Book

Mobile Broadband Communications for Public Safety: The Road Ahead Through LTE Technology

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Abstract

This book provides a timely and comprehensive overview of the introduction of LTE technology for PPDR communications. It describes the operational scenarios and emerging multimedia and data-centric applications in demand and discusses the main techno-economic drivers that are believed to be pivotal for an efficient and cost-effective delivery of mobile broadband PPDR communications. The capabilities and features of the LTE standard for improved support of mission-critical communications (e.g., proximity services, group communications) are covered in detail. Also, different network implementation options to deliver mobile broadband PPDR communications services over dedicated or commercial LTE-based networks are discussed, including the applicability of the Mobile Virtual Network Operator (MVNO) model and other hybrid models. Radio spectrum matters are also discussed in depth, outlining spectrum needs and providing an outlook into allocated and candidate spectrum bands for PPDR communications and suitable dynamic spectrum sharing solutions in PPDR communications. Explanations are accompanied by a vast collection of references that allow the more intrigued reader to gain further insight into the addressed topics.
... Mission critical communications refer to the PMR radio systems which they have unique features that stand out from commercial mobile broadband communication systems. For this reason mission critical services still use the trusted PMR technologies such as (TETRA, Tetrapol,P25, DMR and dPMR) [1][2][3][4]. First Responders from each Public Safety authority offer valuable service to the society and have to deal effectively with critical situations, something impossible without communications. ...
... Communications on emergency situations that are used by first responders in the field are differently designed from the commercial communication systems, which are designed with different demads. Some of the characterization of the emergency system are presented as follows [1,2]: Trunked technologies are mostly used as professional critical communication systems in the global market. These systems are computer controlled radio systems that provide a lot of features such as efficient spectrum usage, dynamic capacity of resources and plethora of radio channels for different groups of users. ...
... These systems are computer controlled radio systems that provide a lot of features such as efficient spectrum usage, dynamic capacity of resources and plethora of radio channels for different groups of users. In Europe the most successful protocol standards are presented in Table 1 with some their basic features [1][2][3][4]. DMR is capable of satisfying the needs of mission critical communications with minimized cost, as a result is being trusted by many Public Safety authorities in the world. Tier III is a licensed trunked system with a controller function that automatically regulates the communications. ...
Conference Paper
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Mission critical communications are the communications systems that are used by Public Safety Services in the field operations to support the mobility of the first responders. Professional Mobile Radios (PMR) are successful systems used for critical communications during the last years. Amongst the available PMR solutions on the market, the DMR Tier III technology also known as DMR trunked technology seems to be an attractive solution for the Public Safety Services. DMR trunked technology which is standardized by ETSI organization fulfills the demands of all critical services such as (fire brigade, police, health emergency, coast guard and other municipal services) and still constitutes a cost efficient solution. A complete system like trunked DMR is capable of replacing into one, all the old separate analog systems that are now used, which will keep the privacy of each Service and add the value of easy collaboration. This paper work illustrates a possible design of a DMR trunked radio network for all Public Services for the Corfu Island taking into account the different demands of each partner. Moreover, in our scenario we design the core network by using the Radio Mobile planning tool using VHF frequency band. The radio coverage and the amount of terminal radios are finally calculated to estimate the total cost of such a DMR trunked system for the Corfu region.
... TETRA is a Professional Mobile Radio (PMR) standard that offers a wide range of services, starting with security services and ending with space-based modes of work [1]. A great advantage of the system is the large coverage using a single frequency, without the need to implement complex radio frequency re-use schemes. ...
... This represents each received symbol as a vector, compares it with a reference, and evaluates several parameters [7,8] that reflect the quality of the received signal, as follows. The Measured Error Vector, EVM, denoted by [n] is the Euclidean distance between the measured point and the ideal reference point, given by (1) where Ierr[n] and Qerr [n] are the in phase and quadrature components of the error vector. The mean square value of EVM (% EVM) is determined as (2) where N is the number of measured points considered for calculating EVM root mean square and the [peak reference vector] is the amplitude of the most important (highest power) point in the reference signal constellation. ...
Chapter
In this paper a simple test-bed to evaluate the effect of an unmodulated disrupting signal on a TETRA π/4-DQPSK (Differential Quadrature Phase-Shift Keying) signal has been developed and implemented, such that the transmitted signal does not affect other communication system existing in the same area. An unmodulated disrupting signal, with increasing amplitude, has been overlapped on the transmitted data and the parameters of the received signal has been evaluated with an Agilent Vector Signal Analyzer model 89600. Based on the results obtained, several interesting conclusions have been highlighted at the end.
... Tetrapol was the first large scale digital PMR network that was targeted for Public Safety usage on the requirement of the French police forces in 1980 (Ferrus and Sallent 2015). Is the main competitor of TETRA in Europe, it has unique architectures and has never been applied as an ETSI standard although it was recognised by ITU (ETSI 2010). ...
... Latest DMR Tier III is a licensed trunking system with a controller function that automatically regulates the communications. Some of the key features of this standard are (Ferrus and Sallent, 2015): ...
Conference Paper
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FireService is a Public Safety (PS) service that has a very important role to society by creating a stable and secure life environment. It is a common fact that the lives of firefighters and the quality of service that they provide, depend a lot on radio communications. In mission critical services the Professional Mobile Radio (PMR) systems are used by firefighters in the field of operations to support the mobility of these first responders. In this study, aiming the improvement of the communication in the digital era we provide a review of the recent situation of analog radio-communications system that is used by the Hellenic Fire Service at the moment and highlight the limitations. Furthermore, we study the ever-changing needs of radio-communication systems on Fire Service and we also provide a brief overview of well known PMR technologies that are used by other mission critical services in Europe. We conclude, with focus on the available digital technologies on the market highlighting their limitations and benefits for the case of Hellenic Fireservice.
... Crisis and disaster risk management relies on IT, including personal data routinely processed as part of everyday life with mobile digital technologies in 'smart' cities. There are fears of a data deluge and significant investment in IT is underway (Ferrãos and Sallent, 2015;Lund, 2015). In the UK, for example, a £1.2bn budget is allocated for the transition of public safety communication technology to broadband. ...
... The combination of specific requirements, limited volume of business and need for significant R&D effort created high entry barriers, and this created specific technological ecosystems operating outside mainstream telecommunication business. All this is changing with broadband, as mainstream standardization (3GPP) and technologies (mobile networks, Apps) are applied and mainstream device ecosystems begin to also address Public Safety (Ferrãos and Sallent 2015). Incorporating attention to balancing the potential of IT with human rights and values early and with awareness for how different sectors are connected can avoid costly failures or retro-fitting. ...
Conference Paper
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This paper describes the IsITethical? Exchange, a European knowledge and service hub we are developing with and for diverse parties involved in crisis and disaster risk management. Their commitment to European values and fundamental rights underpins the rationale of the initiative, which is to support European societies' need for high quality innovation to balance the benefits of IT with fundamental human rights and values, especially privacy and data protection. The initiative is led by researchers at Lancaster University and builds on many years of collaborative design research with a wide range of international practitioners, academics, and commercial IT designers. Keywords IT-Ethics; ethical, legal, and social issues (ELSI); disaster risk management, service design, human rights 254 Büscher et al. IsITethical? RRI for DRM WiPe Paper-Ethical, Legal and Social Issues
... Primary carrier always uses licensed spectrum (either TDD or FDD) for both control signals and user signals. The secondary carrier would use the unlicensed spectrum for downlink only or both uplink and downlink [89], [144], [146], [147], [151]. 5 GHz unlicensed spectrum is a top candidate for the operation that is globally available while it should be ensured that LTE-U design is forward-compatible with upcoming 3GPP specifications [144]. ...
... Similarly, cognitive radio technology needs extensive research in areas of energy efficient spectrum sensing and sharing to be more effective. Extensive research over application of LAA, database-assisted spectrum sharing, and prioritized spectrum access in cognitive radio technology can further enhance the spectrum efficiency [89], [146], [147], [149]. ...
Article
Effective emergency and natural disaster management depend on the efficient mission-critical voice and data communication between first responders and victims. Land Mobile Radio System (LMRS) is a legacy narrowband technology used for critical voice communications with limited use for data applications. Recently Long Term Evolution (LTE) emerged as a broadband communication technology that has a potential to transform the capabilities of public safety technologies by providing broadband, ubiquitous, and mission-critical voice and data support. For example, in the United States, FirstNet is building a nationwide coast-to-coast public safety network based of LTE broadband technology. This paper presents a comparative survey of legacy and the LTE-based public safety networks, and discusses the LMRS-LTE convergence as well as mission-critical push-to-talk over LTE. A simulation study of LMRS and LTE band class 14 technologies is provided using the NS-3 open source tool. An experimental study of APCO-25 and LTE band class 14 is also conducted using software-defined radio, to enhance the understanding of the public safety systems. Finally, emerging technologies that may have strong potential for use in public safety networks are reviewed.
... In order to prevent and minimise the damages caused by wildfires, firefighters usually employ radiowave communication systems to coordinate such operations. The Public Protection and Disaster Relief services (PPDR) play a major role during these tragic events [2] and are responsible for providing a reliable signal coverage and stable communications. In particular, Mission-Critical-Push-To-Talk (MCPTT) technology based communications has been widely deployed and it is soon expected to evolve to 5G networks. ...
Conference Paper
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This paper presents results of a measurement campaign conducted to evaluate the impact of forest fires on ra-diowave propagation. A total mass of 3.4 kg of Pinus Pinaster needles was used as fuel heap and it was uniformly placed in a triangular shape bed, above a metallic table. The ignition sources were two wool yarns soaked in diesel, allocated in two sides of the triangle, with different incident angles, in order to generate two independent fire fronts that will suffer a junction after some seconds. The excess loss introduced by fire was evaluated for a 5 GHz bandwidth, from 3 to 8 GHz. A multipath analysis is also presented in order to detect the variations on signal level, for the dominant components during transmission.
... Public Protection and Disaster Relief (PPDR) envelops a variety of organizations and agencies, all with a common goal of protecting the general public and the environment, particularly in cases of natural or man-made disasters [1]. PPDR operations include not only the personnel deployed on the field to administer first response to incidents but also dispatchers and operators stationed in emergency control centers (ECC). ...
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Abstract—A significant amount of fifth-generation (5G) experimentation facilities and testbeds have been proposed in the scientific literature over the past five years, each characterized by its unique setup of resources and control frameworks. Given the wide set of often contradicting requirements presented by the various classes of 5G use cases, the 5G-EPICENTRE project focuses on the provision of a truly open, multi-site 5G experimentation facility specifically tailored to the needs of public safety solution providers, which will leverage on, and extend the capabilities of 5G testbeds developed in, or resulting out of the 5G-PPP Projects (Phase 1-3). At its heart, 5G-EPICENTRE will encompass best practices derived from Cloud-Native implementations, providing a platform for automating and streamlining 5G experiment deployment inside flexible, easily reproducible environments packed in lightweight software containers. 5GEPICENTRE will focus on the provision of an innovative, open and interoperable platform that aims to act as both a testbed, as well as a federation of existing 5G testbeds. Through an augmentation of experimentation facilities, 5G-EPICENTRE will define the necessary information models to interconnect testbeds partaking in the federation through simplified APIs, and will facilitate the orchestration of their resources to optimally service the needs and requirements of PPDR-centric applications.
... As illustrated in Figure 2, the generally agreed categories of emergency communication are [10]: ...
... As illustrated in Figure 2, the generally agreed categories of emergency communication are [10]: ...
Article
Full-text available
In the case of rapid outbreaks of infectious diseases in remote locations, the lack of real-time information from the field and rapid spread of misinformation can be a major issue. To improve situational awareness and decision-making at all levels of operational deployment, there is an urgent need for accurate, reliable, and timely results from patients from the affected area. This requires a robust and fast channel of communication connecting first responders on-site, crisis managers, decision-makers, and the institutions involved in the survey of the crisis at national, regional, and international levels. This has been the rationale sustaining the development of advanced communication tools in the Biological Light Fieldable Laboratory for Emergencies (B-LiFE). The benefit of terrestrial (TETRA, LTE, 5G, and Wi-Fi-Fi) and SatCom communications is illustrated through a series of missions and exercises conducted in the previous five years. These tools were used by B-LiFE operators to provide accurate, comprehensive, timely, and relevant information and services in real time. The focus of this article is to discuss the development and benefits of the integration of multi-mission, multi-user nomadic, rapidly deployable telecommunication nodes for emergency uses (TEN) in the capacity of B-LiFE. Providing reliable communication channels through TEN enables the development and use of an ICT toolbox called MIML_LIMS (multi-institution, multi-mission, multi-laboratory LIMS), a tool which is mandatory for efficient and secure data management and data sharing by a mobile laboratory.
... Further improvements to the 3GPP standards to cope with mission critical communications requirements are considered as a "central topic" in the 3GPP requirements study for 5G [52]. Regarding PS service delivery models, there is a clear trend towards different forms of network sharing models as opposed to building out dedicated PS networks [53]. Blue Light Mobile [54] service by PS operator Astrid in Belgium offers access through roaming agreements with commercial operators; FirstNet in the US, while it counts with spectrum dedicated to PS, is expected to enable secondary use by commercial applications [55]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Next-generation mobile technologies are the enablers for meeting the variable specific requirements of the public safety (PS) community. In particular, due to the development of commercially deployed 5G networks, PS providers look for ways to implement related solutions upon such infrastructures, potentially in a shared use with existing commercial networks. In particular, LTE and 5G NR networks are rapidly gaining recognition as an all-inclusive critical communications platform for the delivery of both mission and business critical applications. Within this scope, we take into account the innovative architectural approach that has been proposed by the 5G ESSENCE project, addressing the paradigms of edge computing and small cell as-a-service that has been realised via a cloud-enabled small cell infrastructure leveraging multi-access technologies in 5G, where we propose a dedicated PS use case, able to offer a mission critical push-to-talk service as well as a Chat and Localisation service. Each one of these services is associated to a dedicated network slice within the scope of the corresponding fundamental 5G ESSENCE architecture and both services are provided via suitable VNFs, thus offering great flexibility to serve PS needs together. We further discuss the overall scenario deployment with the related technical enablers and the proposed functionalities, per case . The corresponding end-to-end slicing makes possible to allocate both radio and cloud resources to the involved critical actors, in an automated and elastic way.
... It is also referred as Public Protection and Disaster Relief (PPDR) communication or emergency communication. 1 An antenna is one of the indispensable components to collect and transfer the data from the wireless devices in the disaster area. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) assigned the frequency spectrum from 4.94 to 4.99 GHz having 50 MHz bandwidth for PPDR communication. 2 Over the past years, there is a great demand for a small and low-profile antenna in order to build the reliable communication during emergency condition. ...
Article
Full-text available
In this article, design and analysis of a fractal shaped metasurface (FSMS) antenna for public safety applications is presented. It comprises of two layers, upper layer and lower layer. The upper layer has the metasurface (MS) and lower layer has the fractal inspired monopole antenna. MS is made up of Sierpinski Knopp fractal shaped unit cell, which is arranged in 4 × 6 layout to achieve miniaturization. Ansys Electronic Desktop tool is utilized for analyzing the performance of the MS antenna. The projected FSMS antenna is fabricated using FR4 dielectric material and experimented with the help of an anechoic chamber and Vector Network Analyzer (VNA). Results show that the FSMS antenna exhibits a bandwidth of 200 MHz and a gain of 1.56 dBi at 4.89 GHz. The results obtained in simulation and measurement are in good agreement. Consequently, the proposed antenna with a low profile of 0.43λ0 × 0.43λ0 × 0.03λ0, where λ0 is the free space wavelength at 4.89 GHz is well fit for public safety applications.
... A portion of the subcarriers at the band-edges (guard-band) are forced to zero which introduces correlation in the transmit BB samples. E.g. in a 10 MHz LTE signal a maximum of 600 out of 1024 subcarriers may be occupied by data [38]. This correlation in the Tx BB signal x BB [n] leads to a badly-conditioned ...
Article
Full-text available
Transceivers operating in frequency division duplex experience a transmitter leakage (TxL) signal into the receiver due to the limited duplexer stopband isolation. This TxL signal in combination with the second-order nonlinearity of the receive mixer may lead to a baseband (BB) second-order intermodulation distortion (IMD2) with twice the transmit signal bandwidth. In direct conversion receivers, this nonlinear IMD2 interference may cause a severe signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio degradation of the wanted receive signal. This contribution presents a nonlinear Wiener model recursive-least-squares (RLS) type adaptive filter for the cancellation of the IMD2 interference in the digital BB. The included channel-select filter and dc-notch filter at the output of the proposed adaptive filter ensure that the provided IMD2 replica includes the receiver front-end filtering. A second, robust version of the nonlinear RLS algorithm is derived which provides numerical stability for highly correlated input signals that arise in, e.g., Long-Term Evolution (LTE)-Advanced intra-band multi-cluster transmission scenarios. The performance of the proposed algorithms is evaluated by numerical simulations and by measurement data.
... The major motivation is to provide PS communications services till the completion of the evolution phase from the TETRA to the LTE. The evolution plan in Europe, specifically Finland, has five main steps to completely implement hybrid networks [3] that could achieve almost similar performance like broadband LTE for emer- gency communication services. These steps are: 1) a mobile virtual network operator (MNVO) set up to meet increased data requirements. ...
Preprint
The fifth-generation (5G) communication systems will enable enhanced mobile broadband, ultra-reliable low-latency, and massive connectivity services. The broadband and low-latency services are indispensable to public safety (PS) communication during natural or man-made disasters. Recently, the third generation partnership project long term evolution (3GPP-LTE) has emerged as a promising candidate to enable broadband PS communications. In this article, first we present six major PS-LTE enabling services and the current status of PS-LTE in 3GPP releases. Then, we discuss the spectrum bands allocated for PS-LTE in major countries by international telecommunication union (ITU). Finally, we propose a disaster resilient three-layered architecture for PS-LTE (DR-PSLTE). This architecture consists of a software-defined network (SDN) layer to provide centralized control, an unmanned air vehicle (UAV) cloudlet layer to facilitate edge computing or to enable emergency communication link, and a radio access layer. The proposed architecture is flexible and combines the benefits of SDNs and edge computing to efficiently meet the delay requirements of various PS-LTE services. Numerical results verified that under the proposed DR-PSLTE architecture, delay is reduced by 20% as compared with the conventional centralized computing architecture.
... The major motivation is to provide PS communications services till the completion of the evolution phase from the TETRA to the LTE. The evolution plan in Europe, specifically Finland, has five main steps to completely implement hybrid networks [3] that could achieve almost similar performance like broadband LTE for emer- gency communication services. These steps are: 1) a mobile virtual network operator (MNVO) set up to meet increased data requirements. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
The fifth-generation (5G) communication systems will enable enhanced mobile broadband, ultra-reliable low-latency, and massive connectivity services. The broadband and low-latency services are indispensable to public safety (PS) communication during natural or man-made disasters. Recently, the third generation partnership project long term evolution (3GPP-LTE) has emerged as a promising candidate to enable broadband PS communications. In this article, first we present six major PS-LTE enabling services and the current status of PS-LTE in 3GPP releases. Then, we discuss the spectrum bands allocated for PS-LTE in major countries by international telecommunication union (ITU). Finally, we propose a disaster resilient three-layered architecture for PS-LTE (DR-PSLTE). This architecture consists of a software-defined network (SDN) layer to provide centralized control, an unmanned air vehicle (UAV) cloudlet layer to facilitate edge computing or to enable emergency communication link, and a radio access layer. The proposed architecture is flexible and combines the benefits of SDNs and edge computing to efficiently meet the delay requirements of various PS-LTE services. Numerical results verified that under the proposed DR-PSLTE architecture, delay is reduced by 20% as compared with the conventional centralized computing architecture.
... A portion of the subcarriers at the band-edges (guard-band) are forced to zero which introduces correlation in the transmit BB samples. E.g. in a 10 MHz LTE signal a maximum of 600 out of 1024 subcarriers may be occupied by data[31]. This correlation in the TxBB signal x BB [n] leads to an badly-conditioned autocorrelation matrix R = E x BB [n]x H BB [n] and respectivelyR = E z f [n]z H f [n] . ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Transceivers operating in frequency division duplex experience a transmitter leakage (TxL) signal into the receiver due to the limited duplexer stop-band isolation. This TxL signal in combination with the second-order nonlinearity of the receive mixer may lead to a baseband (BB) second-order intermodulation distortion (IMD2) with twice the transmit signal bandwidth. In direct conversion receivers, this nonlinear IMD2 interference may cause a severe signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio degradation of the wanted receive signal. This contribution presents a nonlinear Wiener model recursive least-squares (RLS) type adaptive filter for the cancellation of the IMD2 interference in the digital BB. The included channel-select-, and DC-notch filter at the output of the proposed adaptive filter ensure that the provided IMD2 replica includes the receiver front-end filtering. A second, robust version of the nonlinear RLS algorithm is derived which provides numerical stability for highly correlated input signals which arise in e.g. LTE-A intra-band multi-cluster transmission scenarios. The performance of the proposed algorithms is evaluated by numerical simulations and by measurement data.
... Satellite links could provide additional bandwidth to backup connectivity to critical cell sites as well as to divert traffic from congested areas so that the capacity in the terrestrial links could be supplemented during peak-times or even replaced in case of total/partial failures as well as for emergency mobile cell deployments. Morever, it's worth noting that PPDR agencies are progressively adopting new data and video applications running on both private and public mobile broadband networks to carry out their tasks [7]. ...
... A recent emergency communications stocktaking review found that a "lack of interoperability between first responders and communication problems are the most common findings in post-crisis lessons learned exercises" (ENISA 2012). Since then there have been concerted e orts to develop better standards, interoperability practices and technologies (Ferrãos and Sallent 2015). As a result, there has been a thoroughgoing informationalisation of Public Protection and Disaster response organisations . ...
Article
This paper explores some of the complexities and practices of the massively distributed and mobile work of crisis response. The analysis is motivated by our work of applying insights from social science studies to socio-technical and organisational innovation in crisis management. Insights from ethnographic observations of physically mobilising a multi-agency emergency response are contrasted with a study of troubles in mobilising data for multi-agency and cross border collaboration in crisis management. The analysis shows that a situated interactive order of trust as well as reflexive social and material practices that make for productive rapports are critical for good collaboration. We explore how a deeper understanding of such practices can shed light upon difficulties encountered around supporting interoperability based in immaterial mobile work of networked collaborations.
... While there are multiple choices for PS to utilize spectrum sharing, it is also a political decision how the spectrum will be shared. Spectrum sharing principles for public safety have been categorized in five different sharing models in [10] and the spectrum sharing has been extensively studied further in [11]. There is also ongoing work on use cases for synergies between commercial, military, and public safety domains in [12]. ...
Article
Full-text available
We investigate the licensed shared access (LSA) concept based spectrum sharing ideas between public safety (PS) and commercial radio systems. While the concept of LSA has been well developed, it has not been thoroughly investigated from the public safety (PS) users’ point of view, who have special requirements and also should benefit from the concept. Herein, we discuss the alternatives for spectrum sharing between PS and commercial systems. In particular, we proceed to develop robust solutions for LSA use cases where connections to the LSA system may fail. We simulate the proposed system with different failure models. The results show that the method offers reliable LSA spectrum sharing in various conditions assuming that the system parameters are set properly. The paper gives guidelines to set these parameters.
... A portion of the subcarriers at the band-edges (guard-band) are forced to zero which introduces correlation in the transmit BB samples. E.g. in a 10 MHz LTE signal a maximum of 600 out of 1024 subcarriers may be occupied by data [38]. This correlation in the Tx BB signal x BB [n] leads to a badly-conditioned ...
Conference Paper
Second-order intermodulation products are produced by non-linearities in the transfer functions of the receiver’s signal processing blocks. Especially in homodyne receivers the second-order intermodulations are problematic since they are convolved into baseband and overlap the wanted signal. In this paper a Least-Mean-Square (LMS) adaptive filter approach to estimate and cancel the transmitter (TX) induced second-order intermodulation distortion (IMD2) in the digital domain is presented. The performance of the proposed cancellation method and its dependency on the number of used filter coefficients is verified on measured data of the digital front end (DFE) output of an UMTS transceiver chip.
Chapter
This chapter describes the services, applicability scenarios, network architectures, deployment considerations, and main capabilities and features that can be delivered by a cellular system. It focuses on 4G and 5G technologies, addressing the baseline concepts and commonalities among them as well as the main differences and enhancements brought by the latest 5G technologies. The services and features delivered by the latest cellular technologies are commonly grouped as: enhanced mobile broadband services, massive machine‐type communication services, and ultra‐reliable low latency communication services. 3GPP is the organization that brings together the global wireless industry for the development of cellular technology standards. The 5G system architecture allows network functions to store their contexts and data in separate data storage functions. The chapter provides the main capabilities and features of the 4G/Long‐Term Evolution and 5G/New radio interfaces and networks. The support of network slicing features in 5G systems allows operators to customize their network for different applications and customers.
Chapter
This chapter introduces and describes the organization and differences between the telecommunication networks, systems, and services. It also includes a section on the fundamental aspects of telecommunication media key for the Smart Grid, namely optical fiber, radio, and power lines. Telecommunication services delivery is the goal of telecommunication networks or systems. Transmission media used in telecommunications are classified into physical and nonphysical. Telecommunication networks spread over territories to connect end users among them, to provide telecommunication services. The traditional world of telecommunication networks was organized around Backbone and Access networks. Any modern telecommunication system combines transport and switching/routing functions in its network devices. The protocol architecture of a telecommunications system is commonly arranged in three separate “planes” to serve different purposes: user plane, control plane, and management plane. Power lines are the supporting medium for the utility communications that travel inside the electricity cables, that is PLC.
Conference Paper
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Professional Mobile Radios (PMR) are very successful systems that are used for the mission critical communications during the last 25 years and have been trusted by a lot of Protection and Disaster Relief (PPDR) services globally. PMR systems refer to narrowband technologies such as TETRA, P-25 and Tetrapol which they meet the PPDR demands. The application of these standards in wide geographical areas with low population density, are expensive solutions for operational usage, to replace the analogue PMR systems that are still used by lots of PPDR Services. Amongst the upper successful professional PMR systems, the Digital Mobile Radio (DMR) trunking system, constitutes a very attractive and cost efficient solution for mission critical communications. Due to this economical technical balance DMR trunking technology seems to be capable of replacing the current analog radio communications, used by Hellenic PPDR Services. This study offers a realistic approach of radio coverage and also an accurate method for capacity planning for mission critical communications using the DMR standard. As a Service we choose the Fire Brigade due to its wider areas of action compared to the other Services. Moreover, we apply our investigation on the Attica region, which has the most incidents per year in all Hellenic territory. A result of this research is the investigation of geographic radio coverage using the current infrastructure sites and the examination of the target for 95% coverage that is the requirement for PPDR services. Furthermore, with the aim of a realistic scenario for PPDR services that we study, using real statistical data we estimate the capacity needs in traffic channels concluding that 44 DMR base stations and a spectrum about 1,100 Mhz are needed for our approach.
Conference Paper
This paper focuses on the impact of low cost tools in emergency planning and disaster risk management in general, with an emphasis on gathering large scale information on‐site at a real time basis. In our research project, the main objective is the development of an operational platform that is based on an extensive network for data collection, using sensors in multiple locations, that creates the preconditions for an ameliorated observation of extended geographical areas, faster data extraction, on‐time intervention and better coordination of all operational resources. An overview of the evolution of disaster management tools will take place where emphasis shall be put on the cost‐ effectiveness of such tools. The research question is about how a low cost system covering a large geographical area will actually influence the existing emergency operational planning.
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This paper studies the Consequence Analysis and the PROBIT Method over a BLEVE scenario. The procedures of analysis are included in design standards - safety codes and represent guidance to comply with the regulations on the control of major hazards in the USA and in the European Union (EU). A specific case study at the Greek Southern territory has been analyzed which corresponds to the Kamena Vourla LPG incident. At Kamena Vourla the BLEVE scenario took place on a tank truck filled 85% with 18 tons of LPG which is very close to 40000 liters. The results and conclusions are reported at this study.
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The development of smart cities aims to modernize traditional cities, combining the expertise of all sectors initiative under the supervision of public services, enriching them with the results of the scientific community. Initially, in this paper, the definitions and the characteristics of smart cities will be analyzed and formulated according to numerous formulated surveys. After that we will refer to the natural and man-made disasters that affect a city, and how we can minimize the vulnerabilities of a city in order to be resilient and safe. Moreover, we will try to delineate some of the key resilience strategies and actions that need to be implemented so that a city can adapt and evolve to smart. The smart cities 'verticals' are diverse, including water, waste, energy, transportation, finance, and payments, health, safety, and security, agriculture and more. Finally, these critical factors must in service regardless of the pressures and emergency situations that may arise.
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This paper aims to research the main options of illegal immigration that move to the European Union, with Greece to support a determinant role. Illegal immigration takes place as a consequence of immigration, in order to improve the living standards and the departure from uncertainty. The waves of illegal immigrants that go-ahead to the E.U. pass through Greece and often select our country as a permanent place to stay. Turkey does not cooperate and at least adopt a moderate strategy. On the other hand, the basic measures and policies from the E.U. are the Schengen Treaty and its information system, the coordination in the visas circulation and the operation of FRONTEX. Illegal immigration impacts economic, social and political levels. It is necessary however that the phenomenon combat presumes the more efficient operation of the Greek services and especially the Turkey coercion for cooperation.
Chapter
This chapter summarizes a brief history of transition of Public Safety Networks from the analog system to future 5G networks. 3rd Generation Partnership Project presents different use cases and scenarios for Public Safety (PS) applications, mainly based on the coverage area of cellular networks. These scenarios are presented to support National Security and PS services using Device‐to‐Device (D2D) communications in next‐generation cellular networks. These scenarios can be categorized into three distinct types: in‐coverage scenario, out‐of‐coverage scenario, and partial‐coverage scenario. It is important to note that the scenarios presented in this section are for D2D communications only. The chapter then summarizes standardization efforts made to support an inevitable convergence of PS communication networks across multiple regions. Further, it anticipates that this convergence will not be limited to narrowband and broadband technologies but will also be influenced by recent trends on how people access information today.
Preprint
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FireService is a Public Safety (PS) service that has a very important role to society by creating a stable and secure life environment. It is a common fact that the lives of firefighters and the quality of service that they provide, depend a lot on radio communications. In mission critical services the Professional Mobile Radio (PMR) systems are used by firefighters in the field of operations to support the mobility of these first responders. In this study, aiming the improvement of the communication in the digital era we provide a review of the recent situation of analog radiocommunications system that is used by the Hellenic Fire Service at the moment and highlight the limitations. Furthermore, we study the ever-changing needs of radio-communication systems on Fire Service and we also provide a brief overview of well known PMR technologies that are used by other mission critical services in Europe. We conclude, with focus on the available digital technologies on the market highlighting their limitations and benefits for the case of Hellenic Fireservice.
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