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Abstract

Although psychological safety research has flourished in recent years, and despite the empirical support for the important role of psychological safety in the workplace, several critical questions remain. In order to address these questions, we aggregate theoretical and empirical works, and draw on 136 independent samples representing over 22,000 individuals and nearly 5,000 groups, to conduct a comprehensive meta-analysis on the antecedents and outcomes of psychological safety. We not only present the nomological network of psychological safety, but also extend this research in four important ways. First, we compare effect sizes to determine the relative effectiveness of antecedents to psychological safety. Second, we examine the extent to which psychological safety influences both task performance and organizational citizenship behaviors over and beyond related concepts such as positive leader relations and work engagement. Third, we examine whether research design characteristics and national culture alter validities within the nomological network, thus promoting a more accurate and contextualized understanding of psychological safety. Finally, we test the homology assumption by comparing the effect sizes of the antecedents and outcomes of psychological safety across individual and group levels of analysis. We conclude with a discussion of the areas in need of future examination.

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... The supervisors manifest justice through interactions (interactional justice) (Bies, 2001;Bies and Moag, 1986;Greenberg, 1993), fair procedures (procedural justice) and distributed outcomes (distributive justice) (Cohen-Charash and Spector, 2001;Thibaut and Walker, 1975). Lack of justice affects employees' psychological processes, and psychological safety explains these processes (Frazier et al., 2017;Lee et al., 2020). Psychological safety refers to a feeling when employees are "able to show and employ oneself without fear of negative consequences to self-image, status or career" (Kahn, 1990, p. 708). ...
... First, we extend the research on supervisory justice by stretching our understanding of justice-conflict processes by positioning psychological safety as a mediator (Akram et al., 2018). Despite extant research on leaders' role in shaping employee attitude (Choi et al., 2020), the understanding of how immediate supervisors assure psychological safety is limited (Frazier et al., 2017). Second, theoretically, this study contributes to the social exchange theory (SET) and deontic justice perspective. ...
... 2.3 Employees' psychological safety and conflict with the supervisor Psychological safety is one of the important psychological factors in organizational behavior to predict positive workplace outcomes at the individual and team levels (Edmondson, 2018;Frazier et al., 2017;Newman et al., 2017). When employees feel psychologically safe, it fosters agreements and minimizes conflicts (Mansour and Tremblay, 2018). ...
Article
Purpose Building on social exchange and deontic justice theory, this study aims to examine the relationship between supervisory justice (i.e. interactional, procedural and distributive) and conflict (i.e. relationship, process and task) through subordinates’ perceptions of psychological safety. Moreover, the authors hypothesize that interactional justice differentiation (IJD) within a workgroup at the group level interacts with supervisory justice at the individual level, affecting subordinates’ psychological safety and conflict. Design/methodology/approach Data were collected using a survey conducted among 378 service sector (banks, hospitals and universities) employees working under 54 supervisors. Findings Multi-level data analysis demonstrates that supervisory justice positively influences psychological safety, negatively affecting conflict. Moreover, psychological safety mediates the supervisory justice–conflict relationship. A cross-level interaction partially supports the conditional indirect effect of IJD in the supervisory justice–conflict relationship via psychological safety. Originality/value Following moral principles based on a deontic perspective, this study stretches the understanding of how to treat employees in a workgroup while creating a healthier working environment to minimize conflict fairly. This study extends the limited research on supervisory justice by conceptualizing employees’ perceptions of justice beyond an individual-level analysis.
... Since leadership practices are typically studied from the perspective of subordinates, in the present study we concentrate on leaders' perceptions and experiences. We focus specifically on the leaders' perceptions of good practices in leading psychosocial safety climate (PSC; i.e., organizational climate for employee psychological safety and health) [11], team psychological safety (i.e., team's shared belief that the team is safe for interpersonal risk-taking) [12], and occupational well-being, as these aspects have an essential role in not only health and well-being but also in productivity at work [13][14][15]. We examine leaders' views on leading psychological safety, both on their own part on team-or unitlevel, and in their perceptions, experiences, and ideas on organizational level leadership practices related to psychosocial safety climate. ...
... There is reason to believe that, based on their own experience of leadership during the pandemic, leaders are able to point out elements that are essential in leading psychological safety in remote work. Furthermore, it has been argued that research on psychological safety and leadership would benefit from examining the topic from multiple perspectives [14,32]. Therefore, this study examines the topic from the perspective of the leaders themselves. ...
... It includes several team-climate related aspects such as believing that team members will not reject each other for being themselves, and experiencing that team members care about each other as individuals, have positive intentions to one another, and respect the competence of others [12,15]. Team psychological safety has proved to have a pivotal role in many positive workplace behaviors, aspects of well-being and job attitudes, such as learning behavior, work engagement, and job satisfaction [14,15]. ...
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This study examines leading psychosocial safety climate (PSC) within the organization and psychological safety in teams in remote work conditions caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. These topical working life phenomena have an essential role in health, well-being and productivity in today’s working life, but they have rarely been studied in remote work context. A total of 26 supervisors and leaders at three Finnish universities participated in semi-structured interviews. The data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis, resulting in four main categories: supportive and challenging aspects of leading psychological safety and well-being, supportive and challenging aspects of organizational psychosocial safety climate leadership, support for working as a supervisor, and characteristics specific to working in academia. The results indicate that leading psychological safety remotely requires more time, deliberation and intentionality than when working face to face, and that the role of remote interaction is underlined in it. As to PSC, it is important to improve the cohesion in leading psychological safety and health in academic organizations. How PSC is led in the organizations affects not only the general psychosocial working conditions, but also the possibilities for good leadership of psychological safety in smaller units in the organization. The study makes a novel contribution especially in understanding (1) leadership of PSC and psychological safety in remote work conditions, and (2) the reciprocal relations between leading psychological safety and well-being at the organizational level and the team level.
... Still, how to reach a team's potential has puzzled both team researchers and practitioners. Recent research strongly suggests that team psychological safety plays an important role in team performance (Edmondson & Lei, 2014;Frazier et al., 2017). Team psychological safety refers to a climate where team members are "able to show and employ one's self without fear of negative consequences of self-image, status, or career" (Kahn, 1990, p. 708). ...
... Psychological safety has been studied at different levels: individual, group (team), and organizational (Frazier et al., 2017). Liang et al. (2012) reported that individual perceptions of psychological safety collected just 6 weeks apart were only moderately correlated, indicating that levels of psychological safety may fluctuate over time. ...
... Two literature reviews (Edmondson & Lei, 2014;Newman et al., 2017) and two meta-analyses (Frazier et al., 2017;Sanner & Bunderson, 2015) strongly support the existence of a positive relationship between team psychological safety and team performance. However, this relationship has not been particularly studied in the context of management teams. ...
Article
Team psychological safety, as a shared perception, is persistently found to be important for team performance. However, team members may not necessarily agree on the level of safety within the team. What happens when team members have dispersed perceptions of team psychological safety? Through a survey-based study involving 1,149 members of 160 management teams, we found that, not only is the level of team psychological safety positively related to team performance, but also that sharedness among team members (team psychological safety climate strength) moderates this relationship. The more team members agree on the level of team psychological safety, the stronger the effect of team psychological safety on team performance. Further, having at least one member who perceives the team as psychologically safe may lift team performance in a team of low psychological safety. We discuss theoretical and practical implications of looking beyond average levels of team psychological safety for building high-performing teams.
... Despite the rise in the integration of teamwork in engineering education, how to cultivate teamwork skills in the classroom remains unclear [11]. While meta-analysis substantiates that various factors that could affect psychological safety in different scenarios [12,13], the relative importance to engineering design education remains unclear. To have a better understanding of team performance, there should be more information on the dynamic assembly of teams, which is also lacking in current literature [14]. ...
... One major theme of psychological safety is that it facilitates the contribution of ideas and thus stimulates the team performance [12]. Specifically, meta-analytic evidence demonstrated that the relationship between psychological safety and learning, as well as performance is the strongest, especially when having complex, knowledge-intensive tasks that involve creativity and sense-making [13]. Higher psychological safety has the potential to increase creativity by allowing people to express their opinions in a dignified and respectful manner [29]. ...
... This implies that psychological safety could be subject to several factors. For example, interpersonal relationships, group dynamics (also an output of psychological safety that impacts further workplace practices [13]), leadership, and organizational norms are just four of factors that have been identified as inputs of psychological safety [36]. Additionally, specific team behaviors or learning behaviors could positively relate to psychological safety. ...
Article
While psychological safety has been shown to be a consistent, generalizable, and multilevel predictor of outcomes in team performance across fields that can positively impact the creative process, there has been limited investigations of psychological safety in the engineering domain. Without this knowledge we do not know if or when fostering psychological safety in a team environment is most important. This study provides one of the first attempts at answering these questions through an empirical study with 69 engineering design student teams over the course of 4- and 8-week design projects. Specifically, we sought to identify the role of psychological safety on the number and quality (judged by goodness) of ideas generated. In addition, we explored the role of psychological safety on ownership bias and goodness in the concept screening process. The results of the study identified that while psychological safety was negatively related to the number of ideas a team developed, it was positively related to the quality (goodness) of the ideas developed. This result indicates that while psychological safety may not increase team productivity in terms of the number of ideas produced, it may impact team effectiveness in coming up with viable candidate ideas to move forward in the design process. In addition, there was no relationship between psychological safety and ownership bias during concept screening. These findings provide quantitative evidence on the role of psychological safety on engineering team idea production and identify areas for further study.
... The rapid proliferation of computer-mediated communication (Peñarroja et al., 2015), the complex and hypercompetitive nature of the business environment (Frazier et al., 2017), and the threat and surge in the Coronavirus disease pandemic (Whillans et al., 2021) make the adoption of a new organizational form-virtual team becoming more prevalent and urgent. A virtual team refers to "a group of individuals who are geographically Frontiers in Psychology 02 frontiersin.org ...
... When employees possess a high level of PS, they are likely to believe that their behaviors and activities will not produce undesirable consequences. In the process, they are encouraged to ask questions, propose new ideas, solicit feedbacks, express themselves, and share work-related skills (Edmondson et al., 2004;Zhang et al., 2010;Frazier et al., 2017). Due to the substantial benefits of PS, creating this positive state is a central issue in psychological and organizational research on PS. ...
... Due to the substantial benefits of PS, creating this positive state is a central issue in psychological and organizational research on PS. Previous studies revealed that various factors could predict PS, such as personality traits, leader behaviors, interpersonal trust, organizational support, and work design (Kahn, 1990;Frazier et al., 2017). Among these, this study will focus on how TC affects virtual team members' PS. ...
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Examining the influence of trust in fostering knowledge sharing behavior (KSB) in virtual teams is of great research value in the current complex, dynamic, and competitive era of a knowledge economy. This study investigated the relationship between trust in coworkers (TC) and KSB. Based on social information processing theory and social cognitive theory, we developed a multilevel moderated mediation model where the team members’ psychological safety (PS) was considered a mediator, while team virtuality (TV) and knowledge sharing self-efficacy (KSSE) acted as team and individual-level moderators, respectively. On surveying 282 individuals in 37 virtual teams of three Chinese internet companies, we found that TC positively affected team members’ KSB and this relationship was fully mediated by team members’ PS. Our findings also demonstrated that the effect of TC on KSB depended on the degree of TV and employees’ KSSE. Specifically, when TV and KSSE were higher, the TC–PS and PS–KSB relationship and the mediating effects of PS in the TC–PS–KSB relationship were all stronger. Our study extends the trust-KSB literature by identifying the psychological mechanism and boundary conditions in the TC-KSB relationship. Moreover, our findings also offer valuable managerial implications for virtual team managers on facilitating team members’ PS and KSB.
... As such, it focuses on relational and interpersonal harm (e.g., getting yelled at, being ostracized; Edmondson, 1996). When present, psychological safety acts as a social resource that aids reducing job demands, achieving work goals, and stimulating learning (Frazier et al., 2017). In other words, effectively learning and developing professional skills (Rich et al., 2010) as well as safe performance (Vogus et al., 2010) rely on feeling psychologically safe. ...
... As such, psychological safety is an antecedent of organizational safety. Psychological safety is enabled by supportive leadership (Nembhard & Edmondson, 2006), peers, and organizational practices (Frazier et al., 2017). In general, norms and practices that encourage experimentation, foster interdependence, and treat errors as an opportunity for learning enhance psychological safety among workers (Edmondson, 1999). ...
... Regarding infusions, this vulnerability is further accentuated in three ways. First, infusion tasks are highly consequential, as infusion-related medical errors can result in patient death and lawsuits targeting the nurse or hospital (Hadaway et al., 2014), and when the work is conducted individually, there is lower psychological safety (Frazier et al., 2017). Second, according to experts in the field, infusion task reallocation was undertaken in many organizations to cut costs by eliminating infusion specialist positions and laying off highly qualified nurses, creating a lower sense of professional security and trust in leadership among remaining nurses (Hadaway, 2013). ...
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Background Research suggests that changes in nurse roles can compromise perceived organizational safety. However, over the past 15 years, many infusion tasks have been reallocated from specialty nurse infusion teams to individual generalist nurses—a process we call infusion task reallocation. These changes purportedly benefit employees by allowing care providers to practice at the “top of their license.” However, job demands–resources theory suggests that changing core task arrangements can either enrich or merely enlarge jobs depending on their effects on demands and resources, with corresponding consequences for performance (e.g., safety). There is relatively little research directly exploring these effects and their mechanisms. Purpose This study examines the relationship between infusion task reallocation and perceptions of organizational safety. We also explore the extent to which this relationship may be mediated by infusion-related resources and psychological safety. Methodology Data were collected through a survey of 623 nurses from 580 U.S. hospitals. The relationship between infusion task reallocation and perceptions of organizational safety, as well as the potential mediating roles of infusion-related resources and psychological safety, was examined using structural equation modeling. Results Infusion task reallocation was negatively associated with respondents’ perceptions of organizational safety, with nurses working in organizations without an infusion team indicating lower perceptions of organizational safety than nurses working in organizations with an infusion team. This relationship was mediated by nurse perceptions of psychological safety within the organization, but not by infusion-related resources, suggesting that task reallocation is associated with lower perceived organizational safety because nurses feel less psychologically safe rather than because of perceived technical constraints. Practice Implications The results indicate that, although infusion task reallocation may be a cost-reducing approach to managing clinical responsibilities, it enlarges rather than enriches the job through higher demands and fewer resources for nurses and, in turn, lower perceived organizational safety.
... In particular, psychological safety can be an important mechanism to reduce stress by creating a climate of trust and risk-free communication." Besides from the obvious need for psychological safety to deal with changeable workplaces and stress, a meta-analytic review by Frazier et al. (2017) also showed the effect of psychological safety on the performance of teams. Psychological safety was significantly linked to task performance, information sharing, commitment, learning behavior and creativity. ...
... According to Edmondson (2021): "More often than not, even though the organization lacks a toxic environment, people may still shy away from the interpersonal risks necessary to making progress on the transformative strategies the market environment demands." A lot of research points toward the importance of highquality relationships to build psychological safety (Carmeli et al., 2009;Frazier et al., 2017;Newman et al., 2017). And although there is much research into the benefits of psychological safety and why it is necessary, there is little known about why there is still such a lack in psychological safety. ...
... Many previous studies have focused on what people need to do in connection with others to create psychological safety and less on what they need to do in connection with themselves and on the individual characteristics that advance the development of relationships conducive to psychological safety. Frazier et al. (2017) did a meta-review into the antecedents of psychological safety and found much previous research that focused on interpersonal aspects. For example, in their meta-analysis of individual-level psychological safety they found 30 significant positive correlations with psychological safety for positive leader relations, 26 for work design characteristics and 24 for supportive work context. ...
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Psychological safety is important for the well-being and productivity of people in the workplace. Psychological safety becomes even more important and even more difficult to maintain in times of uncertainty. Previous research mainly focused on the influence of and on interpersonal relationships. This study applies an individual perspective by investigating what is needed on an individual level in order to build psychological safety. The expectation was that self-compassion induces an individual to experience higher positive affect, and this advances the development of positive relations and social acceptance. Moreover, we assumed that the mediation of the relationship between self-compassion and positive relations and social acceptance by positive affect is moderated by the level of basic need satisfaction. Participants ( N = 560) from the Netherlands and Belgium completed an online questionnaire about their level of self-compassion, basic need satisfaction, positive affect and positive relations and social acceptance. Using hierarchical regression analyses for moderated mediation analysis, results showed that self-compassion and positive affect had a significant positive effect on positive relations and social acceptance. Positive affect significantly mediated the relationship between self-compassion and positive relations and social acceptance, when basic need satisfaction was low, but not when basic need satisfaction was high. Our research showed that individuals need either their basic needs satisfied or self-compassion so they can build the high-quality relations needed to stimulate psychological safety. This finding shifts attention from the dyadic relationship to the individual and highlights important factors at the individual level which advance the development of high-quality relationships with others.
... Psychosocial factors at work are well-known determinants of workers' health and well-being. Psychological safety (PS) at work has received much attention as an important psychosocial factor in workers' positive mental health and other work-related outcomes, such as work engagement, satisfaction, communication, and performance [1,2]. PS describes workers' perceptions of the consequences of taking interpersonal risks in a particular context, such as a workplace [3,4]. ...
... Previous studies related to PS have frequently used MLR analysis [31,32], and this study followed traditional formulas [33,34] to estimate the relationship between theoretically and practically related variables. As literature suggested [1,2], PS can influence outcomes investigated in this study theoretically and conceptually. In addition to the full scale, we examined the relation of three subscales, putting each scale in the model individually (Model 1) and simultaneously (Model 2). ...
... This measure is the first Japanese scale that can evaluate the multidimensional PS of leaders, peers, and teams in the workplace. The associations with other important factors [2] (e.g., creativity, learning behavior) and the mediator role of PS, which recent studies examined [5][6][7][8][9][10][11], were not investigated in this study. Such evidence should be replicated in the future, using this scale in Japan. ...
Article
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Objectives: This study validated the Japanese version of O'Donovan et al.'s (2020) composite measure of the psychological safety scale and examined the associations of psychological safety with mental health and job-related outcomes. Methods: Online surveys were administered twice to Japanese employees in teams of more than three members. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were tested using Cronbach's α and intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC), respectively. Structural validity was examined using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and exploratory factor analysis (EFA). Convergent validity was tested using Pearson's correlation coefficients. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between psychological safety and psychological distress, work engagement, job performance, and job satisfaction. Results: Two hundred healthcare workers and 200 non-healthcare workers were analyzed. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and convergent validity were acceptable. CFA demonstrated poor fit, and EFA yielded a two-factor structure, with team leader as one factor and peers and team forming the second factor. The total score showed significant and expected associations with all outcomes in the adjusted model for all workers. Conclusions: The Japanese version of the measure of the psychological safety scale presented good reliability and validity. Psychological safety is important for employees' mental health and performance.
... Furthermore, psychological safety has been linked to a variety of advantageous organizational outcomes, including promoting knowledge sharing within an organization as well as favorable effects on organizational performance (Baer and Frese 2003). Hence, psychological safety could be translated into a mechanism that lessens stress among employees, thereby lowering their dissatisfaction with their jobs and, consequently, their turnover intentions (Edmondson et al. 2001;Frazier et al. 2017). Psychological safety gives workers the assurance that they will be treated fairly, will not be humiliated or penalized for making decisions, can offer suggestions, or develop ideas for workplacerelated problems. ...
... 708). This description emphasizes the significance of perceiving reduced interpersonal risk because it primarily focuses on individuals' perceptions (Frazier et al. 2017). As a beneficial personal resource, psychological safety is a key explanation for how contextual factors influence different work-related outcomes (Ten Brummelhuis and Bakker 2012). ...
... Furthermore, transformational leaders convey to their staff members organizational value, which is an essential source of psychological safety (Yin et al. 2019). According to Frazier et al. (2017), it makes sense that supervisory support is a significant predictor of psychological safety. On the other side, several research studies have shown that transformational leadership has a direct relationship with workers' intention to turnover (Chen and Wu 2017;Zou et al. 2015;Tang et al. 2015;Khan 2015). ...
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Despite their significant role in the performance of hotel industry, hotel workers are suffering from high rates of turnover, due to several reasons, particularly amid the COVID-19 pandemic. The pandemic has had numerous negative consequences on hotel workers, including their intention to leave the job or/and career. This study is an attempt to investigate the impact of transformational leadership on turnover intention amid COVID-19 and how psychological safety can intermediate this relationship. The study used a quantitative research approach via a pre-test instrument, self-distributed and collected from hotel workers at different regions in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Valid responses from 1228 workers, analyzed through a structural equation modeling (SEM) of AMOS version 23, showed that transformational leadership has a significant negative impact on turnover intention as hypothesized. Nevertheless, it has a significant positive impact on psychological safety, whereas psychological safety has a significant negative impact on turnover intention. The most important finding of this study was the perfect mediating effect of psychological safety in the link between transformational leadership and workers’ turnover intention. This finding confirms that psychological safety has the ability to change the above-mentioned link. In other words, the presence of psychological safety ensures negative turnover intention, even if transformational leadership practices do not exist. The findings have implications for scholars and practitioners, especially in tourism and hotel context, in relation to the role of psychological safety and transformational leadership in creating a sustainable working environment to maintain a lower turnover intention.
... When team members experience PS, they regard the team to be a protected, safe context in which they can take risks without the potential for negative consequences (Edmondson, 1999;Garvin et al., 2008). Thus, PS forms the basis for a supportive learning environment for individuals, teams, and organizations (Edmondson, 1999;Garvin et al., 2008;Frazier et al., 2017;Harvey et al., 2019). ...
... Although considerable theory and research link PS with numerous organizational outcomes, for the most part, extant studies are based on state descriptions at one specific point in time (Frazier et al., 2017). Recently, researchers' attention has shifted to PS as an emerging phenomenon with limits in its dynamics and mode of action over time (e.g., Gerlach and Gockel, 2018;Deng et al., 2019;Harvey et al., 2019;Higgins et al., 2020). ...
Article
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Psychological safety (PS) is a shared belief among team members that it is safe to take interpersonal risks. It can enhance team learning, experimentation with new ideas, and team performance. Considerable research has examined the positive effects of PS in diverse organizational contexts and is now shifting its focus toward exploring the nature of PS itself. This study aims to enhance our understanding of PS antecedents and development over time. Based on the model of team faultlines and research on team diversity, we examined the effects of demographic faultlines, team member personality, and member competencies on the development of PS. Over 5 months, 61 self-managed teams ( N = 236) assessed their PS at the beginning, midpoint, and end of a research project. Results of a multilevel growth curve model show that PS decreased from project beginning to end. Initial levels of PS were especially low when teams had strong demographic faultlines and when team members differed in neuroticism. PS decreased more strongly over time when team members were diverse in agreeableness and assessed their task-related competencies to be relatively high. Our study identifies time and team composition attributes as meaningful predictors for the development of PS. We present ideas for future research and offer suggestions for how and when to intervene to help teams strengthen PS throughout their collaboration.
... Likewise, experimenting with new workplace initiatives may be seen negatively as showing off or attempting to destabilise current working norms (Newman et al., 2017). As a result of such individual risks, employees are reluctant to share knowledge, inhibiting individual and organisational learning (Frazier et al., 2017). Hence, the ability to provide a psychologically safe environment is critical to encouraging employees' perspectives to be heard as part of organisational learning. ...
... Doing so creates a work environment where individuals can show and employ themselves without fear of negative consequences on self-image, status or career. From another perspective, a psychologically safe environment is a shared belief that the team feels safe in interpersonal risk-taking where team members feel accepted and respected (Frazier et al., 2017). This explanation is further shown in our results, where psychological safety is crucial in reducing knowledge hiding and encouraging knowledge sharing behaviour. ...
Article
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Purpose-The recent COVID-19 pandemic caused a severe economic downturn. Employees working in these organisations face employment uncertainty. The pandemic disrupted their daily routines, and it added a layer of complexity to the already resource-constrained environment. During these times, employees would conserve their resources to maintain competitiveness, one of which is knowledge hiding. While economic activities are resuming, the appearance of new variants could mean the transition towards endemicity could be put on hold. Hence, there is a need to rethink the behaviour of employees as they would have elevated levels of anxiety towards resuming daily work activities. Therefore, this study aims to address the question of understanding employees' perspectives toward knowledge sharing and knowledge hiding. Design/methodology/approach-Drawing on the conservation of resources theory, social learning theory and the social exchange theory (SET), a conceptual framework involving ethical leadership was developed to examine if knowledge hiding or knowledge sharing behaviour is a resource for employees during these times. The partial least squares method of structural equation modelling was used to analyse results from 271 white-collar employees from Singapore. Findings-The results show that ethical leadership encourages knowledge sharing but does not reduce knowledge hiding. At the same time, knowledge hiding, not knowledge sharing, improves one's perception of work performance. Additionally, psychological safety is the key construct that reduces knowledge hiding and encourages sharing behaviour. Originality/value-Overall, this study extends the theories, demonstrating that, first and foremost, knowledge hiding is a form of resource that provides employees with an added advantage in work performance during the endemic. At the same time, we provide a new perspective that ethical leaders' The authors thank the anonymous reviewers for their insightful suggestions and Dr Gabriel C.W., GIM, for his contributions to the subsequent data analysis.
... Relationships with leaders signal key information to employees concerning support, resilience, consistency, trust, and competence (Kahn, 1990). According to Frazier et al. (2017), HRM practices are all significant antecedents of psychological safety. Wellmaintained human resource management systems may decrease employees' perceptions of uncertainty by providing them with a clearer and more stable work environment. . ...
... Psychological safety perceptions can be developed and maintained by providing training, work design, and supportive leader -member relations (Frazier et al., 2017). Therefore, hospital management can create practices such as shared goals, shared knowledge, mutual respect, job freedom, and autonomy (HRM practices) to foster psychological safety. ...
The study aims to look into the mechanism by which perceived HRM practices impact nurses' engagement, by specifically looking into the role of psychological availability and psychological safety. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted among nurses (n =465). Data was collected from nurses of NABH accredited hospitals by employing two stage sampling. Results indicate significant positive association between HRM practices and employee engagement. Role of psychological safety and psychological availability as mediators was also confirmed. The study supported the proposition that HRM practices affected employee engagement through psychological safety and then psychological availability thus approving serial mediation. This research also contributes to a more comprehensive understanding of the ways to achieve employees' psychological safety, availability, and thus nurse engagement.
... Alun perin psykologisen turvallisuuden käsite on esitetty yksilön kokemuksena, joka tukee erityisesti organisaation oppimista ja muutosta (Frazier, Fainshmidt, Klinger, Pezeshkan & Vracheva, 2017;Schein & Bennis, 1965). Myöhemmin tulkintoihin on tullut mukaan psykologisen turvallisuuden merkitys yksilön työrooliin kiinnittymisessä ja työhön sitoutumisessa (esim. ...
Article
Today’s working life is no longer as stable and predictable as it was in the past. Employees are therefore required to develop themselves and learn new things. This often takes place in a complex and multilevel organizational system where cooperation, open communication and courage to experiment with new things are central. Psychological safety is required for employees to have the courage to bring out their ideas and try new things. The aim of this study was to examine the level of psychological safety in the Finnish working life and its association with employees’ innovative behavior. The data was drawn from the Quality of Work Life Survey of Statistics Finland from 2018. Those who worked in teams, had a shared task and were able to plan their own work were included in this study (n=3,028). Logistic regression models were used in the analyses. According to the results, a high level of psychological safety was significantly associated with employees’ innovative behavior when it was assessed with the number of initiatives taken (OR=1.53, 95% CI 1.31, 1.78) and the possibility to apply new ideas (OR=3.28, 95% CI 2.76, 3.89). The results were similar in subgroups stratified by gender, professional status, predictability or digitality of work, and did not change essentially when age, gender or professional status were adjusted for in the models. Based on the results of this study, promoting psychological safety is important for organizational innovation in different professions and different types of work.
... A team may not be able to collaborate properly if there is a lack of psychological safety; hence, it is assumed that psychological safety is a necessary but insufficient condition for increasing interprofessional collaboration and workplace effectiveness. 85 Third, structured guidelines and protocols seem to be beneficial for communication between care professionals, thereby impacting IPCI. Team meetings, especially formal meetings, can be held more efficiently by using protocols, that have positive effects on hierarchy and conflicts resolution between team members. ...
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Objective: To identify strategies and interventions used to improve interprofessional collaboration and integration (IPCI) in primary care. Design: Scoping review DATA SOURCES: Specific Medical Subject Headings terms were used, and a search strategy was developed for PubMed and afterwards adapted to Medline, Eric and Web of Science. Study selection: In the first stage of the selection, two researchers screened the article abstracts to select eligible papers. When decisions conflicted, three other researchers joined the decision-making process. The same strategy was used with full-text screening. Articles were included if they: (1) were in English, (2) described an intervention to improve IPCI in primary care involving at least two different healthcare disciplines, (3) originated from a high-income country, (4) were peer-reviewed and (5) were published between 2001 and 2020. Data extraction and synthesis: From each paper, eligible data were extracted, and the selected papers were analysed inductively. Studying the main focus of the papers, researchers searched for common patterns in answering the research question and exposing research gaps. The identified themes were discussed and adjusted until a consensus was reached among all authors. Results: The literature search yielded a total of 1816 papers. After removing duplicates, screening titles and abstracts, and performing full-text readings, 34 papers were incorporated in this scoping review. The identified strategies and interventions were inductively categorised under five main themes: (1) Acceptance and team readiness towards collaboration, (2) acting as a team and not as an individual; (3) communication strategies and shared decision making, (4) coordination in primary care and (5) integration of caregivers and their skills and competences. Conclusions: We identified a mix of strategies and interventions that can function as 'building blocks', for the development of a generic intervention to improve collaboration in different types of primary care settings and organisations.
... Team debriefings can also support open, psychologically safe environments where comments can be shared that acknowledge the circumstances contributing to undesired outcomes [45]. Psychological safety in teams is one of the "strongest predictors of team effectiveness" and is fundamental to achieving organizational learning [8,46]. Building and maintaining psychological safety will be critical for organizations that wish to reflect openly now and in the aftermath of the pandemic [8]. ...
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Background: Healthcare workers faced unique challenges during the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic which necessitated rapid adaptation. Clinical event debriefings (CEDs) are one tool that teams can use to reflect after events and identify opportunities for improving their performance and their processes. There are few reports of how teams have used CEDs in the COVID-19 pandemic. Our aim is to explore the issues discussed during COVID-19 CEDs and propose a framework model for qualitatively analyzing CEDs. Methods: This was a descriptive, qualitative study of a hospital-wide CED program at a quaternary children's hospital between March and July 2020. CEDs were in-person, team-led, voluntary, scripted sessions using the Debriefing in Suspected COVID-19 to Encourage Reflection and Team Learning (DISCOVER-TooL). Debriefing content was qualitatively analyzed using constant comparative coding with an integrated deductive and inductive approach. A novel conceptual framework was proposed for understanding how debriefing content can be employed at various levels in a health system for learning and improvement. Results: Thirty-one debriefings were performed and analyzed. Debriefings had a median of 7 debriefing participants, lasted a median of 10 min, and were associated with multiple systems-based process improvements. Fourteen themes and 25 subthemes were identified and categorized into a novel Input-Mediator-Output-Input Debriefing (IMOID) model. The most common themes included communication, coordination, situational awareness, team member roles, and clinical standards. Conclusions: Teams identified diverse issues in their debriefing discussions related to areas of high performance and opportunities for improvement in their care of COVID-19 patients. This model may help healthcare systems to understand how CED tools can be used to accelerate organizational learning to promote safety and improve outcomes in changing clinical environments.
... behaviors, which could be viewed as a manifestation of low engagement (Kahn, 1990;Lin et al., 2020). Furthermore, a metaanalysis revealed a significant positive association between psychological safety and work engagement (Frazier et al., 2017). Accordingly, it is reasonable to expect that psychological safety is positively associated with work engagement. ...
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Increasing evidences suggest that employees exhibit positive attitudinal and behavioral responses when they attribute their company’s demonstrations of corporate social responsibility as substantive. However, there has been insufficient investigation into the underlying psychological processes through which substantive corporate social responsibility attributions are associated with work engagement. Based on the model of psychological conditions for engagement, we proposed that attributions of substantive CSR are positively related to work engagement via work meaningfulness, psychological safety, and organization-based self-esteem. We collected two-wave time-lagged questionnaire data from 503 fulltime employees in mainland China. Hierarchical regression was conducted to test hypothesized model using SPSS Process macro. Results indicated that substantive corporate social responsibility attributions positively predicted work engagement; work meaningfulness, psychological safety and organization-based self-esteem parallel mediated this relationship. The findings contribute to the literature of well-being related outcomes of corporate social responsibility attributions and help a thorough understanding of antecedents of work engagement. It expands our knowledge of the new mechanisms in the relationship between corporate social responsibility attributions and work engagement. Our findings also could shed lights on the management for employees’ work engagement.
... Previous studies have found that leadership, interpersonal relationships, and group dynamics impact psychological safety within an organization (Frazier et al., 2017). Additionally, researchers have found that the amount of formal mentoring workers receive at work is an important resource that can boost their perceptions of psychological safety (Chen et al., 2014). ...
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To fill the research gap and expand the body of knowledge on leadership communication and internal communication, the current study investigates the effect of leader motivating language on psychological safety, job meaningfulness, and psychological availability, and employee advocacy in the United States and India. Through a web survey of 441 participants from the U.S and 354 participants from India, the study confirmed that leader motivating language is positively related with psychological safety, job meaningfulness, psychological availability, and employee advocacy in the United States and India. The study also looked at the relationship that psychological safety, work meaningfulness, and psychological availability have with employee advocacy, a concept that has been described as an indicator of public relations effectiveness and the ultimate test of a relationship between an organization and its employees.
... However, existing research into psychological safety mostly focuses on the workplace (Carmeli et al., 2009;Hu et al., 2018). Previous studies have suggested that a safe psychological status eliminates fear and tension about negative outcomes among employees, leading to improved positive personality and knowledge sharing as well as learning behaviors (Gong et al., 2012;Frazier et al., 2017). Moreover, previous research into the relationship between personality and security also indicates that personality can predict security among Chinese adolescents (Pan et al., 2018). ...
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Objectives This study aimed to identify the relationship among proactive personality, psychological safety, academic self-efficacy and critical thinking, and to further explore whether psychological safety and academic self-efficacy could be a moderator in the association between proactive personality and critical thinking among Chinese medical students. Materials and methods The cross-sectional study was carried out from October to December 2020 in China. Totally, 5,920 valid responses were collected at four Chinese medical universities. Critical thinking, proactive personality, psychological safety, academic self-efficacy and demographic factors were assessed through questionnaires. Hierarchical multiple regression was used to identify interrelationship clusters among variables. Simple slope analyses were performed to explore the moderating effects of psychological safety and academic self-efficacy. Results The mean score of critical thinking among medical students was 3.85 ± 0.61. Proactive personality, psychological safety, and academic self-efficacy were shown to be important factors for critical thinking. Psychological safety and academic self-efficacy moderated the association between proactive personality and critical thinking. A simple slope analysis showed that high psychological safety and academic self-efficacy weakened the impact of proactive personality on critical thinking. Conclusion Most medical students surveyed in China might have relatively high levels of critical thinking. Psychological safety and academic self-efficacy moderated the association between proactive personality and critical thinking. More interventions related to psychological safety and academic self-efficacy will be helpful to improve critical thinking among Chinese medical students.
... The goal of the feedback loop will not eliminate interpersonal issues, because some number of issues is simply part of the human condition, but rather to instill a sense that procedures are fair when issues do occur (Konovsky, 2000). Effective communication also fosters an environment of psychological safety in which team members feel empowered to express issues, concerns, and points of disagreement without creating outright fights (Frazier et al., 2017). ...
Article
Progress in psychology has been frustrated by challenges concerning replicability, generalizability, strategy selection, inferential reproducibility, and computational reproducibility. Although often discussed separately, these five challenges may share a common cause: insufficient investment of intellectual and nonintellectual resources into the typical psychology study. We suggest that the emerging emphasis on big-team science can help address these challenges by allowing researchers to pool their resources together to increase the amount available for a single study. However, the current incentives, infrastructure, and institutions in academic science have all developed under the assumption that science is conducted by solo principal investigators and their dependent trainees, an assumption that creates barriers to sustainable big-team science. We also anticipate that big-team science carries unique risks, such as the potential for big-team-science organizations to be co-opted by unaccountable leaders, become overly conservative, and make mistakes at a grand scale. Big-team-science organizations must also acquire personnel who are properly compensated and have clear roles. Not doing so raises risks related to mismanagement and a lack of financial sustainability. If researchers can manage its unique barriers and risks, big-team science has the potential to spur great progress in psychology and beyond.
... A recent meta-analysis Newman et al. (2017) indicates that psychological safety is positively associated with better interpersonal communication, greater knowledge sharing amongst team members and learning behavior at individual and team levels at the workplace. In their meta-analytical work, Frazier et al. (2017) found a correlation between psychological safety and organizational citizenship behavior. ...
Article
This study explores how family incivility is linked to workplace bullying among employees. The study examines the role of psychological safety as an explanatory mechanism linking both. The paper also looks into the moderating roles of optimism between family incivility and psychological safety and organization-based self-esteem (OBSE) between psychological safety and workplace bullying. Design/methodology/approach Drawing from the Conservation of resources theory and Work home resources model the study developed various hypotheses. The proposed relationships were tested using responses gathered from 260 teaching faculty across universities in India. The study used Warp-PLS for data analysis. Findings The findings suggest that psychological safety mediated the relationship between experienced family incivility and workplace bullying. The study also found support for the mediating role of psychological safety. Further, the study has proved that trait optimism and OBSE are boundary conditions influencing the outcomes of family incivility.
... In addition, Yi (2021) showed that business support services catalyze the translation of sustainability intention into action. Finally, personalized business support services such as coaching enhance the entrepreneurs' psychological safety (Chen et al., 2014;Egan and Kim, 2013), in turn promoting feelings of empathy and prosocial behavior (Leung et al., 2014;Stocks et al., 2009), as well as workplace engagement, commitment, and performance gains (Frazier et al., 2017). Based on the aforementioned arguments, we propose: ...
Article
Business incubators (BI) are increasingly expected to nurture sustainability-driven start-ups and contribute to the economy's sustainable transformation. However, while previous (qualitative) research suggested a positive relationship between BI support services and sustainable impacts by entrepreneurs, no study has explored this link statistically, leaving sustainability-driven business incubation (SBI) haphazard and strategically ill-informed. Given the absence of a comprehensible assessment approach, this paper develops a coherent theoretical framework for structuring SBI. Moreover, it quantitatively investigates the relationship between entrepreneurs' usage of various BI support services and their self-proclaimed contributions to the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Building on a sample of 299 German university spin-off start-ups, we provide empirical evidence that BI support services are generally related to the sustainable impacts of entrepreneurs. However, at a more nuanced level, we show that economic and ecological SDGs are associated with only a few BI services. In contrast, social SDGs are attained by a broad support service portfolio. In conclusion, we advise policymakers and BI managers to recognize the diverse support needs of sustainable entrepreneurs and tailor BI programs towards specific sustainability challenges rather than generalized approaches.
... For example, in terms of person-level factors, it could be that being a member of a marginalized gender, racial/ethnic group, or socioeconomic group is related to experiencing more enrichment from having an overcoming adversity identity because such groups have experiences sensemaking and growing from past obstacles characteristic to belonging to such groups (Booysen, 2018;Umana-Taylor, 2011). In terms of organizational factors, it could be having a supportive supervisor (Mor Barak et al., 2009), an inclusive culture (Pless & Makk, 2004), or a psychologically safe environment (Frazier et al., 2017), in creating a work ambiance where people feel comfortable showing their multiple identities, may help enhance the connection between an overcoming adversity identity and performance. Another alternative route for future research is to explore how having an overcoming adversity identity works as a moderating construct. ...
Article
The limited organizational scholarship on past adversity has characterized it as something to cope with, positing that how past adversity is perceived is key to employees’ coping effectiveness (Nurmohamed et al., 2021; Stephens et al., 2015; Vogel & Bolino, 2020). Conversely, lay theory suggests that “what does not kill you makes you stronger.” Through this dissertation, I aim to provide empirical evidence for this claim in an organizational setting. To do so, I draw on positive identity growth theorizing (Maitlis, 2009; 2020) to empirically examine the organizational benefits of identity growth after experiences of overcoming adversity. In doing so, I introduce a new concept to the organizational behavior literature, an “overcoming adversity identity,” which is when an experience of hardship, whether singular or continuous, has been redeemed in the eyes of the person with that experience, thereby becoming a positive part of that person’s identity. Through two longitudinal studies and one randomized experimental intervention, I find promising evidence that having a stronger overcoming adversity identity is associated with interpersonal, intrapersonal, and intellectual character enrichment (the tripartite model of character; Park et al., 2017). I also find some evidence that suggests that this character enrichment, in turn, is positively related to extra-role performance and in-role performance, and negatively related to burnout. Implications and future directions are discussed. In conclusion, this dissertation provides preliminary empirical evidence to suggest that indeed, what does not kill you can make you stronger.
... While such factors have been extensively investigated in different contexts, we lack an understanding of the preconditions and mechanisms that influence learning in largescale agile software development teams [6,12,20,21]. The research is not clear on how exactly team learning and psychological safety are related to performance. ...
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Software development is a team work and largely dependent on open social interaction and continuous learning of individuals. Drawing on well established theoretical concepts proposed by social psychology and organizational science disciplines, we develop a theoretical framework proposing that team climate has a significant influence on team learning and ultimately affects team performance. Our study consists of two goals. First to understand the preconditions of team learning and second to investigate the relationship between team learning, psychological safety, and team performance in large scale agile software development projects. We plan to conduct a survey with software professionals in Sweden from three companies partners in pur large-scale agile research project.
... Organizations can thus provide some supportive practices for subordinates to develop and improve their psychological safety, such as mentoring (Newman et al., 2017). At the same time, it is critical that supervisors guide subordinates to develop high levels of psychological safety (Frazier et al., 2017) and put them in positions that require boundary-spanning activities. ...
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Based on social information processing theory, we provide a novel theoretical account of how and when leader humor influences subordinate boundary-spanning behavior. We develop a moderated mediation model explicating the mechanism of psychological safety and the boundary condition of subordinate interpersonal influence. Using multiwave data, we tested our research hypotheses with a sample of 452 members from 140 teams in a Chinese information technology (IT) company. Results showed that leader humor positively affects subordinate boundary-spanning behavior via increased psychological safety. Moreover, this mediated effect is stronger when subordinates have high interpersonal influence. These findings offer theoretical and practical insights into boundary-spanning activities and leader humor, which we discuss.
... leading to their psychological safety (21). Psychological safety is defined as individuals' perceptions of the consequences of taking interpersonal risks in their working place (22), and it has been shown to improve work performance, information sharing, and learning in the working place (23). In addition to the above, it has also been reported to be useful in preventing the deterioration of workers' mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic (24)-a finding that is consistent with our view. ...
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Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has dramatically transformed the work environment and practices worldwide. Long-term infection control practices may increase the psychological distress of workers, and, conversely, inadequate infection control practices in the working place may increase the fear of infection. This study aimed to determine the relationship between infection control practices in the working place and employee mental state during the COVID-19 pandemic in Japan. Methods: This study was conducted in December 2020 and February 2021. The participants had undergone a preliminary survey, which revealed that they were in a good mental state. Their psychological distress was investigated via a second survey, and the factors associated with distress were studied using a logistic model. Results: The results of the second survey indicated that 15.3% of participants demonstrated psychological distress. This was associated with leave-of-absence instructions, instructions for shortening business hours, and requests to avoid the working place in case of any symptoms. Conclusion: The study found that while some infection control practices reduce workers' distress, others worsen it. Employers need to consider infection control practices as well as the worsening mental state of employees following a decrease in income caused by such measures. Follow-up studies may be necessary to clarify the long-term effects on workers' mental states.
... Extensive research has related psychological safety and the absence of anxiety to improved mood [85]. Psychological safety regulates people's emotional well-being by motivating a desire for social support to reduce anxiety [86][87][88]. When anxiety is reduced, the quality of social relationships improves, enhancing healthspans [89,90]. ...
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The elderly have an elevated risk of clinical depression because of isolation from family and friends and a reticence to report their emotional states. The present study explored whether data from a commercial neuroscience platform could predict low mood and low energy in members of a retirement community. Neurophysiologic data were collected continuously for three weeks at 1Hz and averaged into hourly and daily measures, while mood and energy were captured with self-reports. Two neurophysiologic measures averaged over a day predicted low mood and low energy with 68% and 75% accuracy. Principal components analysis showed that neurologic variables were statistically associated with mood and energy two days in advance. Applying machine learning to hourly data classified low mood and low energy with 99% and 98% accuracy. Two-day lagged hourly neurophysiologic data predicted low mood and low energy with 98% and 96% accuracy. This study demonstrates that continuous measurement of neurophysiologic variables may be an effective way to reduce the incidence of mood disorders in vulnerable people by identifying when interventions are needed.
... En los últimos años, esta concepción sobre la SP ha sido objeto de interés desde el punto de vista epistemológico. Estudios de revisión sistemática y metanálisis (Frazier et al., 2017;Newman et al., 2017;O'Donovan & McAuliffe, 2020;Roy, 2019;Wright & Opiah, 2018) han identificado vertientes de trabajo necesarias para su desarrollo que se sustentan en debilidades aún no resueltas en su estudio, entre ellas se encuentran: ...
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La pandemia de COVID-19 pone en evidencia la importancia de los aspectos psicológicos y de salud mental para la prevención y afrontamiento de sus consecuencias. En este contexto se requiere de un modelo de Seguridad Psicológica (SP) que fundamente teórica y metodológicamente su gestión en una situación de emergencia sanitaria. El problema de la SP, visto desde una perspectiva transdisciplinar, intercepta aspectos relacionados con la epistemología y la sociología de la ciencia: análisis crítico del concepto a la luz de los aportes de otras disciplinas; relaciones entre el nivel de acceso al conocimiento y el funcionamiento de los equipos de trabajos; y contradicción entre la gestión neoliberal de la pandemia y la necesidad de un afrontamiento humanista. El objetivo del artículo es analizar, desde la perspectiva sociológica y epistemológica, la SP del personal de la salud en emergencias sanitarias, para lo cual se desarrolló una revisión narrativa. Como resultado, se presentan las reflxiones desarrolladas acerca del tema estructuradas en dos momentos: la aproximación crítica a la epistemología del concepto de SP y el impacto de la SP en los equipos de trabajo visto desde la concepción de la sociedad del conocimiento. Se enfoca la SP como un campo transdisciplinario y se valoran los antecedentes y aportes de otras disciplinas para su empleo en situaciones de emergencia y desastres. También se contrasta el afrontamiento a la COVID-19 desde la gestión neoliberal con su afrontamiento humanista. Finalmente, se presenta una nueva perspectiva de la SP para la gestión de la salud mental del personal de la salud involucrado en la respuesta a emergencias y desastres.
... While there has been growing interest in the application of psychological safety in the elite sport setting, to date, little published evidence exists to inform how psychologically safe environments may influence mental health outcomes among those operating in such environments. However, evidence drawn from other high performance environments, including corporate and medical sectors, have shown psychologically safe environments to be associated with improved performance at both the individual and team level, as well as with work engagement, commitment, satisfaction and teamwork (Frazier et al., 2017); all factors that may positively influence mental health. Emerging evidence drawn from the sports literature supports these earlier findings, where it was shown that sporting environments that were perceived to be psychological safe encouraged teamwork and satisfaction with team performance, and acted as a buffer against athlete burnout (Fransen et al., 2020). ...
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Objective To apply a socioecological approach to identify risk and protective factors across levels of the “sports-ecosystem,” which are associated with mental health outcomes among athletes in para-sports and non-para sports. A further aim is to determine whether para athletes have unique risks and protective factor profiles compared to non-para athletes. Methods A cross-sectional, anonymous online-survey was provided to all categorized (e.g., highest level) athletes aged 16 years and older, registered with the Australian Institute of Sport (AIS). Mental health outcomes included mental health symptoms (GHQ-28), general psychological distress (K-10), risky alcohol consumption (AUDIT-C) and eating disorder risk (BEDA-Q). Risk and protective factors across multiple levels of the socioecological model, including individual, microsystem, exosystem and macrosystem level factors were assessed via self-report. Results A total of 427 elite athletes (71 para and 356 non-para athletes) participated in the study. No significant differences in the rates of mental health problems were observed between para and non-para athletes. Both differences and similarities in risk and protective factor profiles were found across the multiple levels of the sports-ecosystem. Weak evidence was also found to support the hypothesis that certain risk factors, including experiencing two or more adverse life events in the past year, sports related concussion, high self-stigma, inadequate social support and low psychological safety conferred a greater risk for poorer mental health outcomes for para athletes in particular. Conclusion Risk factors occurring across various levels of the sports ecosystem, including individual, interpersonal and organizational level risk factors were found to be associated with a range of poorer mental health outcomes. The association between mental ill-health and certain risk factors, particularly those at the individual and microsystem level, appear to be greater for para athletes. These findings have important implications for policy and mental health service provision in elite sports settings, highlighting the need for more nuanced approaches to subpopulations, and the delivery of mental health interventions across all levels of the sports ecosystem.
... In addition to addressing organizational challenges, psychologically safe employees demonstrate engagement in innovative work behaviors and are more committed to their organizations (Kark and Carmeli, 2009). Work engagement, creativity, better health, and higher performance were reported as outcomes of psychological safety (Frazier et al., 2017). ...
Article
Purpose Drawing upon theories of conservation of resources (COR), broaden-and-build (BnB), self-determination, and the job demands- resources (JD-R) model, this study uniquely tries to understand the mechanisms that contribute to happiness at work by proposing a model of the effects of emotional culture of joy on happiness at work, where psychological safety and relational attachments serve as intervening mechanisms among the aforesaid relationship. Design/methodology/approach A three-wave time-lagged study with 340 employees from Pakistani organizations was conducted. Data were analyzed using covariance-based structural equation modelling. Findings The results indicate that emotional culture of joy significantly predicts happiness at work. Furthermore, emotional culture of joy significantly and positively influences both psychological safety and relational attachment. Finally, the relationship between emotional culture of joy and happiness at work is found to be mediated by both relational attachment and psychological safety. Practical implications The results are of utmost importance as they provide insights to policy makers and organizations administrators on the value of emotional culture of joy and its contribution to employees’ wellbeing, and indeed its role in fostering important psychological and emotional resources such as psychological safety and relational attachment. Originality/value This study is unique for the following reasons. First, it addresses and bridges a gap pertaining to the drivers of happiness at work. Second, this is the first study that considers emotional culture of joy as an antecedent to happiness at work. Third, the employment of both psychological safety and relational attachment as intervening mechanisms in the relationship between emotional culture of joy and happiness at work has not been previously addressed in the management and wellbeing literature. Finally, the study shifts direction from studying organizational drivers (i.e. HR, organization support, etc.) of happiness at work to the examination of psychological and emotional resources that may influence happiness at work.
... Team psychological safety is described as "a shared belief that the team is safe for interpersonal risk taking" (Edmondson, 1999, p. 354), such that team members are able to show and employ their true selves without fear of negative consequences (Kahn, 1990). 8 Despite a considerable amount of research on team psychological safety in recent years (Frazier, Fainshmidt, Klinger, Pezeshkan, & Vracheva, 2017;Newman, Donohue, & Eva, 2017), studies on its temporal dynamics remain scarce. Only four longitudinal papers met this review's inclusion criteria. ...
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Team emergent states are properties that develop during team interactions and describe team members' attitudes and feelings (e.g., cohesion). However, these states' emergent nature has largely been neglected, as most studies do not examine the temporality of team phenomena. We review longitudinal studies on team emergent states and demonstrate that a majority of papers reveal their temporal dynamics but offer no universal patterns as to how such states emerge. The review reveals common variables related to temporal dynamics and highlights the importance of studying the development of team emergent states to enhance our knowledge of their causal directions, antecedents, and outcomes. We suggest that future research should clarify the concept of team emergent states, connect theories to research on temporal dynamics, adopt more qualitative approaches to answer “how” and “why” questions, and improve research designs to study meaningful forms of change. Lastly, we present practical implications for the HR field.
... On the other hand, leader consultation creates a supportive managerial context where leaders are open to employees' ideas, value their contributions and trust them. Employees experience psychological safety in a supportive workplace and have a good relationship with leaders (Frazier et al., 2017). As such, they do not need to be concerned about being punished for being authentic and can fully engage themselves in work (Kahn, 1992). ...
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Purpose This study examined the dynamical and positive effects of leader consultation on employee proactivity from a motivational perspective. Design/methodology/approach Survey data were collected twice a day from 107 employees in a week by using an experience sampling method. Findings On a daily basis, leader consultation had a positive effect on employees’ state work engagement, which in turn promoted employees’ proactivity. Moreover, authoritarian leadership weakened the positive relationship between leader consultation and employees’ state work engagement. Originality/value The findings provided a new perspective regarding the potential dynamic motivational effect of leader consultation on employees and generated interesting implications for paradoxical leadership theory.
Article
Background During their clinical practice, nursing students learn to manage patient safety through their experiences, emotions, and interpersonal relationships. Objectives To explore contextual and mechanistic factors that facilitate a sense of emotional safety for learning in nursing students, particularly regarding patient safety events experienced during their placements. Design A descriptive qualitative study using narratives and thematic analysis. Settings A university in Northern Italy. Participants Undergraduate nursing students recruited through purposive sampling. Methods Twenty cases relevant to the present study were selected from the “Sharing LearnIng from Practice for Patient Safety” (SLIPPS) project database containing 100 narratives collected using the patient safety learning Event Recording Tool. The data were analysed using thematic analysis according to Braun & Clarke's methodology. The themes that emerged from the thematic analysis were rearranged in Context-Mechanism-Outcomes. Results Students identified clinical practice experiences as important occasions for their personal and professional development. Emotional safety and tutoring were the elements that effectively “govern” the students' learning and development process. Conclusions Emotional safety is key for nursing students because it enables them to constructively overcome any relational and emotional tensions that may develop during their clinical placements.
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Considering the importance of safety behavior, the current study investigates the relationship between CSR and safety behavior. To be specific, we delve into the underlying mechanism and its contingent factor of the association. This paper proposes that CSR promotes employee safety behavior through the mediation of psychological safety. In addition, authentic leadership may function as a positive moderator that amplifies the positive effect of CSR on psychological safety. Utilizing 3-wave time-lagged survey data from 213 South Korean workers, the current study empirically tests the hypotheses by establishing a moderated mediation model by utilizing structural equation modeling. The results demonstrate that CSR enhances employees' safety behavior by increasing their psychological safety and that authentic leadership positively moderates the relationship between CSR and psychological safety. This research's findings have meaningful theoretical and practical implications.
Article
Group creativity is affected by both intergroup competition and intragroup competition, but few studies have examined their joint effect. Based on the Motivated Information Processing in Groups (MIP-G) model, the current study aims to explore such joint effects on group idea generation and idea selection. Both intergroup competition (high vs. low) and intragroup competition (competition vs. cooperation) were experimentally manipulated, and 66 three-person groups were randomly assigned to one of the four conditions to perform a brainstorming task. Consistent with our hypotheses, results showed that two types of competitions interacted to determine group idea generation in that groups under the high intergroup competition and intragroup cooperation condition were most creative in terms of fluency and flexibility. Regardless of the level of intergroup competition, groups demonstrated a higher level of idea elaboration under intragroup cooperation but not competition conditions. Moreover, intergroup and intragroup competitions complemented each other in terms of originality in idea generation and idea selection. Specifically, groups under intragroup competition (rather than intragroup cooperation) condition generated and selected ideas of higher originality when the intergroup competition was low; instead, when the intergroup competition was high, the originality of generated or selected ideas was higher for groups under intragroup cooperation condition. We concluded with a discussion of the implications and value of these findings for theoretical research and management practice in organizations.
Chapter
Since the last publication a decade ago, accident numbers in the aviation field have been on a steady decline. Much of the previous research had focused on crew resource management (CRM) practices and team training. Since then, there has been a greater focus on looking at safety through the lens of multiteam systems, not just focusing on the pilots but also the cabin crew and ground and maintenance teams. Each of these entities play an important role in the overall goal of safety. However, teams have always existed in one capacity or another, a new focus on team self-maintenance and psychological safety of team members is beginning to be more important as future areas of focus. Whether the team members are human or not is of growing importance as the level of automation in the field increases, which introduces an entirely different context of team cohesion. As time goes on updated training and focus on other factors such as decision-making, psychological well-being, and expanded multiteam systems will all play a role in further improving the excellent safety record of the aviation industry. The purpose of the current chapter is to consider the current context of aviation and provide an update to how team dynamics might be considered in aviation training and team performance.
Article
Purpose Frontline teams are at the centre of lean transformations, but the teams also transform as they implement lean. This study examines these changes and seeks to understand how lean relates to team psychological safety and learning. Design/methodology/approach This research setting is the Romanian division of a leading European energy company. The authors collected team-level audit and survey data, which the authors used to test the effect of lean implementation on team psychological safety and learning. The authors’ team-level data are complemented with qualitative interviews conducted with team members and headquarters leaders. Findings The results of the regression analyses show that leanness is positively associated with team psychological safety, which is in turn positively associated with learning. Thus, this research provides evidence that leanness – mediated by team psychological safety – increases team learning. Practical implications Lean changes team dynamics and learning positively by ensuring and promoting an emotionally sound work environment with clear team structures, an appropriate level of autonomy, and strong leadership. Originality/value This paper contributes evidence of important psychological mechanisms that characterise team-level lean implementation. Particularly, the authors highlight how team psychological safety mediates the relationship between leanness and team learning.
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Im vorliegenden Text wird das Konzept „psychologische Sicherheit“ beschrieben. Eine kurze Herleitung des Konzeptes seit den 60er Jahren und damit eine Einordnung in die Forschungstradition zeigt auf, dass dieses Konzept zwar nicht einzigartig ist, aber einzigartige Effekte bringt. Psychologische Sicherheit wirkt sich positiv auf Leistungs- und Innovationsparameter aus, aber auch auf Mitarbeitendenzufriedenheit und Lernverhalten. Diese positiven Ergebnisse werden vor allem in komplexen und unsicheren Arbeitsumgebungen wie z. B. in der Gesundheitsbranche gefunden. Psychologische Sicherheit ist ein Teamkonzept, d. h. jedes Team einer Organisation kann sich hinsichtlich des Niveaus psychologischer Sicherheit unterscheiden. Zwei Ansätze zur Erhöhung von psychologischer Sicherheit werden beschrieben: Führungsverhalten der direkten Führungskraft sowie Kompetenzaufbau der Teammitglieder.
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With the years of peak athletic competitive performance overlapping the developmental phase in which most mental health problems emerge, many elite athletes will experience mental health symptoms or disorders during their careers. Underscoring this, epidemiological data suggest that upwards of 30% of athletes experience prominent symptoms of high prevalence disorders at any time. The availability of formal and informal mental health support for athletes can positively influence their trajectory of recovery, impacting both performance and career longevity. Sporting organisational culture is also important in determining whether athletes, and the broader sport context, have sufficient knowledge of mental health concerns (mental health literacy) and actively promote cultures of safety for athletes experiencing symptoms to engage with intervention. This chapter outlines why the developmental phase of emerging adulthood and specific sport-related pressures place elite athletes at risk of mental health problems, and ways in which elements of youth mental health models can be implemented to support athletes experiencing a need for mental healthcare.KeywordsEarly interventionSports psychiatryClinical sports psychologyEmerging adulthoodYouth mental health
Article
Introduction. Security psychology is a relatively young, but rather rapidly developing branch of psychological knowledge, for which the problem of improving empirical research methods is relevant. The development of the problems of security psychology has already been accompanied by the involvement of certain tools, but its use is still fragmentary, experimental and exploratory in nature. Meanwhile, the development of any field of knowledge is impossible without methods and techniques that have confirmed their research reliability. This article is focused on filling the gap in security psychology regarding the possibility of using empirical data collection tools in it. The purpose of the research presented in it was a theoretical analysis of the possibilities of using various research methods in security psychology. Materials and Methods. The method of theoretical analysis of relevant research papers, methods of systematization, generalization and classification of scientific approaches to the organization of research, the method of scientific extrapolation, the method of scientific forecasting were used. Results. The impossibility of studying a significant part of the phenomena relevant to the problems of security psychology, synchronously with their occurrence and course, as well as the lack of unity of the author's approaches to understanding the essence of the basic category of "psychological security" for it, explained by the complexity of the original phenomenon, is revealed. In security psychology, ex-post-facto research prevails, and psychological security is studied by identifying its conditions and features of the projection of danger/security on the psyche of the subject. Methods of observation, introspection, experiment, survey and testing in security psychology not only retain the classic advantages and limitations for psychological research, acquiring the specifics of use. Discussion and Conclusions. For security psychology, it is most preferable to use the possibilities of projective materials and methods of experimental psychosemantics and psycholinguistics. Further improvement of the scientific tools of security psychology should be based on the development of its methodology, adaptation to the problems of classical methods for psychology and the involvement of methods used by related disciplines.
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Purpose The purpose of this study is to examine factors relating to the decision to proactively disclose a diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a concealable stigmatized identity, before experiencing performance issues at work. These factors include stigma consciousness, psychological safety, and job demands. Proactive disclosure is also measured in relation to thriving. Design/methodology/approach Data were collected through the online research platform Prolific. Variables of interest were measured using surveys of 166 working adults who have ADHD. Path analysis was used to test the hypotheses. Findings The authors hypothesized that stigma consciousness is negatively related to proactive disclosure of ADHD at work and that psychological safety and job demands are positively related to it. The authors further hypothesized that proactive disclosure mediates the relationship between these variables and thriving at work. The results partially support these hypotheses, indicating that stigma consciousness is negatively related to proactive disclosure while psychological safety is positively related. Proactive disclosure fully mediates the relationship between stigma consciousness and thriving and partially mediates the relationship between psychological safety and thriving. Job demands relate to thriving but are not significantly related to proactive disclosure. Practical implications Organizations can help employees who have concealable disabilities to proactively disclose them and thrive by providing a psychologically safe environment where disabilities are not stigmatized. Originality/value This study diverges from previous studies by measuring positive contextual and individual factors that help employees who have ADHD to thrive in the workplace. A proactive disclosure scale is developed and validated.
Chapter
To deliver excellent virtual education experiences, design thinking educators adapt along all three “P”s: of People, Place, and Process. This book chapter provides the theoretical foundations for delivering virtual education experiences and, relying on both relevant streams of research and the authors’ own expertise, derives six areas of action—(Digital) Engagement, Embodied Cognition, Safe Space, Atmosphere, Random Inspiration, and Managing Workshops. The theories linked to these areas also inspire questions for further research and, together with the specific suggestions provided, give practitioners a rich resource for enhancing their virtual DT education.
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The purpose of this study was to examine whether the psychological safety of elementary school teachers toward parents would affect their creative educational practices. In this study, teachers at 22 public elementary school participated (N = 467 in Time 1, 405 in Time 2), and 351 teachers who could be used as longitudinal data and were still in charge of the classroom were analyzed. Results of factor analysis about creative educational practices revealed five factors: “promoting students’ autonomy to overcome their difficulties,” “challenges for new practices inside and outside the classroom,” “realization of education based on one’s beliefs,” “disclosure to students as a person,” and “practices to deepen exchange with students.” Based on the Latent Difference Score Model, we examined the influence of the psychological safety toward parents and creative educational practices. As a result, psychological safety toward parents promoted creative educational practices and good relationship with students, in both Level and Delta factors.
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Purpose This study aims to explore the association between empowering leadership and workplace proactivity. Design/methodology/approach The data have been collected through questionnaires from both the medical and non-medical staff members working in four National Accreditation Board for Hospitals & Healthcare (NABH)–accredited private hospitals in India. Confirmatory factor analysis has employed test reliability and validity and PROCESS MACRO (model 6) to test the proposed serial mediation model. Findings The results support the proposed hypotheses of the serial mediation model. Additionally, the authors have also found that psychological safety is a strong mediating variable than knowledge sharing between empowering leadership and workplace proactivity. Research limitations/implications The findings should be interpreted by considering the cross-sectional research design and self-reported measures. Practical implications An organization can use the findings to promote employee proactivity at the workplace. Originality/value The study makes an attempt to explore the underdeveloped relationship between empowering leadership and workplace proactivity in the context of Indian NABH-accredited hospitals based on the self-determination theory.
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The power of knowledge has become one of the main pillars on which one can rely on in a world governed by unpredictability and constant change. The process of knowledge sharing requires a trust climate in which one voluntarily choose to exchange information, values, and beliefs, making Psychological Safety (PS) a shelter to consider under the current hypercompetitive environment, allowing individuals to freely speak up and take risks. The present paper brings into attention creativity, trust, innovation, and transformational leadership as significant pillars of PS, highlighting the bilateral relation between them in conjunction with its effect on Knowledge Sharing. Using a qualitative methodology through bibliometric research in VOSviewer, 759 publications were taken into account to design a statistical bibliography map created by 304 keywords. The results of the paper indicates a positive effect of PS on knowledge sharing process, which is being mediated by innovation, creativity, trust, and transformational leadership.
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This research explored how action learning contributed to the development of trust in a temporary transorganizational system during the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. In a world fragmented by digitalization, social upheaval, ethnocentric development policies, and global pandemics, trust among people, companies, and governments has eroded. The interdependencies within our society demand collaborative efforts that must not only address the challenges of fragmentation that makes task achievement difficult, but the uncertainty that comes with a lack of trust. This was the challenge for two universities on different continents and their stakeholders: to create a cross-cultural, temporary transorganizational (TS) system at the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic and deliver on the educational objectives of a master’s-level Organization Development (OD) practicum. The cyclical rhythms of action learning and trust building before and during the practicum contributed to its outcomes of collective knowledge creation and high performance in an uncertain time. Using theories of trust formation and action learning, the authors identified how action learning and trust cycles worked together in a TS system to foster collaboration.
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Purpose This study examines the relationship between the flexibility of working from anywhere and employees' psychological well-being (PWB) and safety. This study also investigates the moderating role of human resource (HR) leadership teams on HR policy (HRP), firm infrastructure (FRI) and remote work flexibility. Design/methodology/approach With the help of the literature review and flexible firm theory (FFT) and dynamic capability view (DCV) theory, a model has been developed conceptually. Later, the conceptual model is validated using partial least squares – structural equation modelling technique considering 471 useable respondents from different Asian and European firms to understand cross-country implications. This research study uses convenience and purposeful sampling techniques. Findings This study shows that there is a significant and positive moderating role of HR leadership support (HLS) towards developing flexible HRP and appropriate FRI to enable employees to work from anywhere. The results also indicate that there is a significant and positive impact of work from anywhere flexibility (WAF) and employee PWB and psychological safety (PSS), which in turn positively and significantly impact employee satisfaction (EMS) resulting in better firm performance (FP). Research limitations/implications This study provides valuable input to HR management teams for developing effective HR policies to enable a work from anywhere option. The study also provides food for thought to practitioners, researchers and academicians regarding the need for more research on the relationship between work flexibility, PWB and FP. Finally, this study develops a unique model which could be used by any firm towards framing an effective HRP enabling WAF. Originality/value This research adds value to the overall body of knowledge of HR management. There is no study which investigated the impact of WAF on employee PWB and PSS. Thus, this study is considered a unique study. Moreover, the proposed model in this research study is also a unique model with explanative power of 71%.
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We theorize that engagement, conceptualized as the investment of an individual's complete self into a role, provides a more comprehensive explanation of relationships with performance than do well-known concepts that reflect narrower aspects of the individual's self. Results of a study of 245 firefighters and their supervisors supported our hypotheses that engagement mediates relationships between value congruence, perceived organizational support, and core self-evaluations, and two job performance dimensions: task performance and organizational citizenship behavior. Job involvement, job satisfaction, and intrinsic motivation were included as mediators but did not exceed engagement in explaining relationships among the antecedents and performance outcomes.
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Creativity and Innovation in Organizational Teams stemmed from a conference held at the Kellogg School of Management in June 2003 covering creativity and innovation in groups and organizations. Each chapter of the book is written by an expert and covers original theory about creative processes in organizations. The organization of the text reflects a longstanding notion that creativity in the world of work is a joint outcome of three interdependent forces--individual thinking, group processes, and organizational environment. Part I explores basic cognitive mechanisms that underlie creative thinking, and includes chapters that discuss cognitive foundations of creativity, a cognitive network model of creativity that explains how and why creative solutions form in the human mind, and imports a ground-breaking concept of "creativity templates" to the study of creative idea generation in negotiation context. The second part is devoted to understanding how groups and teams in organizational settings produce creative ideas and implement innovations. Finally, Part III contains three chapters that discuss the role of social, organizational context in which creative endeavors take place. The book has a strong international mix of scholarship and includes clear business implications based on scientific research. It weds the disciplines of psychology, cognition, and business theory into one text.
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Researchers for decades have believed that trust increases performance, but empirical evidence of this has been sparse. This study investigates the relationship between an employee’s trust in the plant manager and in the top management team with the employee’s in-role performance and organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB). Results support a fully mediated model in which trust in both management referents was positively related to focus of attention, which, in turn, was positively related to performance. The results raise questions about appropriate levels of analysis for outcome variables. Trust is mandatory for optimization of a system.... Without trust, each component will protect its own immediate interests to its own long-term detriment, and to the detriment of the entire system.- W. Edwards Deming (1994) Over three decades ago, Argyris (1964) proposed that trust in management is important for organizational performance. Recognition of the importance of trust in organizational relationships has grown rapidly in recent years, evidenced by a large number of publications on the topic addressing both academic and practitioner audiences (e.g., Annison & Wilford, 1998; Fukuyama, 1995; Mishra, 1996; Shaw, 1997). In spite of this interest, difficulties in defining and operationalizing trust have hampered the empirical study of its relationship with performance.
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Purpose – Employee engagement has become a hot topic in recent years among consulting firms and in the popular business press. However, employee engagement has rarely been studied in the academic literature and relatively little is known about its antecedents and consequences. The purpose of this study was to test a model of the antecedents and consequences of job and organization engagements based on social exchange theory. Design/methodology/approach – A survey was completed by 102 employees working in a variety of jobs and organizations. The average age was 34 and 60 percent were female. Participants had been in their current job for an average of four years, in their organization an average of five years, and had on average 12 years of work experience. The survey included measures of job and organization engagement as well as the antecedents and consequences of engagement. Findings – Results indicate that there is a meaningful difference between job and organization engagements and that perceived organizational support predicts both job and organization engagement; job characteristics predicts job engagement; and procedural justice predicts organization engagement. In addition, job and organization engagement mediated the relationships between the antecedents and job satisfaction, organizational commitment, intentions to quit, and organizational citizenship behavior. Originality/value – This is the first study to make a distinction between job and organization engagement and to measure a variety of antecedents and consequences of job and organization engagement. As a result, this study addresses concerns about that lack of academic research on employee engagement and speculation that it might just be the latest management fad.
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Psychological safety describes people's perceptions of the consequences of taking interpersonal risks in a particular context such as a workplace. First explored by pioneering organizational scholars in the 1960s, psychological safety experienced a renaissance starting in the 1990s and continuing to the present. Organizational research has identified psychological safety as a critical factor in understanding phenomena such as voice, teamwork, team learning, and organizational learning. A growing body of conceptual and empirical work has focused on understanding the nature of psychological safety, identifying factors that contribute to it, and examining its implications for individuals, teams, and organizations. In this article, we review and integrate this literature and suggest directions for future research. We first briefly review the early history of psychological safety research and then examine contemporary research at the individual, group, and organizational levels of analysis. We assess what has been learned and discuss suggestions for future theoretical development and methodological approaches for organizational behavior research on this important interpersonal construct.
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Current conceptualizations of procedural justice focus largely on the individual level of analysis; no framework exists for examining procedural justice's social context. Empirical tests reported here offer some support for group-level and cross-level hypotheses. Work group perceptions of cohesion and supervisor visibility in demonstrating procedural justice were associated with the development of procedural justice climate. Procedural justice climate was positively associated with helping behaviors after the effects of individual procedural justice perceptions were controlled for.
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This paper discusses psychological safety and distinguishes it from the related construct of interpersonal trust. Trust is the expectation that others' future actions will be favorable to one's interests; psychological safety refers to a climate in which people are comfortable being (and expressing) themselves. Although both constructs involve a willingness to be vulnerable to others' actions, they are conceptually and theoretically distinct. In particular, psychological safety is centrally tied to learning behavior, while trust lowers transactions costs and reduces the need to monitor behavior. This paper proposes a model of antecedents and consequences of psychological safety in work teams and emphasizes the centrality of psychological safety for learning behavior. Drawing from field research in a variety of organizational settings, I describe different approaches to studying and measuring psychological safety in teams. I conclude with implications of this work including limitations of psychological safety in practice and suggestions areas for future research.
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Limit of Liability/Disclaimer of Warranty: While the publisher and author have used their best efforts in preparing this book, they make no representations or warranties with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents of this book and specifically disclaim any implied warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose. No warranty may be created or extended by sales representatives or written sales materials. The advice and strategies contained herein may not be suitable for your situation. You should consult with a professional where appropriate. Neither the publisher nor author shall be liable for any loss of profit or any other commercial damages, including but not limited to special, incidental, consequential, or other damages. This publication is designed to provide accurate and authoritative information in regard to the subject matter covered. It is sold with the understanding that the publisher is not engaged in rendering professional services. If legal, accounting, medical, psychological or any other expert assistance is required, the services of a competent professional person should be sought.
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High technology organizations need to develop new products or processes that address the dual goals of exploration and exploitation. The competing viewpoints and the asymmetric nature of market returns associated with these goals in R&D projects can heighten stress levels among project team members and reduce their psychological safety. While current research calls for greater focus on task design for improving psychological safety, we know little about how team contextual factors affect this relationship. This study develops and tests a conceptual framework that examines the moderating role of R&D team contextual factors, namely, relative exploration and project-organization metric alignment on the relationship between a key task design variable, namely, team autonomy, and psychological safety. Relative exploration captures the extent to which exploration goals are emphasized over exploitation goals in an R&D project, while project-organization metric alignment measures the extent to which project metrics are aligned with broader organizational metrics. Furthermore, we examine the performance consequences of psychological safety in R&D projects. The empirical analysis is conducted using primary data collected from multiple informants across 110 R&D projects in 34 high technology business units. Our results indicate that relative exploration and project-organization metric alignment have contrasting moderating effects. Furthermore, the effect of psychological safety on project performance is found to be indirect and mediated through team turnover. Implications of the study findings, limitations, and directions for future research are discussed.
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The authors reviewed more than 70 studies concerning employees' general belief that their work organization values their contribution and cares about their well-being (perceived organizational support; POS). A meta-analysis indicated that 3 major categories of beneficial treatment received by employees (i.e., fairness, supervisor support, and organizational rewards and favorable job conditions) were associated with POS. POS, in turn, was related to outcomes favorable to employees (e.g., job satisfaction, positive mood) and the organization (e.g., affective commitment, performance, and lessened withdrawal behavior). These relationships depended on processes assumed by organizational support theory: employees' belief that the organization's actions were discretionary, feeling of obligation to aid the organization, fulfillment of socioemotional needs, and performance-reward expectancies.
Book
What is Corruption? - The Emergence of Modern Public Administration - Corruption in Developed Societies - Corruption in Underdeveloped Societies - Is Corruption a Problem? - Can Corruption be Controlled? - Corruption, Development and De-Development - Bibliography - Index
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Theoretical ''necessary but not sufficient'' statements are common in the organizational sciences. Traditional data analyses approaches (e.g., correlation or multiple regression) are not appropriate for testing or inducing such statements. This article proposes necessary condition analysis (NCA) as a general and straightforward methodology for identifying necessary conditions in data sets. The article presents the logic and methodology of necessary but not sufficient contributions of organizational determinants (e.g., events, characteristics, resources, efforts) to a desired outcome (e.g., good performance). A necessary determinant must be present for achieving an outcome, but its presence is not sufficient to obtain that outcome. Without the necessary condition, there is guaranteed failure, which cannot be compensated by other determinants of the outcome. This logic and its related methodology are fundamentally different from the traditional sufficiency-based logic and methodology. Practical recommendations and free software are offered to support researchers to apply NCA. According to David Hume's (1777) philosophy of causation: We may define a cause to be an object, followed by another, and where all the objects, similar to the first, are followed by objects, similar to the second. Or in other words, where, if the first had not been, the second never had existed.
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We conducted a metal-analysis of correlations between role ambiguity and job performance and role conflict and job performance. Previous meta-analyses of these role constructs and performance relationships (e.g., Jackson & Schuler; 1985) were limited by small sample sizes and sparse reporting of reliability estimates in primary studies. The present study used a comprehensive database with a larger sample size and a distribution of interrater reliabilities to extend the previous findings. We also tested moderator hypotheses proposed but not conducted by Jackson ann Schuler: Results revealed a negative relationship (rho = -.21) between role ambiguity and job performance with moderating influences due to job type and rating source. A negligible relationship (rho = -.07) was observed for role conflict and job performance, a finding consistent across job types and rating sources. Conclusions were that role ambiguity ought not to Dr dismissed as an unimportant variable ill the job performance domain.
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This study tested a model of the relationship between core self-evaluations, intrinsic job characteristics, and job satisfaction Core self-evaluations was assumed to be a broad personality concept manifested in 4 specific traits: self-esteem, generalized self-efficacy, locus of control, and low neuroticism. The model hypothesized that both subjective (perceived) job characteristics and job complexity mediate the relationship between core self-evaluations and job satisfaction. Two studies were conducted to test the model. Results from Study 1 supported the hypothesized model but also suggested that alternative models fit the data well. Results from Study 2 revealed that core self-evaluations measured in childhood and in early adulthood were linked to job satisfaction measured in middle adulthood. Furthermore, in Study 2 job complexity mediated part of the relationship between both assessments of core self-evaluations and job satisfaction.
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In this chapter, we describe psychological safety and organizational learning, how they are related, and how they contribute to a positive work experience. We begin by defining psychological safety, then provide a theoretical and evidence-based argument that psychological safety facilitates three key determinants of organizational learning: speaking up, collaboration, and experimentation. We further propose that these activities promote both organizational performance and more satisfying work environments. We also discuss aspects of the work environment (e.g., status hierarchies and narrow performance goals) that undermine psychological safety by highlighting the interpersonal risks of engaging in learning behaviors. Finally, we address overcoming these barriers, identifying leader inclusiveness, high-quality peer relationships, and opportunities to practice offline as factors that promote psychological safety and set the stage for organizational learning and improvement. We conclude with suggestions for future research.
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Leader-driven interactional transparency is defined as a leader sharing relevant information, being open to giving and receiving feedback, being forthcoming regarding motives and the reasoning behind decisions, and displaying alignment between words and actions to his or her followers. This study examines how leaders can develop interactional transparency with their followers, garnering in return increased follower role engagement and participation in decision-making. I found that through the mediating construct of psychological safety, followers were be more likely to become engaged with respect to their role within the organization, have greater trust in their leader, and have higher job satisfaction. Further, I found that leader positive affect moderated the relationship between leader-driven interactional transparency and psychological safety, a condition within which followers feel secure when sharing ideas, criticisms, questions, and opinions. These relationships existed both within the same time periods, and grew stronger when examined across-time. This dissertation includes an introductory chapter, literature review chapter and accompanying hypotheses, a methods chapter describing the means by which we tested the hypotheses, presentation of results, and a discussion chapter.
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Interest in the problem of method biases has a long history in the behavioral sciences. Despite this, a comprehensive summary of the potential sources of method biases and how to control for them does not exist. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to examine the extent to which method biases influence behavioral research results, identify potential sources of method biases, discuss the cognitive processes through which method biases influence responses to measures, evaluate the many different procedural and statistical techniques that can be used to control method biases, and provide recommendations for how to select appropriate procedural and statistical remedies for different types of research settings.
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The present study demonstrates how three psychological antecedents (psychological safety, felt obligation for constructive change, and organization-based self-esteem) uniquely, differentially, and interactively predict supervisory reports of promotive and prohibitive "voice" behavior. Using a two-wave panel design, we collected data from a sample of 239 employees to examine the hypothesized relationships. Our results showed that felt obligation was most strongly related to subsequent promotive voice; psychological safety was most strongly related to subsequent prohibitive voice; and organization-based self-esteem was reciprocally related to promotive voice. Further, although felt obligation strengthened the positive effect of psychological safety on both forms of voice, organization-based self-esteem weakened this effect for promotive voice. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
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This study was motivated to learn more about the effects of team leader behaviors in learning conversations on team psychological safety. Through an exploration of the literatures on psychological safety, storytelling, and action science, I generated a set of testable hypotheses concerning the effects of team leaders on psychological safety. Utilizing data collected on team learning conversations in medical teams following critical incidents, I tested these hypotheses and found a significant positive effect of the team leaders’ use of storytelling on team psychological safety. This research makes a contribution to our understanding of the interplay among team leaders, storytelling, and psychological safety in temporary teams. I examined a group of strangers thrust into a highly stressful critical incident, where there were great reputational risks associated with making mistakes, and then observed as this newly- formed team worked to make sense of and learn from this critical incident. By pushing to the edge of the limits of learning in risky settings in the midst of relative strangers, I have presented insights as to the types of team leadership behaviors that can facilitate the development of swift psychological safety.
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We examine the repair of one party's trust in another via repairing trustworthiness (Mayer, Davis, & Schoorman, 1995). Based on Weiner's (1986) causal attribution theory, we posit that causal attributions (i.e., locus of causality, controllability, and stability) for the cause of a negative outcome in a trusting relationship explain when trustworthiness is in need of repair and how trustworthiness may be repaired by the trustee's efforts. We also discuss the role of specific emotional reactions of the truster in this process.
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We seek to enrich organizational inquiry by introducing an additional level of abstraction based on theory complexity. We develop four levels of theory complexity and anchor each with well-established theoretical frameworks and research streams. After identifying the contingency approach as the simplest, we progress through cycles and competing values approaches and arrive at the chaos perspective as the most complex. We use research on time orientations, polychronicity, and entrainment to illustrate the utility of such a ladder of theoretical complexity in provoking alternative research lenses and inquiry.
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Prior research has studied emotions in organizational life mostly at the individual level, providing us with little information about their role as a contextual factor in organizations. In this study, I sought to fill this gap by developing the concept of emotional fit and investigating its psychological and behavioral outcomes. I defined emotional fit as the congruence between the activation levels of an employee's affective trait and the emotional climate of his/her workplace. I hypothesized that emotional fit will be positively related to an employee's: a) connection with others, b) connection with work, and c) performance, through the mediating effect of emotional exhaustion. To test these hypotheses, I conducted a cross-level field study in which the emotional climate component of emotional fit was analyzed at the contextual level and then was compared with the affective trait component, measured at the individual level. I collected data from 257 employees within 40 work units across 11 organizations and their supervisors. The results showed that emotional fit was positively related to connection with others and connection with work, but not performance. In terms of connection with others, emotional fit was positively related to affective commitment and negatively related to surface acting. As for connection with work, emotional fit was positively related to intention to stay in the organization and negatively related to psychological withdrawal. As predicted, emotional exhaustion mediated these relationships. Implications of these findings on the emotions and organizational climate literatures are discussed.