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Electronic voting machines are getting popular day by day to conduct Election in densely populated countries. Bangladesh has almost 90 million voters and their biometric information. To make proper use of this information in Election for faster and transparent voting process, a Fingerprint enabled EVM has become a necessity. Currently available Biometric integrated EVMs have some issue with their security, vulnerability and power backup. This paper is about the design and construction of a FingerPrint enabled electronic voting machine (EVM) with greater security and power backup compared to the existing EVMs of this type. The machine is integrated with finger print and various steps of hardware security layers. The proposed design ensures accuracy, transparency, security and faster result processing in Election.
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International Journal of Engineering and Technology Volume 5 No. 6, June, 2015
ISSN: 2049-3444 © 2015 IJET Publications UK. All rights reserved.
Finger Print Enabled Electronic Voting Machine with Enhanced
1Syed Razwanul Haque, 2Miah Md. Asaduzzaman, 3Prasanta Bhattacharjee, 4Akhlak Uzzaman Ashik, 2Robi
1Lecturer, Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering,Metropolitan University, Sylhet, Bangladesh
2Assistant Professor, Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Metropolitan University, Sylhet, Bangladesh
3Dept. of Computer Science and Engineering, MetropolitanUniversity, Sylhet, Bangladesh
4Dept. of Physics, Shahjalal University of Science and Technology, Sylhet, Bangladesh
Electronic voting machines are getting popular day by day to conduct Election in densely populated countries. Bangladesh has
almost 90 million voters and their biometric information. To make proper use of this information in Election for faster and
transparent voting process, a Finger-print enabled EVM has become a necessity. Currently available Biometric integrated EVMs
have some issue with their security, vulnerability and power backup. This paper is about the design and construction of a Finger-
Print enabled electronic voting machine (EVM) with greater security and power backup compared to the existing EVMs of this type.
The machine is integrated with finger print and various steps of hardware security layers. The proposed design ensures accuracy,
transparency, security and faster result processing in Election.
Keywords: EVM, Security, Finger print, Biometric.
A. Conventional Voting Process:
This process is divided into four categories:
Authentication: In this portion, every voter comes with his/her
voter id in the center. The presiding officer verifies the id of the
voter by matching it with the voter list comprising of the details
of the voter. After authentication, the officer provides a ballot
paper to the voter and marks his/her finger with a permanent
Vote: After getting the ballot paper, the voter goes into covered
booth which is placed in a corner of the room, marks the Symbol
of the candidate of interest on the ballot, folds it and drops it in
the ballot box.
Vote Counting: When the voting period ends, the presiding
officer collects all the ballot boxes of the center and starts
counting. While counting, it is very important to verify the
proper votes. Only the presiding officer and Election commission
nominated authorized members are eligible for this process.
Result: After finishing counting, the presiding officer
announces the result and declares the winner of that particular
Conventional voting system requires a long period of time and
lots of stationeries. It is also vulnerable against illegal vote
casting. It is a manual system and there is always risk of manual
errors during the counting. All the above mentioned problems
make Electronic Voting Machine the necessity of a modern
democratic world.
B. Electronic Voting System Requirements:
Electronic voting system is not totally digital. It is combination
of manual/traditional and automatic electronic voting system.
Electronic Voting Requirements are given below:
Convenience: The system should allow the voters to cast their
votes quickly in one session, and should not require many special
skills or intimidate the voter.
Transparency: Both the Voters and candidates should be able to
possess a general knowledge and understanding of the voting
Flexibility: The system should be flexible so that it can allow a
variety of ballot question formats including open-ended
Accuracy: The system should record and count all the votes
Eligibility: Only authorized voters, who are registered, should
be able to vote.
Uniqueness: No voter should be able to vote more than once.
Auditability: It should be possible to verify that all votes have
been correctly accounted in the final election tally, and there
should be a reliable and demonstrable authentic record, in terms
of physical and permanent audit.
International Journal of Engineering and Technology (IJET) Volume 5 No. 6, June, 2015
ISSN: 2049-3444 © 2015 IJET Publications UK. All rights reserved.
Voter Confirmation: The voter should be confirmed clearly that
his vote has been casted, and should be given a chance to modify
his vote before it is finally casted.
No over-voting: The voters should be prevented from choosing
more than one candidate option.
Under-voting: The voter may receive a warning for not voting,
but the system must not prevent under voting.
Privacy: It should be confirmed that no one can access the
information about the vote.
A. Button Verification: Button verification is very important.
In every center, presiding officer will verify the button before
voting starts. He will check every button by pressing them and
sound coming from the pressed button will confirm its
workability. The process is called “Pre armed check”. After
verification of all the buttons the machine will start.
B. Finger Print Verification: Finger print or biometric voting
process is a highly advanced system that allows enrolling and
identifying millions of voters quickly and unmistakably. Use of
biometric information will minimize the possibility of illegal
vote casting. Ensuring quick and precise voter identification and
enrollment is the cornerstone of any credible election. A full
range of biometric parameters to identify the voters by
fingerprints requires highly customizable software modules for
both input and output settings. Fingerprint scanners are used
here. They provide a quick, easy, efficient, and secure
measurement. For example the fingerprint of an employee is
stored in a database that the scanner queries every time it is used.
The scanner goes through two basic Boolean conditions when an
individual’s print is scanned. First, the print is usually searched
in a database of fingerprints. Once it is found, then it looks at the
print to see what access privileges are associated with the print
and compares them to the access they are trying to gain. If
everything matches, then the subject is allowed access and if not,
they are not allowed. A log of the event is usually stored for
security purposes. The size of these devices is another reason for
becoming so mainstream recently. The objective of voting is to
allow voters to exercise their right to express their choices
regarding specific issues, pieces of legislation, citizen initiatives,
constitutional amendments, recalls and/or to choose their
government and political representatives [2].
Technology is being used more and more as a tool to assist
voters to cast their votes. To allow the exercise of this, almost
all voting systems around the world include the following
Voter identification and authentication
Voting and recording of casted vote
Vote counting
Publication of election result
Voter identification is required during two phases of the electoral
process: first for voter registration in order to establish the right
to vote and afterwards, at voting time and to allow a citizen to
exercise their right to vote by verifying if the person satisfies all
the requirements needed to vote (authentication) [3]. The field of
biometrics was formed and has since expanded on to many types
of physical identification. Still, the human fingerprint remains a
very common identifier and the biometric method of choice
among law enforcement [1]. These concepts of human
identification have lead to the development of fingerprint
scanners that serve to quickly identify individuals and assign
access privileges. Finger print recognition, the electronic
methods of recording and recognizing an individual finger print,
advanced substantially during the last decade of the 21th century
Electronic voting system has brought revolutionary change in the
traditional manual voting system. It can easily make that voting
process simple and joyful. Main purpose of a Voting machine is
to record vote and provide result very fast. The category
“electronic voting” is potentially broad, referring to several
distinct possible stages of electronic usage during the course of
an election.
A. Electronic voting: Electronic voting refers to any system
where a voter casts his or her ballot using an electronic
system, rather than a paper. Once recorded, an electronic
vote is stored digitally and transferred from each electronic
voting machine to a counting system.
B. Electronic vote counting: Electronic vote counting refers
to the system that is used to tabulate ballots and award seats.
It would be possible to vote using a non-electronic medium
and then convert these votes to an electronic system and
award seats through an electronic vote counting system.
Electronic Voting Machine is a simple electronic device used to
record votes in place of ballot papers and boxes which were used
earlier in conventional voting system [4]. It is a simple machine
that can be operated easily by both the polling personnel and the
voters. Being a standalone machine without any network
connectivity, nobody can interfere with its programming and
manipulate the result. Keeping the erratic power supply position
in many places in the country, the machines have been made to
run on batteries. It has mainly two units: Control unit and Ballot
unit. The Control Unit is the main unit which stores all data and
controls the functioning of EVM. The program which controls
the functioning of the control unit is burnt into a microchip on a
“one time programmable basis”. Once burnt it cannot be read,
copied out or altered. The EVMs use dynamic coding to enhance
security of data transmitted from ballot unit to control unit. The
new EVMs have also got real time clock and date-time stamping
facility which enables them to record the exact time and date
whenever a key is pressed. After the voting is completed and the
close button is pressed, the machine does not accept any data or
record any vote. Through the press of “total” button, the control
unit can display the number of votes recorded till that time which
can be cross checked with the register of voters. The display
system of the control unit shows the total number of votes polled
in a polling station and the candidate-wise votes polled in the
machine when the ‘result’ button is pressed by the counting staff
in the presence of counting agents at the counting center. The
control unit can also detect any physical tampering made with
the connecting cable and indicate the same in the display unit
International Journal of Engineering and Technology (IJET) Volume 5 No. 6, June, 2015
ISSN: 2049-3444 © 2015 IJET Publications UK. All rights reserved.
In the proposed machine there is no network connection, that’s
why there is no chance to manipulate the result remotely. There
is no way to change the microprocessor code. All the results are
saved in a powerful SD card. It has real time clock and date.
Battery unit is connected with control unit and ballot unit.
A. Hardware Units:
The machine has two units which are totally separated. They are
given below:
Control Unit: This unit maintains the whole system. It has a
reset button, clear button, stop button, cancel button, result
button. When reset button is pressed, then the machine is ready
for vote. A sound confirms presiding officer that the machine is
ready for voting.
If presiding officer presses the reset button twice, then it
generates a warning signal and presiding officer can use the
‘Cancel button’ to cancel the previous reset condition. After
successful cancellation, the unit generates another sound. When
the voting period is finished, presiding officer can end the voting
session by pressing ‘’Stop’ button. There is a display on control
unit for displaying result. After ending the session, the presiding
officer has to press the ‘Result’ button for getting the total count
of each candidate. Individual counts of the candidates are
displayed on the display of the unit. When results are shown on
the display, a light is turned on with a message that the Voting
session of the center has been completed.
Ballot Unit: The ballot unit is comprised of candidates’
names, their voting signs and a button beside each of them.
When the verification procedure is done, the voter goes into the
ballot unit room. Then the presiding officer presses the Reset
button and makes the machine prepared for voting and the voter
casts his vote. After the successful casting of a vote the machine
will bell a sound and voice message will be heard. A light will
turn-on in the control unit to give the Presiding officer
confirmation of the casted vote.
B. Enhanced Security
Pre Armed Check: Every switch of EVM is important and after
turning on the EVM, first thing is to make sure that they are
functioning properly. For this issue, a special on board checking
system has been introduced which is called Pre Armed Check. In
this system, the authority must press every switch to turn on the
EVM. If the on board microcontroller detects that all switches
are functioning properly, only then the device will be activated
for voting.
Memory card Error Check: The device will always check the
activity of memory card. If memory card has an error or does not
work properly, then the device will give a warning alert.
Different memory layer has different warning alert pattern. By
hearing warning alert pattern, the faulty memory card layer can
be identified instantly.
Energy Level Indicator: The device contains an energy level
indicator to get the updates of battery health. The on board
microcontroller always read voltage of the battery by using a 10-
bit built-in Analog to Digital converter (ADC). Then it shows the
value of the battery voltage on a LCD display. The
microcontroller also gives a battery low warning alert, when the
battery charge goes down below 30% of its capacity.
Over enabling indicator and log: The device will give
warning alert if over enabling is occurred. There is an activity
log recording system. That’s why it is possible to analyze log
data and view all the previous activities of this machine if any
suspicious incident happens.
MCU input surge protection: Microcontroller input pin will
not receive any false trigger during any surge. Every pulse is
analyzed and then executed.
Device Doctoring Protection: The device will be
automatically deactivated if any one try open it or try to
change or modify the functionality of the device.
Multiple Memory: The device has multiple memory layers
and all the information are saved into these memory layers.
That’s why data can be collected from other layers if any one
of the memory layers is damaged or does not work properly.
Coordination of framework is the main part which ensures the
secured voting process along with the key button, liquid crystal
display (LCD), microcontroller, finger print module, SD card
and total processing of the system. [8]
The Arduino Mega 2560 is a microcontroller board based on the
ATmega2560. It has 54 digital input/output pins (of which 15
can be used as PWM outputs), 16 analog inputs, 4 UARTs
(hardware serial ports), a 16 MHz crystal oscillator, a USB
connection, a power jack, an ICSP header, and a reset button. It
contains everything needed to support the microcontroller,
simply connect it to a computer with a USB cable or power it
with an AC-to-DC adapter or battery to get started. GT-511C3 is
a small embedded module that consists of an optical sensor
mounted on a small circuit board. The optical sensor scans a
fingerprint and the microcontroller and software provides the
modules functionality which automatically processes the scanned
fingerprint. The module itself does all of the heavy lifting behind
reading and identifying the fingerprints with an on-board optical
sensor and 32-bit CPU. It has an increased memory capacity.
The module is small and easy to mount using two mounting tabs
on the side of the sensor. The on-board JST-SH connector has
four signals: Vcc, GND, Tx, Rx. It can easily store different
fingerprints and the database. The LCD display is 128x64 dots
and it has blue backlight. [5]
There will be two types of verification system. One is manual
verification system and another is FPS (Finger print System)
verification. Vote will be allowed if any of this will be
successful. All candidates’ individual votes will be stored in
EEPROM. That’s why microcontroller can get the number of
votes of all candidates after reboot. We used a buzzer to give
some security alert for transparent voting system. There
is a Liquid Crystal Display to show guideline messages. It has
International Journal of Engineering and Technology (IJET) Volume 5 No. 6, June, 2015
ISSN: 2049-3444 © 2015 IJET Publications UK. All rights reserved.
one red and one green colored LED to show various events by
different presentation. Here, we used a term called "Pre-Armed
Check" which helps us to ensure that all buttons are working
properly. If any buttons have trouble then the device will not
work. There is a SD card to store data that gives extra security
for any types of loss of data. There is RTC module to get the
actual time. [7]
A. Library reference:
Fingerprint Library
EEPROM Library
Liquid Crystal Display Library
Software Serial Library
Serial Peripheral Interface Library
SD Card Library
RTC Module Library
B. Global Variable Initialization:
Hardware, External Storage and Communication purposes
A new text file on SD Card to store records
Software Serial including fixed Rx and Tx pin
Liquid Crystal Display including fixed pins
Fingerprint Module initialization with pins
C. Calculation purposes:
Individual candidates votes(Integer)
Total Casted votes(Integer)
Few boolean variables
D. First Setup
Step 1 :( Initial Setup)
All types of Serial communication initialization
LCD Initialization
Gets time from RTC module
Power On Fingerprint Module
All pins mode selection
On red LED
Step 2 :( Pre-armed Check)
Checks all the buttons and will continue if everything is
"Pre-armed checks... press all buttons" displays on LCD
If every button works then displays "Armed Successfully"
and goes to Step 3
Otherwise displays "Check all button.." on LCD
Step 3 :( Startup message)
Displays "Electronic Voting Machine" on LCD
Then shows a LED sequence and displays "Starting" on
LCD (Blink red and green LED for a few seconds)
Then displays "Device started" and goes to Step 4.
Step 4 :( SD Card Initialization)
Displays "SD card initialized" if everything is ok and goes
to Step 5.
Otherwise displays "SD card not initialized"
Step 5 :( Read Vote)
Reads all candidates individual votes from EEPROM and
goes to Step 6.
E. Main Algorithm
Step 6 :( Read Pins)
Checks current status of all input pins and save these status
to boolean variables
Goes to step 8 if “give_access” pin is high
Goes to step 7 if “FPS_verify” pin is high
Goes to step 11 if “Finish” pin is high
Step 7 :( Voter verification)
Enables FPS module and verify the fingerprint.
Display "Press Your Finger"
Goes to step 8 if Fingerprint is matched and displays
"Verified Voter"
Goes to step 6 and give security alert if Finger is not
If cancel button_pin is high then verification is stopped and
goes to Step 6.
Step 8 :( Ask for Vote)
If any candidate button pin is high then counts relevant
candidates vote,
Shows an LED sequence and goes to Step 9.
If cancel button pin is high then access is canceled and goes
to Step 6.
Step 9 :( Cast Vote)
Vote will be finalized and red LED will be on
Save to EEPROM and SD Card
Access off for vote and goes to Step 6.
Step 10 :( Reset History)
Erases all candidates votes
Delete SD Card data
Replace 0 to EEPROM
Goes to step 6.
Step 11 :( Finishing process)
Make the full system off. [9]
International Journal of Engineering and Technology (IJET) Volume 5 No. 6, June, 2015
ISSN: 2049-3444 © 2015 IJET Publications UK. All rights reserved.
Figure-1: System flowchart
International Journal of Engineering and Technology (IJET) Volume 5 No. 6, June, 2015
ISSN: 2049-3444 © 2015 IJET Publications UK. All rights reserved.
The proposed framework has been successfully implemented.
The steps of total implementation process are shown in the
following figures from Figure-2 to Figure-10.
Figure-2: Pre Armed checking starts
Figure-3: Pre Armed checking continues
Figure 5: EVM is starting for voting
Figure-6: Display showing device parameters
Figure-7: Finger print scanning
Figure-4: Pre Armed checking completed successfully
International Journal of Engineering and Technology (IJET) Volume 5 No. 6, June, 2015
ISSN: 2049-3444 © 2015 IJET Publications UK. All rights reserved.
Figure-8: On-board light indicates the presence of a legal voter
Figure-9: Voter selecting the desired candidate
Figure-10: Display shows the total number of vote casted for
each candidate
The paper turns out to be a vivid manifestation of a transparent
voting system which undoubtedly is a better one than the
orthodox ballot voting system. The security layers and
technology featured in the gadget would surely work as basis for
conducting secured e-voting. Voting process with this system
overcomes most of the problems faced during the
voting period. This will surely ensure a safer voting method
which is very much what is required for a healthy voting system
of a nation.
[1] k. Memon, D. Kumar and S. Usman, “Next Generation A
secure E-Voting System based On Biometric Fingerprint
Method”, International Conference on information and
Intelligent Computing (IPCSIT), pp.26-32,2011
[2] R. Udupa, G. Garg and P. Sharma, “fast and accurate
fingerprint verification”, International Conference on Audio and
Video-Based Biometric Person Authentication, pp. 192-
[3] M. Khan, “Fingerprint biometric-based self-authentication
and deniable authentication schemes for the electronic world.”
IETE Technical Review, vol.26 (3), pp. 191, 2009.
[4] L. O’Gorman, “An overview of fingerprint verification
technologies.” Information Security Technical Report 3.1, pp.21-
32, 1998.
[6] Sanjay Kumar1, Manpreet Singh, Design a Secure
Electronic Voting System Using Fingerprint Technique”. IJCSI
International Journal of Computer Science Issues, Vol. 10, Issue
4, No 1, July 2013 ISSN (Print): 1694-0814 | ISSN (Online):
[7] Michael Margolis, Arduino Cookbook, Second Edition,
O’Reilly publishers.
[8] Massimo Banzi, Getting Started with Arduino, Second
Edition, O’Reilly publishers
... Reference [30] developed a fingerprint enabled electronic voting machine with enhanced security in Bangladesh of almost 90 million voters. The researchers were motivated by the problems of inaccuracy, lack of transparency, insecurity and delay in election result processing and announcement. ...
Full-text available
The voting system in the world has been characterised with many fundamental challenges, thereby resulting to a corrupt contestant winning an election. Researchers have been emotionally, physically, socially and intellectually concerned about the election malpractices recorded at various levels of electing a representative. Questions on how corrupt stakeholders in elections could be prevented from fraudulent activities such as rigging and impersonation called for discussion and answers. Consequences of declaring a corrupt contestant as a winner are bad governance, insecurities and diversification of public funds for personal gains. There must be approaches to tackle the problems of voting systems. This paper focused on a comprehensive review of electronic voting systems by different scholars as a platform for identifying shortcomings or drawbacks towards the implementation of a highly secured electronic voting system. The methods used by different scholars were technically reviewed so as to identify areas that need improvement towards providing solutions to the identified problems. Furthermore, countries with history on the adoption of e-voting systems were reviewed. Based on the problems identified from various works, a novel for future work on developing a secured electronic voting system using fingerprint and visual semagram techniques was proposed.
... Bangladesh has almost 90 million voters and their biometric information [1]. To utilize this data in Political decision for quicker and straightforward democratic procedure, a unique mark empowered electronic voting machine (EVM) has become a need. ...
Full-text available
In a true democracy or developing country for example like Bangladesh, elections are the basis for the nation functions healthy. As the elections are hold frequently, the costs of voting are increasing geometrically. In order to save human resource and time, the current trend is using information technology on elections. For this purpose, this project is designed to save time, to eradicate complexibility of traditional voting system as well as to make voting system fairness, uniqueness, eligibity and increase security. People, who can't afford to go their registered voter centre, they can submit their vote to their own areas candidate from any voter centre by using this system. This system is mainly based on finger print, which one is unique system for security and to eradicate vote manipulation. This project is mostly helpful to who stays different state, to detect false voter and it can easily show result. If this system is used in national election, people can get more scope to submit their valuable vote. It was tested and implemented successfully on those issues.
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This paper presents the design of an electronic voting machine suitable for the implementation of transparent e-voting frameworks and cut the cost of running elections using the otherwise traditional means. The system presented here, makes it possible to handle the elections processes in a more effective way through biometric authentication. This biometric based small scale electronic voting machine is designed to handle a limited number of candidates with options for upgrades to meet future demands. A user can be registered and verified through a biometric finger reader and an alphanumeric keypad. The voting procedure and final result can be seen on an LCD interface. The system’s operational algorithm and interface management procedures are embedded into an ATMEGA2560 microcontroller which serves as the central processing unit (CPU). The CPU also connects to a GSM radio device that sends election results to the central collation office for further actions through SMS. The result obtained shows that the machine is able to do two major functions separately and independent of each other; register voters prior to Election Day and carry out the voting process by allowing only eligible voters earlier registered to vote after verification. The results also show that voter registration and elections can be carried out at a reduced time with an average registration time of 22.67sec and an average voting time of 32.93sec per voter.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper we propose a secure e-voting system for Pakistan based on fingerprint biometric method, a public voting system that would be deployed in Pakistan to make the election process system transparent and efficient, and to make voters satisfied. Our system is client/server architecture and it can be implemented using virtual private network like automated teller machines or any local area network. Our system reduces the cost and time solves many problems that happen are happening in current system like less participation rate, vacant ballot and cheating. Our system’s process composed of three components that are Registration phase, Administration Phase and Vote casting phase. Our System is mobile means Voter can be cast in his own halqa from anywhere in the Pakistan. Our system is fast, 30 seconds per vote. The security of the system is assured by the use of biometric fingerprint device incorporated with software application that notifies if voter have already cast the vote. Our system support simultaneous voting due to the distributed nature of the database. Voters are allowed to cast vote for both National & Provincial Assemblies at the same time also it allows referendum. The voters could shortly view the results of the Election immediately after the election time expires on Client Machines.
This paper describes fingerprint verification methods and technologies. Its purpose is to give the reader an understanding of the following: fingerprint verification technology and terminology, recognition rate and systems design considerations, relative merits of different fingerprint technologies, and the relative advantages and disadvantages of fingerprints versus other biometrics. The focus is on the use of fingerprints for personal authentication — not for traditional police applications.
Conference Paper
Speed and accuracy are the prerequisites of a biometric authentication system. However, most fingerprint verification methods compromise speed for accuracy or vice versa. In this paper we propose a novel fingerprint verification algorithm as a solution to this problem. The algorithm is inspired by a basic Computer Vision approach to model-based recognition of objects - alignment. We pose the problem of fingerprint matching as one of matching the corresponding feature sets. We propose a novel transformation consistency checking scheme to make verification accurate. We employ an early elimination strategy to eliminate inconsistent transformations and thereby achieve significant speed-up. Further speed-up is obtained by sampling based on geometric nearness. Our algorithm is simple, intuitive, easy to implement even on the simplest hardware and does not make any assumption on the availability of singularities like core and delta in the fingerprint. We report our results on three representative fingerprint databases.
Fingerprint biometric-based self-authentication and deniable authentication schemes for the electronic world
  • M Khan
M. Khan, "Fingerprint biometric-based self-authentication and deniable authentication schemes for the electronic world." IETE Technical Review, vol.26 (3), pp. 191, 2009.
Getting Started with Arduino, Second Edition
  • Massimo Banzi
Massimo Banzi, Getting Started with Arduino, Second Edition, O'Reilly publishers