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Lamprospora verrucispora sp. nov. (Pezizales)

Authors:
  • Dutch Bryological and Lichenological Society (BLWG)

Abstract and Figures

A description and illustrations of both macroscopic and microscopic characters of Lamprospora verrucispora sp. nov. are provided. Differences from other bryophilous Pezizales with globose ascospores ornamented with isolated warts are discussed and a dichotomous key to these species is given. Gall formation on rhizoids and chloronema of the bryophyte host Campylopus pyriformis is described and illustrated. This represents the first report of gall formation for a species of the genus Lamprospora.
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163
Lamprospora verrucispora sp. nov. (Pezizales)
Marcel VEGA
Jan ECKSTEIN
Henk-Jan VAN DER KOLK
Ascomycete.org, 8 (4) : 163-171.
Juillet 2016
Mise en ligne le 08/07/2016
Abstract: A description and illustrations of both macroscopic and microscopic characters of Lamprospora
verrucispora sp. nov. are provided. Dierences from other bryophilous Pezizales with globose ascospores or-
namented with isolated warts are discussed and a dichotomous key to these species is given. Gall formation
on rhizoids and chloronema of the bryophyte host Campylopus pyriformis is described and illustrated. This
represents the rst report of gall formation for a species of the genus Lamprospora.
Keywords: Bryophilous Pezizales, Campylopus pyriformis, dichotomous key, galls, Pyronemataceae, taxo-
nomy.
Introduction
Since the website Ascofrance.com with its forum has been put
online by its founder and owner Christian Lechat in 2003, more than
1200 users from countries all over the world have decided to be-
come a member of this platform aiming at the international scien-
tic exchange of mycologists specialized in ascomycetes. There are
stories galore about contacts, cooperations and friendships arisen
from this unique website.
Ours started in January 2014 when the third author of this article
asked for help to identify a Lamprospora he could not determine
with the existing literature. First mails, then specimens went from
one to another of the authors. Based on ascospore ornamentation
and its type of infection on the bryophyte host Campylopus pyrifor-
mis (K.F. Schultz) Brid., the Lamprospora soon proved to be an un-
described species. One and a half years later, the new species was
found by the rst author in further sites in great abundance and sub-
sequently is described here as L. verrucispora.
Methods
The description of Lamprospora verrucispora is based on the re-
sults of the examination of several vital collections from ve locali-
ties: one in the Netherlands and four in Germany. Most observations
took place in tap water. Ascospore ornamentation was additionally
studied after staining with Lactophenol Cotton Blue or Methylene
Blue, and the iodine reaction of asci was examined with Lugol’s so-
lution. Ascospores’ size was measured from spore prints, which were
acquired by placing a cover glass on fresh apothecia. Additional
measurements from rehydrated material were found to be within
the range of those gained from vital material and are therefore not
stated separately. Macrographs were made with digital cameras. Mi-
crographs were taken either in tap water, Lactophenol Cotton Blue
or Methylene Blue, using digital cameras mounted on microscopes
and software for stacking pictures. Scanning electron micrographs
(SEM) were taken with a LEO-438 machine from air dryed samples.
Taxonomy
Lamprospora verrucispora M. Vega, Eckstein, Van der Kolk, sp.
nov. — MycoBank 817460.
Diagnosis: Diers from other species of Lamprospora by its per-
fectly globose ascospores with a surface densely covered with nu-
merous small isolated warts and few isolated bigger warts together
with an infection inducing galls on the rhizoids of its host Campylo-
pus pyriformis (K.F. Schultz) Brid.
Holotype: The holotype of Lamprospora verrucispora is deposited
in the Herbarium Hamburgense of the University of Hamburg (HBG–
holotypus, inv. no. 1412). The isotypes of Lamprospora verrucispora
are led under MV20151025-04 in the private herbaria of Marcel
Vega and Jan Eckstein.
Etymology: verrucispora = referring to the warted ascospores of
the species.
Macroscopic features (plate 1)
Apothecia mostly scattered, sometimes gregarious on soil bet-
ween shoots of Campylopus pyriformis, protonema and other bryo-
phytes; 1–1.8 (2.5) mm in diam., rst spherical, becoming
saucer–shaped, nally thick and discoid, sessile; with few hyaline
septate anchoring hyphae; mostly with a low and narrow mbriate
margin; hymenium yellow-orange to light orange, margin and outer
surface paler than the hymenium.
Microscopic features (plate 2a-d)
Asci (160) 200–370 (420) × 16–24 (28) µm, cylindrical, 8-spored,
operculate, inamyloid; shortly bifurcate at the base, arising from per-
forated croziers. Paraphyses liform, same length as the asci; contai-
ning, at least in the upper half, many vacuoles 1–3 µm diam. with
orange pigment turning cyan to olivaceous in Lugol’s solution;
straight, pluriseptate, apically inated, terminal cell 30–75 (100) µm
× 4–8 µm, cells 2–4 µm broad near base, rarely clavate. Ascospores
(only ascospores from sporeprint considered): (13) 14–17 µm (orna-
mentation included), hyaline, globose, always with a large lipid drop,
diameter 9–11 (12) µm, uniseriate. Ascospore surface densely cove-
red with numerous isolated warts that are mostly (0.2) 0.4–0.9 µm
broad and 0.4–0.8 µm high, occasionally with one bigger wart which
is 1–2 µm broad and 0.8–1.6 µm high. Warts are mostly hemisphe-
rical though some can be pear-shaped, elongated or conuent, oc-
casionally two warts can be connected by a thin and low ridge.
Many warts have a punctiform cavity, best visible after staining in
Lactophenol Cotton Blue. The bigger warts are predominantly he-
mispherical and not elongated or conuent. The surface of the warts
of some ascospores appears to be nely rugose in SEM. Subhyme-
nium merged with the medullary excipulum, of textura angularis
with hyaline and thin-walled hyphae, walls becoming thicker at the
base, 140 µm thick. Ectal excipulum of textura intricata of elongated
cells, up to 120 µm thick. Margo of textura prismatica, elongated hy-
phae, septate, 15–50 × 5–14 µm, some protruding.
Infection (plate 2e–f & gure 1)
L. verrucispora infects rhizoid and chloronema (the above ground,
green part of protonema) cells of the moss Campylopus pyriformis.
The terminal cells of weak rhizoids or chloronema strands are aec-
ted the most. Infected cells swell to a spherical, one-celled gall
which is many times the width of neighboring cells. Occasionally,
the infected rhizoid or chloronema strand keeps growing, due to
which the gall becomes sub-terminal. Shortly after the infection the
surface of the gall is only partly covered with hyphae (g. 1). Soon,
however, the gall has a complete sheathing of connate hyphae,
which is one to two cell layers thick (plate 2e–f). The hyphae-cove-
red galls can reach up to 180 µm in diameter where the galls mea-
sure up to 150 µm in diameter and the hyphal sheaths are 8-15 µm
thick. The infection structure consists of appressoria, infection pegs
and haustoria. Only one infection structure per gall is developed.
Appressoria are 5–8 µm wide and if at all only slightly wider than
adjacent cells (g. 1). Because of their weak dierentiation, they are
discernable in early stages of gall development only. From the ap-
pressoria an infection peg, 2–3 µm wide, penetrates the rhizoid wall.
The infection pegs are surrounded by a tube of host cell wall mate-
rial. Haustoria are thin walled, strongly ramied and ll the gall up
to half of its volume. No septa were seen within the haustoria and
they do not grow through cross walls of rhizoid or chloronema
strands. The infection does not weaken the host discernably.
Habitat (plate 1, gs. a–c)
Dutch collection: The Dreijen Arboretum is a botanical garden in
Wageningen in the province of Gelderland. A large variety of both
deciduous and coniferous bushes and trees are grown in the Arbo-
retum. The locality is at an exposed patch of about 2 m next to a
low boxwood hedge. The top soil consists of humus and is partly
covered with decaying wood chips. The moss vegetation on the soil
surface is dominated by Campylopus pyriformis.
German collections: The forest Göhrde is a mixed woodland in the
north-eastern part of Lower Saxony, extending over 75 square kilo-
metres. The four localities of L. verrucispora are situated within a ra-
dius of circa two kilometres in the western part near the hamlet
Boitze. The Göhrde in this part is dominated by Pinus sylvestris L. on
sandy soil and, being a working forest, is crossed by many regularly
used tracks. The road tracks have an upper humose layer on which
Campylopus pyriformis ourishes in large extent. Lamprospora cam-
pylopodis W.D. Buckley, also associated with C. pyriformis is ubiqui-
tous in this area and was present in three out of four localities of
L. verrucispora. The locality of the holotype of L. verrucispora was
chosen both because of the very rich collection of apothecia of
L. verrucispora growing on a forest track over a 12 metres length,
and the absence of L. campylopodis. Only one other species of bryo-
philous Pezizales could be found in the surroundings of the four lo-
calities: Lamprospora rugensis Benkert on Pohlia annotina (Hedw.)
Lindb. in a puddle fallen dry.
In general, Campylopus pyriformis grows mostly on acidic sandy,
humous or peaty soils and rotten wood on bare and disturbed
places, such as peat cuttings, roadsides, forest trails and banks
(ATHERTON et al., 2010). It is common in Western Europe, and inciden-
tally reported from other locations in the temperate zone throu-
ghout the whole Northern Hemisphere (OCHYRA et al., 2008).
Specimens examined
1. The Netherlands, Arboretum De Dreijen Wageningen (Gelder-
land), 51°58’04.3’’ N, 5°40’40.5’ E, 32 m asl, besides a low boxwood
hedge, leg. Henk-Jan van der Kolk, January 23rd, 2014. Bryophyte
host: Campylopus pyriformis, accompanying mosses: Ceratodon pur-
pureus (Hedw.) Brid., Campylopus introexus (Hedw.) Brid., Atrichum
undulatum (Hedw.) P. Beauv., Hypnum cupressiforme Hedw., Bryum
barnesii J.B.Wood ex Schimp.; pers. herb. VDK fungi # 0194, duplicate
pers. herb. MV20140202-01, duplicate pers. herb. JE.
Additional collection at this site: February 11th 2014, pers. herb.
VDK fungi # 0195.
2. Germany, Forest Göhrde near Boitze (Lower Saxony), 53°07’47’’
N, 10°46’17.4’’ E, 75 m asl, in a rut on a forest track crossing a pine-
wood, leg. Marcel Vega, October 3rd 2015. Host: C. pyriformis, accom-
panying moss: Hypnum cupressiforme; soc.: Lamprospora
campylopodis, pers. herb. MV20151003-01.
Additional collections at this site: October 9th 2015, pers. herb.
MV20151009-01 , October 25th 2015, pers. herb. MV20151025-01.
3. Germany, Forest Göhrde near Boitze (Lower Saxony),
53°07’37.2’’ N, 10°45’14.9’’ E, 71 m asl, besides a forest track in a pine-
wood, leg. Marcel Vega, October 9th 2015. Host: C. pyriformis; soc.:
L. campylopodis, pers. herb. MV20151009-02.
Additional collection at this site: October 25th 2015, pers. herb.
MV20151025-02.
4. Germany, Forest Göhrde near Boitze (Lower Saxony), 53°07’49’’
N, 10°45’10.5’’ E, 63 m asl, in a rut on a forest track in a pine-wood,
leg. Marcel Vega October 9th 2015. Host: C. pyriformis; soc.: L. cam-
pylopodis, pers. herb. MV20151009-03.
Additional collections at this site: October 25th 2015, pers. herb.
MV20151025-03, December 5th 2015, pers. herb. MV20151205-03.
5. Germany, Forest Göhrde near Boitze (Lower Saxony), 53°07’36’’
N, 10°45’53.5’’ E, 79 m asl, in a rut on a forest track passing through
a pine-wood, leg. Marcel Vega, October 25th 2015. Host: C. pyriformis,
accompanying moss: H. cupressiforme. Holotype (HBG–holotypus,
inv. no. 1412), isotypes: pers. herb. MV20151025-04 and pers. her-
barium JE.
Additional collection at this site: November 7th 2015, pers. herb.
MV20151107-01, duplicate pers. herb. VDK fungi # 0246.
Discussion
To compare the new L. verrucispora with similar species of bryo-
philous Pezizales, we consider here a) bryophilous Pezizales known
to parasitise species of the moss genus Campylopus on one hand
and b) bryophilous Pezizales with similar ascospores to those of
L. verrucispora.
In a) there are Lamprospora campylopodis, L. areolata Seaver,
L. australis (Mc Lennan & Cookson) Rifai and Octospora meslinii (Le
Gal) Svrček & Kubička and in b) L. ecksteinii Benkert, L. lutziana Boud.,
L. lubicensis Benkert, Octospora svrcekii Benkert and O. wrightii (Berk.
& M.A. Curtis) J. Moravec.
164 Ascomycete.org
Figure 1 – Young gall in optical section. Scale bar: 40 µm.
Drawing: Jan Eckstein
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Ascomycete.org
Plate 1 – Lamprospora verrucispora, macroscopic pictures
a & b: Locality D-Forest Göhrde, holotype; c: Locality NL-Wageningen Arboretum De Dreijen; d: Young apothecia, NL-Wageningen; e: Young
apothecium, D-Göhrde; f–h: Mature apothecia, D-Göhrde. Pictures: a,b, f–h: Marcel Vega; c & d: Henk-Jan van der Kolk; e: Jan Eckstein.
166 Ascomycete.org
Plate 2 – Lamprospora verrucispora, microscopic pictures
a: Ascospores in ascus stained with methylene blue; b: Paraphyses in tap water; c: Free ascospores stained with cotton blue: d: Free
ascospores stained with methylene blue; e: Galls in tap water; f: Gall stained with cotton blue. Scale bars: a–d = 10 µm: e = 100 µm; f =
25 µm. All micrographs taken from the holotype collection. Pictures: a & d: Raúl Tena Lahoz; b: Rubén Martínez Gil; c, e & f: Jan Eckstein.
167
Ascomycete.org
a) Bryophilous Pezizales known to parasitise species of the
moss genus Campylopus
BUCKLEY (1923: 44-45) described Lamprospora campylopodis from
Campylopus fragilis (Brid.) Bruch & Schimp. However, all but one of
the later collections of this species have been reported from C. pyri-
formis (pers. observations; BENKERT, 1987: 213-214; RUBIO et al., 2002:
69-70; ECKSTEIN & ECKSTEIN, 2013: 57-58). The one other collection had
the host Campylopus oerstedianus (Müll. Hall.) Mitt. (BENKERT, 2008:
15). Lamprospora campylopodis clearly diers from L. verrucispora in
its ascospores which have an areolate reticulum consisting of mostly
penta– or hexagonal meshes reminiscent of the surface of a football,
thus confusion with L. verrucispora is out of the question. Since L.
campylopodis was found frequently growing together with L. verru-
cispora, macroscopic dierences became apparent. With some ex-
perience both species can be separated in the eld: the apothecia
of L. campylopodis are — at least when mature — rather deeply
orange and have a distinctive membranaceous margin diering
from the yellowish-orange apothecia with a small and indistict mar-
gin of L. verrucispora.
According to BENKERT (1987: 210-211), all exsiccata of Lamprospora
australis (Mc Lennan & Cookson) Rifai had Campylopus introexus as
their host. The ascospores of L. australis dier markedly from those
Plate 3 – Lamprospora verrucispora, SEM-Pictures of ascospores
Pictures on the left from the holotype collection MV20151025-04. Pictures on the right from the Wageningen collection VDK fungi # 0194.
Scale bar: 10 m. Pictures: Jan Eckstein.
168 Ascomycete.org
of L. verrucispora in having an ornamentation consisting of very high
and narrow ridges forming a high reticulum. So far, L. australis is only
known from Australia.
LEGAL (1939: 137-139) attributed to Lamprospora areolata a col-
lection which BENKERT (1987: 207-208) reported to be associated with
the genus Campylopus. However, he doubted the identity of this
specimen with L. areolata, but could not refer it to L. campylopodis
or L. australis either. As the ascospore ornamentation of L. areolata
is similar to that of L. australis in consisting of a reticulum of high
and narrow ridges, this species could not be mistaken for L. verru-
cispora.
Finally, VIVANT (1998: 22-24) reports a nd of Octospora meslinii on
Campylopus subulatus Schimp. ex Milde. This species of Octospora
has distinctively ellipsoid spores and therefore it cannot be mixed
up with L. verrucispora.
b) Bryophilous Pezizales with similar ascospores (plate 4)
We consider species with globose or subglobose ascospores and
an ornamention consisting of isolated warts on average less than
1 µm wide as similar to L. verrucispora. There are ve such species
and each of them is known from only one host, whereas all the hosts
are not related to the genus Campylopus. Information on the species
has been taken from literature and from personal observations.
Both Octospora svrcekii and O. wrightii share one special feature
with L. verrucispora which had not yet been evidently demonstrated
for any Lamprospora species: They induce galls on the rhizoids of
their hosts (DÖBBELER, 1979: 844–846; BENKERT, 1998: 26–27 and 31).
The size of ascospore warts is, although slightly larger, similar to
L. verrucispora, with warts of O. svrcekii being 0.5–1 µm broad and
0.5–1 µm high and those of O. wrightii being 0.5–1 (2) µm broad and
0.5–1 (2) µm high. However, O. svrcekii parasitises Cratoneuron lici-
Plate 4 – Comparative Plate
a: Lamprospora verrucispora; b: L. lubicensis; c: L. lutziana; d: L. ecksteinii; e: Octospora svrcekii; f: O. wrightii. Spores stained with cotton blue.
Scale bars: a–f = 10 µm. Leg.: a: Marcel Vega; b: Jan Eckstein; c: Elisabeth Stöckli; d: Günter Eckstein; e: Lukáš Janošík; f: Torsten Richter.
Pictures: a, b & d: Jan Eckstein; c & e: Lukáš Janošík; f: Hartmut Schubert.
169
Ascomycete.org
num (Hedw.) Spruce, a pleurocarpic moss typical for wet or moist
habitats like streams and wet rocks (BENKERT, 1998: 26–27). Octospora
wrightii occurs on Amblystegium serpens (Hedw.) Schimp., also a
pleurocarpic moss occuring on many substrates including stone,
wood or soil. Furthermore, both species of Octospora have predo-
minantely subglobose ascospores and have not as many warts as
L. verrucispora (Plate 4e–f; BOUDIER, 1917: plate 399; SEM-pics in BEN-
KERT, 1998: 27 and 32). In these respects, they clearly dier from
L. verrucispora with its globose ascospores ornamented with many
ne warts.
Lamprospora ecksteinii has an ornamentation of warts which can
be elongated and conuent like those of L. verrucispora, but the
warts are on average slightly larger, measuring 0.5–1 (1.5) µm broad
and 0.5–1 (1.5) µm high. In contrast to L. verrucispora, the ascospores
of L. ecksteinii are slightly subglobose and their surface is less den-
sely covered with warts (Plate 4d and SEM–pics in BENKERT, 2009: 52-
53). Furthermore, L. ecksteinii does not induce galls on the rhizoids
of its host Microbryum curvicollum (Hedw.) R.H.Zander. The moss
M. curvicollum occurs in sun–exposed pioneer sites in grassland,
quarries or arable elds and therefore in habitats quite dierent
from those of Campylopus pyriformis, the host of L. verrucispora.
Lamprospora lutziana, a species with perfectly globose
ascospores, diers from L. verrucispora in having an ascospore orna-
mentation with fewer warts (Plate 4c and SEM-pics in SCHUMACHER,
1993: 321). The warts in L. lutziana are 0.3–1.4 µm broad and 0.6–
1.6 µm high diering from the more or less isodiametric and lower
warts of L. verrucispora. Also, L. lutziana does not induce galls on the
rhizoids of its host Philonotis fontana (Hedw.) Brid. which occurs in
fairly wet habitats such as marshes, ditches, by streams or lakes as
well as on wet rocks.
Lamprospora lubicensis is the most similar species to L. verrucis-
pora regarding ascospore shape, size and ornamentation. However,
L. lubicensis diers from L. verrucispora by having an ascospore or-
namentation of, on average, slightly larger and less numerous warts
and a stronger tendency for elongated and/or conuent warts (Plate
4b and SEM-pics in BENKERT, 1994: 198, 2009: 55). Occasionally, the
warts of L. lubicensis can be hook-shaped and in extreme cases they
can even indicate an irregular reticulum (pers. observation). Regular
warts in L. lubicensis are 0.5–1.5 µm broad and 0.5–1.5 µm high, and
when elongated they are 2–3 (5) µm long. However, L. lubicensis
does not induce galls on the rhizoids of its host Hennediella heimii
(Hedw.) R.H.Zander which is restricted to salt inuenced habitats i.e.
coastal areas, salt works and salted verges of roads (ATHERTON et al.,
2010: 491). Macroscopically, L. lubicensis diers from L. verrucispora
in the more orange-red coloured apothecia with a much more pro-
minent margin compared with the yellow-orange and rather indis-
tinctively marginate apothecia of L. verrucispora.
Gall formation on mosses induced by bryophilous Pezizales
Gall formation is documented for several bryophilous Pezizales. It
is a characteristic feature dening the section Wrightoideae (BENKERT,
1998, 2006) within the genus Octospora encompassing the species
O. americana Benkert, O. erzbergeri Benkert, O. hygrohypnophila Dis-
sing & Sivertsen, O. orthotrichi (Cooke & Ellis) K.B. Khare & V.P. Tewari,
O. svrcekii, O. texensis Benkert and O. wrightii. Spherical, unicellular
galls are induced on rhizoid end-cells of their hosts, whereas the gall
surface is completely covered with a layer of hyphae (DÖBBELER, 1979:
845, g. 8). These galls are very similar in all members of the section
Wrightoideae and also highly resemble the galls observed in L. ver-
rucispora. However there is a dierence in the number of appresso-
ria per gall: In L. verrucispora there is only one appressorium per gall,
whereas DÖBBELER (1979: 844) reported up to six appressoria per gall
in O. wrightii. Admittedly, the appressoria in mature galls are rather
dicult to see and L. verrucispora could possibly have more than
one per gall.
Gall formation is also reported from O. meslinii associated with
Grimmia pulvinata (Hedw.) Sm. (ITZEROTT & DÖBBELER, 1982: 202, g. 1)
and in O. pseudoampezzana (Svrček) Caillet & Moyne associated with
Schistidium crassipilum H.H. Blom (ECKSTEIN & ECKSTEIN, 2009: 225). In
both cases the infectious structures are very similar to those of the
section Wrightoideae. In contrast, O. rubens (Boud.) M.M. Moser
forms unicellular galls on rhizoids of Ceratodon purpureus which in
general do not develop a complete cover of hyphae, most of the
gall’s surface remaining free (ITZEROTT & DÖBBELER, 1982: 205-206, g.
2-3, ut O. libussae Svrček & Kubička). The galls of Octospora humosa
(Fr.) Dennis in species of the Polytrichaceae are somewhat dierent
in being very large, up to 350 µm in diameter, and thick walled. The
surface is almost free with only a few hyphae clustered around the
appressorium at the base of the gall (DÖBBELER & ITZEROTT, 1981: 130-
133, g. 3). The gall inducing species O. meslinii, O. pseudoampez-
zana, O. rubens and O. humosa clearly dier from L. verrucispora
having broadly ellipsoid to ellipsoid spores.
There was a report of possible gall formation for Lamprospora tu-
berculata by EGERTOVÁ et al. (2015: 121-122) but so far this has not
been conrmed in other collections of that species (pers. observa-
tion). Therefore, Lamprospora verrucispora is the rst Lamprospora
species convincingly known as inducing galls on its host. However,
detailed studies of infections are still lacking for many species and
it seems likely that gall formation will also be discovered in other
Lamprospora species in the future.
Key
With several new species described in recent years the keys avai-
lable so far are outdated. Therefore, a new key is provided below to
facilitate identication of all species of bryophilous Pezizales with
globose or nearly globose ascospores and an ascospore ornamen-
tation consisting solely of isolated warts. In addition to the similar
species mentioned above, the key includes Lamprospora esterlech-
nerae Benkert, L. maireana Seaver, L. rehmii Benkert, L. spinulosa Sea-
ver, L. tuberculata Seaver and L. tuberculatella Seaver, which all have
an ascospore ornamentation of rather large warts or tubercles. Spe-
cimens of all species mentioned were studied by at least one of the
authors except for L. esterlechnerae which is currently known only
from the type. Additional information has been gathered from BEN-
KERT (1987, 2002, 2006, 2011), CAILLET & MOYNE (1980, 1991), ECKSTEIN
(2014), ECKSTEIN et al. (2014), EGERTOVÁ et al. (2015), GRAF & MÜHLEBACH
(2014), KULLMAN (1997), SEAVER (1914, 1928); WANG & KIMBROUGH (1992).
Acknowledgements
We would like to thank the following for sharing information
and/or providing us with samples and photos: Raúl Tena Lahoz and
Rubén Martínez Gil (Spain), Lukáš Janošík (Slovakia), Elisabeth
Stöckli and Ueli Graf (Switzerland), Maren Kamke and Hartmut Schu-
bert (Germany), and Gilbert Moyne (France). Our most profound
thanks go to Brian Spooner (UK) for revising the manuscript. We are
very grateful to the sta of the Johann-Friedrich-Blumenbach-Ins-
titut für Zoologie und Anthropologie Göttingen for allowing us to
take SEM-pics by means of their equipment. Thanks go to Uwe Lin-
demann, Hans-Otto Baral, Jürgen Hechler and Emiel Brouwer for
helpful advice. Last but not least our thanks go to Christian Lechat
for starting ascofrance.com and for sticking to it.
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170 Ascomycete.org
Key for bryophilous Pezizales with globose or subglobose (L/B < 1.1) and warty ascospores
1 Ascospores slightly subglobose.............................................................................................................................................................................................. 2
1 Ascospores perfectly globose.................................................................................................................................................................................................. 4
2 Ascospores (11) 12–14 × 11–13 (13.5) µm, Q: 1.08–1.12, not growing in markedly humid habitats, host Amblystegium serpens
......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... O. wrightii
2 Ascospores bigger........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 3
3 Ascospores 14–15 (16) × 13–14.5 µm, Q: 1.07–1.09, growing in dry, sun-exposed habitats, host Microbryum curvicollum
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... L. ecksteinii
3 Ascospores (13.5) 14–16 × 13–15 (15.5) µm, Q: 1.05–1.07, growing in humid to wet places, host Cratoneuron licinum .. O. svrcekii
4 Ornamentation consisting of warts higher than broad, warts truncate, 0.8–1.2 µm broad and 1–2 µm high, ascospores
15.2–17.5 (20) µm ................................................................................................................................................................................................... L. spinulosa
4 Ornamentation consisting of warts of more or less same height and breadth..................................................................................................... 5
5 Species growing in wet or humid places on Philonotis fontana, ascospores (12.8) 14–18 (19) µm, warts 0.3–1.4 µm broad and 0.5–
1.6 µm high.................................................................................................................................................................................................................. L. lutziana
5 Species not growing in markedly wet or humid places, not on Philonotis.............................................................................................................. 6
6 Ornamentation consisting of coarse warts or tubercles often > 1.5 µm in diam.................................................................................................. 7
6 Ornamentation consisting of smaller warts all or nearly all < 1.5 µm in diam. ....................................................................................................11
7 Ornamentation consisting of large, hemispherical or broadly rounded tubercles with thin walls and many internal cavities, giving
the warts a foamy appearance, 2–6 µm broad, ascospores 19–25 µm, hosts Archidium alternifolium (Hedw.) Mitt. or Fossombronia
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... L. maireana
7 Warts solid or only with tiny cavities..................................................................................................................................................................................... 8
8 Ascospores 19–24 µm in diameter.......................................................................................................................................................................... L. rehmii
8 Ascospores 14–19 µm in diameter......................................................................................................................................................................................... 9
9 Growing on rotting wood or similar substrata, host Dicranodontium denudatum (Brid.) E. Britton, ascospores 14–16 µm
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................ L. esterlechnerae
9 Growing on soil in more or less dry habitats, host dierent ...................................................................................................................................... 10
10 Ornamentation consisting of uneven sized warts (0.5) 1–3 (5) µm broad, of rather irregular shape, ascospores (13) 15–19 (20) µm,
host Pleuridium.................................................................................................................................................................................................... L. tuberculata
10 Ornamentation consisting of more or less even sized warts, which are regularly hemispherical, 0,5–2 µm broad, warts occasionally
connected by very low ridges, ascospores 15–18 µm, hosts Weissia or Didymodon............................................................ L. tuberculatella
11 Ornamentation consisting of small warts (0.2) 0.4–0.9 µm broad and 0.4–0.8 µm high, occasionally with one or few bigger warts
1–2 µm broad and 0.8–1.6 µm high, ascospores (13) 14–17 µm, growing on sand or acidic soil with upper humose layer, host Cam-
pylopus pyriformis ............................................................................................................................................................................................. L. verrucispora
11 Ornamentation consisting of warts on average > 0.8 µm broad, host dierent .................................................................................................12
12 Ornamentation consisting of mostly regular hemispherical warts on average > 1 µm broad, occasionally connected by very low
ridges, ascospores 15–18 µm, hosts Weissia or Didymodon ......................................................................................................... L. tuberculatella
12 Ornamentation consisting of warts 0.5–1.5 µm, ascospores 13.9–18 µm, growing on salt inuenced soil, host Hennediella heimii
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... L. lubicensis
DÖBBELER P. & I TZEROTT H. 1981. — Zur Biologie von Octospora libussae
und O. humosa, zwei im Moosprotonema wachsende Pezizales.
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culatella – zwei bryoparasitische Discomyceten (Ascomycota, Pe-
zizales) neu für Deutschland. Zeitschrift für Mykologie, 80 (1):
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cetes) der Gattungen Lamprospora, Octospora und Neottiella im
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sachsen). Herzogia, 22: 213-228.
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55-66.
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171
Ascomycete.org
ef
Marcel Vega
Kohlhoefen 17
20355 Hamburg
Germany
tomprodukt@web.de
Jan Eckstein
Heinrich–Heine–Strasse 9
37083 Göttingen
Germany
jan.eckstein@octospora.de
Henk–Jan van der Kolk
Hullenberglaan 9
6721 AL Bennekom
The Netherlands
henk-janvdkolk@hotmail.com
... Spores of L. verrucispora M.Vega, Eckstein & Van der Kolk measure (13)14-17 µm diam.; they are densely covered with numerous small warts (0.4-0.8 µm high), occasionally some bigger warts (0.8-1.6 µm high) can occur, its host is Campylopus pyriformis (Schultz) Brid. (Vega et al. 2016). ...
... It is not unlikely that many or even all of them represent taxa yet to be described. The key in Vega et al. (2016) has to be considered as void and should not be used any longer as information on spore measurements and hosts had been merged from literature referring to United States collections as well as from papers dealing with European collections. A considerable part of existing literature on bryophilous Pezizales needs to be reevaluated. ...
... Spores of L. verrucispora M.Vega, Eckstein & Van der Kolk measure (13)14-17 µm diam.; they are densely covered with numerous small warts (0.4-0.8 µm high), occasionally some bigger warts (0.8-1.6 µm high) can occur, its host is Campylopus pyriformis (Schultz) Brid. (Vega et al. 2016). ...
... It is not unlikely that many or even all of them represent taxa yet to be described. The key in Vega et al. (2016) has to be considered as void and should not be used any longer as information on spore measurements and hosts had been merged from literature referring to United States collections as well as from papers dealing with European collections. A considerable part of existing literature on bryophilous Pezizales needs to be reevaluated. ...
... Spores of L. verrucispora M.Vega, Eckstein & Van der Kolk measure (13)14-17 µm diam.; they are densely covered with numerous small warts (0.4-0.8 µm high), occasionally some bigger warts (0.8-1.6 µm high) can occur, its host is Campylopus pyriformis (Schultz) Brid. (Vega et al. 2016). ...
... It is not unlikely that many or even all of them represent taxa yet to be described. The key in Vega et al. (2016) has to be considered as void and should not be used any longer as information on spore measurements and hosts had been merged from literature referring to United States collections as well as from papers dealing with European collections. A considerable part of existing literature on bryophilous Pezizales needs to be reevaluated. ...
Article
Lamprospora bulbiformis M.Vega & Janošík, sp. nov., L. gibbosa M.Vega & Janošík, sp. nov. and L. thelespora Martínez-Gil, M.Vega & E.Rubio, sp. nov. are described and illustrated based on live collections from Cyprus, France, Portugal and Spain. Phylogenetic analyses of the concatenated LSU, SSU and EF1-α gene sequences show the studied collections of the three species form well supported monophyletic clades. Lamprospora bulbiformis sp. nov. infects Fissidens viridulus (Sw. ex anon.) Wahlenb., L. gibbosa sp. nov. has F. crassipes Wilson ex Bruch & Schimp. as host and L. the- lespora sp. nov. grows on Cheilothela chloropus (Brid.) Broth. Three Lamprospora De Not. species namely L. tuberculata Seaver, L. tuberculatella Seaver and L. spinulosa Seaver with a slightly similar ascospore ornamentation were described by Seaver from US collections. Results of our studies of their types and additional material collected by Seaver are presented. The host of L. tuberculata is Pleuridium subulatum (Hedw.) Rabenh., that of L. tuberculatella is a species of Weissia Hedw. and that of L. spinulosa is Physcomitrium pyriforme (Hedw.) Bruch & Schimp. It has yet to be proven that species of Lamprospora described from North America also occur in Europe. European collections assigned to any Lamprospora described from North America require revision. It is not unlikely that many or even all of them represent taxa yet to be described. A considerable part of existing literature on bryophilous Pezizales needs to be reevaluated.
... Bryophilous Pezizales are known to be intimately associated with bryophytes. Most of these fungi are considered to be narrow specialists with a single moss or liverwort host plant (Benkert 1990, Vega et al. 2016, Egertová et al. 2018. A broad host spectrum with distantly related bryophyte species usually indicates an unresolved fungal species complex (Vega et al. , 2019, although a seemingly broader host spectrum can sometimes stem from misidentification and confusion of similar species. ...
Article
Full-text available
The full PDF can be downloaded here: http://www.czechmycology.org/_cmo/CM74101.pdf The bryophilous ascomycete Octospora meslinii is a rarely reported species growing exclusively in cushions of the saxicolous moss Grimmia pulvinata. The taxon has been misunderstood in the past and hitherto reliably only reported from France and Germany. Many recent collections from Hungary have made it possible to get a better understanding of O. meslinii, which is comprehensively described and illustrated in this paper. Because of the lack of original material, we designate an illustration in the protologue as the lectotype and one of the recent collections as the epitype of this fungus. Octospora meslinii is compared with other species of Octospora growing in the same type of habitat or having similar ascospores. The most closely related species to O. meslinii is O. pseudoampezzana. Both share apothecia with blackish pigmentation, a unique feature compared to bryophilous Pezizales as a whole, ellipsoid ascospores ornamented with isolated warts, moss hosts in the family Grimmiaceae, and the infection inducing galls on the rhizoids. A phylogenetic analysis using the EF1a, LSU and SSU rDNA loci confirms our morphological findings showing that O. meslinii forms a monophyletic clade with O. pseudoampezzana, whereas other species with which O. meslinii was confused in the past, e.g. O. similis, are related only distantly.
... 1) L. verrucispora M. Vega, Eckstein & Van der Kolk infects C. pyriformis (Schultz) brid., a moss not listed in the Tenerifan species inventory (gonZáLEZ-ManCEbo et al., 2008). L. verrucispora has ascospores with a surface densely covered with numerous isolated warts (VEga et al., 2016). This contrasts with the reticulate ornamentation of L. angularis, making confusion unlikely when specimens are examined microscopically. ...
Article
Lamprospora angularis sp. nov. is described and illustrated from finds in four different Tenerifan localities. The new species is characterised by a combination of the following features: orange to reddish-orange apothecia with a conspicuous fimbriate to shaggy margin, globose ascospores with distinctive regular areolate ornamentation, and infection of the rhizoids of its bryophyte host Campylopus pilifer. Phylogenetic analysis of SSu, LSu and EF1-α gene sequences show that the studied collections of this species form a well-supported monophyletic clade and clearly differ from all other sequenced species of bryophilous Pezizales. Comparisons have been made with similar members of Lamprospora that infect species of Campylopus, namely L. australis, L. campylopodis and L. verrucispora.
... This feature was reported in several species of Octospora outside the section (including smooth-spored species) and even in two species of Lamprospora (for details see Vega et al. 2016). ...
Article
The bryophilous ascomycete Octospora svrcekii, belonging to the section Wrightoideae, has so far been reported from only three localities in the world. New collections from Albania, Austria, Croatia, France, Slovakia and Spain have enabled a better understanding of its variability, ecology, distribution and phylogenetic relationships with other taxa within the section Wrightoideae. Octospora svrcekii was always found associated with Cratoneuron filicinum growing in constantly humid habitats (brooks, rivers or waterfalls), on calcareous bedrock. A species description based on both living and dead material is provided and compared with previous observations. A phylogenetic analysis of the section Wrightoideae, performed using the EF1α, SSU rDNA and LSU rDNA loci, revealed that Octospora svrcekii forms a monophyletic group with O. wrightii, O. erzbergeri, O. hygrohypnophila and O. americana, all of which are characterised by subglobose to broadly ellipsoid ascospores ornamented with isolated warts, and infect mosses in the order Hypnales, inducing galls on their rhizoids. Based on the molecular analysis, O. orthotrichi and O. affinis, formerly also considered as members of the section Wrightoideae, do not belong to the group.
... Schimp., obteniendo una medida esporal media de todas ellas (procedente del estudio de material fresco, esporada libre y la ornamentación incluida) de (11) 12-14 × (10) 11-13 µm, Q media = 1,16-1,18 y verrugas de 0,4-1,2 µm de ancho y 0,4-1,2 µm de alto. VEGA et al.. (2016) ilustran en una figura comparativa diferentes fotografías de ascosporas teñidas con azul algodón, donde se aprecian muy bien las diferencias entre las especies con características esporales más parecidas que hemos tratado en este trabajo. ...
Article
Full-text available
Resumen: Descripción macro y microscópica de Lamprospora lutziana acompañada de fotografías de las estructuras estudiadas, se aporta información sobre la distribución y ecología de la especie, se discuten las diferencias con otros Pezizales briofilos que tienen una ornamentación de ascosporas similar y se explica e ilustra la infección producida en los tallos y las hojas vivas del huésped briofito Philonotis fontana. En la literatura antigua se pudo descubrir información más detallada sobre la localidad del tipo de L. lutziana no indicada en el protólogo. Palabras clave: Ascomycota, briofitas, La Rioja, Pyronemataceae. Contribution to the knowledge and distribution of Lamprospora lutziana (Pezizales), a rarely reported species, found in northern Spain. Abstract: Macro and microscopic description of Lamprospora lutziana accompanied by photographs of the structures studied, information is provided on the distribution and ecology of the species, differences with other bryophilous Pezizales that have a similar ascospore ornamentation are discussed and the infection produced on the stems and living leafs of the bryophyte host Philonotis fontana is explained and illustrated. More detailed information about the locality of the type of L. lutziana not indicated in the protologue could be detected in ancient literature.
... With ascospore dimensions of species similar to L. densireticulata, L. carbonicola and L. dictydiola overlapping at times, a new partial key (after the ones given in Vega et al. 2016 andin Vega et al. 2017) would have to focus on the species' hosts primarily. Instead, we decided to provide a comparative table with two parameters only to facilitate identification (Table 3). ...
Article
Lamprospora densireticulata sp. nov. is described and illustrated based on fresh collections from Austria, Croatia, Cyprus, France, Germany, Hungary and Spain. Its most important distinguishing characters are subglobose ascospores ornamented with a fine, irregular dense net and the infection on rhizoids of its host moss Aloina ambigua. Two other similar species differing mainly in their host mosses and ecology are also described in detail: these are L. carbonicola infecting Funaria hygrometrica occuring on soil and L. dictydiola growing on Tortula muralis on walls, stones or rocks. Phylogenetic analyses of ITS and LSU rDNA show that the studied collections of all three species form well-supported monophyletic clades exhibiting only very little polymorphism within the individual species. Comparative tables listing other morphologically similar species of Lamprospora and Octospora are provided.
... Some of the Benkert`s encouraging papers (Benkert, 1987(Benkert, , 1993(Benkert, , 1995(Benkert, , 2007 are the main cause for a rapid boost of interest for bryomycology. Several dozens of new species have been described in the last couple of decades with new bryophilic taxa constantly emerging (Benkert & Brouwer, 2004;Benkert & Kristiansen, 2008;Benkert, 2011;Döbbeler, 2011;Döbbeler & Facher, 2014;Vega et al., 2016;Vega et al., 2017;Egertová et al., 2018), bringing as results worldwide distribution patterns of bryophilous Pezizales more clear. ...
Article
Full-text available
Results from bryomycological field studies in the Mediterranean part of Bosnia and Herzegovina are reported in the paper. Five bryophilous taxa of ascomycetes have been recorded on few locations around the city of Neum and on the Klek peninsula. Three of them are new for the mycobiota of Bosnia and Herzegovina – Octospora gemmicola, Lamprospora miniata var. parvispora and Lamprospora miniatavar. ratisbonensis. Macromorphology and micro-characters with ecology, phenology and distribution patterns for eachspecies are presented and briefly discussed.
Article
Full-text available
Lamprospora rehmii Benkert, a species of bryophilous Pezizales infecting the moss Pleuridium acuminatum Lindb., is presented from recent collections, one of which is designated as epitype. An illustration from the protologue is designated as lectotype. Sequence data from the LSU and ITS regions have been deposited in GenBank.
Article
Full-text available
Four bryoparasitic ascomycetes, Lamprospora tuberculata, Octospora ithacaensis, O. orthotrichi and O. affinis were recently found in the Czech Republic for the first time. For each species, basic description of macroscopical and microscopical characters, information about its habitat, distinguishing features of similar species as well as notes on the distribution in Europe are provided. Furthermore, apothecia, spores and parasitising structures are illustrated. The following parasite-host relationships were observed: L. tuberculata on Pleuridium subulatum, O. ithacaensis on Marchantia polymorpha, O. orthotrichi on Orthotrichum diaphanum and O. affinis on Orthotrichum affine. One locality of L. tuberculata, two of O. ithacaensis, eight of O. orthotrichi and one of O. affinis were found. Internal cavities in the warts of spores in O. affinis and L. tuberculata are newly reported as well as the infection of leaf cells in O. affinis. PDF available at: http://www.czechmycology.org/czech-mycology-content.php#v67
Article
Full-text available
Some noteworthy findings of bryoparasitic Pezizales from the federal states of Bavaria, Hamburg, Lower Saxony, Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt and Thuringia are reported. The description for each species contains relevant macroscopic and microscopic characters, host bryophyte relationships and habitat preferences. New federal state records are provided for Lamprospora dicranellae, L. tuberculata and Octospora bridei in Lower Saxony, for Neottiella vivida in Thuringia and for N. albocincta first records for the federal states of Bavaria, Hamburg, Saxony as well as Thuringia are reported. The hitherto unknown parasite host relationships of L. dicranellae and Ditrichum heteromallum as well as of O. coccinea and Acaulon muticum are being described.
Article
Full-text available
ECKSTEIN, J. & ECKSTEIN, G. (2013): Noteworthy findings of bryoparasitic Pezizales (Ascomycota) from Germany. Boletus 34(2): 55-66 Abstract: Some noteworthy findings of bryoparasitic discomycetes from the federal states of Baden-Württemberg, Lower Saxony, Mecklenburg-West Pomerania, Saxony-Anhalt and Thuringia are reported. The description for each species contains relevant macro- and microscopic characters, host bryophyte relationships and habitat preferences. New federal state records are reported for Lamprospora dictydiola and Octospora ithacaensis in Baden-Württemberg, for L. dictydiola in Lower Saxony, for O. ithacaensis in Mecklenburg-West Pomerania, for O. excipulata in Saxony-Anhalt and for L. annulata, L. campylopodis, L. dictydiola, O. bridei and O. similis in Thuringia. The hitherto unknown parasite host relationships of L. annulata and Ephemerum minutissimum as well as of O. excipulata and Physcomitrium sphaericum are described.
Article
Seit 1987 sind von Lamprospora maireana und L. tuberculatella vor allem aus Europa eine Anzahl neuer Funde bekannt geworden. Lamprospora maireana ist in Europa nun bekannt aus Deutschland, Finnland, Frankreich, den Niederlanden, Norwegen und Spanien, L. tuberculatella aus Frankreich, den Niederlanden, Portugal und Ungarn. Als Wirtsmoose konnten nachgewiesen werden Archidium alternifolium für L. maireana sowie Didymodon vinealis, Ephemerum megalosporum und Weissia controversa für L. tuberculatella. Es wird diskutiert, ob Lamprospora maireana und L. tuberculatella gut charakterisierte, einheitliche Arten sind, oder ob die taxonomisch und ökologisch sehr unterschiedlichen Wirtsmoose und teilweise auch geringe morphologische Unterschiede auf das Vorliegen von Komplexen von nahe verwandten Taxa hindeuten.
— Octospora meslinii und O. rubens (Pezizales)
  • Itzerott H Döbbeler P
ITZEROTT H. & DÖBBELER P. 1982. — Octospora meslinii und O. rubens (Pezizales), zwei weitere bryophile Gallenbildner. Mitteilungen der Botanischen Staatssammlung München, 18: 201-211.
A preliminary study of the genus Lamprospora
  • F J Seaver
SEAVER F.J. 1914. -A preliminary study of the genus Lamprospora. Mycologia, 6 (1): 5-24.