H) and M2M.
LTE Architecture reference model.
Proposed solution
Our solution is composed by three main points:
1. Replacing conventional hardware dedicated MME entities by
Network Functions Virtualization (NFV) instances, called
virtualized MME (vMME).
2. Prioritizing the vMME processing of H2H signaling messages over
signaling messages of delay tolerant M2M communications.
3. Using the Differentiated Services Code Point (DSCP) classes to
identify the priority of the signaling packets in the control plane.
Department of Signal Theory, Telematics, and Communications
University of Granada
Proposal: Virtualized MME
Department of Signal Theory, Telematics, and Communications
University of Granada
The mapping option decomposes each LTE core entity into multiple
elements:
The front end (FE)
A stateless virtual component (W)
The state database (SDB).
Architecture reference model for 1:N mapping [2].
Proposal: Priority Queue Discipline
Organization of the signaling messages received by the vMME
through non-preemptive priority queues inside vMME NFV instances.
Messages belonging to same priority obey the first-come first-served
discipline.
Department of Signal Theory, Telematics, and Communications
University of Granada
Proposal: Priority Management
DSCP field of the IP packet discerns signaling traffic from different
types of communications.
The eNB will mark the IP datagram of the signaling messages
according to the UE's Radio Resource Control (RRC) Establishment
cause.
Department of Signal Theory, Telematics, and Communications
University of Granada
Evaluation
Three scenarios evaluated:
Scenario 1: The vMME processes signaling messages generated only by
H2H UEs.
Scenario 2: M2M data traffic is conveyed by the SDT procedure with no
priorities. The vMME processes signaling messages generated by H2H
UEs and by M2M UEs.
Scenario 3: The vMME applies the prioritization scheme for M2M UEs.
H2H communications use three possible applications along their
sessions: web browsing, HTTP progressive video and video calling.
Two types of M2M UEs: M2M high priority (HP) devices and M2M low
priority (LP) devices, both send small and infrequent report
transmissions.
Department of Signal Theory, Telematics, and Communications
University of Granada
Results I
Department of Signal Theory, Telematics, and Communications
University of Granada
The mean vMME response time
increases exponentially with the
number of H2H UEs.
When
𝑇 =
𝑇
𝑀𝐴𝑋 = 3 ms, the
dimensioned NFV instances of the
vMME increase, represented as a
new curve.
vMME response time in Scenarios 1 and 2
(three M2M devices per each H2H UE).
Results II
Department of Signal Theory, Telematics, and Communications
University of Granada
vMME response time in Scenarios 1 and 3
(three M2M devices per each H2H UE).
The prioritized treatment
prevents the increase of the
mean vMME response time in
H2H signaling traffic caused by
the processing of the M2M
traffic.
Conclusions
As the signaling messages treatment of the MME is equal for H2H and
M2M, massive M2M deployment will rise the MME response time for
H2H procedures.
MME virtualization increases scalability and flexibility in the network
control plane.
Giving priority to H2H control traffic can mitigate their increase in
delay experienced in the vMME when delay tolerant M2M
communications are included.
Department of Signal Theory, Telematics, and Communications
University of Granada
Thank you!
Department of Signal Theory, Telematics, and Communications
University of Granada
[1] 3GPP TR 23.887 Study on MTC and other mobile data applications communications enhancements,
[2] T. Taleb et al., “EASE: EPC as a service to ease mobile core network deployment over cloud,” Network, IEEE,
vol. 29, no. 2, 2015, pp. 7888.
... As an exception, the DMME architecture in [151], [152] separates the MME VNF into DMME nodes, which are similar to MMPs, and a reliable object storage (ROS) subsystem. In three-tier architectures such as Yusuke et al. [153], Gopika et al. [143], and vMME [145], [146], there is also a front-end load balancer, which is the same as the one in the two-tier architecture. However, all user-related session states, which are previously stored the MMP entities of the two-tier architecture are now stored in a separate database (DB) or a session database (SDB). ...
... However, all user-related session states, which are previously stored the MMP entities of the two-tier architecture are now stored in a separate database (DB) or a session database (SDB). As a result, the MMPs become stateless components such as Workers in [143] or MME Service Logics (SL) in [145], [146]. By splitting the MME VNF into two or three functional layers, it is easy to scale in/out the resource of each component independently and effectively, even without affecting on-going sessions (e.g., in the three-tier architecture). ...
... As shown in Table IV, some solutions have been proposed. These include storing the states and contexts in an external database (DB) such as in the three-tier MME architectures ( [143], [145], [146]) or replicating them across the network such as in SCALE [144], Kaippallimalil et al. [171], and Cau et al. [172]. The former scheme has higher reliability but it results in a long delay for acquiring the states. ...
Article
The emergence of two new technologies, namely, software defined networking (SDN) and network function virtualization (NFV), have radically changed the development of network functions and the evolution of network architectures. These two technologies bring to mobile operators the promises of reducing costs, enhancing network flexibility and scalability, and shortening the time-to-market of new applications and services. With the advent of SDN and NFV and their offered benefits, the mobile operators are gradually changing the way how they architect their mobile networks to cope with ever-increasing growth of data traffic, massive number of new devices and network accesses, and to pave the way toward the upcoming fifth generation networking. This survey aims at providing a comprehensive survey of state-of-the-art research work, which leverages SDN and NFV into the most recent mobile packet core network architecture, evolved packet core. The research work is categorized into smaller groups according to a proposed four-dimensional taxonomy reflecting the: 1) architectural approach, 2) technology adoption, 3) functional implementation, and 4) deployment strategy. Thereafter, the research work is exhaustively compared based on the proposed taxonomy and some added attributes and criteria. Finally, this survey identifies and discusses some major challenges and open issues, such as scalability and reliability, optimal resource scheduling and allocation, management and orchestration, and network sharing and slicing that raise from the taxonomy and comparison tables that need to be further investigated and explored.
... In [9], the cost of VNF/VNFC deployment strategies is analyzed in terms of data center resources such as computing and networking, and vMME is 1:N mapping, which is decomposed as signaling load balancer (SLB) and mobility management processor (MMP) VNFCs. In [10] and [11], vMME is decoupled into three functional entities, namely the Front-End (FE), the Workers (Ws) and the state DataBase (DB). vMME is formulated as a three-tier queue model by using H2H, M2M service models and priority queues, the average response time of vMME in different scenarios is evaluated assuming that the three functional entities of vMME are running in the data center. ...
Article
Full-text available
Re-architecting mobile network functions and central office is one of the hottest topics of software defined networking (SDN) and network function virtualization (NFV). It is known as Next generation mobile network (NGMN). The main benefit of re-architecting is to bring cloud advantages to mobile operator networks. On the other hand, while the openness is one of the most wanted characteristics of NGMN, many open source implementations have been introduced to accelerate realizing the NGMN such as resource allocation management and orchestration which is considered as one of the hardest problems in SDN, NFV, and network virtualization. To that end, this article has comprehensively reviewed the mobile core architecture, resource management and orchestration evolutions in order to investigate the relay of the mobile operators on open source components, especially in developing countries, in order to build their future NGMN infrastructure for 4G/5G (fourth/fifth generations) access networks. Furthermore, the article shows a large number of open source infrastructure’ components that the operator needs to integrate them together, which is a challenging task. Moreover, the article addresses the integration framework challenges for resource management and orchestration based on continuous integration continuous development (DevOps) model. The outcomes of this work encourage mobile operators to involve and contribute to open source integration efforts as well as build and test their NGMN integration scenarios.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication.