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The article presents cluttering as understood as a specific communication disorder. Cluttering has received less coverage in the subject literature than stuttering and is comparatively poorly understood. Defining cluttering presents us with a problem due to differences of opinion as to which of the behaviours associated with the disorder are crucial to its diagnosis and which are rather peripheral. Modern approaches to the understanding of cluttering should be based on a neurodevelopmental concept, which has pointed out the importance of understanding the whole symptom formation from genes to behavior. This model has microgenetic theory itself in the backround. It includes distal interactive factors (genes, environment), main interactive factors (speech planning and speech production), modeling factors (cognitive processes and awareness), and behaviour itself (cluttering). The article discusses these factors against the basis of the global subject literature. Particular attention has been devoted to the development of the process of becoming aware of mistakes in utterances within the perspective of the state of the brain/ mind in time. The section ends with a discussion of the diagnostic criteria including that of differential diagnostics.
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The article presents cluttering as understood as a specific
communication disorder. Cluttering has received less cov-
erage in the subject literature than stuttering and is compar-
atively poorly understood. Defining cluttering presents us with
a problem due to differences of opinion as to which of the be-
haviours associated with the disorder are crucial to its diag-
nosis and which are rather peripheral. Modern approaches
to the understanding of cluttering should be based on a neuro-
developmental concept, which has pointed out the impor-
tance of understanding the whole symptom formation from
genes to behavior. This model has microgenetic theory itself
in the backround. It includes distal interactive factors (genes,
environment), main interactive factors (speech planning and
speech production), modeling factors (cognitive processes
and awareness), and behaviour itself (cluttering). The article
discusses these factors against the basis of the global subject
literature. Particular attention has been devoted to the devel-
opment of the process of becoming aware of mistakes in ut-
terances within the perspective of the state of the brain/ mind
in time. The section ends with a discussion of the diagnostic
criteria including that of differential diagnostics.
Key words: microgenetic theory, speech disfluency,
language, thinking, syntax, grammar
Vol. 14, No. 1, 2016, 1-15
Received: 12.10.2015
Accepted: 28.12.2015
A – Study Design
B – Data Collection
C – Statistical Analysis
D – Data Interpretation
E – Manuscript Preparation
F – Literature Search
G – Funds Collection
Jolanta Góral-Półrola1(A,B,D,E,F), Jolanta Zielińska2(A,B,D,E,F),
Grażyna Jastrzebowska3(A,B,D,E), Zbigniew Tarkowski4(A,B,D,E)
1Old Polish University, Kielce, Poland
2Department of Special Pedagogy, Pedagogical University of Kraków, Kraków, Poland
3Institute of Polish Studies and Culture, University of Opole, Opole, Poland
4Medical University of Lublin, Department of Speech Pathology and Rehabilitation,
Lublin, Poland
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Although cluttering has been regarded as an entity distinguished from stut-
tering since the second half of the 19th century (Kussmaul, 1885), the issue of
how cluttering might best be defined has been the subject of ongoing debate for
over 55 years, since Weiss (1964) contentiously argued that the disorder could be
seen as just one characteristic of what he termed a central language imbalance.
Different approaches to the definition of cluttering
Defining cluttering presents us with a problem due to the differences of opinion
as to which of the behaviours associated with the disorder are crucial to its diag-
nosis and which are peripheral. In an early definition Weiss (1964:1) takes a ho-
listic approach to its description:
Cluttering is a speech disorder characterized by the clutterer’s un-
awareness of his disorder, by short attention span, by disturbances
in perception, articulation and formulation of speech and often speed
of delivery. It is a disorder of the thought processes preparatory to
speech and based on a hereditary disposition. Cluttering is the verbal
manifestation of central language imbalance, which affects all chan-
nels of communication (e.g., reading, writing, rhythm, and musicality)
and behaviour in general.
Cluttering (also called tachyphemia or tachyphrasia) we understood as a spe-
cific communication disorder, characterized by a rapid rate making speech dif-
ficult to understand, erratic rhythm, poor syntax or grammar, and words or groups
of words unrelated to the sentence (St. Louis 2010).
Many authors suggested that cluttering is a fluency disorder (Pąchalska,
Kaczmarek, Kropotov 2014; Kearston et al. 2015) wherein segments of conver-
sation in the speaker’s native language typically are perceived as too fast overall,
too irregular, or both. The segments of a rapid and/or irregular speech rate must
further be accompanied by one or more of the following:
1. excessive “normal” disfluencies;
2. excessive collapsing or deletion of syllables;
3. abnormal pauses, syllable stress, or speech rhythm.
St Louis (1992:49) defines cluttering as: “a speech/language disorder,” and
cites its chief characteristics as
1. abnormal fluency which is not stuttering
2. a rapid and/or irregular speech rate”.
Wohl (1970) on the other hand considered festinant speech (where speech
becomes faster and faster) to be the outstanding feature. Although all these def-
initions cover similar areas, there are significant differences amongst them.
Weiss does not mention accelerated speech rate. St Louis provides the only def-
inition that directly implicates a loss of fluency. More recently, St Louis, Raphael,
Góral-Półrola J. et al. Cluttering
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Myers and Bakker (2003:4) have offered a reworked definition:
Cluttering is a syndrome characterized by a speech delivery which
is either abnormally fast, irregular or both. In cluttered speech, the
person’s speech is affected by one or more of the following: (1) fail-
ure to maintain normally expected sound, syllable, phrase and paus-
ing patterns (2) evidence of greater than expected incidents of
disfluency, the majority of which are unlike those typical of people
who stutter.
This provides a comprehensive coverage of motoric and fluency aspects, al-
though mention should be given to the language difficulties that are commonly
seen in the disorder. This is something Daly (1992:107) addresses when de-
scribing cluttering as
a disorder of speech and language processing resulting in rapid, dys-
rhythmic, sporadic, unorganized and frequently unintelligible speech.
Accelerated speech is not always present, but an impairment in for-
mulating language almost always is
All these differences serve to highlight the multifaceted nature of the disorder,
and they bring into focus the difficulties for diagnosis; a process often compli-
cated further by the common presence of co-occurring speech and language
The forming of cluttering is linked to an array of factors (Ward 2007). In ac-
cordance with the neuro-development hypothesis this process may be formu-
lated within a microgenetic model of cluttering: from genes to behaviour (Fig. 1).
This involves distal and chiefly interactive factors, modelling factors as well as
Distal interactive factors
Weiss (1964) went so far as stuttering and cluttering to claim that all cluttering
occurred through genetic transmission and that cluttering underpinned all stut-
tering – an opinion which is not shared by authorities nowadays. EEG evidence
for an organic explanation has found those who clutter to show more abnormal
patterns than those who stutter (Langova & Moravek, 1964; Luschinger & Arnold,
1965; Moravek & Langova, 1962). Luschinger and Arnold (1965) found that while
a group of people who stutter had essentially normal EEG patterns, 90 percent
of those diagnosed with cluttering evidenced deviant EEG traces.
Góral-Półrola J. et al. Cluttering
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Like stuttering, cluttering has been observed as a feature of Tourette’s syn-
drome (Van Borsel & Vanrykghem 2000; Van Borsel et al., 2004) and some have
observed cluttering subsequent to neurological damage (Hashimoto et al., 1999;
Lebrun, 1996; Thacker & De Nil, 1996). Cluttering occurs more frequently
amongst males than females in a ratio of about 4:1 (Arnold, 1960; St Louis &
Hinzman, 1988).
Abnormal brain development which appears during the early stages of a foe-
tus’s life as well as during the period around the birth itself relates on the whole
to the process of subdivision resulting from disturbances within speech fluency
(Chen et al. 2015). Environmental factors influence the appearance of such
changes: birth complications, viral infections during pregnancy, foetus malnutri-
tion. These factors result in changes though only in those genetically predisposed
to the occurrence of neuro-structural, eurochemical or neurofunctional changes
to the brain (Kang and Drayna 2012). This hypothesis may equally explain the
first symptoms of disfluency in speech already during the period of childhood.
Main interactive factors: the subcomponents of cluttering
We can now look at some of the subcomponents of cluttering which have
been considered significant in a little more detail: (1) motor components; (2) lan-
guage components; (3) neuropsychological and psychological components.
The motor components of cluttering are presented in Table 1.
Góral-Półrola J. et al. Cluttering
Fig. 1. A microgenetic model of cluttering: from genes to behaviour
Source: Pąchalska, Kaczmarek and Kropotov (2014); in our own modification
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Cluttering is defined as a disorder of fluency characterized by two strands of
1. those relating to motor speech: typically, speech is characterized by a fast
burst of jerky speech which may also sound slurred and misarticulated (Ward
2. those relating to linguistic variable: language may be poorly organized with
evidence of poor word finding together with an excessive number of revised
sentences, restarts and filler word and phrases (Van Zaalen, Ward, Neder -
veen, Lameris, Wijnen, & Dejonckere, 2009).
Ward (2007) summarized language component of cluttering (Tab 2). He pre-
sented 3 language components: (1) grammar and syntax, (2) the lexical level,
(3) the pragmatic level.
The clinical image of cluttering is also modified by psychological and neuro-
psychological factors (Cf. Table 3).
Ward (2006:140) suggested that there are advantages in taking a spectrum
approach to the definition of cluttering; that is, cluttering-like symptoms can ap-
pear at a point on a spectrum between more normal and less normal examples.
At one end there is a speech language output which would readily be regarded
as „cluttering, „ but further along the spectrum lie behaviours which might be re-
Góral-Półrola J. et al. Cluttering
Table 1. Motor components of cluttering
Source: Own research materials
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garded as cluttering-like, but where there is less certainty about these warranting
a diagnosis of cluttering.
The term cluttering spectrum behavior can be defined as a speech/
language output that is disrupted in a manner consistent with clut-
tering, but where there is a) insufficient severity; b) insufficient
breadth of difficulties; or c) both, to warrant a diagnosis of clutter-
ing. (Ward 2007).
Góral-Półrola J. et al. Cluttering
Table 3. Neuropsychological and psychological components of cluttering
Source: Own research materials
Table 2. Language components of cluttering
Source: Own research materials
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The notion of a cluttering spectrum can also be applied to scenarios where it
is not clear whether the symptoms are regarded as cluttering, or relate to another
disorder with which cluttering might co-exist (Ward, 2006; 2007).
Modelling factors: limitation or tolerance of error awareness
Cluttering is characterised by a limitation or tolerance in the awareness of
speech mistakes, with particular consideration of speech fluidity. It follows to note
that this deficit is not tantamount to disturbances in awareness. Consciousness
or awareness is a process comprising two main components: the level of con-
sciousness (stimulation, awakeness, consciousness) as well as the content of
consciousness (awareness of one’s surroundings and self-awareness) (Pąchal-
ska, Kaczmarek and Kropotov 2014). An absence of awareness of mistakes in
speech relates to the second speech component (cf. Fig. 2).
In a healthy mind in which there is preserved an awareness of the mistakes
committed there is the necessity of cooperation between various brain systems
(Pąchalska, Kaczmarek and Kropotov 2014). The most important systems are
long-term memory, working memory, perception and attention (cf. Fig 2). The at-
tention system receives information flowing from the perception systems and di-
rects the sense organs towards stimuli, including non-linguistic and linguistic
stimuli which are the subject of consciousness belonging to both the internal and
external world (Pąchalska et al. 2015). They simultaneously transfer selected in-
formation to the working memory. The loops between the various psychic
processes illustrate the course of data between the discussed cognitive systems.
A significant impact on the course of the process under description is had by
consciousness. For it is this that allows attention to be drawn, with which it cre-
Góral-Półrola J. et al. Cluttering
Fig. 2. Awareness in relation to other processes involved in the noting of errors in utterances.
Source: Pąchalska, Kaczmarek and Kropotov (2014)
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ates a complex system, to the phenomenon of interest to us (e.g., to an error in
one’s utterance) and therefore it modifies the process of perception. In relation
to this, thanks to the attention system, the initial data enters the consciousness,
while at the same time this consciousness (awareness) is able to choose what
it follows to pay attention to. This ability is disturbed in cluttering.
Error awareness in utterances and the intensity of cluttering symptoms
As with stuttering, some authors have speculated that cluttering is a disorder
of time perception, that is, an auditory based disorder, rather than a speech/lan-
guage production one (Van Riper, 1992). Molt (1996) found that, in contrast to
matched control subjects, three school aged clutterers performed below normal
test-established criteria on central auditory processing (CAP) measures and also
showed abnormal auditory event potential (AEP) waveform patterns.
In developing this idea it follows to note that the development of the process
of making oneself aware of mistakes in utterance in the speech of those with
cluttering may be viewed in accordance with the microgenetic theory of a symp-
tom (Brown and Pąchalska 2003; Pąchalska 2007) as a state of mind occurring
in time. We recall that a mental state develops from the unconscious to the con-
1. In the expanse of brain structures, where there may be ascent from latent
processes to the level of the consciousness threshold and decline (the ad-
mission) or passing over this threshold (the development) as well as ascend-
ing even higher to the appearance of full consciousness (awareness) and
conscious cognition (the culmination);
2. In time, in the course of which the pulsation of individual mental states ensure
a fuller awareness of reality. The time needed to make oneself aware of this
reality may be shorter in healthy individuals, yet significantly longer in those
with cluttering as a result of the slower reaction time and/or a desynchroniza-
tion of psychic processes.
It follows to emphasise that in individuals with cluttering the process of error
awareness (Daly, 1996) is disturbed because the mental state is unable to ex-
ceed the level conditioning the awareness of this error.
The mechanism for the development of the process of reality awareness is il-
lustrated by Fig. 3.
Phases within working memory are in general reconstructed in the subse-
quent stages in the order in which they were recorded, i.e., in relation to their
similarity to an approaching state, and therein to the possibility of resuming the
mind state. In the actual mental state there appear notions closer to occurring
perception i.e., notions from the working memory buffer, which almost have
reached the state of restored perception. The state of the brain-mind in T1 is re-
placed by the state of T2 approaching it. The core of T1 (the shaded area) in-
trudes on T2, before T1 has finished in time, i.e., before the existence of the
defined phase. This explains the repeated appearance of the earlier T1 phases,
connected with the individualism of the given person (I), the character, disposi-
Góral-Półrola J. et al. Cluttering
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tion, working memory buffer capacity, long-term memory reserves and experi-
ence as well as the durability of fundamental convictions, values and personality.
Later phases disappear when the moment the whole process of making oneself
aware of reality ends, yet make room for new perceptions (Pąchalska et al.
Destabilisation of neurological connectors in individuals with cluttering (Kolb
and Whishaw 2003; Ward 2006) means that there does not develop the process
of making oneself aware of error in utterance (speech) within the perspective of
the state of the brain/mind in time. As a result of the absence of a pulsating men-
tal state within time attention does not buffer the error to the working memory.
Consequently, the process of error perception does not occur. This fact means
that individuals with cluttering do not correct mistakes in their utterances.
A gradual stabilisation of the neurological connections is a measure of a pa-
tient’s improvement within the therapy process. This fact means that slowly there
is a return to error recognition in one’s own utterances and speech. This results
in a clinical reduction in the intensification of cluttering in a communication situ-
ation. We see this phenomenon:
1. in better speech fluency,
2. in a better organisation of speech (utterances) and a more coherent course
to conversation,
3. in a more correct articulation of consonants,
4. in a smaller number of grammatical and syntactical errors,
5. in a more astute selection of words
The communicativeness of speech in those with cluttering increases as a
measure of the return in metacognition.
Behaviour: cluttering as a complex disorder
In the approach described in this article, cluttering is treated much more
broadly, as a complex disorder. This approach addresses all components of
speech, such as the content, linguistic form and phonology, with the semantic
Góral-Półrola J. et al. Cluttering
Fig. 3. The development of the process of error awareness (consciousness) in an utterance from
the perspective of the state of the brain/ mind in time
Source: Pąchalska, Kaczmarek and Kropotov (2014)
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distortions being of primary significance, and the grammatical and phonetic ones
being of secondary importance (Tarkowski, 2002).
The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health
Problems (ICD-10) defines cluttering (F98.6) as a rapid rate of speech with
breakdown in fluency, but not repetitions or hesitations, of a severity to give rise
to reduced speech intelligibility. Speech is erratic and dysrhythmic, with rapid,
jerky spurts that usually involve faulty phrasing patterns (e.g., alternating pauses
and bursts of speech, producing groups of words unrelated to the grammatical
structure of the sentence).
In the majority of cases, the speech disfluency symptoms are different from
the symptoms of stuttering and consist mainly of non-spastic repetitions, inter-
jected sounds, and the omission or replacing of sounds or syllables. These symp-
toms are accompanied by disturbed coarticulation.
Speech disfluency (Tarkowski 2002) is observed to co-occur with symptoms
at the linguistic level: the symptoms include a reduced grammatical and se-
mantic coherence of language.
at the cognitive level: the symptoms include poor concentration, a reduced
attention span, an impaired ability to listen to others, racing thoughts, hyper-
activity and an unawareness of experienced difficulties
at the neurophysiological levels: the symptoms include abnormalities in QEEG
recordings of people who stutter were essentially normal, a much greater per-
centage of this cluttering group had anomalous alpha wave activity (Ward
Cluttering should not be mistaken for tachylalia
Tachylalia, which is an accelerated rate of speech, often accompanies clut-
tering, but does not account for abnormal speech and language skills (Tarkowski
2002). There are many groups of people who speak fast or even very fast but
who are still coherent and comprehensible (e.g., some sports commentators or
stock exchange reporters). The principal problem here is not tachylalia but dis-
organized thinking. The accelerated pace of speaking may even mask language
errors. Such errors are difficult to recognize when the rate of speech is fast. This
difficulty is related, to a great extent, to grammatical mistakes, the pronunciation
errors being of the least importance. If a person is articulate and speaks quickly,
a multitude of semantic errors can be covered up.
Cluttering should not be mistaken for poor language content
Associating cluttering with poor vocabulary is also wrong. PWC have appro-
priate lexical resources at their disposal. The problem is that they often use
words incorrectly. They use inappropriate words to express their thoughts. They
Góral-Półrola J. et al. Cluttering
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have great difficulty with the transition from the general meaning of the word,
emerging from the internal speech, to the specific use of the word in the external
Cluttering should not be mistaken for low intelligence
PWC may be smart, and sometimes even brilliant. This is because intelligence
should not be identified with thinking processes. An intelligent person can think
in a disorganized way, and as a result may speak „without rhyme or reason.”
Three criteria may be applied in order to recognize cluttering:
Linguistic criterion
According to Gajda (1999), a language error is an unjustified linguistic inven-
tiveness which is evaluated according to the so-called language correctness cri-
1. Structural, defining the compliance of the innovation with the language model;
2. Functional, permitting innovations, if they fill a gap in the language or optimize
verbal communication;
3. Frequency criterion, which assumes that if the innovation is very common, it
should be incorporated into the linguistic standard;
4. National criterion, which prefers native innovations over borrowing words or
structures from foreign languages .
According to the author, linguistic inventions that cannot be justified by any of
the four criteria should be considered linguistic errors (Gajda 1999).
In cluttering, the following error categories can be distinguished:
Of primary significance (semantic), i.e., the text errors (in terms of composi-
tion, or of content consistency), lexical (incorrect word choice, inappropriate
words combination) and stylistic (inadequate choice of linguistic structures
within the whole utterance or context);
Of secondary importance (grammatical), i.e., syntactic errors (grammatical
mismatch of words, a violation of word order) and morphological errors (in-
flection and word formation);
Of tertiary importance, i.e., errors in pronunciation (sound articulation, pace
and fluency of speech).
It should be emphasized that the spoken language abounds in errors and that
it is a difficult task to find a speaker who makes no mistakes. What is important,
however, is the frequency of their occurrence.
Psychological criteria
Cluttering occurs in people who have attention deficits, reduced self-control
over speech formulation, a disorganized thought process, and normal or above
normal intelligence.
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Some authors consider cluttering to be a mental disorder. This is a misunder-
standing. Average or high intelligence does not automatically mean correct think-
ing, since one may be a very intelligent person but a poor thinker; therefore, in
the diagnosis of this disorder, it is more important to define the process of thinking
than to measure intelligence. While attention provides the basis for correct think-
ing that requires focus and discipline, cluttering may be accompanied by im-
paired concentration and reduced attention.
Impaired concentration lowers auditory self-monitoring. PWC have difficulty
correcting their speech as they speak, and have a higher mental ability than
a linguistic one. This is more obvious during speaking than when writing.
Development criteria
Many diagnostic errors may be avoided if children are evaluated for cluttering
at the age of six, when the basic development of language is practically com-
pleted. Then we shall have no difficulty in differentiating the delayed speech de-
velopment from cluttering.
Cluttering and semantic disfluency
The roots of cluttering lie in the thinking process disorder that Zeigernik (1969)
divides into:
1. The disorder of the generalization and abstraction processes (reduction or
distortion of the generalization process);
2. A logical train of thought disorder (racing thoughts, viscocity, impermanent,
unsteady thoughts, hyperactivity, „derailments”);
3. Orientation of thought disorder (the regulating function of thinking disorder,
critical thinking disorder, „multilevel thinking” and thought distraction).
Cluttering is primarily characterized by the logical track of thinking and directed
thinking disorders. Kozielecki (1966, p. 15) argues that „thinking is an internalized
activity of producing and selecting information (content) that occurs generally in
problem situations.” It may be disrupted both during a new content production, and
during a selection of an appropriate piece of information from among many possible
ones. Interfering with the production and selection may result in semantic disflu-
ency, characterized by difficulty in a free transition from one content to another.
This disfluency is the core reason for cluttering (Tarkowski 2002).
Cluttering and speech discourse
According to Pąchalska, Kaczmarek, Kropotov (2014), a good discourse is
characterized by the following qualities: maintaining a topic; conciseness; the
unequivocality of the reproduced information in relation to the exposition; lexicon
selection (the choice of appropriate words for the communicated content); self-
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control strategy (spontaneous correction of errors); reproduction accuracy (se-
lecting the theme of the utterance in accordance with the intended objective);
and the optimum amount of information needed to express the content (the
amount of information sufficient to understand the narrative).
In cluttering, the discourse becomes significantly distorted. The discourse of
PWC is lengthy, and they have difficulty in maintaining a topic. Sometimes they
cannot find appropriate words to match the expressed content. They do not cor-
rect their own linguistic errors in spontaneous speech. They introduce a lot of
redundant, unnecessary information (digressions, allusions); however, the infor-
mation that is important for understanding the discourse is missing.
Cluttering and inner speech
Communication is characterized by the integration of thinking and language.
According to L. Vygotsky (1989), this integration is performed on two levels, inner
speech, which is the semantic aspect of language; and external speech, which
is the phonetic aspect of language. The primary features of the internal speech
include incomplete syntax (the subject and the subject-related words are omitted
and the preposition remains); and the brief nature operating exclusively with se-
mantics, i.e., using the “from the whole to the part” system, dividing a general
idea (intention) into units of the utterance. According to Vygotsky (1989), the
basic unit of verbal thinking is the meaning of a word that undergoes dynamic
changes. It seems that cluttering occurs at the internal speech level, and mani-
fests itself in external speech. In other words, discussing the speech disorder
refers to the deep structure of an utterance, and not – as has been widely be-
lieved to date – to its surface structure. The essence of cluttering is the semantic
disfluency, not the articulation disfluency.
Defining cluttering presents us with a problem due to differences of opinion
as to which of the behaviours associated with the disorder are crucial to its diag-
nosis and which are peripheral. Such uncertainty in the understanding of clut-
tering is not conducive to an effective diagnosis and therapy of those who have
it. The adoption of the assumption that cluttering is a specific communication dis-
turbance allows one to direct the research perspective from an individual analysis
of speech to an analysis of the nature of conversations with the participation of
individuals with cluttering. This methodological novelty cognitively composes it-
self with the process paradigm of the brain, that is with microgenetic theory. This
brings closer consequently the mechanisms lying at the basis of the formation
of cluttering as a symptom through showing the interactive factors taking part in
the process. Thanks to drawing attention to the developing process of making
oneself aware (conscious) of speech error within the perspective of the state of
the brain/ mind in time there is equally created a basis for a description of the diag -
nostic criteria including differential diagnostics.
Góral-Półrola J. et al. Cluttering
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Jolanta Góral-Półrola
Old Polish University in Kielce
Ponurego Piwnika 49 str.
25-666 Kielce, Poland
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... Delayed speech development has been examined by many experts, including representatives of various scientific disciplines-medicine, pedagogy, psychology, linguistics, and speech therapy. In the available literature, delayed speech development appears as the name of the diagnosis, a condition of disorders, a symptom of developmental disorders, but also as a syndrome of symptoms [5]. Different authors define this WSTĘP Opóźniony rozwój mowy (ORM) jest poważnym zaburzeniem, które w porę wykryte i poddane stosowanej terapii może zostać całkowicie wyleczone. ...
... Opóźniony rozwój mowy był badany przez wielu specjalistów, przedstawicieli różnych dyscyplin naukowychmedycyny, pedagogiki, psychologii, lingwistyki i logopedii. W dostępnej literaturze ORM występuje jako nazwa diagnozy, stanu zaburzeń, objawu zaburzeń rozwojowych, ale także zespołu objawów [5]. Różni autorzy definiują concept differently depending on the adopted criterion. ...
... Delayed speech development occurs when the language development process does not proceed in accordance with the standards adopted for the individual age group [6]. A simple definition of standard developmental norms includes those achievements with respect to the particular functions that can be observed in most children of the same age [5]. ...
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Introduction : The main purpose of this publication is to review the current state of knowledge in the field of delayed speech development and to present data on etiology, clinical symptoms, and indications for therapy. Materials and methods : Literature data was reviewed from the English-language PubMed and MEDLine computer databases, as well as the Polish Medical Bibliography database. Google Scholar search engine was used. The works were analyzed, with current scientific evidence based on peer-reviewed scientific publications, systematic reviews, and conducted control studies taken into account. In addition, an analysis of our own nearly 10 years of experience in the field of hearing and speech rehabilitation was conducted. Results : A child with non-harmonious development, regardless of the etiology of the phenomenon, may also exhibit problems with speech acquisition, indicating, among others, a developmental delay in speaking. The correct development of speech depends on 3 types of factors: biological, psychological, and social. Delayed speech development (DSD) is primarily attributed to the person affected, as well as her immediate surroundings. In the case of small children developing harmoniously, the chance of compensating for missing words is one hundred percent. The above phenomenon may be compensated for spontaneously – which takes place in a small number of cases – or thanks to systematic therapy, with the participation of the child’s parents (guardians). Conclusions : An interdisciplinary approach to DSD is of key importance in the treatment of this disorder, and its multifactorial etiology indicates the need for early comprehensive rehabilitation of hearing and speech. In contrast, clinical practice shows that this problem is often downplayed. The reasons for the appearance of DSD are constantly under investigation, as there are many paths leading to delays in this area. There are also new reports that allow better understanding of the ways of speech development, which directly translates into a change in the attitudes regarding rehabilitation.
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The aim of the paper was to show the importance of distinction between US and THEM which is disrupted in the patients with aphasia and leads to social isolation. It should be stressed that the distinction between US and THEM is deeply rooted in couture and language. It has great social and psychological significance since foreigners – speaking imperfect language are as a rule excluded from the society. Hence, aphasic persons tend also to be excluded and they become an object of pity. Neurolinguistic aspects of aphasia are also discussed. It is stressed that the structure of person and number constitute essential conditions (along with time) for the proper use of verbs. After presenting difficulties encountered by classic theories of aphasia a microgenetic theory is described with emphasis put on its possibility to explain aphasic symptoms. It presumes that every speech act re-creates and passes through, in a matter of milliseconds, the entire sequence of processes that has unfolded in the evolution of the species and the growth of the individual, from the primitive medullary reflexes (ME/NOT-ME), to the emotional reactions controlled by the limbic system (ME/YOU) to the cortex. The paper ends with a presentation of the patient CW who is unable to discriminate from the present or the past. The result of his “mental wandering” in time is that his subjective time cannot be coordinated with objective time, and that is a precondition for coordinating the subjective time of one person with that of another. Such coordination is in turn vital to the formation of a concept of US.
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Cluttering is a type of fluency disorder characterized by perceived rapid and/or irregular speech rate and at least one of the following symptoms: excessive disfluencies, the majority of which are non-stuttering-like disfluencies; atypical placement of pausing in speech; and/or excessive over-coarticulation of sounds (St. Louis & Schulte, 2011). Various treatments have been implemented to decrease the rate and increase the clarity of speech in persons who clutter (PWC). This study compared the efficacy of two types of cluttering treatments, pausing and overemphasis, to determine which would reduce the occurrence of over-coarticulation in conversational speech of a teenage male. A decrease in over-coarticulation was exhibited with use of both strategies; however, pausing was determined to reduce the percentage of over-coarticulated words in conversational speech more than overemphasis. This strategy was also the strategy most likely to be implemented in carryover by the participant.
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Background Dyslexia is a polygenic speech and language disorder characterized by an unexpected difficulty in reading in children and adults despite normal intelligence and schooling. Increasing evidence reveals that different speech and language disorders could share common genetic factors. As previous study reported association of GNPTAB, GNPTG and NAGPA with stuttering, we investigated these genes with dyslexia through association analysis.ResultsThe study was carried out in an unrelated Chinese cohort with 502 dyslexic individuals and 522 healthy controls. In all, 21 Tag SNPs covering GNPTAB, GNPTG and NAGPA were subjected to genotyping. Association analysis was performed on all SNPs. Significant association of rs17031962 in GNPTAB and rs882294 in NAGPA with developmental dyslexia was identified after FDR correction for multiple comparisons.Conclusion Our results revealed that the stuttering risk genes GNPTAB and NAGPA might also associate with developmental dyslexia in the Chinese population.
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The origin of the error or symptom, understood as an unexpected deviation from normal behavior, remains one of the fundamental problems in neuropsychology. Luria regarded a theory of the symptom as a sine qua non for neuropsychology, but he did not have a definitive theory; rather, he applied the insights of various authors in different situations, including Pavlov, Wernicke, Vygotsky, and Goldstein. In microgenetic theory, the symptom is a link from the pathological to the normal, a piece of preliminary behavior that becomes a momentary terminus. In both normal and pathological behavior, microgeny deposits a cognition in the same way that phylogeny and ontogeny deposit the human mind/brain. There is progressive zeroing in on the target over growth planes in brain evolution, moving generally from whole to part, context to item, depth to surface. The microgenetic approach reconsiders the regression hypothesis advanced in a different form by such earlier thinkers as Hughlings Jackson and Roman Jakobson. In contrast to the prevailing assumption that brain function is dynamic and structure is static, the process of structural growth (morphogenesis) and behavior turns out to be one and the same process, reiterated over time, such that behavior is four-dimensional morphology. In order to understand the morphogenesis of brain and behavior, it is necessary to consider the role of two concepts: parcellation and heterochrony. Parcellation is the achievement of specification from the sculpting of exuberant initial growth. Heterochrony refers to the timing of development. In particular, neoteny (the prolongation of an early phase of development) creates the potential for new behavioral possibilities, adaptive or maladaptive. A symptom occurs when a lesion delays a segment of process (neoteny) with incomplete specification (parcellation). The regression hypothesis is reformulated thus: pathology does not expose stages in the reverse of the acquisitional sequence, but rather the process leading to the stages. Further evidence that symptoms undergo a coherent, rather than piecemeal transition is provided by observation of the recovery of function after brain damage. Some aspects of the theory can provide a motivation for research and a strategy for treatment.
Stuttering and Cluttering provides a comprehensive overview of both theoretical and treatment aspects of disorders of fluency: stuttering (also known as stammering) and the lesser-known cluttering. The book demonstrates how treatment strategies relate to the various theories as to why stuttering and cluttering arise, and how they develop. Uniquely, it outlines the major approaches to treatment alongside alternative methods, including drug treatment and recent auditory feedback procedures. Part one looks at different perspectives on causation and development, emphasizing that in many cases these apparently different approaches are inextricably intertwined. Part two covers the assessment, diagnosis, treatment, and evaluation of stuttering and cluttering. In addition to chapters on established approaches, there are sections on alternative therapies, including drug therapy, and auditory feedback, together with a chapter on counselling. Reference is made to a number of established treatment programs, but the focus is on the more detailed description of specific landmark approaches. These provide a framework from which the reader may not only understand others' treatment procedures, but also a perspective from which they can develop their own. Offering a clear, accessible and comprehensive account of both the theoretical underpinning of stammering therapy and its practical implications, the book will be of interest to speech language therapy students, as well as qualified therapists, psychologists, and to those who stutter and clutter.
Stutterers and nonstutterers, grades 1–12, were chosen randomly from a data pool of nearly 39,000 school children from a National Speech and Hearing Survey (NSHS). One group of stutterers had moderate communicative deviations and another had severe deviations. Nonstuttering, correctly articulating, control subjects were also selected. NSHS data sheets and audiotaped speech and language samples for the three groups were compared with respect to disfluency, articulation, language, voice, hearing, and other characteristics. In addition, stutterers in grades 1–6 were compared with comparable stutterers from a previous study who were selected to have normal articulation and hearing. The results indicate clearly that young stutterers are likely to manifest other communicative impairments, most notably in articulation, voice, and language. It is hypothesized that the coexistence of articulation disorders with stuttering may be a useful criterion for subgrouping stutterers in future investigations.