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Terminalia chebula Retz. is a well-known species of family Combretaceae, commonly known as Chebulic Myrobalan. It is an important medicinal plant from ancient period. Bark powder gargled in water as a dentifrice is used to treat toothache and bleeding gums, as well as chronic ulcers and fruits are common constituent of 'Triphala' capable of imparting youthful vitality and receptivity of mind and sense. Present paper deals with the morphology, anatomy and maceration studies of bark, wood, petiole and leaves, the work has been carried out in order to characterize and standardize the species.
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Anatomical investigation of Terminalia chebula Retz.
Priyanka Ingle & Arvind Dhabe*
Botanical Survey of India, Western Regional Centre, Pune- 410001 (MS), India.
*Department of Botany, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad, 431004 (MS), India.
Terminalia chebula
Retz. is a well-known species of family Combretaceae, commonly known as
Chebulic Myrobalan. It is an important medicinal plant from ancient period. Bark powder gargled in
water as a dentifrice is used to treat toothache and bleeding gums, as well as chronic ulcers and fruits
are common constituent of ‘
Triphala
’ capable of imparting youthful vitality and receptivity of mind
and sense. Present paper deals with the morphology, anatomy and maceration studies of bark, wood,
petiole and leaves, the work has been carried out in order to characterize and standardize the species.
Key Words:
Terminalia chebula
; anatomy; Combretaceae
PHYTOTAXONOMY
Vol. 15, 2015. pp. 55-62
Introduction
Terminalia chebula
Retz. well-known species of
family Combretaceae is commonly known as
Chebulic Myrobalan and ‘
Haritaki’
in Sanskrit. It is
an important plant in both, Indian as well as Korean
and Chinese traditional medicine (Lee
et al.
1995).
Bark powder is gargled in water as a dentifrice to
treat toothache and bleeding gums, as well as
chronic ulcers (Singh
et al.
2002). Fruits are common
constituent of ‘
Triphala
’, capable of imparting
youthful vitality and receptivity of mind and sense
(Reddy
et al.
1990; Sharma 1995 and Kochhar 1998).
It is a major constituent in the Ayurvedic preparations
like
Abhayarishta, Abhayamodak, Haritakikhand,
Triphaladichurnam
and
Agastyarasayanam
. In
Allopathy, it is used in astringent ointments. In
Unani system, it is used as a blood purifier. The
pulp of the fruit is given in piles, chronic diarrhoea,
dysentery, costiveness, flatulence, asthma, urinary
disorders, vomiting, hiccup, intestinal worms and
enlarged spleen and liver (Cheng 2002, Masoko &
Eloff 2007). Powder of the fruits is used in chronic
ulcers and wounds, carious teeth and bleeding
ulceration of the gums. Fruits are used for diabetes,
fever and anemia (Daniel 2005). Bark and fruits are
good cardiac tonic and laxative (Singh
et al.
1979).
Triphala
’ is used in biliousness, hemorrhoids,
enlarged liver and other disorders. The kernel oil is
applied to hairs and to rheumatic swellings, mixed
with honey, fruit pulp is employed in ophthalmia
(Bose
et al.
1998). Fruits are astringent (Masoko &
Eloff 2007). Finely powdered fruits are also used as
dentifrice and considered useful in various teeth
bleeding and ulceration of gums (Jain 1994 and
Sharma 1995). The fruits are valuable for tannins
and dyes. The wood is used for building purposes,
agricultural implements, ply-wood and in match box
industry. It is also grown as a shade tree (Joy
et al.
1998; Joshi 2002; Khare 2007 and Trivedi 2008), also
for cabinet work, furniture and interior fitting
(Sambamurty 2005). This plant is also used as fodder
(Anonymous 1909 and Kumar & Bhatt 2006).
T. chebula
Retz. occurs typically in dry
deciduous forests and favoring clay soil, up to 1450
m in southern India, 450 m in Central India, 200 m
in Western India, 500 m in North East India, 1500 m
in Himalaya and 1050 m in Myanmar. It is also
reported from Sri Lanka and Bangladesh and
cultivated elsewhere.
Materials and Methods
The plant parts were collected from the tree
planted in Milind College of Science, Aurangabad
(MS), Field no.7073, Latitude N 19o53'17'', Longitude
E 075o18' 79'', altitude 600 m. Transverse sections (T.
S.), tangential longitudinal sections (T. L. S.) and
radial longitudinal sections (R. L. S.) of wood,
transverse sections of bark, leaves and petioles were
taken by free hand method with the help of razors.
Sections were double stained and permanently
mounted. The bark, wood and leaves were macerated
by Jeffery’s method (Khandelwal 2006). Trichomes
were studied by scrapping. The dimensions were
measured and microphotographs were taken by
Motic Microscope with image processing software.
Observations and Results
Morphology
Terminalia chebula Retz., Obs. 5: 31. 1789;
Roxb., Pl. Corom.: t. 197. 1805 & Hort. Beng.: 33.
1814 & Fl. Ind. 2: 433. 1832; DC., Prodr. 3: 12. 1828;
G. Don, Gen. Hist. 2: 659. 1832; Wight & Arn., Prodr.:
Date of Publication : December - 2015
PHYTOTAXONOMY VOL. 15, 201556
313. 1834; Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. 1(1): 601. 1855; Thw.,
Enum. Pl. Zeyl. 2: 103. 1859; Bedd., Fl. Sylv. S. India
1: t. 27. 1869; Brandis, For. Fl. NW. India: 446. 1878
(
excl. var. parvifolia
(Thw.) Clarke; Trimen, Handb.
Fl. Ceylon 2: 159. 1894; Prain, Bengal Pl. 1:481. 1903;
Cooke, Fl. Bombay Pres. & Sind.1:336. 1903; Duthie,
Fl. Upper Gangetic Pl. 1. 336. 1903; Talbot, For. Fl.
Bombay Pres. & Sind. 2: 14. 1911; Parker, For. Fl.
Punjab, 239. 1918; Gamble, Fl. Pres. Madras 3: 464.
1919; Haines, Bot. Bihar & Orissa 3:352. 1922; Blatter
in J. Ind. Bot. 8: 253. 1929 (incl. formas); Kirtikar &
Basu, Indian Med. Pl. ed. 2, 2:1020, t. 413. 1035;
Kanjilal, Fl. Assam 2: 244. 1938; Gandhi in Saldanha
& Nicolson, Fl. Hassan: 294. 1976; Whitmore in
Enum. Fl. Pl. Nepal 2: 168. 1979; Deb., Fl. Tripura 1:
385. 1981; Matthew & Britto, Fl. Tamil Nadu Carnatic
2(1): 304. 1991.
Myrobalanus chebula
(Retz.) Gaertn., Fruct. 2:
91, t. 97, f. 2(f-m). 1790.
Terminalia reticulata
Roth., Nov. Pl. Sp.: 381.
1821; DC., Prodr. 3:13. 1828,
edescr.
Terminalia aruta
Buch.-Ham., ex G. Don, Gen.
Hist. 2: 659. 1832.
Terminalia acuta
Walp., Rep. 2: 61. 1843.
Terminalia zeylanica
Heurck & Muell.-Arg., in
Heurck, Obs. Bot.: 220. 1971.
Terminalia tomentella
Kurz., in J. As. Soc.
Bengal 42(2): 80. 1873 & For. Fl. Brit. Burma 1:455.
1877.
Terminalia chebula
var.
gangetica
(Roxb.)
Clarke, Fl. Brit. India 2: 446. 1878
Terminalia chebula
var.
tomentella
(Kurz)
Clarke, Fl. Brit. India 2: 446. 1878.
Combretum extensum sensu.
Prain, Bengal Pl.
1:483. 1903,
p.p.
(
non
Roxb. ex G. Don, 1827).
Vernacular names
Sanskrit
: Abhaya, Amoga, Amruta, Avaytha,
Balaya, Bhisha, Gvara, Bishakpriya, Haritaki,
Jivnika, Jivanti, Rasayanphala, Triphala,
vanatikta
;
Marathi:
Hirda;
Hindi:
Haritaki, Harra,
Hirdi, Har
;
Kannad:
Alae, Anile, Arale, Harade,
haritaki
; Myanmarese:
Pankha, Pangah
; Nepali:
Harra, Herro
; Oriya:
Karidha, Haritaki, Harida,
Kasaphal
; Punjabi:
Halela, Har, Harrar, Hurh
;
Sikkimese:
Hana, Silimkung
; Tamil:
Amagola, Arabi,
Aridadi, Attam, Kaku, Kaddukkaai, Nechi, Seya
;
Telgu:
Haritaki, Karoka, Nallakaroka, Resaki.
Much branched trees 25–45 ft tall. Bark dark
brown or greyish to blackish, shallowly to deeply
fissured. Young branches densely pubescent,
branchlets terete, 3 – 8 mm thick with white, elongate
markings of lenticels. Leaves alternate or sub
opposite, ovate-elliptic or oblong-elliptic or ovate
to ovate-oblong, slightly curved, 10–25×4–14 cm.
Petioles densely pubescent, 3–5cm, two glands on
either side at or near the apex of the petioles, circular
or button shaped, sessile, up to 2 mm in diameter.
Dometia usually present 1 or 2, circular to oval,
1–2 mm at the junction of the petiole and lamina or
on the lamina blade. Leaf-base rounded, obtuse,
acute, acuminate; apex acute or acuminate, upper
surface chartaceous to coriaceous, rarely glabrous.
Lower surface grayish, tomentellous or villous, rarely
glabrous except midrib. Young leaves greenish-
brown, turn yellow after weathering. Midrib slightly
elevated above, raised beneath. Lateral nerves
6–10 pairs, sub-opposite, prominent above,
conspicuous, beneath and anastomosing near the
margin, tertiary nerves obscure scalariform or
sometimes reticulate. Inflorescence axillary and
terminal, simple, paniculate, 5–15cm long, villous to
sparsely puberulous. Bracts caducous, linear,
lanceolate, 5–7mm long, puberulous. Flowers
creamish-yellow, bisexual, diameter of open flower
3–4mm. Calyx tube 1.5 – 3× 1–1.5 mm, calyx lobes
usually 5 occasionally 6–9, triangular, puberulous.
Stamens usually 10 occasionally 12–18, 5–7 mm long,
anthers ellipsoid, yellowish orange, 0.7–1mm long,
filament whitish cream.Ovary green and red, 2–3 mm
long, oblong, lanceolate, style 3–5 mm long, slender,
white; stigma pointed. Fruits drupes, ellipsoid,
obovoid or ovoid, 3–6×2–3cm, 5 angled, golden
yellow to brownish yellow when dry, tender fruits
turn black when dry. (Photo plate- I)
Fl.: April-July; Fr.: June-December (persisting
over next year)
T. S. of bark revealed the cork 18–20 layered
thick, ruptured at places because of lenticels; cells
rectangular, tangentially elongated, squarish,
suberised, tanniniferous, with some inclusions and
large crystals. Cork cambium single layered; cells
rectangular and prominant. Periderm 4– 6 layered,
57ANATOMICAL INVESTIGATION OF
TERMINALIA
CHEBULA
RETZ
Photo Plate 1
Terminalia chebula Retz.
a. Flowering twig; b. Flower with more than 10 stamens; c. Flower; d. Calyx cup;
e. Bract; f. Stamen; g. Carpel; h. Fruits.
a. T. S. of bark; b. Fibre bundles and druces in rows; c. Stone cells; d. Druces;
e. Thin walled and thick walled parenchyma; f. Fibre; g. Sieve element with companion cell.
PHYTOTAXONOMY VOL. 15, 201558
cells rhomboid, squarish and brownish with crystals
and some inclusions. Cambium followed by uniform
cortex, cells squarish, circular, rhomboid, oblong,
polygonal, parenchymatous and compactly
arranged. Most of the cells filled with starch grains
and large circular brownish, blackish crystals.
Druses common in the cortex, 11.3 – 82.2 µm in
diameter. Rays uniseriate, continuous, cells filled
with tannin, compound crystals (druse), and starch
grains, cells squarish, rhomboid, polygonal,
rectangular and irregular. Patches of
sclerenchymatous fibres single, rarely two layered,
periodically arranged in a ring in a group of 2 – 17,
with small lumen. Fibres may be circular, oval, oblong,
rhomboid, polygonal and compressed, 9.0 – 25.5µm.
Stone cells few, single or in group of 2 – 5, triangular
to polygonal, randomly distributed after 4 – 15 layers
of cortex, 12.2 – 91.9 µm in diameter, with small to
large lumen.
Macerated bark showed two types of phloem
parenchyma i) thin walled-squarish, rhomboid,
rectangular, irregular or barrel-shaped 32.84×26.21 µm
in average and range 27.1– 46.1× 21.8 – 34.3 µm. ii)
thick walled- rhomboid, polygonal or irregular
45.0 × 33.83 µm in average and range 34.6 – 65.9 ×
23.3 – 51.9 µm. Fibres simple, irregular, slender,
irregularly swollen at places, 1280.82 × 28.64 µm in
average and range, 829.4 – 1542.7 × 19.1 – 36.9 µm.
Sieve elements are of two types- long and short,
end walls terminal or sub-terminal, highly oblique,
beaks short or long 639.92 × 63.34 µm in average
and range 495.1 – 820.5 × 87.1 – 41.6 µm. Companion
cell single, squarish or rhomboid and thick walled,
average 45.0 × 33.83 µm and range 34.6 – 65.9 × 23.3
– 51.9 µm (Photo Plate I).
T. S. of wood showed indistinct growth ring
boundries; wood diffuse porous; vessels in radial
multiple of 2 – 4 or more. Vessel elements 136.8 –
157.4 µm diameter. Tracheids few vasicentric. Ground
tissue fibres very thick walled with small lumen,
polygonal, rhomboidal. Axial parenchyma
paratracheal, winged-aliform. T.L.S. of wood showed
vessel elements 171.1 – 493.9 × 46.9 – 121.4 µm, end
wall oblique, pits on lateral wall vestured alternate,
perforation plates simple. Fibres thick, very long.
Rays mostly uniseriate, some bi-triseriate, squarish,
rectangular, rhomboid, 2–28 cells in height,
97.6 – 1133.8 µm in length, cells at the end tapering,
ray deposited with starch grains and tannin.
R.L.S. of wood showed heterogenus rays, cells
squarish, procumbent and upright, deposited with
starch grains. Vessel-ray pits much reduced border
to apparently simple, pit outline rounded (Photo
Plate II).
Macerated wood showed two types of xylem
parenchyma i) parenchyma with few pits: cells
rectangular, squarish or rhomboid, trigonal, thick
walled, cell wall interrupted, pits few circular or oval,
distributed along cell wall, 47.67 × 27.67 µm in
average and range 42.1 – 77.6 × 20.8 – 39.8 µm. ii)
parenchyma with many pits: cells rectangular,
squarish or rhomboid, pits alternate, with much
reduced borders to apparently simple, pit outline
rounded or oval, distributed throughout, cell wall
continuous, may wavy, average size 50.7 × 26.8 µm
and range 35.1 – 82.1 × 17.4 – 34.1 µm. Fibres are
of two types: i) fibres simple, slender, tapering and
sharply pointed, outline entire, average size 818.1 ×
21.79 µm and range 702.6 – 968.9 × 17.1 – 32.6 µm.
ii) fibres forked, slender, tapering and sharply
pointed, outline irregular 687.2 × 24.0 µm. Tracheids
slender, ends blunt or pointed, pits few, elongate, in
one-many rows, alternate, 356.4 × 20.9 µm in average
and range 276.4 – 492.8 × 16.8 – 23.8µm. Vessel
elements are of two types: i) vessel elements
broader, end walls horizontal with simple perforation,
lateral walls with vestured, bordered, alternate pits,
tails short, may present on both the ends, 333.1 ×
50.3 µm in average and range 245.7 – 365.8 × 29.4
– 71.0 µm. ii) vessel elements long, slender, tails at
one or both ends, end walls oblique shifted to lateral
side, perforation simple, lateral wall with scalariform
thickenings, average size 407.9 × 33.64 µm and range
345.6 – 712.6 × 21.4 – 45.2 µm (Photo Plate II).
T. S. of petiole showed hemispherical or oblong
outline. Epidermis is the outer most layer covered
with thin cuticle and combretaceous trichomes. Cells
of epidermis circular, oval, 5.6 – 12.2 × 9.1 – 12.0 µm.
Hypodermis single layered, composed of circular to
polygonal cells. Cortex differentiated into outer and
inner cortex. Outer cortex collenchymatous, 4 – 6
layered, cells poygonal, irregular and angular, 13.5
– 58.7 × 9.8 – 53.5 µm. Inner cortex 8 – 12 layered,
composed of large circular, polygonal or irregular,
59ANATOMICAL INVESTIGATION OF
TERMINALIA
CHEBULA
RETZ
Photo Plate 2
a. T. S. of wood; b. T. L. S. of wood; c. R. L. S. of wood; d-e. Parenchyma;
f-g. Fibres; h. Tracheid; i-k. Vessel elements.
PHYTOTAXONOMY VOL. 15, 201560
thin walled parenchymatous cells 25.0 – 82.1× 23.9
– 70.5 µm. Cortex followed by 3 – 5 layered,
sclerenchymatous patches of bundle sheath. Bundle
sheath cells polygonal and compactly arranged 6.7
– 28.6 × 4.2 – 12.1 µm, in patches. Endodermis single
layered composed of large polygonal cells, barrel
shaped or irregular. Pericycle 1– 2 layered in patches.
Vascular bundle conjoint bicollateral, open and
endarch. Peripheral phloem 4 – 6 layered, 3.7 – 15.0
× 3.0 – 10.0 µm, cells polygonal, squarish. Vascular
cambium 1 – 2 layered, cells rectangular. Metaxylem
circular to polygonal 3 – 5 layered 17.6 – 32.7× 16.8–
24.2 µm. Protoxylem circular to polygonal 12.2 – 15.9
× 9.9 – 14.5 µm. Inner phloem 10 – 15 layered, in
patches on adaxial surface. Pith parenchymatous,
cells large, polygonal. Two lateral vascular bundles,
conjoint, concentric, amphicribal and closed, situated
at the corners on eighter side towards adaxial surface.
Druses common in cortexand pith (Photo Plate III).
T. S. of the leaf showed typical dorsiventral
structure. The epidermis of both the surfaces single
Photo Plate 3
a. T. S. of petiole; b. T. S. of leaf through lamina; c. T. S. of leaf through midrib;
d. Upper epidermal cells; e. Lower epidermal cells; f. Trichomes.
layered, covered with thick cuticle. The cells of
upper epidermis composed of squarish, upright and
rectangular cells. The upper epidermal cells range
from 11.3 – 28.9 × 9.4 – 15.6 µm. Lower epidermal
cells rectangular, oval or circular, range from 8.6 –
14.5 × 6.0 – 13.3 µm. Epidermal cells at the midrib
region circular, oval or polygonal and smaller than
the lamina region. Upper epidermis followed by
vertically elongated, single layered palisade, 61.6 –
94.3 × 5.2 – 8.3 µm. Spongy mesophyll cells circular,
oval, polygonal and irregular, with wavy cell wall,
thin walled, loosely arranged, 13.8 – 23.3 × 8.3 –
19.3 µm, with inter cellular spaces. Some of the
mesophyll cells showed starch grains. Few
tanniniferous cells also reported from mesophyll
region. At the midrib region, epidermis followed by
single layered hypodermis, restricted to this region.
Cortex differentiated into inner and outer cortex.
Outer cortex 3 – 5 layered, poygonal or irregular,
angular collenchyma, 7.7 – 30.0 × 7.4 – 29.3 µm.
Inner cortex 4 – 8 layered, composed of large circular,
polygonal or irregular, thin walled parenchymatous
61ANATOMICAL INVESTIGATION OF
TERMINALIA
CHEBULA
RETZ
cells 13.4 – 59.2 × 9.8 – 50.2 µm. Rhytidomes single
layered present between collenchyma and
sclerenchyma of the cortex on adaxial side at midrib
region only. Cortex followed by 3 – 5 layered
sclerenchymatous bundle sheath. Bundle sheath
cells circular, oval, polygonal and compactly
arranged 6.7–28.6×4.2–12.1µm, contineous on abaxial
side and in patches on adaxial side. Endodermis
single layered, cells ovate, oval or circular, elongate,
elliptic – oblong, casparianl strips inconspicuous.
Pericycle 1–2 layered, cells polygonal, circular or
oval. The main vascular bundle conjoint, bicollateral,
open and endarch. Peripheral phloem 12 – 15 layered
cells squarish, rectangular and polygonal 3.9 – 15.4
× 3.5 – 9.5 µm. Metaxylem circular to polygonal, 2
– 4 layered, facing towards periphery, 17.6 – 32.7 ×
16.8 – 24.2 µm, protoxylem circular to polygonal,
situated towards center 12.2 – 15.9 × 9.9 – 14.5 µm.
Protoxylem followed by irregular, 5 – 8 layered
patches of phloem, present only on adaxial surface.
Pith composed of parenchyma. Lateral vascular
bundles 4, 2 very small, 2 on eihter side situated
towards upper epidermis, conjoint, concentric,
closed, phloem surrounded by xylem which is
enveloped by phloem. Vascular bundles of the
smaller vein vertically transcurrent by thin walled
large circular to polygonal parenchymatous tissue.
The vascular bundles conjoint, collateral and closed.
The druces more common in the cortex, phloem and
pith (Photo Plate III).
Leaves showed presence of simple, unicellular
Combretaceous trichomes, with bulbous base,
average length, 749.22 µm and range 154.3 to 1120.3
µm. Trichomes present on both the surfaces, but
however, they are more common on lower surface.
Stomata anomocytic (Ranunculaceous),
hypostomatic, pore length 12.96 µm in average and
range 10.2 to 19 µm. The average size of guard cell,
22.91 × 6 µm and range 20.1 – 26.9 × 4.6 – 7.4 µm.
Upper epidermal cells slightly larger (the average
cell size 38.78 × 17.95 µm and range 27.6 – 52.7 ×
23.6 – 36.2 µm) than lower epidermal cells (the
average cell size 27.73 × 18.15 µm and range 20.3 –
38.9 × 14.8 – 21.8 µm). Upper epidermal cells are
wavy in outline than lower epidermal cells, both the
cells irregular in shape. Mean stomatal number for
lower epidermis 14.9 and range 9 – 20. Stomatal
index for lower epidermis in average 10.40 and range
7.14 – 12.99. Palisade ratio in average 6.75 and range
4.5 – 8.5. Vein islet number in average 10.2 and range
8 – 12. Veinlet termination number average 12.4 and
range 8 – 14 (Photo Plate III).
Conclusion
Drupes ellipsoid, obovoid or ovoid, 5- angled,
golden to brownish-yellow when dry. Stone cells
are single or in group of 2-5, long and short sieve
elements in bark. Axial parenchyma is paratracheal,
winged-aliform, rays mostly uniseriate, some bi-
seriate, vessel elements are of two types, broader
vessel elements with simple, alternate pits and longer
vessel elements with scalariform pits in wood. The
main vascular bundle conjoint, bi-collateral, open
and endarch. Vascular bundles of smaller vains,
vertically transcurrent by thin walled, large, circular
to polygonal parenchymatous tissue. Trichomes
simple, unicellular, Combretaceous and stomata
anomocytic (Ranunculaceous), hypostomatic these
morphological, anatomical and dermatological
parameters were found to be diagnostic features of
Terminalia chebula
Retz. which may be useful in
characterization and standardization of the species.
Acknowledgement
Authors are thankful to Professor & Head,
Department of Botany, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar
Marathwada University, Aurangabad, Maharashtra,
for providing laboratory facilities and enthusiasm
for undertaking research.
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. Part-I.
Dhanvantari, Aligarh.
... According to its commercial interest, there are several studies on wood characteristics of the genus with some attempts to differentiate between Terminalia species (Metcalfe and Chalk, 1950;Normand and Paquis, 1976;van Vliet, 1979;Rajput and Rao, 1999;Tilney, 2002;Gupta and Singh, 2005;Singh and Sharma, 2013;Ingle and Dhabe, 2015). Despite all previous wood studies, Terminalia, in general, vary significantly in morphology, anatomy, and karyotype characters (Gill et al., 1982;AL-Mayah, 1983;Jansen et al., 1995;Ohri 1996;Schmidt and McCleland 2002;Sarkar et al., 2016). ...
... His detailed description of wood elements is typical to that of the current study except for ray cell arrangement that was stated as mostly multiseriate and occasionally uniseriate in T. catappa. Moreover, these anatomical stem characters were similar to those observed in T. chebula by Ingle and Dhabe (2015). On the contrary, this study slightly differs from that of Singh and Sharma (2013), who concerned about the composition of rays forming of procumbent cells except for T. arjuna; rays were heterocellular and were composed of both procumbent and square cells. ...
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A comparative investigation of the anatomical characters through a microscopical examination of the prepared transverse sections of the stem was carried out. Six plates with 32 photomicrographs were provided to convincingly show the considerable variations of anatomical characters within the nine examined species. The matrix of 18 anatomical characters which included nine quantitative and nine qualitative was applied for the clustering analysis (CA) followed by the principal component analysis (PCA) using the Multivariate Analysis of Ecological Data, PC-ORD. The results exhibited significant variations among the species resulting in the construction of an artificial key; this key accurately represents a sufficient tool to display the considerable variation among the recognized species prominently. The distinction between Terminalia L., 1767 species based on significant variations in the elements of stem anatomy; axial parenchyma and ray characteristics were considered as important parameters, while vessel diameter, fiber wall thickness, etc. were considered minor characters to differentiate between the studied species. The potential usefulness of the differentiation of these species properly maintains a profound efficiency in pharmaceutical and traditional medicine.
... Mature fruits yellowish-brown in colour, ovoid [27], 2.0-4.5 × 1.3-2.8 cm, wrinkled longitudinally, hard and stony, rough. ...
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Background: The fruit pulp of T. chebula and S. jambolanum seeds are used for treatment of various body ailments and have key part of complementary and alternative medicine since ancient time. Aims: This study was designed to lay down the pharmacognostic, phytochemical and HPTLC features of the fruit pulp of T. chebula and the seed of S. jambolanum which may be useful to establish the micro-morphology, quality, purity, safety and efficacy of selected medicinal plants. Methods: Numerous methods including macroscopic, microscopic, phytochemical and HPTLC assay were applied to describe the diagnostic features for the identification and standardization of fruit pulp of T. chebula and S. jambolanum seeds. Results: Microscopic study of S. jambolanum reveals the presence of scattered vascular bundles, tegmen consisting brachysclereids and macrosclereids with broad and narrow lumen. Whereas T. chebula shows the fragment of epidermis with epicarp, fragments of parenchymatous cell fragment of rosette crystal. Preliminary phytochemical screening detects the different compounds viz., carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids, steroids, glycosides, alkaloids, tannins and phenolic compounds. HPTLC 3D densitogram at 270 nm shows comparative Rf value of comparable to samples with standard value and derivatization with sample as that of standard at Rf value 0.78 for gallic acid equal to T. chebula and Rf value 0.41gallic acid equal to S. jambolanum extract. Conclusions: Various pharmacognostical characters were observed in this study can be an evidence of the effective and standardized method of HPTLC analysis which is simple, rapid, precise and Prajapati et al. 32 accurate to further research these medicinal plants. Meanwhile, the results of this paper deal with pharmacognostical and HPTLC finger print analysis on the T. chebula and S. jambolanum in an attempt to mitigate the adulteration of the crude drug.
... e.g. T. arjuna (Sivaji et al. 2012), T. chebula (Ingle and Dhabe 2015) and T.citrina (Ingle & Dhabe 2011) enlightening the bark diagnostic features for standardization of the species and for detecting drug adulterations. ...
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Pterocarpus angolensis and Terminalia sericea are two African species with medicinal potential. Despite the importance of their bark as a powerful astringent to treat various diseases it is poor described. In order to provide referential information for correct identification and standardization of the plant material, bark samples from each two species were collected and analyzed under light and electron microscopy. Some important anatomical features to identification were: the sclerenchyma tissue mostly in form of fibre-sclereids and the large secretory cells arranged in conspicuous rows or tangential bands in the conducting phloem in P. angolensis; the crystalliferous cells arranged in very regular tangential rows (druses) and the occurrence of large crystal cells near or including the tangential fibre bundles in T. sericea bark.The results obtained show that the anatomy of the bark can be used as an important subsidy in identification and standardization of the studied species contributing the scientific knowledge for more effective forms of scrutiny in preventing commercial adulteration of species.
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Leaf (midrib and lamina) anatomical characters were investigated to enhance the identification of Terminalia L. The central portions of the mature leaves were fixed in formaldehyde, glacial acetic acid, and ethanol (FAA) for 12 hrs. They were dehydrated in alcohol series, hand-sectioned, stained with safranin and alcian blue, mounted on a slide, viewed, and photographed with Optika B-1000 FL LED fitted with digital camera. Our findings showed the absence of rib trace in T. ivorensis, presence of secretory ducts in T. catappa, open vascular cylinder with incurved ends in T. mantaly, and medullary phloem in T. avicenniodes. These characters were key to the delimitation of the Terminalia species.
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The traditional systems of medicine are really effective but the problem with them is they lack in quality assurance. Standardization is the need of the hour in ayurvedic system of medicine. PanchaHarithakadi Churna (PHC) is a traditional polyherbal formulation which consists of five household ingredients used for indigestion. It is mainly used for Constipation and Bloating. Churna’s will play a major role in gastro intestinal problems and they have greater bioavailability because of smaller particle size. It consists of fine powder (sieve 100 size) of ginger rhizomes, fennel fruits, myrobalan fruits, senna leaflets and pink rock salt in equal proportions (1:1:1:1:1) are mixed well. PHC was formulated by standard procedures and evaluated by microscopic characterization, inorganic analysis and digestive studies. Microscopical characters indicate the presence of genuine crude drugs used in the formulation. Inorganic analysis shows the presence of calcium, magnesium, sodium, chloride and phosphate. The PHC showed pronounced amylolytic activity and trypsin activity whereas moderate lipolytic activity, proteolytic activity and pepsin activity, mild chymotrypsin activity in treating indigestion. In future we will carry out in vivo digestive studies.
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TERMINALIA in Egypt is represented by nine species. The locations of the different collected species were georeferenced with a GPS device. The samples were identified at the Cairo University Herbarium (CAI). Anatomical sections were investigated with a light microscope; Olympus BX51. Photomicrographs were taken using photomicroscope; Olympus DP12. Twenty-four anatomical characters have significant diversity. In leaf, type of mesophyll, length of palisade tissue, number and size of the main and accessory vascular bundles, presence or absence of vascular bundles in small veins as well as lysigenous ducts and crystals. In petiole, the number, shape and distribution of the main and accessory vascular bundles, types of bundle sheath, number of lysigenous ducts, etc. Qualitative and quantitative data of the anatomical characters have been investigated through numerical method by using the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA). An artificial key was constructed that could be a taxonomic delimitation for comparison between species. This Study proposed that anatomical features of leaf lamina and petiole of Terminalia species investigated should be used as an effective delimitation for authentication and differentiation between the species.
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This report deals with 64 species of plants belonging to 42 families and 57 genera. The plants discussed are all used as medicine among ethnic groups in Sikkim. Important ail- ments purportedly cured by these plants are epilepsy, leprosy, paralysis, asthma, typhoid, diabetes, hemorrhages during childbirth, cholera, as well as others. Some of these plants are also used as food items and play a significant role in the rural economy. A few of these medicinal plants are believed among ethnic people to prolong life and are part of local tradition. Though allopathic medicines are in vogue, herbal medicinal practition- ers do a brisk business. The herbals in the region are in danger of economic exploitation by the rural folk as well as commercial collectors. In order to conserve these important resources, management options, including the cultivating of medicinal plants, should be explored.
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Floristic diversity, dominance and abundance to frequency ratio of tree, sapling, seedling, shrub and herb species were studied in two different forest sites of a tropical foot hill region of Garhwal Himalaya. In tree layer on both the sites the dominant species recorded were Lannea coromandelica (IVI-39.80) and Anogeissus latifolia (IVI-29.50) on site I and site II respectively. The ranges of diversity for tree layers was 4.580 to 4.643. Most of the species on both the sites were contagiously distributed except few species which were distributed randomly.
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The dried leaves of Combretum and Terminalia species (Combretaceae) were extracted with acetone, hexane, dichloromethane and methanol. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) plates were developed under saturated conditions and sprayed with 0.2% 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) in methanol for antioxidant screening. Visualization of separated bands exhibiting antioxidant activities enabled the localization and the subsequent identification of the potential active compounds. The acetone and methanol extracts displayed the presence of antioxidant activity after spraying the chromatogram with DPPH. Hexane and dichloromethane extracts did not have any antioxidant activity. C. hereroense had the highest number of active compounds, followed by C. collinum ssp. taborense, which were 16 and 10, respectively. Acetone extracts of all tested Combretum species had 53 active bands and methanol had 55. All Terminalia species extracted with acetone and methanol had antioxidant activity. T. gazensis and T. mollis methanol extracts had 11 and 14 active compounds respectively in one of the solvent systems used. The qualitative DPPH assay on TLC was successfully used in this study to systematically assess the total antioxidant activity of the Combretum and Terminalia species extracts.
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The selection of plants studied in this treatise is based on its significance, and its representation of members of different taxonomic families as well as of different classes (and subclasses) of compounds. All the available data on the chemical compounds and the pharmacological studies on these plants/compounds have been incorporated. The plants are arranged by the type and nature of chemical compounds they contain. Secondary metabolites have been included in this volume due to their great therapeutic role.
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The cytotoxicity-directed fractionation of MeOH extract ofTerminalia chebula fruits led to the isolation of three hydrolyzed tannins and a related compound, gallic acid(I), 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-β- d -glucopyranose(II), chebulagic acid(III) and chebulinic acid(IV), as active principles. They were shown to exhibit moderate cytotoxicity against cultured human tumor cell lines including A-549, SK-OV-3, SK-MEL-2, XF-498 and HCT-15in vitro.
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The major portion of the local population which is economically depressed is scattered in different hill terrains, which are beyond the normal mode of approach. Sometimes it takes days to reach remote corners of the country, where the usual supply of allopathic medicine is out of the question. Due to increasing export demand, dependence of the local people on the herbal flora and their implicit faith in the old tradition of Ayurvedic medicine would go a long way in exploiting the wild plants for commercial return and in expanding research activities to gain productive results. It is reported that in the sixth and fifth centuries B.C., in the course of his survey, Jivaka, the Royal Physician during Buddha’s time, examined all the plants growing in the specified area around Taxila (Pakistan) and concluded that there was not a single plant which could be considered devoid of medicinal utilization (5). These observations are of special significance for the rich herbal flora of Nepal, which has tremendous need for critical scientific examination. It may be concluded that the inside knowledge of herbal therapy for the healing of humanity is the vital part these mysterious herbal plants have now to play, and it can be hoped that their contributions would be of great practical importance.
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Casuarinin, a hydrolyzable tannin isolated from the bark of Terminalia arjuna Linn. (Combretaceae), was investigated for its antiviral activity on herpes simplex type 2 (HSV-2) in vitro. Results showed that the IC(50) of casuarinin in XTT and plaque reduction assays were 3.6+/-0.9 and 1.5+/-0.2 microM, respectively. The 50% cytotoxic concentration for cell growth (CC(50)) was 89+/-1 microM. Thus, the selectivity index (SI) (ratio of CC(50) to IC(50)) of casuarinin was 25 and 59 for XTT and plaque reduction assays, respectively. Casuarinin continued to exhibit antiviral activity even added 12 h after infection. During the attachment assay, casuarinin was shown to prevent the attachment of HSV-2 to cells. Furthermore, casuarinin also exhibited an activity in inhibiting the viral penetration. Interestingly, casuarinin was virucidal at a concentration of 25 microM, reducing viral titers up to 100,000-fold. This study concludes that casuarinin possesses anti-herpesvirus activity in inhibiting viral attachment and penetration, and also disturbing the late event(s) of infection.