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Moral Enhancement? Acknowledging Limitations of Neurotechnology and Morality

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Moral Enhancement? Acknowledging Limitations
of Neurotechnology and Morality
John R. Shook & James Giordano
To cite this article: John R. Shook & James Giordano (2016) Moral Enhancement?
Acknowledging Limitations of Neurotechnology and Morality, AJOB Neuroscience, 7:2, 118-120,
DOI: 10.1080/21507740.2016.1188178
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Published online: 18 Jul 2016.
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Open Peer Commentaries
Moral Enhancement? Acknowledging
Limitations of Neurotechnology
and Morality
John R. Shook, University at Buffalo
James Giordano, Georgetown University Medical Center
Nakazawa, Yamamoto, Tachibana, and colleagues (2016)
offer their hopes and concerns about employing real-time
functional magnetic resonance imaging (rt-fMRI)-based
neurofeedback to treat mental disorders and to enhance
moral cognition. Their recognition of limitations to these
techniques is welcome, given exaggerated claims that often
characterize discussions of neurotechnologically derived
enhancements. Discerning the extent to which any type of
enhancement is achievable depends on a number of fac-
tors, ranging from the neurological to the sociological
(Shook, Galvagni, and Giordano 2014; Shook and Gior-
dano 2016). The meaning of “moral enhancement” at mini-
mum depends on the approach(es) used to alter brain
function, the experimental protocols for attaining envi-
sioned goals, and the shared understandings of experi-
menters, subjects, and society about the significance of
those goals for morality. Before attempting to judge the
moral worth or ethical status of any alteration in brain
function, we must first be prepared to explain and justify
how some neurological modification could even be classi-
fied as an improvement upon a person’s morality. How
such a verifiable classification is accomplished will then
provide information required for evaluating whether some
putative improvement to morality is both authentic and
As the authors describe them, protocols utilizing
decoded neurofeedback rt-fMRI appear to elicit validly
effective results. Such protocols (i.e., to alter subjects’ abil-
ity to more “accurately” make moral judgments, which
have been preset as targets) do seem feasible. The authors
are optimistic that their technique can simultaneously
affect multiple brain regions, even though they admit that
brain networks involved in moral cognition are as yet only
tentatively identified and poorly understood. This is not a
huge obstacle, since recent studies are discerning details
about brain regions networked in various types of moral
judgment (Cushman 2013; Avram et al. 2014). In fact, rt-
fMRI enables subject-by-subject inquiry into the efficacy
and durability of adjustments to moral cognition, with all
the attendant risks openly declared in advance, which may
contribute to further advances in the field. Nevertheless,
the neurological processes underlying social cognition in
general and moral cognition in particular won’t be ade-
quately understood anytime soon. We still must address
key questions about the capabilities, limits, and value of
the neurotechnology—and method(s)—used (Giordano
2015). Indeed, as the authors note, there are several limita-
tions, mainly arising from diffuse effects upon complex
networks that happen to be involved with moral cognition
and other modes of cognition as well.
We contend that there are (at least) four additional lim-
itations—not coincidentally involving social factors—that
are significant when considering adjustments to a person’s
First, a subject can produce different moral judgments
without anyone, including experimenters, understanding
which components of moral cognition have been adjusted
and why those adjustments caused differing moral judg-
ments. Subjects would be unable to say why they think dif-
ferently about moral matters, even in the ordinary terms of
folk moral psychology; this might be disorienting and
disconcerting. Confusion could be reduced if protocols
included identifying alterations to affective, motivational,
valuational, or reasoning processes during procedures
(see, e.g., the work of Moll et al. [2014] and Sherwood et al.
Second, a subject undergoing this technique would be
encouraged by experimenters to adjust moral judgment
away from what initially seems intuitive and “right
enough,” toward judgments that can’t, by definition, seem
quite right to the subject. After all, if the subject took some
alternative judgment to be “just as morally good” then the
Address correspondence to John R. Shook, Department of Philosophy and Graduate School of Education, University at Buffalo, 135 Park
Hall, Buffalo NY, USA. E-mail:
118 ajob Neuroscience
AJOB Neuroscience, 7(2): 118–133, 2016
Copyright ©Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
ISSN: 2150-7740 print / 2150-7759 online
DOI: 10.1080/21507740.2016.1188178
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goal or outcome wouldn’t be “moral adjustment.” How
would sincere subject compliance be guaranteed if and
when subjects feel like they must make morally variant
judgments during the procedure, and anticipate becoming
morally “different” or even immoral if the procedure
works for them? Compliance could be enhanced by assur-
ing subjects that the goal of adjustment is only to make
moral judgment more consistently and strongly like judg-
ments they already subjectively regard as moral.
Third, a subject undergoing this technique might suc-
cessfully transition to a new manner of moralizing and
take this new condition to be morally right. As the authors
note, new moral habits may drift away from expected
standards, or even fade away, over time. Subjects might
demand continued treatments in order to “stay moral.”
What happens if those treatments are not available? This is
a real problem because there is little (or no) guarantee that
such drift would revert to a subject’s original morality.
This technique cannot be labeled as “reversible” quite yet.
Sustaining and/or reversing such interventions could pose
a problematic issue, unless reliably long-term techniques
were developed.
Fourth, a subject undergoing this technique might be
informed that the procedure is needed to improve one’s
moral judgment in order to correct a mental disease or dis-
order. Does this offer a way to treat “moral pathologies”?
More importantly, do such clinical-sounding classifica-
tions (which we would hesitate to make) appear to estab-
lish “moral enhancement” as primarily about therapeutic
rehabilitations or reformations? Setting up external stand-
ards of morality rather than subjective standards places
experimental protocols in very different territory, where
sincere and voluntary compliance surely cannot be pre-
sumed. Furthermore, pathologizing many modes of defi-
cient or defective morality can look like the start of a
slippery slope, leading toward social condemnation of
“undesirable” moralistic stances.
Most fundamentally, we urge closer scrutiny into treat-
ing these experimental protocols as genuinely moral
enhancements. Neurological improvements are not auto-
matically ethical enhancements (Shook and Giordano
2016). In this light, we raise four concerns that arise in par-
allel with the four key questions about experimental proto-
cols from the first half of this commentary.
Our first concern attends to the authors’ suggestion
that reducing differences in the default mode network
between “healthy” people and patients with mental disor-
ders offers a route toward moral enhancement. This may
be so, but current justifications of moral improvement of
individuals focus upon their deficiencies in folk moral psy-
chology: A person may not care enough about others, or
not be nice enough, and so on. Suppose that this experi-
mental technique enables a person to behave “better.”
There is no promise that the subject will introspectively
grasp why, and subjects may even report little to no sensed
change in their moral psychology: They may not feel like
they care more, want to share more, and so forth. After all,
terms of folk moral psychology merely represent, and not
necessarily in any closely corresponding way, hypothe-
sized tokens of neurological function and structure(s).
Would we trust this procedure to enhance morality if we
can’t explain why a subject has become morally better?
Improved behavior is not automatically moral behavior,
and it may be far from ethically commendable conduct
(Shook 2012). Something else may be causing observed
behavioral changes and evoking other unanticipated and/
or undesirable side effects.
Our second concern pursues the idea that compliance
could be strengthened if subjects believe that their preex-
isting moral habits were (only) to be strengthened and
intensified. How would society regard that mode of moral
enhancement? Moral pluralism is both a psychological fact
and a tolerated reality in society, to certain limits (Graham
et al. 2011). Would society be comfortable with a large por-
tion becoming more “conservative” and another large por-
tion becoming more “liberal” (to use Haidt’s terms)?
Enhancement does not display an obvious unitary and
unified directionality. Additionally, what if some people
want to calibrate their morality toward some chosen ethi-
cal exemplar? Why be just a little more conservative, if you
could acquire the moral judgment of a right-wing media
celebrity? Let’s not be naive—there will be those who
would seek these “boutique” sorts of enhancement.
Our third concern proceeds from our observation that
moral remediation and rehabilitation may become techno-
logically feasible at the expense of becoming socially dan-
gerous. Those who call for moral enhancement for many
people must worry about who will classify—and be classi-
fied as—the morally “healthy” or “unhealthy.” Who
among us is really so morally healthy? On the other hand,
if we permit people to enhance in their preferred direc-
tions, does that only encourage the moral tribalization of
humanity? The world needs less tribalization, not more,
but homogeneity doesn’t seem right, either. Perhaps this
neurotechnology, along with others, could be used to dis-
cern a statistically average “morally normal” brain by
averaging together nnumber of individuals’ default mode
networks. Yet which individuals, from which cultures,
would be selected for that sample? That “normalized”
moral brain wouldn’t even seem quite moral, or appear to
be morally vacillating or inconsistent, from the stance of
those who expect deontic, utilitarian, or virtue ethics to
dominate a person’s moral psychology.
Our fourth and related concern centers upon how
much ethical responsibility and control must be exer-
cised when this technique is applied on human sub-
jects, no matter how far advanced it may become. To
alter a person’s internal moral sense and judgment is to
manipulate something at the core of who we are as
responsible agents and personal selves. That we already
do this for children (fairly well) and moral deviants
(not so well) does not in any way diminish the signifi-
cance of, and responsibility for, this ambitious
endeavor. To experiment with long-term moral judg-
ment and moral conduct is to undertake nothing less
than social reengineering on a grand scale. The
Ethics of Decoded Neurofeedback
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dystopian literature about political impositions of a
“normalized” morality on populations prompts ethical
unease if not outrage, and rightly so. May we never
surrender that ethical wisdom to neurotechnical prow-
ess or moral expediency. &
Avram, M., K. Hennig-Fast, Y. Bao, et al. 2014. Neural correlates of
moral judgments in first- and third-person perspectives: Implica-
tions for neuroethics and beyond. BMC Neuroscience 15:39.
Cushman, F. 2013. Action, outcome, and value: A dual-system
framework for morality. Personality and Social Psychology Review 17
(3): 273–92. doi:10.1177/1088868313495594.
Giordano, J. 2015. A preparatory neuroethical approach to assess-
ing developments in neurotechnology. AMA Journal of Ethics 17(1):
Graham, J., B. Nosek, J. Haidt, R. Iyer, S. Koleva, and P. Ditto.
2011. Mapping the moral domain. Journal of Personality and Social
Psychology 101(2): 366–85.
Moll, J., J. Weingartner, P. Bado, et al. 2014. Voluntary enhance-
ment of neural signatures of affiliative emotion using fMRI neuro-
feedback. PLoS ONE 9(5): e97343. doi:10.1371/journal.
Nakazawa, E., K. Yamamoto, K. Tachibana, S. Toda, Y. Takimoto,
and A. Akabayashi. 2016. Ethics of decoded neurofeedback in clin-
ical research, treatment, and moral enhancement. AJOB Neurosci-
ence 7(2): 110–117.
Enhanced control of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex neuro-
physiology with real-time functional magnetic resonance
imaging (rt-fMRI) neurofeedback training and working mem-
ory practice. NeuroImage 124(Pt A): 214–23. doi:10.1016/j.
Shook, J. R. 2012. Neuroethics and the possible types of moral
enhancement. AJOB-Neuroscience 3(4): 3–14.
Shook, J. R., L. Galvagni, and J. Giordano. 2014. Cognitive
enhancement kept within contexts: Neuroethics and informed
public policy. Frontiers of Systems Neuroscience 8:228.
Shook, J. R., and J. Giordano. 2016. Neuroethics beyond normal:
Performance enablement and self-transformative technologies.
Cambridge Quarterly of Health Care Ethics 25(1): 121–40.
Neurofeedback for Moral Enhancement:
Irreversibility, Freedom, and
Advantages Over Drugs
Hannah Maslen, University of Oxford
Julian Savulescu, University of Oxford
Nakazawa and colleagues (2016) examine potential thera-
peutic applications of decoded neurofeedback for the treat-
ment of psychiatric conditions such as depression, and
developmental disorders. Decoded neurofeedback, they
argue, is particularly promising in this regard, since it can
enable individuals to observe a representation of their
brain activity in real time. Consequently, individuals can
train themselves to intentionally adjust their brain activity,
ultimately in the absence of the visual representation.
Nakazawa and colleagues further hypothesize that
decoded neurofeedback techniques could be used for
moral enhancement, if individuals were able to train them-
selves to adjust their brain states to those conducive to
moral behavior, such as the brain state correlated with
compassion. This, they argue, would be a particularly
appealing form of moral enhancement, since modulation
of brain states could be “personalized, or tailor made” to
the individual’s beliefs about how to live morally.
The article makes an important contribution in draw-
ing the attention of neuroethicists to the prospect that neu-
rofeedback could enable a greater degree of control over
mental phenomena such as emotions or strong desires,
which sometimes frustrate our ability to act in line with
our moral commitments, or prudentially. Although Naka-
zawa and colleagues are optimistic about the way in which
the personalization of neurofeedback preserves moral plu-
ralism, they suggest that there are significant ethical con-
cerns relating to irreversibility, safety, and efficacy.
Irreversibility in particular, they argue, is potentially prob-
lematic in its implications for freedom, since agents are
rendered unable to alter themselves if their moral beliefs
change. This, they argue, is in contrast to pharmaceuticals,
Address correspondence to Hannah Maslen, The Oxford Uehiro Centre for Practical Ethics, University of Oxford, Suite 8, Littlegate
House, 16/17 St Ebbe’s Street, Oxford, OX1 1PT, United Kingdom. E-mail:
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... There is no doubt that circumspection should be appreciated to avoid an agitative and delusive argument insofar as its mechanism remains uncertain (Shook & Giordano, 2016). Simultaneously, however, ELSI should be considered in advance and forewarned if necessary, since such issues will have a large influence on our life and society. ...
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Scientific progress in recent neurofeedback research may bring about a new type of moral neuroenhancement, namely, neurofeedback-based moral enhancement; however, this has yet to be examined thoroughly. This paper presents an ethical analysis of the possibility of neurofeedback-based moral enhancement and demonstrates that this type of moral enhancement sheds new light on the moral enhancement debate. First, I survey this debate and extract the typical structural flow of its arguments. Second, by applying structure to the case of neurofeedback-based moral enhancement, I examine the ethical, legal, and social issues (ELSI) to show that this technique is unique and traditionalist, which makes it compatible with almost all our conservative notions, so that it, accordingly, can be seen as an ethically acceptable option. Third, by rejecting the premise in the moral enhancement debate that bio/neuro-enhancement has its unique ELSI that traditional methods would never create, I demonstrate that, by virtue of its traditional or conservative features, neurofeedback-based moral enhancement can be incorporated into the traditional moral education network. Finally, I conclude that, being a part of the traditional moral education network, neurofeedback-based moral enhancement can be a unique and ethically acceptable option of moral neuroenhancement.
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Positive assessments of moral enhancement too often isolate intuitive notions about its benefits apart from the relevance of surrounding society or civic institutions. If moral bioenhancement should benefit both oneself and others, it cannot be conducted apart from the enhancement of local social conditions, or the preparedness of civic institutions. Neither of those considerations has been adequately incorporated into typical neuroethical assessments of ambitious plans for moral bioenhancement. Enhancing a person to be far less aggressive and violent than an average person, what we label as “civil enhancement,” seems to be quite moral, yet its real-world social consequences are hardly predictable. A hypothetical case about how the criminal justice system would treat an offender who already received civil enhancement serves to illustrate how civic institutions are unprepared for moral enhancement.
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An integrated and principled neuroethics offers ethical guidelines able to transcend conventional and medical reliance on normality standards. Elsewhere we have proposed four principles for wise guidance on human transformations. Principles like these are already urgently needed, as bio- and cyberenhancements are rapidly emerging. Context matters. Neither "treatments" nor "enhancements" are objectively identifiable apart from performance expectations, social contexts, and civic orders. Lessons learned from disability studies about enablement and inclusion suggest a fresh way to categorize modifications to the body and its performance. The term "enhancement" should be broken apart to permit recognition of enablements and augmentations, and kinds of radical augmentation for specialized performance. Augmentations affecting the self, self-worth, and self-identity of persons require heightened ethical scrutiny. Reversibility becomes the core problem, not the easy answer, as augmented persons may not cooperate with either decommissioning or displacement into unaccommodating societies. We conclude by indicating how our four principles of self-creativity, nonobsolescence, empowerment, and citizenship establish a neuroethics beyond normal that is better prepared for a future in which humans and their societies are going so far beyond normal.
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Real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rt-fMRI) neurofeedback can be used to train localized, conscious regulation of blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signals. As a therapeutic technique, rt-fMRI neurofeedback reduces the symptoms of a variety of neurologic disorders. To date, few studies have investigated the use of self-regulation training using rt-fMRI neurofeedback to enhance cognitive performance. This work investigates the utility of rt-fMRI neurofeedback as a tool to enhance human cognition by training healthy individuals to consciously control activity in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). A cohort of 18 healthy participants in the experimental group underwent rt-fMRI neurofeedback from the left DLPFC in five training sessions across two weeks while 7 participants in the control group underwent similar training outside the MRI and without rt-fMRI neurofeedback. Working memory (WM) performance was evaluated on two testing days separated by the five rt-fMRI neurofeedback sessions using two computerized tests. We investigated the ability to control the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal across training sessions and WM performance across the two testing days. The group with rt-fMRI neurofeedback demonstrated a significant increase in the ability to self-regulate the BOLD signal in the left DLPFC across sessions. WM performance showed differential improvement between testing days one and two across the groups with the highest increases observed in the rt-fMRI neurofeedback group. These results provide evidence that individuals can quickly gain the ability to consciously control the left DLPFC, and this training results in improvements of WM performance beyond that of training alone.
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Techniques for achieving moral enhancement will modify brain processes to produce what is alleged to be more moral conduct. Neurophilosophy and neuroethics must ponder what “moral enhancement” could possibly be, if possible at all. Objections to the very possibility of moral enhancement, raised from various philosophical and neuroscientific standpoints, fail to justify skepticism, but they do place serious constraints on the kinds of efficacious moral enhancers. While there won't be a “morality pill,” and hopes for global moral enlightenment will remain hopes, there will be a large variety of behavioral modifiers described as enhancers of some aspect of morality or another according to prevailing social norms. The most likely moral enhancers that will be designed, tested, and marketed in the near future will attempt to alleviate seriously immoral and illegal behavior. Some enhancers diminishing antisocial conduct and a few designed to elevate moral conduct above normal levels will also become available, although their widespread use is doubtful. There will also be specialized modifications for enhancing whatever an individual personally regards as moral, and for enabling better performance by a person in an operational role. A measure of skepticism toward all the proposed kinds of moral enhancement is advised, and where political implementation of moral enhancers is concerned, a healthy amount of cynicism as well.
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Neuroethics has greater responsibilities than merely noting potential human enhancements ascribed to brain science, and tracking their implications for ethics and civic life. Neuroethics must utilize current neuroscientific knowledge to shape incisive discussions about what could count as enhancement in the first place, and what should count as genuinely ‘cognitive’ enhancement. Where cognitive processing and mental life are concerned, the lived context of psychological performance is paramount. Starting with an enhancement to the mental abilities of an individual, only performances on real-world exercises can determine what is actually cognitively improved. And, what concretely counts as some specific sort of cognitive improvement is largely determined by classificatory frameworks of cultures, not brain scans or laboratory experiments. As well, the public must ultimately evaluate and judge the worthiness of individual performance enhancements; we mustn’t presume that public approval towards enhancers will automatically arrive without due regard to civic ideals such as the common good or social justice. In the absence of a nuanced appreciation for the control which performance and public contexts exert over what ‘cognitive’ enhancements could actually be, enthusiastic promoters of cognitive enhancement can too easily depict safe and effective brain modifications as good for society. These enthusiasts are not unaware of hurdles for reliable enhancement through neurophysiological modifications. Yet those observations are far more common than penetrating investigations into the implications of such hurdles for both sound public understanding of cognitive enhancement, and development of policy to guide cognitive enhancement. In this essay, we seek to more accurately define and contextualize cognitive performance enhancement, and offer recommendations to ensure that cognitive enhancers that truly deserve public approval can be better identified and developed.
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In Ridley Scott's film "Blade Runner", empathy-detection devices are employed to measure affiliative emotions. Despite recent neurocomputational advances, it is unknown whether brain signatures of affiliative emotions, such as tenderness/affection, can be decoded and voluntarily modulated. Here, we employed multivariate voxel pattern analysis and real-time fMRI to address this question. We found that participants were able to use visual feedback based on decoded fMRI patterns as a neurofeedback signal to increase brain activation characteristic of tenderness/affection relative to pride, an equally complex control emotion. Such improvement was not observed in a control group performing the same fMRI task without neurofeedback. Furthermore, the neurofeedback-driven enhancement of tenderness/affection-related distributed patterns was associated with local fMRI responses in the septohypothalamic area and frontopolar cortex, regions previously implicated in affiliative emotion. This demonstrates that humans can voluntarily enhance brain signatures of tenderness/affection, unlocking new possibilities for promoting prosocial emotions and countering antisocial behavior.
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There appears to be an inconsistency in experimental paradigms used in fMRI research on moral judgments. As stimuli, moral dilemmas or moral statements/ pictures that induce emotional reactions are usually employed; a main difference between these stimuli is the perspective of the participants reflecting first-person (moral dilemmas) or third-person perspective (moral reactions). The present study employed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in order to investigate the neural correlates of moral judgments in either first- or third-person perspective. Our results indicate that different neural mechanisms appear to be involved in these perspectives. Although conjunction analysis revealed common activation in the anterior medial prefrontal cortex, third person-perspective elicited unique activations in hippocampus and visual cortex. The common activation can be explained by the role the anterior medial prefrontal cortex may play in integrating different information types and also by its involvement in theory of mind. Our results also indicate that the so-called "actor-observer bias" affects moral evaluation in the third-person perspective, possibly due to the involvement of the hippocampus. We suggest two possible ways in which the hippocampus may support the process of moral judgment: by the engagement of episodic memory and its role in understanding the behaviors and emotions of others. We posit that these findings demonstrate that first or third person perspectives in moral cognition involve distinct neural processes, that are important to different aspects of moral judgments. These results are important to a deepened understanding of neural correlates of moral cognition-the so-called "first tradition" of neuroethics, with the caveat that any results must be interpreted and employed with prudence, so as to heed neuroethics "second tradition" that sustains the pragmatic evaluation of outcomes, capabilities and limitations of neuroscientific techniques and technologies.
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The moral domain is broader than the empathy and justice concerns assessed by existing measures of moral competence, and it is not just a subset of the values assessed by value inventories. To fill the need for reliable and theoretically grounded measurement of the full range of moral concerns, we developed the Moral Foundations Questionnaire on the basis of a theoretical model of 5 universally available (but variably developed) sets of moral intuitions: Harm/Care, Fairness/Reciprocity, Ingroup/Loyalty, Authority/Respect, and Purity/Sanctity. We present evidence for the internal and external validity of the scale and the model, and in doing so we present new findings about morality: (a) Comparative model fitting of confirmatory factor analyses provides empirical justification for a 5-factor structure of moral concerns; (b) convergent/discriminant validity evidence suggests that moral concerns predict personality features and social group attitudes not previously considered morally relevant; and (c) we establish pragmatic validity of the measure in providing new knowledge and research opportunities concerning demographic and cultural differences in moral intuitions. These analyses provide evidence for the usefulness of Moral Foundations Theory in simultaneously increasing the scope and sharpening the resolution of psychological views of morality.
Decoded neurofeedback is a new technology that allows the improvement or modification of human cognitive and moral capacities and has a wide range of potential applications. As decoded neurofeedback will have an impact on society, ethical concerns about this technology should be examined. As decoded neurofeedback modifies the default mode network due to a voxel-based pattern analysis, it enables a tailor-made intervention. However, it is difficult to assess the safety and efficacy of decoded neurofeedback-based interventions in clinical trials because of a shortage of reliable preclinical data. Decoded neurofeedback used for moral enhancement is a noninvasive intervention with a high selectivity for the targeted brain state, and therefore, moral uniformity, the most often discussed problem, can be avoided. However, it remains uncertain whether decoded neurofeedback is reversible, safe, or efficacious.
The unknowns of the brain-mind relationship and the novelty of neurologic techniques and technologies give rise to ethical questions that can be described, analyzed, and answered using a preparatory neuroethical framework to mitigate potential problems.
Dual-system approaches to psychology explain the fundamental properties of human judgment, decision making, and behavior across diverse domains. Yet, the appropriate characterization of each system is a source of debate. For instance, a large body of research on moral psychology makes use of the contrast between "emotional" and "rational/cognitive" processes, yet even the chief proponents of this division recognize its shortcomings. Largely independently, research in the computational neurosciences has identified a broad division between two algorithms for learning and choice derived from formal models of reinforcement learning. One assigns value to actions intrinsically based on past experience, while another derives representations of value from an internally represented causal model of the world. This division between action- and outcome-based value representation provides an ideal framework for a dual-system theory in the moral domain.