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Bullied by Siblings and Peers: The Role of Rejecting/Neglecting Parenting and Friendship Quality Among Korean Children

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Abstract

The primary aim of this study was to examine the direct and indirect links of rejecting/neglecting parenting, sibling victimization, and friendship quality with peer victimization using a convenience sample of 584 Korean children in Grades 3 to 6. In addition, we tested whether these associations differed between male and female students. Structural equation modeling was performed to analyze the data. The results revealed rejecting/neglecting parenting indirectly influenced peer victimization through sibling victimization for both males and females, although such effects were stronger for females than males. Sibling victimization had a direct effect on peer victimization across both sexes, although it indirectly influenced peer victimization through poor friendship quality only for males. Therefore, bullying prevention and intervention programs must involve parents to make them aware of the important role they play in this process and to improve their parenting styles and involvement in sibling conflicts. Furthermore, while the role of friendship quality needs to be highlighted to prevent peer victimization among males,

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... Despite the importance of sibling bullying, a dearth of research has examined this form of bullying (2,4,6). Wolke and Skew (7) reviewed research that examined the frequency of sibling bullying and found that about half of the children were involved in some form of sibling bullying (as bully, as victim, or as bully/victim) at a frequency of more than four times in 6 months. ...
... Results from these studies indicate that attachment styles toward one's mother and father can dictate the relationships between siblings and influence an individual's aggressive behavior (21)(22)(23). There is a high likelihood that siblings with insecure attachments toward their parents will respond with aggression, will engage in repeated conflicts, and will involve themselves in sibling bullying (6,24,25). Likewise, a small number of studies examined the association between attachment styles and involvement in school bullying (24,(26)(27)(28)(29). ...
... The child's relationships with his/her parents are the first relationships the child will experience and through them he/she will learn what to expect from other relationships, how to behave in other relationships, and will develop useful (or not) interpersonal skills (18,42). Children who suffer from difficulties in their attachment with their parents tend to not rely on others, display lower levels of empathy and concern for others, present low self-esteem and a need for affirmations from others, and show a wide range of adaptation difficulties across the life-span (6). Children and adolescents with these characteristics are at a high risk for many conflicts and bullying, including sibling bullying (6,24,25). ...
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Bullying is one of the most widespread phenomenon in childhood and adolescence. Interestingly, most research on bullying focuses on bullying at school and not on bullying among siblings at home. Sibling bullying is the most frequent form of repeated aggression that children experience in their lifetime. Furthermore, previous studies indicate that sibling bullying is associated with depression and self-harm behavior. However, the association between sibling bullying and suicidal ideation was never previously examined. Attachment to parents is one variable that can moderate the association between sibling bullying and depression/suicide ideation. To our knowledge, there is no existing study that examines the association between sibling bullying and attachment patterns. In addition, no previous study has examined the moderating role of attachment on the association between sibling bullying and depression or suicidal ideation among adolescents. The current study includes 279 Israeli students aged 10–17 (M = 13.5; SD = 1.98; 164, 58.8% females) who completed self-report questionnaires regarding school and sibling bullying, attachment to mother and father, depression, and suicidal ideation. The results indicated an association between bullying among siblings and school bullying. In addition, children and adolescents who were consistently involved in sibling bullying were at greater risk for depression and suicide ideation when compared to children and adolescents who were not involved in sibling bullying. A secure attachment to one’s father (but not to one’s mother) moderated the association between sibling bullying and depression/suicide ideation. It should be noted that when suicide ideation was examined above and beyond depression, attachment to one’s father did not moderate the association between sibling bullying involvement and suicide ideation. This finding indicates that depression plays a central role in the association between sibling bullying and suicide ideation. These results suggest that sibling bullying is a risk factor for depressive symptoms and suicide ideation and that secure attachment to one’s father may serve as a protective role. Future bullying prevention programs should include sibling bullying and encourage the increased availability of paternal emotional support. Other theoretical and applied implications for prevention of both sibling bullying and suicide are discussed.
... Victimization and poor peer relationships were also identified as risk factors for internalization in children. It seems that victimization, lack of acceptance, and support from peers contribute to emotional problems [34][35][36]. In addition, these children may experience isolation and loneliness, leading to negative feelings about themselves and others. ...
... There are many published studies on bullying victimization in both Western and Eastern countries (Baldry, 2003;Chan & Wong, 2015;Guo et al., 2020;Herráiz & Gutiérrez, 2016;Kim & Kim, 2019;Morales et al., 2019;Obeïd et al., 2020). Researchers have found that there are important differences between Eastern and Western countries in the type of bullying, coping strategies, and attitudes toward bullying, perhaps due to different cultural values and educational systems (Smith et al., 2016). ...
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There has been a significant amount of research on correlates of bullying victimization, but most prior studies are descriptive and do not distinguish between different types of bullying. The current study used a case-control study design to explore factors related to different types of bullying victimization, including physical, relational, verbal, sexual, property, and poly-bullying victimization. This study was conducted in a southern city in China, including 3054 cases who self-reported being victims of school bullying and 3054 controls who reported not being involved in any school bullying in the past 12 months. Each victim case was matched with a control on gender, school, and grade level. Univariate logistic analyses and multivariate conditional logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with being a victim of school bullying. Results suggest physical bullying victimization was only associated with a family-level characteristic (parenting style) while the other four types of bullying victimization (relational, verbal, sexual, and property bullying) and poly-bullying victimization were associated with multiple social domain variables at individual, family, and school levels. Findings from this study provide evidence of factors for different types of bullying victimization and have implications for potential measures to prevent bullying. Measures from multiple social domains, including individual, family and school (e.g., developing healthy behaviors, improving social skills, positive parent-child interactions, building trust between teachers and peers, and forming strong friendships), should be considered in order to effectively prevent adolescent victimization from bullying.
... Unfortunately, much of the research regarding SV in the U.S. has been conducted with samples and participants who are predominantly Caucasian and middle-class. Research outside of the U.S., however, demonstrates that SV occurs in other ethnic groups (for example see Chen, 2019;Haj-Yahia & Dawud-Noursi, 1998;Kim & Kim, 2019). It is likely that SV is an issue for families regardless of ethnicity and therefore intervention efforts need to be considered for all families regardless of ethnicity. ...
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The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted families in a variety of ways with much being written on the potential impact of sheltering in place and quarantining on intimate partner violence and parent-to-child abuse. One area that has received scant attention is that of physical and emotional sibling violence. While physical and emotional sibling violence is a predominant form of family violence, discussion of violence between siblings in the time of COVID-19 has not received the attention it warrants. This article examines the potential for family stress to place siblings at risk for engaging in physical and emotional sibling violence and how this is exacerbated in the time of COVID-19. Also discussed is the the connection between physical and emotional sibling violence and other forms of family violence including intimate partner violence and parent-to-child abuse and neglect which underwrites the need to place physical and emotional sibling violence on the radar of practitioners, policy makers, and researchers. Finally, implications for practice, policy, and research on physical and emotional sibling violence in the context of COVID-19 are discussed.
... Additionally, siblings with similar age have more tendencies to develop inferiority complex and unhealthy competition that may put the weaken child on risk of emotional maltreatment (Monks et al., 2009). Furthermore, fighting and bullying among siblings increase the likelihood to be emotionally maltreated by parents due to involvement in sibling conflicts in order to maintain discipline among children (Kim & Kim, 2016). ...
Article
Objective Families, where parents had a childhood history of victimization, may likely to abuse their children; hence contributing as an important predictor of child emotional maltreatment (CEM). This study aimed to determine the relationship of intergenerational abuse with CEM among 11–17 years old children residing in peri-urban and urban communities of Karachi, Pakistan. Method Structured interviews were conducted with 800 children and parents-pair using validated questionnaire “International Child Abuse Screening Tool for Child (ICAST-C)” comprised of 4 domains. The domain of child emotional maltreatment was considered as an outcome (CEM-score). The relationship between Parental history of childhood victimization and CEM-Score was measured using linear regression. Results The average CEM-score came to be 19+5.2 among children whose parental history of childhood victimization was present (P < 0.001). The estimated mean CEM-score increased by 5.59 units (95% CI= {2.61, 8.51}) among children whose parents had a history of childhood victimization (Intergenerational abuse) with severe physical familial abuse. Conclusion The current study provided evidence on intergenerational transmission of maltreatment suggesting early prevention to break the cycle of child maltreatment through generations. Preventive measures can be taken, once a parental history of childhood victimization has been identified, by providing appropriate services to those families who belong to lower socioeconomic status, where mothers are young, the presence of siblings’ rivalry/ bullying and/or violence among family members. However, these factors do not explain a complete causality of the intergenerational transmission, therefore, additional factors, for instance, parenting styles must be taken into consideration.
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To date no research has examined Master of Social Work (MSW) students’ capacity to address physical and emotional sibling violence (SV) and those factors which may influence this capability. This pilot study examined a sample of MSW students in the Midwestern United States and their perceived capacity to address physical and emotional SV including the influence of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs). Results from students’ self-assessments indicated most students had not been exposed to SV content and ACEs were correlated with receiving and perpetrating SV. Differences were found based on the number of ACEs experienced and the frequency of SV behaviors, but not the capacity to address SV. Implications for training students are presented.
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The review investigates the role played by contextual family processes, relational processes and parental individual processes on bullying and victimization. A systematic review has been conducted in five databases (Scopus, Web of Science, PsycINFO, PubMed, ERIC) from 1970 through November 2017. Finally, 154 studies were reviewed differentiating among the three levels of family processes. The majority of the studies addressed single or multiple variables at the same level of analysis. Only 25% of studies focused on the interplay between different levels of family functioning. Our review finds evidence about the role of contextual family variables (parental mental health and domestic violence) and of relational family variables (in particular child abuse and neglect, maladaptive parenting, communication, parental involvement and support). A lower and more controversial evidence has been showed about the role of individual parental variables such as parental self-efficacy, parental attitudes toward victimization and parental knowledge about bullying.
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Sibling conflict and aggression is often a pervasive part of family life that parents want help managing and can have negative effects on children's well-being. The purpose of this systematic review is to evaluate current research regarding programs to reduce sibling conflict and aggression and promote positive sibling relationships. Online databases, reference lists, and Google Scholar were searched using key words and inclusion/exclusion criteria were applied. The search located five unique studies of programs focused on school-aged children. Heterogeneity of the studies precluded meta-analysis, but characteristics of the studies were systematically described. Three interventions were aimed at directly improving children's social skills and two interventions trained parents on mediation techniques to use during sibling conflicts. Overall, of the four studies that included assessment of children's social skills, the results were positive. Two of the three studies that evaluated sibling relationship quality demonstrated improved sibling interactions compared with the control group. With further research and evidentiary support, these programs have promise to modify sibling behaviors as part of current parenting education programs or as a stand-alone program to address sibling conflict and aggression.
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Extensive bullying research has primarily focused on activities between peers in school settings, but some evidence suggests bullying may occur in other situations. If so, other contexts could potentially benefit from the wealth of peer bullying research. A sample of 392 young adults answered questions about their experiences with sibling and peer bullying behaviors. Participants also provided responses concerning a sibling or peer vignette that focused on reporting bullying behaviors. Results indicated that participants view bullying behaviors between peers and siblings as somewhat similar, but sibling bullying behaviors compared to peer bullying behaviors are reported to be perpetrated and experienced more often. When considering a hypothetical situation such sibling bullying behaviors, however, are less likely to be reported outside the family than peer bullying behaviors. Additionally, females are more likely than males to report outside the family. Participants who had more prior involvement in bullying are less likely to say they would report the described sibling bullying behaviors. Considering sibling bullying may not be thought of as bullying and may not be reported outside the family, implications for policy and future research are discussed.
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An overview of the Family Socialization and Developmental Competence longitudinal program of research (FSP) is followed by a presentation of the hypotheses and findings pertaining to family patterns as determinants of adolescent competence, and of types of adolescent substance users. Data include clusters derived from comprehensive ratings of parents and their children completed independently within- and across-time periods at ages 4, 9, and 15 years. At Time 3 (T3), the sample included 139 adolescents and their parents from a predominantly affluent, well-educated, Caucasian population. Parenting types were identified that differ on the bases of commitment and balance of demandingness and responsiveness. Authoritative parents who are highly demanding and highly responsive were remarkably successful in protecting their adolescents from problem drug use, and in generating competence. Authoritative upbringing, although sufficient, is not a necessary condition to produce competent children. Casual recreational drug use was not associated with pathological attributes, either precursive or concurrent, although nonusers showed an increment in competence from Time 2 (T2) to Time 3 (T3).
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Based on the notion that friendship may serve an important protective function against peer victimization, this study examined the moderating effect of reciprocal friends' prosociality on the link between a child's reactive aggression and victimization. The study also investigated whether a similar moderating effect could be found with respect to sibling's prosociality, given that sibling relationships have been found to provide social benefits comparable to friendships. These questions were addressed using a sample of 246 six-year-old twin pairs (246 boys and 246 girls). The results showed that a child's own reactive aggression uniquely contributed to the risk of victimization for both boys and girls. The link between reactive aggression and victimization was, however, moderated by reciprocal friends' prosocial behavior and siblings' prosocial behavior, respectively. The results are discussed in terms of their theoretical and prevention-related implications for children at risk for peer victimization.
Article
Unskilled discipline practices form the basis for three abusive elements that occur in the home environment: child maltreatment, neglectful supervision, and sibling conflict. Furthermore, we hypothesized that in the context of unskilled discipline, the abusive home environment variables would be predictive of a variety of adjustment outcomes as children moved into adolescence and early adulthood. We examined concurrent and longitudinal data for 182 Oregon Youth Study (OYS) boys across a variety of developmental outcomes over a 10-year span. Multiple agent and method assessments of the boys, their siblings, and parents included direct observations, interviews, and questionnaires. Path analyses revealed that the consequences of each abusive home environment construct were, with little exception, consistent with the hypotheses. Thus, the enduring and powerful impact of an abusive home environment is apparent. This work also supports the idea of a continuum of parenting behaviors and a parenting skills deficit model across all families, rather than a “bad parent” versus “good parent” model. © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Article
Bullies, victims, bully-victims, and control children were identified from a sample of 1062 children (530 girls and 532 boys), aged 10 to 12 years, participating in the study. Their reactive and proactive aggression was measured by means of peer and teacher reports. Peer and teacher reports were more concordant with respect to reactive than proactive aggression. Comparing the children in different bullying roles in terms of their reactive and proactive aggression, bully-victims were found to be the most aggressive group of all. For this group, it was typical to be highly aggressive both reactively and proactively. Although bullies were significantly less aggressive than bully-victims, they scored higher than victims and controls on both reactive and proactive aggression. However, observations at the person level, i.e., cross-tabulational analyses, indicated that bullies were not only overrepresented among children who were both reactively and procatively aggressive but also among the only reactively aggressive as well as the only proactively aggressive groups. Victims scored higher than control children on reactive aggression, but they were not proactively aggressive. Furthermore, even their reactive aggression was at a significantly lower level than that of bullies and bully-victims. Aggr. Behav. 28:30–44, 2002. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Article
Bullying and victimization were studied from a longitudinal, multi-method, multi-agent perspective as youngsters made the transition from primary through middle school. Generally, bullying and aggression increased with the transition to middle school and then declined. Bullying mediated youngsters' dominance status during the transition. Bullying may be one way in which young adolescents manage peer and dominance relationships as they make the transition into new social groups. Victimization declined from primary to secondary school. Correspondingly, youngsters' peer affiliations decreased, initially with the transition, and then recovered. Victimization, however, was buffered by peer affiliation, especially like most nominations relative to friendship nominations, during this time. Additionally, and consistent with the idea that bullying is used for dominance displays, cross-sex comparisons of aggressive bouts indicated that boys targeted other boys and did not target girls. Results are discussed in terms of the changing functions of aggression during adolescence.
Article
A mediational model of bullying and victimization is proposed and tested. Ninety-nine 10-to 13-year-old children provided two oral narratives of their victimization experiences, as perpetrator and victim, with their physiological arousal being measured while they told the narratives. The children and one of their parents also completed a variety of questionnaires, including a Big 5 measure of per-sonality and measures of bullying and victimization tendencies. Mediational analyses indicated that children who score low on Conscientiousness and high on Neuroticism are more likely to experience negative aVect during peer conXict, such as feeling angrier, blaming the bully more, and forgiving less, and that these reactions are related to higher levels of victimization. For bullies, relations among Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and bullying appear to be mediated by lesser feelings of guilt and gains in physiological arousal while telling a bullying narrative. Advantages of a mediational model of peer victimization processes and implications for interventions are discussed.
Article
This article examines the adequacy of the “rules of thumb” conventional cutoff criteria and several new alternatives for various fit indexes used to evaluate model fit in practice. Using a 2‐index presentation strategy, which includes using the maximum likelihood (ML)‐based standardized root mean squared residual (SRMR) and supplementing it with either Tucker‐Lewis Index (TLI), Bollen's (1989) Fit Index (BL89), Relative Noncentrality Index (RNI), Comparative Fit Index (CFI), Gamma Hat, McDonald's Centrality Index (Mc), or root mean squared error of approximation (RMSEA), various combinations of cutoff values from selected ranges of cutoff criteria for the ML‐based SRMR and a given supplemental fit index were used to calculate rejection rates for various types of true‐population and misspecified models; that is, models with misspecified factor covariance(s) and models with misspecified factor loading(s). The results suggest that, for the ML method, a cutoff value close to .95 for TLI, BL89, CFI, RNI, and Gamma Hat; a cutoff value close to .90 for Mc; a cutoff value close to .08 for SRMR; and a cutoff value close to .06 for RMSEA are needed before we can conclude that there is a relatively good fit between the hypothesized model and the observed data. Furthermore, the 2‐index presentation strategy is required to reject reasonable proportions of various types of true‐population and misspecified models. Finally, using the proposed cutoff criteria, the ML‐based TLI, Mc, and RMSEA tend to overreject true‐population models at small sample size and thus are less preferable when sample size is small.
Article
Abstract Individual differences in the nature and frequency of conflict behaviour between 18–24 month old children and their older siblings were investigated in a sample of 43 sibling pairs observed at home with their mothers. By 24 months, relatively mature behaviour such as conciliation, teasing, reference to social rules and justification for prohibition were observed. These behaviours were correlated with maternal and sibling reference to social rules and feelings 6 months earlier; physical aggression was correlated with earlier sibling physical aggression and maternal involvement. Sibling status and type of maternal intervention were not related to frequency and duration of sibling conflict.
Article
The present study tested a theoretical model advanced to understand the direct and mediated effects of social disadvantage, neglectful parenting, and punitive parenting in the developmental trajectory of aggressive and antisocial behavior in young school-aged children. To test the model, families of 310 first grade children and 361 fifth grade children, participating in a universal prevention trial in high-risk areas of a medium-sized metropolitan area, provided data. Multi-method and multi-source indices of the four predictive constructs (Social Disadvantage, Denial of Care Neglect, Supervisory Neglect, and Punitive Discipline) were obtained at the time of enrollment. Multi-method and multi-source indices of the criterion construct (Aggression and Antisocial Behavior) were obtained at the time of enrollment and at a five year follow-up. Based on structural equation modeling, the results established care neglect as a mediator of social disadvantage, and the importance of care neglect to both punitive discipline and antisocial outcomes in the first- and fifth-grade cohorts. Supervisory neglect, however, was important in the antisocial outcome of the fifth-grade cohort only. Overall, the results established the importance of distinguishing between two subtypes of neglect and the need to consider the role of discipline in concert with neglect when attempting to understand the impact of parenting on the development of antisocial behavior. Aggr. Behav. 30:187-205, 2004. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Article
We examine two sources of variation in victims’ social adjustment: (a) the informant who identifies a child as victim (i.e., peer, self, or both), and (b) victim gender. Peer and self nominations were provided by 508 fourth and fifth graders from the Midwest U.S. Girls were more likely than boys to be victimized, and victims were evenly distributed among informant source. Self-nominated female victims had lower social status and were involved in more antipathies than their peer-nominated counterparts. Among boys, self-and-peer reported victims had the lowest social status. Having friends was associated with positive social adjustment. Implications are discussed for at-risk victim subgroups: girls whose self-reports of victimization are not validated by others, and boys whose victimization is publicly acknowledged.
Article
Whether bullying in schools is increasing, as is widely believed, was investigated drawing upon empirical studies undertaken in a wide range of countries in which findings had been published describing its prevalence at different points in time between 1990 and 2009. Results do not support the view that reported bullying in general has increased during this period; in fact, a significant decrease in bullying has been reported in many countries. However, there are some indications that cyber bullying, as opposed to traditional bullying, has increased, at least during some of this period. The reported decreases in the prevalence of school bullying are consistent with reports of significant but small reductions in peer victimisation following the implementation of anti-bullying programs in schools world-wide. KeywordsBullying–Cyber bullying–Victimization–School children–Prevalence rate
Article
The role of siblings (N = 50) in the display of physical and relational aggression among peers during early childhood was explored. Specifically, sibling pairs' rates of physical and relational aggression were assessed in their independent social contexts. Findings indicated low to moderate levels of intercorrelation between physical and relational aggression and moderate levels of stability for both physical and relational aggression across an academic year. Observations revealed that older sisters were more relationally aggressive than older brothers, whereas older brothers were more physically aggressive than older sisters. Older siblings directed more aggressive behavior to same-sex peers than did their younger siblings. Older sibling's relational aggression predicted younger sibling's use of relational aggression towards peers. In addition, older sibling's physical aggression predicted younger sibling's physical aggression with peers. This study reveals the importance of a multi-contextual approach (i.e., school and family influences) in understanding the development of aggression and in providing a guide for future interventions.
Article
Research on bullying has grown very rapidly in the last two decades, initially in schools but also in a variety of other settings and relationships; and there has been relatively little communication between the different groups of researchers. We describe the nature of bullying in schools, between siblings, in children's residential care homes, in prisons, and in the workplace. Commonalities and differences in the phenomenon, and the ways in which it is exhibited and experienced are explored. The role of individual and organizational factors in the development and maintenance of these behaviors across contexts is compared. We then examine a number of theoretical approaches which have been suggested as relevant to our understanding of bullying. Integrative approaches from different research traditions are proposed which view these behaviors as being influenced by a combination of situational and individual factors.
Article
Although siblings are a fixture of family life, research on sibling relationships lags behind that on other family relationships. To stimulate interest in sibling research and to serve as a guide for future investigations by family scholars, we review four theoretical psychologically oriented perspectives-(a) psychoanalytic-evolutionary, (b) social psychological, (c) social learning, and (d) family-ecological systems-that can inform research on sibling relationships, including perspectives on the nature and influences on developmental, individual, and group differences in sibling relationships. Given that most research on siblings has focused on childhood and adolescence, our review highlights these developmental periods, but we also incorporate the limited research on adult sibling relationships, including in formulating suggestions for future research on this fundamental family relationship.
Article
This study aimed to investigate: (1) the influence of gender, sibling age, and sibling gender on sibling bullying and victimization; (2) the links between personality characteristics, quality of the sibling relationship, and sibling bullying/victimization; (3) the association between sibling and school bullying/victimization, and the direct and indirect associations between personality variables and school bullying/victimization. The sample comprised 195 children (98 boys and 97 girls, aged 10-12 years). Instruments included: a self-report questionnaire for bullying and victimization, the Big Five Questionnaire for Children and the Sibling Inventory of Behaviour. Results highlighted that the presence of an older brother is a risk factor for the emergence of sibling victimization. For both boys and girls, high levels of conflict in the dyad and low levels of empathy were significantly related to sibling bullying and sibling victimization. For males, energy was associated with sibling bullying and indirectly to school bullying; friendliness and high emotional instability were directly associated with school bullying. School victimization was directly associated with emotional instability for both males and females. Finally, both sibling bullying and sibling victimization were associated with bullying and victimization at school. The discussion highlights the role of a multi-contextual approach to understand and prevent bullying.
Article
Background: How bullying is understood by members of the school community is important because differences in definitions could result in an inconsistent approach and affect the success of intervention work. Research evidence suggests that pupils and teachers may have different interpretations of what constitutes bullying. This evidence has, however, been largely obtained from investigations in which the two groups have been questioned in different ways. This means that some of the differences obtained could be functions of methodology, rather than functions of differing perceptions. In addition, the perceptions of support staff have been largely neglected in the literature to date. Purpose: This study examines the perceptions of bullying of pupils held by pupils, teachers and school support staff in English secondary schools by the use of identical questionnaires for each group. Sample: A total of 1302 individuals participated in the research from four urban secondary schools. These four schools came from the same Local Education Authority in North West England. The sample consisted of 685 Year 8 pupils aged 12-13 years (341 males, 324 females, 20 unspecified), 415 Year 11 pupils aged 15-16 years (212 males, 187 females, 16 unspecified), 144 teachers (59 males, 81 females, 4 unspecified) and 58 support staff (14 males, 37 females, 7 unspecified). Design and methods: The study utilised a survey design whereby written responses to scenario-based questionnaires were scored. The scenarios described a range of direct bullying, indirect bullying and ambiguous behaviours. Respondents were asked whether they thought the behaviour described was bullying and how serious it was if experienced by a male or a female pupil. Questionnaires were completed by pupils during supervised class time. Staff questionnaires were distributed to staff members individually and completed independently. Results: Indirect bullying behaviours were less likely to be defined as bullying and were regarded as less serious than direct bullying behaviours. Scenarios with a female victim were rated more seriously than those with a male victim, and female respondents rated the behaviours more seriously than males. Teachers and support staff considered a wider range of scenarios to constitute bullying compared to pupils and also rated these to be more serious. Differences between schools indicated that perceptions could be affected by school factors. Conclusions: The differences in perceptions of bullying between pupils and staff indicate that teachers need to invest more time in talking with pupils about the nature of bullying. Indirect behaviours in particular need more attention to ensure they are included in definitions of bullying, and taken seriously. Further research is needed to investigate how school factors may influence perceptions of bullying
Article
The present study examined specialized associations between parental control and child aggression in a sample of 600 8- to 10-years old children. Parental control dimensions and aggression subtypes were assessed using multiple informants (i.e. children, mothers, fathers, peers, and teachers). In line with expectations, parental physical punishment was positively associated with overt aggression, whereas parental psychological control was positively associated with relational aggression in both girls and boys. In addition, this study demonstrated that if both parents employed similar parenting strategies, it appeared to have a cumulative effect on child aggressive behaviour. Associations involving overt aggression were more pronounced for boys than girls, whereas associations involving relational aggression were not moderated by gender. Overall, the present study contributes to an emerging research field by supporting the hypothesis of specialized associations between parental control and child aggression.