Article

Can Sadness Be Good for You?: On the Cognitive, Motivational, and Interpersonal Benefits of Mild Negative Affect

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Abstract

The subtle relationship between feeling and thinking, affect and cognition has fascinated philosophers and writers since time immemorial, yet, empirical research on this topic was relatively neglected by psychologists until recently. There have been many claims emphasising the beneficial cognitive and behavioural consequences of positive affect. Many recent works suggest that negative affect may also facilitate optimal performance in many situations, consistent with evolutionary theories suggesting the adaptive signalling function of various affective states. This paper reviews traditional and current psychological theories linking affect to social thinking and behaviour. A variety of empirical studies from our laboratory will also be presented, demonstrating that in many situations, negative affect promotes optimal performance in cognitive and social tasks, including tasks such as memory, social judgements, motivation, and strategic interpersonal behaviours. These results will be interpreted in terms of a dual-process theory that predicts that negative affect promotes a more accommodative, vigilant, and externally focused thinking strategy. The relevance of these findings for recent affect–cognition theories will be discussed, and the practical implications of negative affect promoting improved social thinking and performance in a number of applied fields will be considered.

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... There is evidence that low-mood states have specific effects on decision making and interpersonal processes, suggesting that moods are evolutionary functional (Forgas, 2002(Forgas, , 2013. Broadly speaking, more negative moods might call for a focus on the details of the external world, whereas more positive moods rely on preexisting internal schematic knowledge and heuristics (Forgas, 2016). In studies in which people are induced into a sad mood, people produce more concrete, persuasive, and higher quality arguments (Forgas, 2007). ...
... The ability to accurately detect deceptive communication is also improved in sad people (Forgas & East, 2008). There are many other examples in the literature of how sadness can improve motivation, interpersonal behavior, memory, and judgment in predictable manners (for reviews see Forgas, 2013Forgas, , 2016. Based on several lines of evidence on sad people and their detail-focus and cognitive perseverance, the analytical rumination hypothesis postulates that depressive disorders also serve these functions. ...
... A multiple baseline pilot study on six women with postpartum depression found significant reductions in depression and metacognitive beliefs in all participants, with large effect sizes that were maintained at 3-and 6-month follow-up (Bevan, Wittkowski, & Wells, 2013). A study of group metacognitive therapy found large significant improvements in ten patients at 1-and 2-year follow-up (Dammen, Papageorgiou, & Wells, 2015, 2016. In one of the first randomized controlled trials, Jordan et al. (2014) found moderate to large effect sizes for both cognitive behavioral therapy and metacognitive therapy in the treatment of 48 participants suffering from major depression and bipolar disorder. ...
Chapter
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Within evolutionary approaches to depression there is a rather even split between theories that propose that depression and symptoms of major depressive disorder are not adaptive and those that propose that depression is adaptive. An example of the latter, the analytical rumination hypothesis, has since its first formulation (Watson & Andrews, 2002) suggested that the depressive symptoms are adaptive and help solve problems. In the most recent formulation of the theory (Andrews & Thomson, 2009), the analytical rumination hypothesis describes a theory of how rumination and depressive symptoms provide solutions to complex social problems and, therefore, should be promoted rather than treated. This adaptationist approach might seem unsurprising to nonclinician evolutionists, but breaks with a tradition among clinical evolutionary researchers such as Gilbert (1998), Nesse (2011) and Nesse and Williams (1996). Further, standard clinical approaches to depression typically assume that depression is not adaptive, if evolutionary questions are considered at all. Although most clinicians and researchers that work with anxiety have a functional approach to fear, an adaptationist approach has been atypical within clinical approaches to depression.
... For instance, guilt helps people to reconsider previous actions that may have been harmful to others and it prevents them from repeating their behavior (Baumeister, Vohs, DeWall, & Zhang, 2007). Sadness motivates people to establish social connections (Forgas, 2017). When sadness is shared with others at work, it can provide an opportunity for openness and intimacy (Lindebaum, Geddes, & Jordan, 2018). ...
... Some potential benefits of negative affective states that have been discussed and investigated in the literature are decision-making, learning, negotiation success and persuasion, creativity, work engagement, proactive work behavior (especially problem identification), and helping behavior (Baumeister et al., 2007;Bledow, Rosing, & Frese, 2013;Bledow et al., 2011;De Drue, Baas, & Nijstad, 2008;Forgas, 2017;Lebel, 2017). ...
... Negative affect can signal a discrepancy between the desired state and the present state of affairs. This perceived discrepancy implies the need to improve the status quo through stimulating action depending on the specific motivational tendencies of the emotion (Carver, 2006;Forgas, 2017;Gable & Harmon-Jones, 2010;Lebel, 2017). For instance, anger is an emotion with a high motivational tendency or impulse to act that elicits a narrow attentional focus and generates approach-oriented behavior (Gable & Harmon-Jones, 2010), which may in turn be used to act against the anger-eliciting source (e.g. ...
Chapter
Negative affective states are natural experiences in our daily professional life. There is a general tendency to see negative affect as maladaptive, as a form of negative experience that is preferably to be avoided. In reality, however, the effects of negative affect at work are more complex. Although negative affect may have clear disadvantages, there is evidence that negative moods and emotions at work may also have beneficial outcomes. The aim of chapter 15 is to provide an overview of this evidence. Specifically, by focusing on cognitive, motivational, and social mechanisms and boundary conditions, this chapter intends to enhance the understanding on why, when, and for whom the experience of negative affective states at work can have positive effects for outcomes like creativity, work engagement, or helping behavior. Chapter 15 finishes with some ideas for future research and suggests practical implications for organizations and workers are suggested.
... According to [1] it is the extent to which an individual feels upset or unpleasant; it influences anxiety, depression and physiological hyperarousal [5]. NA can provide adaptive advantages in social situations and can produce benefit in some circumstances that threaten survival [13]. ...
... FGs believed that stress is likely to cause divided attention, e.g. between working and studying. FGs felt that NA cannot trigger the urge to search for more materials, which is also evidenced in a study by [11,13,51]. Results are in line with [17] who believes that learners experiencing NA do not take information efficiently. ...
Conference Paper
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This paper presents a qualitative study (consisting of 8 focus groups) investigating what feelings learners experience while learning, how these may affect learning, and how learning activity selection should be adapted to affective states.
... There is evidence that low-mood states have specific effects on decision making and interpersonal processes, suggesting that moods are evolutionary functional (Forgas, 2002(Forgas, , 2013. Broadly speaking, more negative moods might call for a focus on the details of the external world, whereas more positive moods rely on preexisting internal schematic knowledge and heuristics (Forgas, 2016). In studies in which people are induced into a sad mood, people produce more concrete, persuasive, and higher quality arguments (Forgas, 2007). ...
... The ability to accurately detect deceptive communication is also improved in sad people (Forgas & East, 2008). There are many other examples in the literature of how sadness can improve motivation, interpersonal behavior, memory, and judgment in predictable manners (for reviews see Forgas, 2013Forgas, , 2016. Based on several lines of evidence on sad people and their detail-focus and cognitive perseverance, the analytical rumination hypothesis postulates that depressive disorders also L.E.O. ...
Book
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This review of recent evolutionary theories on psychopathology takes on controversies and contradictions both with established psychological thought and within the evolutionary field itself. Opening with the ancestral origins of the familiar biopsychosocial model of psychological conditions, the book traces distinctive biological and cultural pathways shaping human development and their critical impact on psychiatric and medical disorders. Analyses of disparate phenomena such as jealousy, social anxiety, depressive symptoms, and antisocial behavior describe adaptive functions that have far outlasted their usefulness, or that require further study and perhaps new directions for treatment. In addition, the book’s compelling explorations of violence, greed, addiction, and suicide challenge us to revisit many of our assumptions regarding what it means to be human. Included in the coverage: · Evolutionary foundations of psychiatric compared to non-psychiatric disorders.· Evolutionary psychopathology, uncomplicated depression, and the distinction between normal and disordered sadness. · Depression: is rumination really adaptive? · A CBT approach to coping with sexual betrayal and the green-eyed monster. · Criminology’s modern synthesis: remaking the science of crime with Darwinian insight. · Anthropathology: the abiding malady of the species. With its wealth of interdisciplinary viewpoints, The Evolution of Psychopathology makes an appropriate supplementary text for advanced graduate courses in the evolutionary sciences, particularly in psychology, biology, anthropology, sociology, and philosophy.
... Moods cause investors' limited attention, poor memory, and low capacity to process information (e.g. Bohner, Crow, Erb, & Schwarz, 1992;Isen, 2001;Forgas, Goldenberg, & Unkelbach, 2009;Forgas, 2017). Inattentive investors delay the price adjustment process, therefore leading to positive autocorrelation of asset returns (Dehaan, Madsen, & Piotroski, 2017). ...
... Therefore, only bad moods should contribute to positive return autocorrelation. On the other hand, Bohner et al. (1992) reported that positive moods reduced subjects' motivation to systematically process message content and context cues; Forgas et al. (2009) reported that subjects with negative moods showed better memory and discriminatory ability than subjects with good moods; and Forgas (2017) reported that negative moods promoted optimal performance in cognitive and social tasks. These studies suggest that good moods contribute positively to return autocorrelation, and bad moods contribute less or nothing. ...
Article
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Moods affect investors’ attention, memory, and capacity to process information. Inattentive investors delay the price adjustment process, thus leading to a positive autocorrelation of asset returns. In this study, I investigate the relationship between weather-induced moods and stock-return autocorrelation in the Stock Exchange of Thailand from January 2, 1991, to December 29, 2017. Only good moods contribute significantly to return autocorrelation.
... Positive and negative affect are associated with distinct informational effects (Forgas, 2016). The affect as spotlight function posits that individuals have a tendency to attend to information that is congruent with their affective state (e.g., negative over positive, if experiencing negative affect; Forgas, 2016;Nabi, 2003;E. ...
... Positive and negative affect are associated with distinct informational effects (Forgas, 2016). The affect as spotlight function posits that individuals have a tendency to attend to information that is congruent with their affective state (e.g., negative over positive, if experiencing negative affect; Forgas, 2016;Nabi, 2003;E. Peters et al., 2006). ...
Article
Grounded in the multidisciplinary field of strategic risk and health communication, this study proposed and tested a new infectious disease threat (IDT) appraisal model, focused on mapping individuals’ coping strategy preferences as predicted by their perceived predictability and controllability of the disease. A 2 (predictability: high vs. low) × 2 (controllability: high vs. low) within-subjects online experimental design (N = 1,032 U.S. adults) was employed, in which four IDT scenarios (sexually transmitted infection [STI]; waterborne ID; foodborne ID; vector-borne ID) were shown to participants in a counterbalanced fashion, to examine the effects of IDT appraisals on how individuals cope with outbreaks. Results support the hypothesized model, in which assessments of predictability, controllability, and responsibility of an IDT situation drive individuals’ affect valence, information seeking, and conative reactions in passive and active ways. Findings further provide insights into what information seeking strategies and IDT coping behaviors individuals prefer based on their differential IDT appraisals, thus suggesting how public health authorities and risk communication professionals can optimally communicate about infectious diseases to help individuals understand these situations and respond appropriately.
... In such cultural contexts, a positive affect balance affirms the worth of the internal, private self (Kitayama, Duffy, & Uchida, 2007). Accordingly, there is a culturally normative emphasis on the cultivation and optimization of one's emotional potential and a vigorous pursuit of feeling and manifesting positivity (Binkley, 2014;Forgas, 2014). In such a cultural context, norms such as privileging positive states of mind, pathologizing negative feelings, and engagement in relentless emotional selfoptimization are more likely to prevail. ...
... The moral and spiritual context in which individuals are socialized partly determines what emotions are considered right in various cultures. In modern secular cultures, not being happy may be considered a cause for concern (Forgas, 2014), whereas individuals in traditional cultures may show varying degrees of hesitation or even aversion to happy feelings (Joshanloo & Weijers, 2014). In religious cultures, emotions are interpreted against the backdrop of the prevailing religious worldview. ...
Article
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People in different cultures may give different weights to emotional experience when evaluating their lives. In modern secularized cultures, people are more likely to focus on maximizing the experience of positive emotions and minimizing the experience of negative emotions to achieve well-being. In contrast, in traditional religious cultures, people are more likely to use religious standards to evaluate their lives. Therefore, the present study predicted that the frequency of positive and negative affect would be a better predictor of life satisfaction in secular (vs. religious) cultures. A sample of 295,933 participants from 147 countries was used to test this prediction. The data were extracted from the Gallup World Poll. As expected, the results of multilevel modeling showed that the association between affect and life satisfaction was weaker in religious than secular cultures. Therefore, the socioreligious context partly determines the extent to which affective information is relied on in life evaluation.
... Sirvan como justificación, los siguientes ejemplos: a) una cierta dosis de pesimismo defensivo, incluso puede ser positivo y bueno para el proceso de vivir (Gruber & Moskowitz, 2014;Kashdan & Biswas-Diener, 2014;Lomas, 2016;Norem, 2001;Parrott, 2014); b) es posible tener demasiada felicidad, experimentar la felicidad en el momento equivocado, buscar la felicidad en los caminos equivocados, y experimentar tipos incorrectos de felicidad (Gruber, Mauss & Tamir, 2011); c) el sistema afectivo positivo se puede llegar a asociar positivamente con algunas formas de psicopatología (por ejemplo, trastorno bipolar, uso de sustancias; Gruber et al, 2017); d) la promoción del afecto negativo puede ser útil para las personas. Pues, la tristeza o el humor negativo, que no es depresión, puede mejorar las relaciones interpersonales, incrementar la motivación para superar la situación, mejorar la precisión en los juicios de formación de impresiones y un estilo de pensamiento más detallado y atento y, además, mejora la memoria y el recuerdo de los detalles (Forgas, 2013(Forgas, , 2017; e) un énfasis excesivo en la necesidad de buscar emociones positivas, y evitar las negativas, puede acarrear implicaciones negativas, a través de rumiar sentimientos y experiencias negativas, para el bienestar psicológico de las personas (McGuirk, Kuppens, Kingston & Bastian, 2017); y, por último, f) en pacientes con diversos cánceres de cuello y cabeza, no existían diferencias significativas en años de supervivencia entre los que se sentían abatidos y vencidos por la enfermedad, en comparación con lo que experimentaban pensamientos más positivos (Coyne et al., 2007). ...
Article
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The Positive Psychology (PsP) has reached a great academic, social and bibliographic impact. Nonetheless, this success has been hindered by questioning the originality of some ideas; the scientific approach and the social relevance of the research findings. Likewise, possible risks derived from their interventions and implementations have been suggested. Thus, the objective of the present study is to conduct a critical and constructive reflection about the current situation of PsP. As a conclusion, the PsP must be more rigorous historically through the adoption of a long term perspective; carry out a construction and dissemination of knowledge based on ethic; develop a more realistic discourse within a policy of improving happiness and finally, empirical data that underpin the PsP are used to justify a neoliberal political ideology of happiness.
... Dahası, kötü bir ruh hâli içinde olmak aynı zamanda sebat, harcanan çabayı ve başarılı olmak için motivasyonu artırabilir. Son olarak, olumsuz ruh hâlleri sizi başkalarıyla adil bir şekilde başa çıkma ve başkalarını ikna etme konusunda daha iyi hâle getirebilir (Forgas, 2014). ...
... Similarly, Forgas (2017) postulates that individuals experiencing negative emotions can feel inspired to work harder to achieve their goals. Also, feelings that come with exerting effort to achieve a particular objective through short-term unpleasantness, such as stress and worry, usually see rewards in the form of long-term success. ...
Article
In recent years, there has been an increased scientific interest in the area of emotional intelligence, specifically emotion regulation, as well as the field of positive psychology. Because of the vital role emotion regulation plays in enhancing individuals’ overall well-being, I suggest that it is crucial to connect the two disciplines. This paper conducts a literature review, introduces an overview of positive psychology, the science of well-being, and summarizes existing emotional intelligence and emotion regulation models. It then finds how theories and applications in positive psychology interrelate with research in emotion regulation—suggesting strategies on how to best respond to external and internal stimuli in a manner that maintains one’s overall well-being. I conclude this paper by comparing psychological findings around emotion regulation to parallel religious principles in Islam.
... For example, an angry person will be less likely to seek independent information or knowledge, and more likely to adopt a closed mind; conversely, an anxious person could provoke a deeper processing of information and a change in viewpoints (Mair et al., 2019). Emotions can thus reveal the "hidden rationalities" behind why people behave the way they do, and they can also act as critical "contextual cues" that modulate perception, focus attention, and determine what is remembered (or forgotten) (Clore, 2011;Forgas, 2014;Nesse et al., 2009;Pessoa, 2013;Feldmarn Barrett, 2017;Okon-Singer et al., 2018;Meshulam et al., 2012). As anyone who has ever laughed in a crowd already knows, emotions can also spread, they can be contagious, meaning positive or negative emotions can cascade outward from a single individual to "infect" or affect others (Cuppen et al., 2020). ...
Article
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Low-carbon transitions across energy and transport systems have been widely researched in regards to how transitions are designed, what policies support them, which technologies they entail, and how fast, or slow, they take. Much of this research has focused on examining the agency and behavior of actors and institutions, or examining processes and outcomes, but less weight has been given to human emotions. Based on an explorative systematic review of the sustainability transitions literature, we address a research gap by focusing on how emotions have been reported or examined in transitions concerning energy, buildings and transport. We show that the acceptability and adaptation of new technologies, systems, policies and practices requires people's willingness to change, which itself needs positive emotional commitment. We thus propose a new research agenda for low-carbon transitions that takes into consideration people's emotions as we address climate change and attempt to move to net zero societies.
... DM1-Rs and DM2-Rs both experienced negative affect when breaking promises. Negative mood states involve emotions such as guilt, disgust, and fear (Forgas, 2017) and can diminish motivation (Watson, 2000). Induction of a negative mood is associated with increased risk-aversion (Yuen and Lee, 2003) that may have also interacted with personality traits to increase promise-breaking. ...
Article
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Trust is risky. The mere perception of strategically deceptive behavior that disguises intent or conveys unreliable information can inhibit cooperation. As gregariously social creatures, human beings would have evolved physiologic mechanisms to identify likely defectors in cooperative tasks, though these mechanisms may not cross into conscious awareness. We examined trust and trustworthiness in an ecological valid manner by (i) studying working-age adults, (ii) who make decisions with meaningful stakes, and (iii) permitting participants to discuss their intentions face-to-face prior to making private decisions. In order to identify why people fulfill or renege on their commitments, we measured neurophysiologic responses in blood and with electrodermal activity while participants interacted. Participants (mean age 32) made decisions in a trust game in which they could earn up to $530. Nearly all interactions produced promises to cooperate, although first decision-makers in the trust game reneged on 30.7% of their promises while second decision-makers reneged on 28%. First decision-makers who reneged on a promise had elevated physiologic stress using two measures (the change in adrenocorticotropin hormone and the change in skin conductance levels) during pre-decision communication compared to those who fulfilled their promises and had increased negative affect after their decisions. Neurophysiologic reactivity predicted who would cooperate or defect with 86% accuracy. While self-serving behavior is not rare, those who exhibit it are stressed and unhappy.
... We propose that the suppressant effect of power is most likely to materialize for disgust rather than other negative emotions because people primarily experience disgust when they evaluate a stimulus as a contaminant (Oaten et al., 2009). People are less likely to experience emotions such as anger, outrage, contempt, anxiety, fear, and/or sadness when faced with a contamination threat (Heerdink, Koning, Van Doorn, & Van Kleef, 2018;Wagemans, Brandt, & Zeelenberg, 2018) and these emotions tend to not motivate the avoidance of contamination to the same degree as disgust (Carver & Harmon-Jones, 2009;Darley, 2009;Forgas, 2017;Schriber, Chung, Sorensen, & Robbins, 2017;Strack, Lopes, Esteves, & Fernandez-Berrocal, 2017). Although disgust and fear can have a similar motivational function in avoiding contamination, they tend to be distinguishable: disgust is more tightly linked to the threat of contamination than fear (Inbar & Pizarro, 2016;Woody & Teachman, 2000) such that people tend to be disgusted by potentially infectious stimuli (e.g., rotten food) or acts associated with impurity (e.g., someone eating their booger) rather than be fearful of it. ...
Article
Across seven studies (five preregistered), we show that power reduces the degree to which people morally condemn transgressions that elicit disgust. This effect is explained by power reducing the subjective experience of disgust instead of the categorization of behaviors as disgusting. Power does not reliably reduce other negative emotions besides disgust and the impact of power on disgust and moral judgment is attenuated when participants are instructed to appraise impure behaviors as dangerous. These findings challenge the idea that power always increases the severity of moral judgments, shed light on the specific mechanisms by which power colors our judgments of moral right and wrong, and expand theorizing on the impact of power on emotions and moral judgment.
... Moods also cause investors to have limited attention, poor memory, and low capacity to process information (e.g., Bohner, Crow, Erb, & Schwarz, 1992;Forgas, Goldenberg, & Unkelbach, 2009;Forgas, 2017). The trades of inattentive investors induce return correlations (Peng et al., 2007;Hendershott et al., 2018), hence establishing the causal relationship between weather and return correlations. ...
Preprint
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The coordinated trading of weather-sensitive investors drives stock returns and links the return correlations with weather variables. In this study, I test whether the correlations in the Stock Exchange of Thailand can be explained by Bangkok’s weather variables. Using the daily data from September 3, 2002, to December 29, 2017, I find that the correlation of the returns on the Stock Exchange of Thailand 50 and the Market for Alternative Investment index portfolios has a significant relationship with Bangkok’s weather. The significant variables are a subset of those variables that drive return volatility.
... However, on a momentary basis, fluctuations in negative affect can in fact be functional and ultimately conducive to successful efforts to flourish. Forgas (2017) describes studies in which negative affect induces vigilant and externally focused thinking that, in turn, leads to an improvement in task performance. As noted above, negative affect can lead to a narrowing focus, which is described in the flourishing literature. ...
Article
The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotion suggests that higher levels of positive affect promote an independently measurable state of high psychological well-being termed flourishing. Levels of self-perceived flourishing have been shown to be influenced by past affect, and there is some indication that flourishing may influence future affect. Our study addressed 2 questions: (a) whether a person-centered latent profile analysis based on momentary affective dynamics (intercept, stability, and variability) would identify the expected flourishing profile and (b) whether this profile would exhibit predicted bidirectional relationships between affective experience and self-reported flourishing status. A sample of 1,152 early adults reported momentary positive and negative affect 4 times a day and daily self-perceived flourishing for 13 days. Latent profile analysis identified 3 affective profiles: a positive profile, a mixed profile, and a negative profile. Our results indicate that distinct groups of people can be identified by their affective profiles and that momentary affect predicts changes in future self-perceptions of flourishing. However, we failed to find support for the view that self-perceptions of flourishing reliably predicted changes in levels of future affect. Thus, we only provide mixed support for the broaden-and-build theory and failed to support a key inference of the framework, a bidirectional relationship between experienced affect and self-perceptions of flourishing (at least on the scale of daily momentary change). (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
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We investigated how affective states influence expository text comprehension and whether text valence moderates the effects (i.e., mood congruency). In Experiment 1 participants were randomly assigned to a happy or sad affective state (elicited via films) before reading a positive or negative version of a scientific text on animal adaptations. Participants (n = 79) in the sad (film) group had higher scores on deep-reasoning (d = .312) but not surface-level questions on a subsequent multiple-choice comprehension assessment; there was also no evidence for mood congruence. Using a neutral version of the same text, in Experiment 2 participants (n = 52) in a fearful condition performed better on surface-level comprehension questions (d = .594) compared with a sad condition, but the groups were on par for deep-reasoning questions. Experiment 3 (n = 595) did not replicate the findings from Experiment 2 (no comprehension differences between the sad and fear groups) and there were no differences between the fear and happy groups. However, the sad group outperformed the happy group on deep-reasoning questions (d = .210), thereby replicating Experiment 1. The overall findings were confirmed after pooling the data from the three experiments to increase power.
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Although nursing faculty teach students the basics of therapeutic communication for patient care, faculty may be overlooking the significance of using therapeutic communication with their students. When nursing students experience stress and mental health concerns such as sadness, anxiety, negative thoughts, and depression, instructors need to assess these problems and implement therapeutic communication strategies. Faculty who recognize symptoms and engage students can promote healthy relationships and positive academic outcomes while exemplifying Christlike care for their students.
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Differently valenced affective states stimulate different information search and processing styles. Dual tuning theory suggests that in combination, the styles tuned by positive affect (broad information search and flexible thinking) and by negative affect (persistent detailed search and critical thinking) facilitate creativity better than a single affect alone. Through this lens, we argue that the simultaneous presence of team members experiencing differently valenced affective states (affect heterogeneity) may facilitate team creativity by providing access to more varied information and perspectives. To extract creative benefit from these enhanced informational resources, teams must engage in an information exchange and elaboration process. However, affect heterogeneity may also threaten this process. We suggest that effective information exchange and elaboration is more likely to occur when the team has a well‐developed transactive memory system to legitimize and coordinate the differences flowing from affect heterogeneity among members. We tested our hypotheses among fifty‐nine teams in a within‐team design in which we measured team affect heterogeneity, information exchange and elaboration, and creativity in each of four weeks of a thirteen‐week project. Results supported our hypotheses, including the mediating role of information exchange and elaboration; and the moderating role of team transactive memory system.
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Theory of mind (ToM) – the understanding that others’ behaviours are connected with internal mental states – is an important part of everyday social cognition. There is increasing behavioral evidence that ToM reasoning can be affected by mood. To gain insight into the ways sad mood may affect the underlying mechanisms of ToM reasoning, we recorded event­related brain potentials (ERPs) as dysphoric (N = 16) and non­dysphoric (N = 24) participants reasoned about a protagonist’s true or false beliefs about an object’s location. Results showed significant group effects on early components of the ERP – individuals in the dysphoric group showed greater amplitudes for the anterior N1 and N2/P2 components relative to those in the non­dysphoric group. Later in the ERP, non­dysphoric individuals showed evidence of neurocognitive dissociations between true and false belief. Dysphoric individuals, however, did not show evidence for these later dissociations. This evidence suggests that dysphoria may be associated with effortful reasoning about other’s mental states, even when that effort is not necessary (i.e., when reasoning about true beliefs). We discuss the implications of these findings for understanding how mood affects ToM reasoning and for how especially deliberative ToM processing in dysphoria may lead to social difficulties.
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Major depression is a debilitating condition characterised by diverse neurocognitive and behavioural deficits. Nevertheless, our species-typical capacity for depressed mood implies that it serves an adaptive function. Here we apply an interdisciplinary theory of brain function to explain depressed mood and its clinical manifestations. Combining insights from the free-energy principle (FEP) with evolutionary theorising in psychology, we argue that depression reflects an adaptive response to perceived threats of aversive social outcomes (e.g., exclusion) that minimises the likelihood of surprising interpersonal exchanges (i.e., those with unpredictable outcomes). We suggest that psychopathology typically arises from ineffectual attempts to alleviate interpersonal difficulties and/or hyper-reactive neurobiological responses to social stress (i.e., uncertainty), which often stems from early experience that social uncertainty is difficult to resolve.
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Does the meaning of nonverbal signals depend on the physical attractiveness of the communicator? This study looked at the way positive or neutral facial expression cues by attractive or unattractive female communicators are interpreted. Subjects read detailed descriptions of a female target character accompanied by realistic pictures showing her as physically attractive or unattractive and displaying either a positive (smiling) or a neutral facial expression. Three dimensions of impression formation were assessed: evaluation, self-confidence, and responsibility. Results showed (1) that both physical attractiveness and facial expression had a positive main effect on judgments and (2) that there was a significant and nonobvious interaction on judgments of self-confidence and responsibility. Smiling made attractive targets appear more self-confident, and also more responsible for transgressions, but the same expression had exactly the opposite effect when displayed by unattractive individuals. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for nonverbal communication in real-life situations and in terms of their relevance to current work on physical attractiveness and impression formation
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What is the role of affect in language use, and the production of requests ini particular? Two experiments predicted and found that (a) sad moods increase and happy moods decrease request politeness, and (b) these mood effects are greater when considering more risky and unconventional requests that require more elaborate processing. In Experiment 1, sad persons preferred more polite requests, and decisions about unconventional requests were particularly sensitive to affective influences. Experiment 2 used an unobtrusive method to elicit natural requests in a conversation. Negative affect produced greater politeness and longer delays in posing requests. Recall data and mediational analyses confirmed that greater mood effects were linked to the more extensive processing recruited by unconventional requests, consistent with the Affect Infusion Model (AIM). The cognitive mechanisms that mediate mood effects on language production are discussed, and the implications of the findings for strategic communication and for theories of affect and cognition are considered.
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reviews research on the impact of affective states on evaluative judgments, presenting evidence that is difficult to reconcile with the assumption that emotional influences on social judgment are mediated by selective recall from memory / rather, the presented research suggests that individuals frequently use their affective state at the time of judgment as a piece of information that may bear on the judgmental task, according to a "how do I feel about it" heuristic extends the informative-functions assumption to research on affective influences on decision making and problem solving, suggesting that affective states may influence the choice of processing strategies / specifically it is argued that negative affective states, which inform the organism that its current situation is problematic, foster the use of effortful, detail oriented, analytical processing strategies, whereas positive affective states foster the use of less effortful heuristic strategies (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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What is the role of mood in intergroup discrimination? In 3 experiments, people in happy, sad, or neutral moods made reward allocation decisions and formed impressions about in-group and out-group members. When the personal relevance of the group was low, positive mood resulted in faster, more heuristic processing and greater intergroup discrimination. In contrast, when group relevance was high, it was negative mood that enhanced intergroup discrimination following slower, motivated processing, as predicted by the recent Affect Infusion Model (J. P. Forgas, 1995). Reaction time data and mediational analyses confirmed these processing differences. Results are interpreted as evidence for mood-induced selectivity in the way people process information about groups. The implications of the findings for real-life intergroup behavior and for contemporary affect-cognition theories are considered. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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How does mood influence verbal communication, such as the use of requests? On the basis of the Affect Infusion Model (J. P. Forgas, 1995a), 3 experiments predicted and found that (a) negative moods increase and positive moods decrease request politeness and (b) they do so most in difficult situations that require more substantive processing. In Experiment 1, sad mood enhanced and happy mood reduced request politeness, especially in difficult situations. In Experiment 2, similar mood effects on the politeness and elaboration of self-generated requests were found. In Experiment 3, these findings were replicated in a variety of request situations by use of a different mood induction. Recall data confirmed that more substantive processing enhanced mood effects on requesting. The cognitive mechanisms mediating mood effects on requesting are discussed, and the implications of the results for interpersonal communication and for recent affect–cognition theories are considered. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Discusses what people infer from their feelings and presents an overview of feelings-as-information theory based on work conducted up to the end of 1987. For more recent reviews see Schwarz & Clore 1996, 2007 in Higgins & Kruglanski's "Social psychology" (1st and 2nd edition) and Schwarz 2012 in "Handbook of theories in social psychology" --all available on ResearchGate.
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Describes experiments in which happy or sad moods were induced in Ss by hypnotic suggestion to investigate the influence of emotions on memory and thinking. Results show that (a) Ss exhibited mood-state-dependent memory in recall of word lists, personal experiences recorded in a daily diary, and childhood experiences; (b) Ss recalled a greater percentage of those experiences that were affectively congruent with the mood they were in during recall; (c) emotion powerfully influenced such cognitive processes as free associations, imaginative fantasies, social perceptions, and snap judgments about others' personalities; (d) when the feeling-tone of a narrative agreed with the reader's emotion, the salience and memorability of events in that narrative were increased. An associative network theory is proposed to account for these results. In this theory, an emotion serves as a memory unit that can enter into associations with coincident events. Activation of this emotion unit aids retrieval of events associated with it; it also primes emotional themata for use in free association, fantasies, and perceptual categorization.
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This chapter begins with a summary of the case of Thomas Brewster, who was tried for murder based in large part on eyewitness testimony. Ultimately DNA came to Brewster’s rescue, and he was freed before the trial ended. Analyses of taped interviews in the case help reveal how the interviewing process itself may have tainted the eyewitness testimony. The chapter continues with discussions of new psychological research on memory for complex events. This work shows how the details of events can be changed when witnesses are exposed to post-event information that is misleading. And with enough suggestion, entire events can be planted into the mind of ordinary healthy adults. The final section discusses new findings concerning eyewitness memory for people. This includes eyewitness identification of previously seen strangers, and new findings on procedures that can reduce mistaken identifications.
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Does temporary mood influence the occurrence of the fundamental attribution error (FAE)? Based on recent affect-cognition theorizing and research on attributions, 3 experiments predicted and found that negative moods decrease and positive moods increase the FAE, because of the information-processing consequences of these affective states. In Experiment 1, happy mood enhanced and sad mood reduced dispositional attributions based on coerced essays advocating unpopular opinions. Experiment 2 replicated this effect using an unobtrusive mood induction in a field study. Experiment 3 further confirmed these results and also showed that changes in the FAE were linked to mood-induced differences in processing style, as indicated by memory data and confirmed by mediational analyses. The results are discussed in terms of the cognitive processing strategies that mediate mood effects on attributions. The implications of the findings for everyday inferences and for contemporary theories of affect and cognition are considered.
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Can good or bad moods influence people's tendency to rely on irrelevant information when forming impressions (halo effects)? On the basis of recent work on affect and cognition, this experiment predicted and found that positive affect increased and negative affect eliminated the halo effect. After an autobiographical mood induction (recalling happy or sad past events), participants (N = 246) read a philosophical essay, with an image of the writer attached, showing either an older man or a young woman (halo manipulation). Judgements of the essay and the writer revealed clear mood and halo effects, as well as a significant mood by halo interaction. Positive affect increased halo effects consistent with the more assimilative, constructive processing style it recruits. Negative affect promoting more accommodative and systematic processing style eliminated halo effects. The relevance of these findings for impression formation in everyday situations is considered, and their implications for recent affect-cognition theories are discussed. Copyright (C) 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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An experiment investigated the effect of procedures designed to induce mood (and previously demonstrated to influence social interaction such as helping) on subsequent evaluation of positive, negative, and neutral slides. Results showed main effects of both mood and slide type. This indicates that mild mood-inducing events that are sufficient to affect social interaction also affect evaluation, but they do not rely for their effect on directing attention away from the stimuli themselves. Implications for cognitive processes involved in the relationship between mood and evaluation are discussed.
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Describes experiments in which happy or sad moods were induced in Ss by hypnotic suggestion to investigate the influence of emotions on memory and thinking. Results show that (a) Ss exhibited mood-state-dependent memory in recall of word lists, personal experiences recorded in a daily diary, and childhood experiences; (b) Ss recalled a greater percentage of those experiences that were affectively congruent with the mood they were in during recall; (c) emotion powerfully influenced such cognitive processes as free associations, imaginative fantasies, social perceptions, and snap judgments about others' personalities; (d) when the feeling-tone of a narrative agreed with the reader's emotion, the salience and memorability of events in that narrative were increased. An associative network theory is proposed to account for these results. In this theory, an emotion serves as a memory unit that can enter into associations with coincident events. Activation of this emotion unit aids retrieval of events associated with it; it also primes emotional themata for use in free association, fantasies, and perceptual categorization. (54 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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It is argued that emotions are lawful phenomena and thus can be described in terms of a set of laws of emotion. These laws result from the operation of emotion mechanisms that are accessible to intentional control to only a limited extent. The law of situational meaning, the law of concern, the law of reality, the laws of change, habituation and comparative feeling, and the law of hedonic asymmetry are proposed to describe emotion elicitation; the law of conservation of emotional momentum formulates emotion persistence; the law of closure expresses the modularity of emotion; and the laws of care for consequence, of lightest load, and of greatest gain pertain to emotion regulation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Can temporary mood influence people's communication strategies? According to Grice's cooperative principle, conversational utterances should ideally conform to the maxims of quantity, relevance, quality, and manner. Three experiments predicted and found that participants in a negative mood complied significantly better with Grice's maxims than did participants in a positive mood when using natural language to describe a previously observed social event. Experiments 2 and 3 further confirmed that mood influenced communication strategies, and not merely the encoding (Exp. 2) and retrieval (Exp. 3) of the relevant information. These findings are consistent with affect–cognition theories predicting that positive affect promotes a more internally focused and assimilative thinking and communication style, and negative mood promotes more externally focused and accommodative thinking, resulting in the closer observance of communication norms. The relevance of these findings for recent affect/cognition theories is considered, and the practical implications of the results for everyday conversational strategies are discussed. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Can negative mood improve language understanding? Two experiments explored mood effects on people’s ability to correctly identify sentences that lack clear meaning in the absence of further contextual information (ambiguous anaphora). Based on recent affect – cognition theories, we predicted and found that negative affect, induced by film clips, improved people’s ability to detect linguistic ambiguity. An analysis of response latencies (Studies 1 & 2) and recall (Study 2) confirmed that negative mood produced longer and more attentive processing, and a mediational analysis suggested that processing latencies mediated mood effects on detecting linguistic ambiguity. These results are consistent with negative affect selectively promoting a more concrete, vigilant and externally focused accommodative information processing style, involving more detailed attention to the communicative content of a message. The theoretical relevance of these results for recent affect-cognition theories is considered, and the practical implications of the findings for everyday verbal communication and interpersonal behavior are discussed.
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Can mood states influence the perceived truth of ambiguous or novel information? This study predicted and found that mood can significantly influence peoples' reliance on processing fluency when making truth judgments. Fluent information was more likely to be judged as true (the truth effect), and consistent with Bless and Fiedler's (2006) assimilative vs. accommodative processing model, negative mood eliminated, and positive mood maintained people's reliance on processing fluency as an indication of truth. Post hoc analyses confirmed the predicted mood-induced differences in processing style, as judges in a negative mood adopted more accommodative processing and paid greater attention to external stimulus information. The relevance of these results to contemporary affect-cognition theories is discussed, and the real-life implications of mood effects on truth judgments in applied areas are considered.
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Do temporary moods influence people's tendency to blame victims for undeserved negative events? Based on research on the just world effect and recent affect theories, this experiment predicted and found that positive mood decreased and negative mood increased people's motivation to blame innocent victims for their misadventures. Participants (N=70) were induced into positive or negative mood by viewing films, and subsequently read a newspaper article describing a random assault on either a fellow student (in-group member) or a corporate employee (out-group member). Their reactions were assessed on three measures: attributions of responsibility, dissociation from the victim and character evaluations. Positive mood reduced and negative mood increased the tendency to blame the victim, and in-group victims were blamed more than out-group victims. These results are discussed in terms of recent theories of affect and motivation, and their implications for real-life social judgments are considered.
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Explores the hypothesis that alcohol use and underachievement may serve as strategies to externalize the causation of poor performance and to internalize the causation of good performance. Such a strategy may be prominently used especially by those who have a precarious but not entirely negative sense of self-competence. The etiology of this strategic preference may follow either of two scenarios. The child may attach desperate importance to this competence image because competence is the condition for deserving parental love. Or the child may have been rewarded for accidental attributes or performances that do not predict future success, thus leaving him in a position of one who has reached a status he fears he cannot maintain through his own control. The linkage of alcohol appeal to underachievement strategies is stressed; both are seen as expressions of the same overconcern with competence.
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Based on a theoretical model of the mood-cognition interface, the prediction is derived and tested empirically that positive mood enhances constructive memory biases. After reading an ambiguous personality description, participants received a positive or negative mood treatment employing different films. Within each mood group, half of the participants were then questioned about the applicability of either desirable or undesirable personality traits to the target person. This questioning treatment was predicted to bias subsequent impression judgements in the evaluative direction of the questioned attributes. As earlier research had shown that such a bias is stronger for negative than positive attributes (presumably because of the higher diagnosticity of negative attributes), a non-trivial test of the sup posed mood effect was possible. Positive mood should enhance constructive effects, but this should be most apparent for negative attributes. The empirical findings lend support to these predictions. Positive mood subjects' impression judgements were biased by the prior questioning even when they did not find the questioned attributes to be particularly applicable to the target person. By contrast, negative mood subjects' judgements were more consistent with their responses to the prior questioning and did not exhibit a constructive bias.
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Can good or bad mood induced by the weather influence people’s ability to correctly remember everyday scenes? In this unobtrusive field study, we predicted and found that weather-induced negative mood improved memory accuracy. Randomly selected shoppers on bright, sunny days (good mood) or on cloudy, rainy days (bad mood) saw 10 unusual objects in the check-out area of a suburban shop, and their recall and recognition memory for these objects was later tested. Shoppers in a negative mood showed better memory and higher discrimination ability. The cognitive mechanisms responsible for everyday mood effects on memory performance are discussed, and the implications of these findings for current affect/cognition theories and applied areas are considered.
Article
Three experiments were conducted within the framework of correspondent inference theory. In each of the experiments the subjects were instructed to estimate the “true” attitude of a target person after having either read or listened to a speech by him expressing opinions on a controversial topic. Independent variables included position of speech (pro, anti, or equivocal), choice of position vs. assignment of position, and reference group of target person. The major hypothesis (which was confirmed with varying strength in all three experiments) was that choice would make a greater difference when there was a low prior probability of someone taking the position expressed in the speech. Other findings of interest were: (1) a tendency to attribute attitude in line with behavior, even in no-choice conditions; (2) increased inter-individual variability in conditions where low probability opinions were expressed in a constraining context; (3) that this variability was partly a function of the subjects' own attitudes on the issue; (4) that equivocation in no-choice conditions leads to the attribution that the equivocator opposes the assigned position. The main conclusion suggested is that perceivers do take account of prior probabilities and situational constraints when attributing private attitude, but perhaps do not weight these factors as heavily as would be expected by a rational analysis.
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Can good or bad mood influence the common tendency for people to form judgments based on first impressions? Based on research on impression formation and recent work on affect and social cognition, this experiment predicted and found that positive mood increased, and negative mood eliminated the primacy effect. After an autobiographical mood induction (recalling happy or sad past events), participants (N=284) formed impressions about a character, Jim described either in an introvert–extrovert, or an extrovert–introvert sequence (Luchins, 1958). Impression formation judgments revealed clear mood and primacy main effects, as well as a mood by primacy interaction. Primacy effects were increased by positive mood, consistent with the more assimilative, holistic processing style associated with positive affect. Negative mood in turn eliminated primacy effects, consistent with a more accommodative, externally focused processing style. The relevance of these findings for first impressions in everyday judgments is considered, and their implications for recent affect-cognition theories are discussed.
Article
Does Islamic appearance increase aggressive tendencies, and what role does affect play in such responses? In a computer game, participants made rapid decisions to shoot at armed people, some of whom wore Islamic head dress. We predicted and found a significant bias for participants to shoot more at Muslim targets. We also predicted and found that positive mood selectively increased aggressive tendencies towards Muslims, consistent with affect-cognition theories that predict a more top-down, stereotypical processing style in positive mood. In contrast, induced anger increased the propensity to shoot at all targets. The relevance of these results for our understanding of real-life negative reactions towards Muslims is discussed, and the influence of affective states on rapid aggressive responses is considered.
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The abstract for this document is available on CSA Illumina.To view the Abstract, click the Abstract button above the document title.
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This chapter focuses on affective influences on how individuals process social information. The studies addressing this issue generally suggest that affective states have a pronounced impact on our thinking without disrupting or distracting cognitive processes. Indeed, the impact of affective states on cognitive processes is often conceptualized as highly adaptive. The role of affective states in interpreting and understanding social situations is emphasized in this chapter. Interpretations of a social situation require individuals to relate the specifics of that situation to their preexisting knowledge. The relative impact of these information sources depends on whether the individual pursues a bottom-up or top-down information processing strategy. The author proposes that the choice of these strategies depends in part on the individual's affective state. A general framework is presented which conceptualizes the the proposed relationship between affect and the use of the general knowledge structures. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This is the second volume of the "Handbook of Motivation and Cognition: Foundations of Social Behavior." The general purpose of both volumes has been to elicit original chapters specifically for the "Handbook" that present theory and research on the interface of motivation and cognition. This second volume of the "Handbook" continues to emphasize theory and research on the motivation-cognition interface, but it expands the range of approaches considered by including contributions reflecting clinical, developmental, political, and cognitive psychological perspectives in addition to social and personality perspectives. While expanding the range of approaches considered, this volume also addresses specific issues at a greater level of detail than the previous volume, including such key issues as the nature of self-regulation and self-control, the role of affect, value, and inference in social action, and motivation-cognition relations in social understanding. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Does temporary mood influence how fair or selfish we are in interpersonal situations? These three experiments predicted and found that when people have the power to allocate scarce resources between themselves and others in the dictator game, positive mood increased selfishness, and sad mood produced greater fairness. In a public setting (Experiment 1), happy persons kept more raffle tickets to themselves when making allocations, and Experiment 2 confirmed this effect in the laboratory. Experiment 3 showed that mood effects on selfishness were strongest when the external norms for fairness were relaxed. The results are discussed in terms recent affect-cognition theories, suggesting that positive mood recruits more assimilative, internally focused processing, while negative affect promotes more externally oriented, accommodative processing and thus greater concern with social norms. The implications of the findings for everyday interpersonal decisions are considered.
Article
Does temporary mood inXuence people's tendency to engage in self-handicapping behaviors? Based on past research on self-handicap-ping and recent work on aVect and social behaviors, this experiment predicted and found that positive mood signiWcantly increased the tendency to engage in two kinds of self-handicapping strategies. Participants (N D 94) Wrst received contingent or non-contingent positive feedback about performance on a task of 'cognitive abilities', and then underwent a positive, neutral, or negative mood induction using video Wlms. Self-handicapping was assessed in terms of their subsequent preference for (a) drinking a performance-enhancing, or perfor-mance-inhibiting herbal tea, and (b) engaging or not engaging in performance-enhancing cognitive practice. As predicted, happy mood and non-contingent feedback signiWcantly increased self-handicapping on both measures. The implications of these results for everyday performance tasks, and for recent aVect-cognition theories, are discussed.
Article
Does mood influence people’s tendency to accept observed facial expressions as genuine? Based on recent theories of affect and cognition, two experiments predicted and found that negative mood increased and positive mood decreased people’s skepticism about the genuineness of facial expressions. After a mood induction, participants viewed images of faces displaying (a) positive, neutral, and negative expressions (Exp. 1), or (b) displays of six specific emotions (Exp. 2). Judgments of genuineness, valence, and confidence ratings were collected. As predicted, positive affect increased, and negative affect decreased the perceived genuineness of facial expressions, and there was some evidence for affect-congruence in judgments. The relevance of these findings for everyday nonverbal communication and strategic interpersonal behavior are considered, and their implications for recent affect-cognition theories are discussed.
Article
Interpreting our own and others' social behaviors is an important cognitive task in everyday life. Recent work in cognitive psychology suggests that temporary mood states may have a significant effect on the way information about common social events is processed. This study investigated how (a) a person's current mood, (b) the target of the judgments (self vs other), and (c) the characteristics of the social episode (formal-informal; intimate-nonintimate) influenced people's assessment of, and memory for, social behaviors. Subjects were videotaped while engaging in four different kinds of interactions with trained confederates. One day later subjects were hypnotized, and a happy, positive, or depressed, negative mood was induced. They then watched and rated their own and their partner's interactions on the videotape. Results showed strong mood influence on behavior assessments and recall memory, and significant effects due to target (self vs other) and the type of interaction episode. These results are discussed in terms of their implications for contemporary research on social cognition, and their relevance to cognitively based theories of social maladjustment and depression are considered.
Article
This article reviews and integrates recent research in experimental social psychology and organizational behavior demonstrating the pervasive influence that affective states or moods have on judgments, decision making, and behavior in organizations. An information processing theory, the Affect Infusion Model (AIM) is described that can account for many of the empirical findings and also provides a promising theoretical base for future research in this area. The article reviews a range of experimental and applied studies consistent with the predictions of this model, demonstrating the role of information processing strategies in moderating affective influences on organizational behavior. Specifically, we discuss the influence of affect on such work-related behaviors as worker motivation, creativity and performance, interpersonal judgments and communication, performance appraisal judgments and selection interviews, organizational spontaneity, employee flexibility and helpfulness, absenteeism, and bargaining and negotiation behaviors. The implications of the information processing approach for understanding the influence of affect on organizational behaviors are discussed, and we argue for the greater integration of affect into contemporary theorizing and research in organizational settings.
Article
Based on recent affect-cognition theories and research on social influence strategies, four experiments predicted and found that people in negative mood produced higher quality and more effective interpersonal persuasive messages than did people in positive mood. This effect was obtained for messages advocating both popular and unpopular positions (Experiments 1 and 2), and arguments produced in negative mood actually induced greater attitude change in naïve recipients (Experiment 3). Experiment 4 replicated these effects in an interactive situation, and mediational analyses showed that mood influenced processing style, resulting in the production of more concrete and thus more effective messages when in a negative mood. The role of negative affect in information processing and the production of interpersonal influence strategies in particular is discussed, and the implications of these findings for everyday interaction strategies, and for contemporary affect—cognition theorizing are considered.