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The article presents cluttering as understood as a specific communication disorder. Cluttering has received less coverage in the subject literature than stuttering and is comparatively poorly understood. Defining cluttering presents us with a problem due to differences of opinion as to which of the behaviours associated with the disorder are crucial to its diagnosis and which are rather peripheral. Modern approaches to the understanding of cluttering should be based on a neurodevelopmental concept, which has pointed out the importance of understanding the whole symptom formation from genes to behavior. This model has microgenetic theory itself in the backround. It includes distal interactive factors (genes, environment), main interactive factors (speech planning and speech production), modeling factors (cognitive processes and awareness), and behaviour itself (cluttering). The article discusses these factors against the basis of the global subject literature. Particular attention has been devoted to the development of the process of becoming aware of mistakes in utterances within the perspective of the state of the brain/ mind in time. The section ends with a discussion of the diagnostic criteria including that of differential diagnostics.
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... Delayed speech development has been examined by many experts, including representatives of various scientific disciplines-medicine, pedagogy, psychology, linguistics, and speech therapy. In the available literature, delayed speech development appears as the name of the diagnosis, a condition of disorders, a symptom of developmental disorders, but also as a syndrome of symptoms [5]. Different authors define this WSTĘP Opóźniony rozwój mowy (ORM) jest poważnym zaburzeniem, które w porę wykryte i poddane stosowanej terapii może zostać całkowicie wyleczone. ...
... Opóźniony rozwój mowy był badany przez wielu specjalistów, przedstawicieli różnych dyscyplin naukowychmedycyny, pedagogiki, psychologii, lingwistyki i logopedii. W dostępnej literaturze ORM występuje jako nazwa diagnozy, stanu zaburzeń, objawu zaburzeń rozwojowych, ale także zespołu objawów [5]. Różni autorzy definiują concept differently depending on the adopted criterion. ...
... Delayed speech development occurs when the language development process does not proceed in accordance with the standards adopted for the individual age group [6]. A simple definition of standard developmental norms includes those achievements with respect to the particular functions that can be observed in most children of the same age [5]. ...
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Introduction : The main purpose of this publication is to review the current state of knowledge in the field of delayed speech development and to present data on etiology, clinical symptoms, and indications for therapy. Materials and methods : Literature data was reviewed from the English-language PubMed and MEDLine computer databases, as well as the Polish Medical Bibliography database. Google Scholar search engine was used. The works were analyzed, with current scientific evidence based on peer-reviewed scientific publications, systematic reviews, and conducted control studies taken into account. In addition, an analysis of our own nearly 10 years of experience in the field of hearing and speech rehabilitation was conducted. Results : A child with non-harmonious development, regardless of the etiology of the phenomenon, may also exhibit problems with speech acquisition, indicating, among others, a developmental delay in speaking. The correct development of speech depends on 3 types of factors: biological, psychological, and social. Delayed speech development (DSD) is primarily attributed to the person affected, as well as her immediate surroundings. In the case of small children developing harmoniously, the chance of compensating for missing words is one hundred percent. The above phenomenon may be compensated for spontaneously – which takes place in a small number of cases – or thanks to systematic therapy, with the participation of the child’s parents (guardians). Conclusions : An interdisciplinary approach to DSD is of key importance in the treatment of this disorder, and its multifactorial etiology indicates the need for early comprehensive rehabilitation of hearing and speech. In contrast, clinical practice shows that this problem is often downplayed. The reasons for the appearance of DSD are constantly under investigation, as there are many paths leading to delays in this area. There are also new reports that allow better understanding of the ways of speech development, which directly translates into a change in the attitudes regarding rehabilitation.
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