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Improving the Service Operations of Fast-food Restaurants

Authors:
  • Universiti Teknologi MARA Sarawak

Abstract

In the food industry, it is important for an organization to leverage their customer's satisfaction and this can be achieved through superior customer service. The goals of this study were to investigate the causes and problems faced by the selected restaurant and to provide suggestions on how to improve the slow customer service based on the numerous domains of operations management. A local restaurant in Kuching (Malaysia) was selected for the case study. Slow customer service has been identified as the main problem. The causes of this problem were identified and classified into four categories which involved people, environment, equipment/materials and method/procedure. This study also offered ways to improve its operational performance and overcome the problem of poor service operations. The alternatives offered include (1) Quality Function Development which helped in determining what will satisfy the customers and where to put the quality effort, (2) Total Quality Management (TQM), (3) process focus which uses service blueprint to strengthen the interaction between customers and the restaurant, (4) layout, (5) human resource management, (6) practice of good supply chain management, and (7) maintenance to get the most benefits and trouble-free services out of the restaurant equipment by performing regular maintenance. This paper hopes to provide relevant insights for service quality and customer satisfaction improvement for restaurant service operations.
Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 224 ( 2016 ) 190 – 198
Available online at www.sciencedirect.com
1877-0428 © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license
(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
Peer-review under responsibility of the Universiti Teknologi MARA Sarawak
doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2016.05.439
ScienceDirect
6th I nt ernat io na l Re s earch Symp o s iu m in Service M a nagement, IRS S M -6 2015, 11-15 August
2015, UiTM Sara wak, K uching, Malaysia
Improving the Service Operations of Fast-food Restaurants
Agnes Kanyana,*, Lizsberth Nganab, Boo Ho Voonc
a, b, c Universiti Tekn ologi MARA, Jalan Meranek, 94300 Kota Samarahan Sarawak, Malaysia
Abstract
In the food industry , it is important for an organization to leverage their customer's satisfaction and this can be achieved t hrough
superior customer service. The goals of this study were to investigate the causes and problems faced by t he selected restaurant
and to provide suggestions on how to improve the slow customer service based on the numerous domains of operations
management. A local r estaurant in Kuchin g (M alay sia) was selected for the case study. Slow customer service has been identified
as the main problem. The causes of this problem were identified and classified into four categories which involved people,
environment, equipment/materials and method/p rocedure. This study also offered ways to imp rove its operational performance
and overcome the p roblem of poor service operations. The alternatives offered include (1) Quality Function Development which
helped in determining what will satisfy t he customers and where to put the quality effort, (2) Total Quality Management (TQM ),
(3) p rocess focus which uses service blueprint to strengthen the interaction between customers and t he restaurant, (4) layout , (5)
human resource management, (6) practice of good supply chain management, and (7) maintenance to get the most benefits and
trouble-free services out of the restaurant equipment by performing regular maintenance. This paper hop es to provide relevant
insights for service quality and customer satisfaction improvement for restaurant service operations.
© 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Peer-review under responsibility of Universiti Teknologi M ARA Sarawak.
Keywords: ope rati onal p erfor mance; c usto mer se rvi ce; cust om er sa tisf act ion; qua lit y fun cti on dev elopme nt; s upp ly c hain
1. Introduction
Operations in the service sector might be slightly different from the operations in the manufacturer sector which
produces a tangible product. Service is the economic activ ities that typically produce intangible products such as
repair and maintenance, government, food and lodging, transportation and insurance services. Food service outlets
* Corresponding aut hor. Tel.: +6-019-366 -8973 .
E-mail address: agn eskanyan@gm ail. com
© 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license
(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
Peer-review under responsibility of the Universiti Teknologi MARA Sarawak
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Agnes Kanyan et al. / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 224 ( 2016 ) 190 – 198
are facilit ies that serve meals and snacks for immed iate consumption on site. In fact, commercial food service
establishments accounted for bulk food-away-from-home. This category includes full-service restau ran ts, fas t fo od
outlets, caterers, s ome cafeterias, and other places that prepare, serve, and sell food to the general public for a profit.
There are some characteristics of food service that make it unique compared to production of other products.
This uniqueness influences decisions that are made about production and service delivery. The first characteristic is
the demand for food occurs at peak times, around breakfast, lunch, and dinner meals. Between these peak demand
times, there are slow times. Secondly, demand for food may vary depending on the time of the year and competitive
events, and production must be modified accordingly. Food production and service are labour intensive in which
bot h s killed and u nskille d labour are needed. Food is perishable, requiring it to be handled properly before, during,
and after preparation. In addition, menus may be changed on a daily basis and therefore production may change
daily. These characteristics create challenges in scheduling employees and production which may lead to difficu lty
in staffing, and high labour and food costs.
In the food industry, it is crucia l for restaurants to achieve high level of customer satisfaction and this can be
achieved through superior customer service. Undoubtedly, the success of a restaurant business depends on superior
service quality, value and customers satisfaction (Chow et al., 2007). Good customer service creates experiences
that can meet customer expectations. It produces satisfied customers. Bad customer service causes disappointments
and generates complaints. It can result in los t sales, because consumers most probably will switch to the
competitors. Good customer service involves developing good bonding with customers, hopefully leading to good
and long term relationships. It creates advantages for both customers and the business alike. Customers benefit
becaus e the business is providing a service that meets their needs .
2. Problems
SCR Corporation, a local family-run restaurant, has been used as the subject to study the service operations. It
has many franchises that are located at several places in Sarawak, Ma laysia. With the increasing number of
customers, it is crucial for SCR to have an excellent operational performance. SCR Desa is highly populated with
university students and residents from the nearby housing areas a s it is one of the main choices for them to dine
there. However, SCR Desa faces customer service problem that affects the image of SCR. This problem is obviously
shown during peak hours when there are many people who come for lunch. The slow customer service is related to
the slow food delivery to the customers’ tables and less friendly customer service.
3. Cause s of problems
3.1. Management
Ins ufficient nu mber of s taff in this re stauran t is one of t he major causes of the problem. The workers sometimes
can be seen rus hing when taking orders from one table to another. At the kitchen, the kitchen staff are working very
hard to get the orders processed as fa s t as possible, but it is hard to do so if there are only a few staff are doing the
work. This will affect th eir work performance and contribute to the s low service.
Some workers are not well-trained in their job. They are not trained to greet the customers, take the orders from
the customers properly to meet their demands, and deliver the food to the customers on time. Cashiers need training
as well because they have to know how to handle the cash machine and generate the customers’ bill efficiently and
effectively.
There is also a supervisor who does not fully supervis e the workers. As a consequence, the workers do their daily
work without putting their service quality as a priority. Fo r instance, the kitchen staff need to be monitored in terms
of the hygiene standards, good code of conduct and they should always wear kitchen uniforms. There was a case in
which the chicken served to the customer was not fresh and was half-cooked. When preparing the food, they
neglected the customers’ order or do not arrange the orders properly. This was the main reason why customers who
had arrived earlier were served later but those who came late were served earlier.
192 Agnes Kanyan et al. / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 224 ( 2016 ) 190 – 198
3.2. People
The workers are not alert of their jobs. Customers have to wait for them to take the orders or clean up the table.
The workers need to know that the waiting time for foof is a crucial factor for customers’ satisfaction and complaint
(Shimmura et al., 2010). The waiter sometimes forgot to take orders from the customers who already decided on
their meals although they had been in the restaurant earlier than the other customers. They did not put on a friendly
smile when taking the order from customers and this gave bad impression to the restaurant. The workers were
lacked of moral encouragement from the management staff. The management staff did not give enough advice or
critics to the employees. Whenever the employees committed mistakes in their work, they rarely gave advice or
comment for them to improve their work quality. The attitudes of the customers also contributed to the slow service
of a restaurant as some of them have bad temper and are impatient.
3.3. Environment
A positive perception of atmosphere can produce more positive emotions, which leads to positive beliefs about
the restaurant and its services or products (Ha and Jang, 2010). The environment of a restaurant also can be affected
by the neighbouring shops. Customers need a comfortable, peaceful and clean place to eat. A bigger space for the
parking areas is also important for the customers to park their veh icles.
According to Ellyn, Ulfig, and Venetucci (1997), a kitchen in a restaurant must consists of three main areas,
name ly the food cooking area, cooked food assembly area and cooked food buffer area. Each area consists of the
required tools and equipment needed for each processes. The area must be spacious enough for the kitchen workers
to move around while conducting their operational tasks.
A restaurant needs to provide a safe and comfo rtable environment for the customers to enjoy their meals. At the
same time, it has to accommodate as many customers as possible to maximize the sales for each day. To do so, the
furniture inside the restaurant needs to be arranged in order to fully utilize the space. Next, the pos ition of the
washroom causes the customers to think twice about the cleanliness of the dishes prepared due to the bad smell from
the toilet . The res taurant also uses the same sink used by the cus tomers for clean ing the uten sils.
3.4. Equipment / material
Inventory management can help to optimize customer’s satisfaction, supplier capability, and production
scheduling. Poor inventory management will cause insuffic ient ra w mater ials fo r daily operat ion s. This may happen
during the peak hours where people go out to seek for express lunch and dinner. If the raw material is in short
supply, they cannot prepare enough ingredients for every dish that the customer order.
There is no modern and automatic machine that can ease the daily operations. For example, they still need the
staff to clean up and wash all the cutlinary manually. If the restaurant is full of customers, especially during peak
hours, they will have inadequate staff to serve the customer (e.g. taking orders, cleaning the table and helping in
preparing food). Thus, they need machine and equipments in order to minimize their jobs and to leverage their
service. Other than that, a limited number of kitchen equipment results in insufficient time for the chefs to prepare
food. Consequently, inefficiency in food preparation can delay the serving time.
3.5. Method / procedure
Slow s e rv ice was also caused by poor food scheduling. The kitchen staff should have prepared the ingredients
before the restaurant is opened. The main ingredients such as onions, garlic, and chilies have to be prepared before
cooking. Meanwhile, the ingredients must be sufficient to run the business for the whole day. Failure of early
prep arat io n will requ ire more time to prep are food. Hence, the customers have to wait longer.
Poor food scheduling might be caused by the unavailability of fixed interval time o f preparation and service.
They did not follow the fixed time for food preparation. Ideally, the restaurant could have set the time for the chef or
assistant chef to prepare food for their customer. If they need five minutes to prepare food for their customer, the
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workers must try to get and settle the food in five minutes.
Some workers in the restaurant follow the principle of ‘easy cook easy come’. That means, they prepared the
food that was easier to be cooked first to ease their work burden. However, the customers who ordered the co mplex
dishes had to wait for a longer time as compared to those who ordered less complex dishes.
The hygiene issues of the restaurant were also being questioned. Sometimes, the floor and the tables are oily and
watery and that makes the customers to feel uncomfortable to dine in. As a cons equence, the customers, especially
the children, had the r isk o f fa llin g down due to the slippery floor. Dirty tables and chairs will result in the growth of
bacteria in the restaurant, which will affect the health of the customers. If this hygiene issue is not improved, then
the customers, especially the regular customers, will seek for a new restaurant. The impact of food quality has
positive linkage between food quality and satisfaction as well as behavioural intentions (Ha & Ja ng, 2010).
4. Suggestions for improving service operations
4.1. Quality function development
Quality function deploy ment (QFD) refers to determin ing what will satisfy the customer and translating those
customer desires into target design. There are five customers’ wants identified: shorter time for food delivery, fast
order taking, good taste of food served, and good dining amb ience. These five customers’ wants are rated with
ratings of 1 to 5. The highest rating is the shorter time delivery followed by good tas te of the dishes prepared. This
shows that the fundamental factors that contribute to customers’ satisfaction in a restaurant include the food
(hygiene, balance and healthiness) and food delivery (Chow et al., 2007). The aspects that a restaurant can do to
fulfill the demands of customers is by providing training to the staff, delivering food within 10 minutes, hire more
workers, improving the restaurant layout, and to have an efficient inventory management. The relationships between
thes e two p arts were evaluated.
The two competitors of SCR Desa are Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC) and Sugar Bun. These two competitors
were evaluated in terms of their time for delivering food, their speed in taking order, their customer’s service, the
taste of food, and ambience of the restaurant. These two competitors were evaluated with the ratings of Good (G),
Fair (F), or Poo r (P).
The target values are identified and the co mpetitors are also evaluated with thes e target values. For exa mple, our
company is targeting to deliver food within 10 minutes whereas KFC manage to do it within 10 minutes, while
Sugar Bun within 15 minutes.
4.2. Quality management
According to Heizer and Render (2010), total quality management (TQM) is the management of an entire
organization so that it e xcels in all aspects of products and services that are important to the customer. The Business
Dictionary (n.d.) states that total quality management is a holistic approach to long-term success that views
continuous improvement in a ll aspects of an organization as a process and not as a short-term goal. The main goal of
total quality management is to radically t ransform the organization through progressive changes in the attitude,
practices, st ructures, and s ystems.
The first concept, continuous improvement of processes that covers people, suppliers, equipment, materials, and
procedures. The idea of this concept involves 4 continuous steps: Plan-Do -Check-Act. Problem will be identified at
first, thus plan was made. Then, the plan was tested in the second step followed by checking if the plan works or not.
Lastly, the plan is implemented.
Six Sigma is a progra m designed to reduce defects to help lower costs, save time, and i mprove customer
satisfaction. To achieve and sustain business success, six sigma must have a strategy, a discipline, and a set of tools.
In improving the quality service of a restaurant, we need a strategy that focuses on total customer satisfaction.
Emp loyee empowerment concept refers to involving employees in every step of the production process. The five
techniques that can be used are: i) building commun ication and process improvement, ii) developing open,
supportive supervisors, iii) moving responsibility to employees, iv) building a high-morale organization, and v)
creating formal team s tructures. The qu ality circle will meet reg ula rly to s olve work -related problems such as
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unfriendly customer service and slow in food preparation.
In benchmarking, a demonstrated standard of performance that represents the very best performance for a
process or an activity is selected. In developing the benchmarks, it is important to determine what to benchmark,
form a benchmark team, identify benchmarking partners, collect and analyse benchmarking information, and take
action to match or e xceed the bench mark. A benchmark in improving the s low service in SCR could be setting up a
specific time to prepare the food, for example 10 minutes. The food should be prepared within that period of time so
that customers should not have to wait for long.
The other concept includes just-in -time (JIT), which is designed to produce or deliver goods just as they are
needed. JIT improves the quality in cutting the costs of quality, improving the quality, and cutting the cost of the
inventory itself. In the Taguchi concepts, restaurants only need to focus on the concepts of Quality loss function
(QLF) which identifies all costs connected with poor quality and how these costs increase as product quality moves
from what the customer wants. The smaller the los s of the society, the product will be more desirable. On the other
hand, target-oriented quality is a continuous improvement to bring a product exactly on target. The improvement of
the speed of service in a restaurant should be done continuously.
4.3. Process analysis and design
Service blueprinting is a process analysis technique that focuses on the customer and the provider’s interaction
with the customer. Service blueprinting can be divided into three categories or three levels. In the first level, it is
under the control of the customer while in the second level, customer may interact with the service provider. In the
third level, the service is removed from customer’s control and interaction. Based on the service blueprinting, it can
be used for improving the slow customer service for a restaurant in which it can make the process to become smooth
and more efficient.
The blueprinting will start from the moment when customers co me into the restaurant until the customers go out
from the restaurant. The workers must open the door for their customers and give them a warm greeting. Demands
and wants of the customers must be fulfilled to ensure that they will dine in and the service can be continued. If the
customers are not satisfied with the services offered, the service cannot be continued. However, they worker can
notify the customers and recommend other alternatives to their customers. For customers who reject the suggested
alternatives, the staff need to accept the rejection and greet the customers before they leave the restaurant.
If the service continues, the worke r will start to take the customers' orders. Most importantly, the worker must
make sure that all the food comes at the right time to prevent the customers from wa iting any longer. The waiter or
waitress must frequently check the kitchen to make s ure that the ordered dishes has been prepared. Once the food
has been prepared, the waiter or waitress has to make sure that the food is delivered at the right table and to the right
customers. The last performance in service blueprinting is the payment from their customer. When the payment is
done, the cashier must say thank you to their customers. The worker will open the door for the customers and greet
the customers once again.
4.4. Layout
Planning and executing design and layout must be made meticulously to ensure that the atmospheric and
ambience elements in a restaurant become more appealing, attractive, peaceful and co mfortable (Hashim et al.,
2012). The layout proposed is mainly to improve the space together with the number of cus tomer who ca me. The
new layout proposed is for two customers per batch together with other tables that provided up to 14 customers per
batch. The couple table is introduced because based on observation, there are a lot of customers who co me with their
partners, which means two people per batch. If there is no couple table, a couple of customers will take a table for
four persons then it will affect the number of customers that can s it in. At the end, the expected number of customers
will decrease and some profit will be lost because there are not enough table for customers that come in two person
per batch. A new layout was proposed to increase not only a partner customer but together with a single customer.
Not only that, the couple customers also feel very comfortable because they have their own privacy through this new
layout. So to capture their interest, a new layout proposed to capture their right and their demand.
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The second adjustment is the addition of another toilet and sink. The addition of toilet and sink is to ma ke the
customers feel very comfortable because they do not need to wait for a long time in order to use the toilet and wash
their hands. Restaurants will not be considered as successful without a good perception from the customers, so this
is the first step to build a good relationship between the customers and the restaurant.
4.5. Human resource management
4.5.1. Staffing strategies
The human resource management of a restaurant needs to do Person -Job-Fit in selecting individuals who have
relev an t qua lif ications t o fill in an y job v ac ancie s . Re s ea rc h has de mon s t rated that comp let e an d unambiguous
specification of required competencies reduces the influence of racial and gender stereotypes.
The Human Resource Department must have staffing strategies that emphasize on the characteristics of the
employees, recruitment and selection process (Batt R. et al., 2014). In order to increase the level of customer
satisfaction, it is very important for the Human Resource Department to hire employees who are proactive, have
good communication skills and are alert. In addition to job specifications, HR Managers and supervisors use job
descriptions to select employees and orient them to jobs. In a restaurant, there are two parts of management which
are front-of-the-House management and back-of-the-House management. For the effectiveness of the operations and
to meet the customer’s satisfaction, res taurants need to have a proactive and efficient front-of-the-House and Back-
of-the-House Management. This is because various components of restaurant service quality function differently in
terms of improving satisfaction and behavioral intensions (Ha & Jang, 2010). Front-of-the-House Management
consists of supervisor, waiter or waitress, cashier and cleaners. Back-of-the-House Management consists of kitchen
manager, head cook, head station cook, and assistant cook and cleaners. Both of these managements must cooperate
to ensure that they receive food and beverages on time without further delay.
4.5.2. Training and development
Training and development are needed for all of the st aff in a restaurant because it enhances the ability o f
employees to deliver a high quality service and to meet the needs of customers more effectively and in a friendly
way (Chow et al., 2007). The skills can be developed and grown inside the employees who are important to meet the
long term goals in emb racing the customers’ needs through innovation, consistent quality product and excellent
customer service.
For the non-managerial employees, Human Resource Department can use On the Job Train ing (OJT) method.
OJT has the advantage of providing hands-on experience under normal working conditions and an opportunity for
the supervisor and kitchen manager to build a good relationship with the new employees. It is the most effective
means of fac ilitat ing learnin g in th e wo rkp lace.
For the management development, head quarters must gather all the supervisors to have seminars an d
conferences to communicate ideas, policies or procedures, and discuss any issues related to the operations of other
franchise. Supervisors can discuss the customer service compla ints so that they can be improved. Training and
development has to be evaluated to determine its effectiveness. Evaluation is needed to assess the extent to which
training progra m improves learning, affects behaviour on the job and affects the performance of the employees. A
competitive restaurant must develop their own benchmarking to measure its own service against other restaurants.
4.5.3. Ergonomics
Ergonomics is an important element in job design. It is the study of people at work and the practice of matching
the features of products and jobs to human capabilities, pre ferences, and the limitations of those who are to perform
job. Ergonomics focuses on ensuring that jobs are designed for safe and efficient work while improving the safety,
comfort, and performance of users. The arrangement of the kitchen must be safe, comfortable and efficient to
minimize the harmful effects of carelessness, negligence and other human fallibilities that slowdown the preparation
of food and might contaminate the food and beverages. A safe, comfortable and effic ient working environment is to
196 Agnes Kanyan et al. / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 224 ( 2016 ) 190 – 198
boost employ ees’ performanc e while redu cing inju ries and erro rs .
4.5.4. Ethics
There are ethics that need to be observed by all staff for a safe and efficient working condition especially in the
kitchen. The restaurant must be clean. Customers derive their perception of food quality from the tastiness of food,
variety of the menu, variety of food, food presentations, serving size, safety, appeal, dietary acceptability, h ealt hy
options, food freshness, temperature and hygiene (Chen, 2012). The kitchen staff must wear the kitchen uniforms,
wear hairnets to cover long hair and wash hands thoroughly after every activity. A good code of conduct can be
written up and posted on notice boards and in staff areas to promote good ethical behaviour from staff. Staff can be
made to practise good moral ethics through a good leadership and management policy that set the right exa mples,
and stress the quality of the restaurant’s food and dining experience. Not only this, staff should be encouraged to
remain vigilant and to report unethical cases in all food preparation processes.
4.6. Supply chain management
4.6.1. Supply chain management practices
Supply chain management (SCM) is the management of different types of physical, information and financial
flows from the raw materials to final outcomes in which materials, suppliers, manufacturers, distributors and
customers are working together. The practices that are involved in SCM consist of flows of information that
involved in activities such as sourcing and procurement, production, scheduling, ordering, management of
inventory, warehous ing, dis tribution process and customers service.
The first practice is strategic supplier partnership. Suppliers are chain members in supply chain and they
contribute to overall performance of the process in the supply chain. Low performance by the supplier can
contribute to failure in supply chain . It is important to have a close relationship with the supplier in order to build a
strong supply chain. It is essential to recognize who are the partners of the supply chain when managing a supply
chain for resulting smooth information flow, inventory control and operation performance.
The benefits of having a good relationship between supplier and restaurants include customer satisfaction,
enhanced perception of fairness and justice, customer loyalty, relationship satisfaction, positive word-of-mouth,
repeat transactions and business continuity. Other importance of having good relationship with the supplier is to lead
to a better operational performance of food industry. Secondly, customer relationship mainly involves activities such
as sharing product information with customers, accepting customers’ orders, interacting with custo mers t o ma n a g e
demand, having an order placing system, sharing order status with customers during order scheduling, and product
delivery phase.
4.6.2. Ethics and sustainability
In order to sustain food supply chains, a restaurant must produce safe, healthy food in res pons e t o market
demands and ensure that all consumers have access to nutritious food and to accurate informat ion about food
products. They need to ensure that good hygiene standards to meet customer’s expectations. In order to survive in
certain places, the restaurant needs to study the standard of living of the people to ensure that it is parallel with the
market share at that place. The operations mu s t ens u re that it is within the b io lo g ica l li mit o f nat ural re s o urce s .
Restaurants need to have an effective waste management and it requires evaluation of the entire impact, from raw
material, through use and final disposal. As a result, restaurants will be able to achieve consistently high standards
of environmental performance by reducing energy consumption, minimizing resource inputs and using renewable
energy wherever possible.
4.6.3. Managing and improving food supply chain
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The restaurant is responsible for serving safe food to customers. One case of food poisoning is enough to
permanently tarnish a restaurant's reputation. There are ways that restaurant managers can protect their customers
and reputation where supply chain management is concerned. Firstly, a restaurant needs to check the supplier's
background. All food distributors and s uppliers are supposed to be inspected regularly. A restaurant can go through
the supplier's local health department to obtain inspection results to make sure that they are in compliance. The
suppliers need to check whether they employ strict record keeping and food safety management practices. Better
communication is vital to ensure that the restaurant will receive the supply at the right time to avoid insufficient raw
material that will affect the operational performance especially during peak hours. Through mod ern technology,
information technology has played important roles in inventory control, supply chain management and knowledge-
based management (Sh immura et al., 2010).
4.7. Maintenance
From fine dining to fast food chains, and eateries in-between, restaurants need to improve their food service
establishment. The only way to get the most benefit and trouble -free service out of restaurant equipment is to
perform regular maintenance. Regular maintenance, which includes cleaning, will keep everything functioning in
good working order and can catch minor malfunctions or worn out parts before they cause expensive breakdowns.
Moreover, employees should also be educated on the proper use of the equipment. Misuse and abuse are among
the leading causes of restaurant equipment ma lfunction, and most warranties will not cover repairs resulting from
misuse. Employees must be taught how to properly use, clean and maintain food service equipment to minimize
costs that have to incur for non-warranty issues.
5. Conclusion
Service operations management is essential in the food service industry. The restaurants are required to
consistently and continuously plan, implement, evaluate and improve on the various aspects of the service
operations for optimum customer satisfaction, revisits and positive word-of-mouth. In fact, superior customer
service helps in developing good bonding with customers which will lead to long term relationship.
Acknowledgement
The authors thank Afifah binti Shahidan, Jacqueline Kones and Lokman Ha kim for their efforts in giving
information about how to improve the service quality of a restaurant especially by constructing the House of Quality
Model and Service Blueprinting Model of a restaurant.
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... The leading challenge a government faces is reducing both types of uncertainty of the vital industries that are sensitive and uncertainty such as the hospitality sector. Policy makers might be well-advised to impose measures with detailed transparency about their long-term plans to promote certainty (Ngana & Voon, 2015). ...
... The leading challenge a government faces is reducing both types of uncertainty of the vital industries that are sensitive and uncertainty such as the hospitality sector. Policy makers might be well-advised to impose measures with detailed transparency about their long-term plans to promote certainty (Ngana & Voon, 2015). In addition to this, according to interview, majority of the respondents said that there are lack of transparency in the organization. ...
... • Re-examine and re-design the service delivery operation if the average customer waiting time is long [129]. • Deliver more skill-based training to the kitchen staff to increase their efficiency in preparing the ordered food [134]. • Introduce a drive-through ordering and pick-up option [123]. ...
... Possible strategies for improvement.•Offer more in-house professional training, such as communication or public relation-based training to the existing staff[134]. • Appoint staff who possess strong interpersonal skills[135,136]. ...
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Restaurant image refers to an immediate perception that pops up in a customer’s mind when the name of a restaurant is mentioned. Therefore, it is crucial for restaurants, including fast-food restaurants (FFRs), to evaluate and sustain a positive restaurant image. However, evaluating and improving a restaurant’s image is challenging, since it counts in multiple service attributes associated with various degrees of unknown priority. Even so, the existing literature is yet to outspread the usage of an appropriate multi-attribute decision-making (MADM)-based approach to specifically evaluate the image of FFRs. Therefore, this research aimed at employing such an approach to evaluate the image of four FFRs on an island in East Malaysia, using various people, processes, and physical evidence attributes. Firstly, an initial list of FFR image attributes was elicited from the available literature. This initial list was then further validated through a two-round Delphi survey involving a panel of ten experts. A questionnaire was then designed based on the finalized attributes, and data collected from a sample of 251 respondents were analyzed using the compromised-analytical hierarchy process (C-AHP) method. The C-AHP results suggest that the strategies to improve an FFR’s image should primarily incorporate the following six attributes: hospitality, employees’ problem-solving skills, employees’ knowledge, food taste, physical cleanliness, and service response time. The FFR at the top of the ranking has the highest performance scores over these same six attributes. Surprisingly, employees’ appearance and restaurant exterior were reported as the two least important image attributes. This research is the first to demonstrate the application of a hybrid MADM-based approach to uncover the weights of FFR image attributes and rank those FFRs by computing their aggregated image scores.
... Excessive lifting (factory), excessive static work, repetition of tasks, improper posture, and others are said to be the cause of musculoskeletal disorders (Aguiar et al., 2020) whereas ergonomics can play a significant role (Thetkathuek et al., 2016). The focus of ergonomics is to prove the design of work in safe, comfortable conditions and improve performance (Kanyan et al., 2016). ...
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In the era of sustainable development, humans are a system because of their role in development. The food industry is growing fast at this time, and it is important for the sustainability of a country, while the human factor and ergonomics will provide benefits if applied. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct a literature study. This study aims to provide a better understanding and research opportunities on human factors and ergonomics in the food industry. This review literature search was carried out using Publish and Perish based on the Google Scholar database with the search year 2015-2022, then checking the journals one by one. There were twenty-seven articles discussing human factors and ergonomics in the food industry. Based on the year of research, research on human factors and ergonomics began in 2017 and has increased every year until 2019. RULA, SNQ, and REBA are the ergonomics data analysis techniques most widely used by researchers, and Elsevier became the publisher most used. The focus of the research area is large on improving ergonomics. The discussion of human factors and ergonomics can be implemented in various sectors, including the food industry, the integration of human factors with other fields is also worth considering.
... Bu noktada Kalite Fonksiyon Yayılımı (KFY) yöntemi, işletmelere müşteri istek ve ihtiyaçlarını proaktif olarak bir süreç içerisinde tasarlamalarına imkân sağlar (Jeong ve Oh, 1998). Kalite fonksiyon yayılımının, ürün veya hizmetleri geliştirmek için müşteri sesini (ihtiyaçlarını) kullanan etkili bir araç olduğu ve müşteri ihtiyaç ve beklentilerini belirlemek ve bunları anlamak üzerine geliştirilmiş olan bu yaklaşımın doğru bir biçimde uygulandığında ürün veya hizmetin başarısını arttırmada büyük rol oynadığı literatürce bilinmektedir (Su ve Lin, 2008;Sofyalıoğlu ve Tunail, 2012;Kanyan, Ngana ve Voon, 2016;Chen, Yeh, Pai ve Chen 2018). Tüm bu açıklamalardan hareketle çalışmanın amacı, havayolu sektöründe hizmet kalitesi boyutlarını Servqual ve Kano modeli yardımıyla belirlemek ve bu modelleri kalite fonksiyon yayılımı yöntemiyle birleştirerek sektöre ilişkin eksikliklerin giderilmesine ve havayolu hizmet kalitesinin iyileştirilmesine yönelik önerilerde bulunmaktır. ...
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Çalışmanın amacı, havayolu sektöründe hizmet kalitesi boyutlarını Servqual ve Kano modeli yardımıyla belirlemek ve bu modelleri kalite fonksiyon yayılımı (KFY) yöntemiyle birleştirerek sektöre ilişkin eksikliklerin giderilmesine ve havayolu hizmet kalitesinin iyileştirilmesine yönelik önerilerde bulunmaktır. Araştırmada veri toplama yöntemi olarak, çevrimiçi anket tekniği kullanılmıştır. Çalışma kapsamında toplamda 277 anket formuna ulaşılmıştır. 20 hizmet özelliğine ilişkin Servqual sonuçlarına göre, müşterilerin tercih ettikleri havayolu firmalarının hizmet özelliklerinin tümünde zayıf durumda olduğu ortaya çıkmıştır. Kano ölçeğinin sonuçlarında ise beş kriterin cezbeden, iki kriterin beklenen, beş kriterin olması gereken, sekiz kriterin farksız özelliğe sahip olduğu görülmüştür ve yüksek müşteri memnuniyeti hedefleyen havayolu işletmelerinin bu beş cezbeden kalite özelliğine odaklanması önerilmiştir. Ardından KFY sonuçları değerlendirilmiş, havayolu işletmeleri için en yüksek teknik önem düzeyine sahip olan, modern ve teknolojik donanıma sahip uçak sayısının ve uçuşlarda gün ve saatlerin arttırılması gereksinimlerinin karşılanması durumunda hem havayolu işletmelerinin kalitesinin hem de havayolu kullanıcılarının memnuniyet düzeyinin iyileştirilebileceği önerilerinde bulunulmuştur.
... Bu noktada Kalite Fonksiyon Yayılımı (KFY) yöntemi, işletmelere müşteri istek ve ihtiyaçlarını proaktif olarak bir süreç içerisinde tasarlamalarına imkân sağlar (Jeong ve Oh, 1998). Kalite fonksiyon yayılımının, ürün veya hizmetleri geliştirmek için müşteri sesini (ihtiyaçlarını) kullanan etkili bir araç olduğu ve müşteri ihtiyaç ve beklentilerini belirlemek ve bunları anlamak üzerine geliştirilmiş olan bu yaklaşımın doğru bir biçimde uygulandığında ürün veya hizmetin başarısını arttırmada büyük rol oynadığı literatürce bilinmektedir (Su ve Lin, 2008;Sofyalıoğlu ve Tunail, 2012;Kanyan, Ngana ve Voon, 2016;Chen, Yeh, Pai ve Chen 2018). Tüm bu açıklamalardan hareketle çalışmanın amacı, havayolu sektöründe hizmet kalitesi boyutlarını Servqual ve Kano modeli yardımıyla belirlemek ve bu modelleri kalite fonksiyon yayılımı yöntemiyle birleştirerek sektöre ilişkin eksikliklerin giderilmesine ve havayolu hizmet kalitesinin iyileştirilmesine yönelik önerilerde bulunmaktır. ...
Article
Full-text available
Çalışmanın amacı, havayolu sektöründe hizmet kalitesi boyutlarını Servqual ve Kano modeli yardımıyla belirlemek ve bu modelleri kalite fonksiyon yayılımı (KFY) yöntemiyle birleştirerek sektöre ilişkin eksikliklerin giderilmesine ve havayolu hizmet kalitesinin iyileştirilmesine yönelik önerilerde bulunmaktır. Araştırmada veri toplama yöntemi olarak, çevrimiçi anket tekniği kullanılmıştır. Çalışma kapsamında toplamda 277 anket formuna ulaşılmıştır. 20 hizmet özelliğine ilişkin Servqual sonuçlarına göre, müşterilerin tercih ettikleri havayolu firmalarının hizmet özelliklerinin tümünde zayıf durumda olduğu ortaya çıkmıştır. Kano ölçeğinin sonuçlarında ise beş kriterin cezbeden, iki kriterin beklenen, beş kriterin olması gereken, sekiz kriterin farksız özelliğe sahip olduğu görülmüştür ve yüksek müşteri memnuniyeti hedefleyen havayolu işletmelerinin bu beş cezbeden kalite özelliğine odaklanması önerilmiştir. Ardından KFY sonuçları değerlendirilmiş, havayolu işletmeleri için en yüksek teknik önem düzeyine sahip olan, modern ve teknolojik donanıma sahip uçak sayısının ve uçuşlarda gün ve saatlerin arttırılması gereksinimlerinin karşılanması durumunda hem havayolu işletmelerinin kalitesinin hem de havayolu kullanıcılarının memnuniyet düzeyinin iyileştirilebileceği önerilerinde bulunulmuştur
... The alternatives offered include (1) Quality Function Design, which helped to decide what would please customers and where to position the quality effort, (2) Total Quality Management (TQM), (3) Process Focus, using service design to improve customer-restaurant engagement, (4) layout, (5) human resource management, (6) good supply chain management practice. This paper aimed to include important details (Kanyan, Ngana and Ho, 2016). Findings of (Vi et al., 2020) demonstrated, how different conditions of lighting and scent influence the perceived strength of taste, pleasancy and satisfaction. ...
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Due to increased urbanization and modernity, India's restaurant business has flourished in the last decade. This study aims to identify the key challenges present in the restaurant industry in India. Thematic literature review was carried out for the study. A comprehensive search in specialized database sources like EBSCOhost, Web of Science and Google Scholar were performed. After analyzing the articles and reviewing the restaurant industry literature, constructs such as consumer perception and satisfaction towards restaurant, rand equity in restaurants, importance of nutritional value of food, organic food and healthy meals in restaurants, restaurant responsiveness towards marketing strategies, technology in restaurants, and food safety in restaurant industry are identified. This research takes a significant attempt by doing a review analysis to analyze the varied activities and challenges of restaurants industry.
... In a study by (Agnes, et al., 2016), authors revealed that insufficient staff and unskilled service staff, uncomfortable environment, improper layout, obsolete equipment are the main reason for delayed service and customer discomfort. The tangible aspects such as furniture and fixtures, facility design, space area for easy movement, electronic devices, appearance of staff, clean and hygienic atmosphere, parking space, and other such components need to be renewed or replaced. ...
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Abstract In today’s hospitality market scenario so many new budget hotels are emerging. In this competitive market and tough times, hotels are finding difficulty in retaining customers and maintain a suitable standard of hotels' food outlets facilities. The extent of Customers' enjoyment and dedication towards any organization depends on the level of services provided by them. Loyal customers are valuable assets for the company as they keep on repeat visits which lead to the growth of the firm. Therefore, the objective of this research is to look out the association between customer delight and customer returning intention in the food and beverage outlets of budget hotels. A quantitative research methodology was applied to find out the effect of quality of services upon customers' contentment.150 respondents participated in this survey. Correlation and descriptive analysis were conducted to test the hypothesis. Our results show that respondents aren’t satisfied with the services provided by the in-house food service outlets of budget hotels. Additionally, price, food quality, and waiting time is not up to the mark. This research result has many practical implications for budget category hotels food outlets of Ludhiana city. It will guide them to improve the areas of weak performance and will further guide them to achieve customer satisfaction and retention. Key-words: Service Quality, Customer Loyalty, In-house Food Outlet, Budget Hotel, Customer Satisfaction.
... In a study by (Agnes, et al., 2016), authors revealed that insufficient staff and unskilled service staff, uncomfortable environment, improper layout, obsolete equipment are the main reason for delayed service and customer discomfort. The tangible aspects such as furniture and fixtures, facility design, space area for easy movement, electronic devices, appearance of staff, clean and hygienic atmosphere, parking space, and other such components need to be renewed or replaced. ...
Article
Full-text available
In today's hospitality market scenario so many new budget hotels are emerging. In this competitive market and tough times, hotels are finding difficulty in retaining customers and maintain a suitable standard of hotels' food outlets facilities. The extent of Customers' enjoyment and dedication towards any organization depends on the level of services provided by them. Loyal customers are valuable assets for the company as they keep on repeat visits which lead to the growth of the firm. Therefore, the objective of this research is to look out the association between customer delight and customer returning intention in the food and beverage outlets of budget hotels. A quantitative research methodology was applied to find out the effect of quality of services upon customers' contentment.150 respondents participated in this survey. Correlation and descriptive analysis were conducted to test the hypothesis. Our results show that respondents aren't satisfied with the services provided by the in-house food service outlets of budget hotels. Additionally, price, food quality, and waiting time is not up to the mark. This research result has many practical implications for budget category hotels food outlets of Ludhiana city. It will guide them to improve the areas of weak performance and will further guide them to achieve customer satisfaction and retention.
... It benefits both the consumer and the company. Customers profit when the company provides a service that satisfies their requirements (Kanyan et al., 2016). ...
Thesis
Full-text available
With Discrete Event Analysis using AnyLogic Software, Vishal Food & Catering's ordering system has been simulated in three different flowchart, the actual operation, implementing Pos Terminal and finally implementing Pos Tablet. This mode of technology with Pos Tablet being the fundamental approach to automation, the analysis of the impact it would bring to the entire front end business operation is studied through the number of orders accepted, cancelled, delivered, completed also the pending orders in the entire simulated operation during the three hours of operation. Using 1 st Order Monte Carlo Experiment, the mean value for each data is found responses of each flowchart, tabulated and graphical interpreted to study the sustainability of the business through automation and its impact on the workforce by comparing the data found to the resources utilized.
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In full-service restaurants, it is important to share customer information among staff members in real time to perform complicated operations. Conventional point of sale (POS) systems in restaurants were developed to improve the verification and transmission of order information passed from the dining hall to the kitchen. However, POS systems have remained insufficient to share customers’ order information among many staff members in different positions. This paper introduces an information sharing system for full-service restaurants using an advanced POS system with which staff members can share order information in real time. Using this system, kitchen staff members can grasp the total number of orders and the elapsed time for preparation of each order. Moreover, service staff members can grasp the status of each customer quickly. Using this system in a large-scale restaurant, we confirmed that it can make preparation processes more efficient and can reduce customer complaints.
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This study aims to use the fuzzy cognitive map (FCM) to identify the decision factors most relevant in increasing repurchase rate for a full-service restaurant. FCM knowledge causality based on Structural Equation Model is represented by adjacency matrix where the enhancement certain factors affect other factors. To provide restaurant operators obtains the optimal solutions for activating the customer retention program.
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The purpose of the study is to examine youth customer behaviour due to the restaurant's atmospheric element environment. It also explores the environment of the restaurant and the use of atmospherics by the restaurateurs through the reactions of the customers. The dimensions of colour, design, lighting, and restaurant layout, among others, were measured. Qualitative data taken from 300 youth customers were analyzed, and interpretations of the relationships were made. It was found that atmospheric elements contributed significantly in each representation of customer behaviour.
Book
To ensure a well-rounded appreciation of the discipline, this new edition of Operations Management gives readers an excellent understanding of fundamental aspects of the discipline in both an international and local context. Examples and case studies are taken from throughout the Arab world to give students an insight into operations management in a real business environment. The adapting authors have chosen industries most relevant and recognizable to Arab students, and have included a host of useful features, such as interviews with Arab managers, to ensure engaged learning for users of this book.
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Using the decision- and experiential-oriented perspectives as theoretical guides, this article reported an empirical assessment of service quality in restaurant operations. We proposed and tested a conceptual model of service quality using structural equation modeling. Using data from a sample of 284 customers from two large full-service restaurants in southern China, we investigated the relationships of service quality, customer satisfaction, and frequency of patronage. The results supported the significant links between service quality and customer satisfaction, service quality and repeat patronage, but not customer satisfaction and repeat patronage. The study has provided important insights into service quality and customer satisfaction in the field of restaurant operations.
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This study empirically examined not only the relationship between perceived quality and satisfaction/loyalty, but also the role of customer perceptions of atmospherics in an ethnic restaurant segment. Specifically, this study, using hierarchical regression analyses, investigated the direct effects of service quality and food quality on customer satisfaction and loyalty as well as the moderating effect of the perception of atmospherics, in Korean restaurants. As expected, this study showed that service and food quality have positive and significant effects on customer satisfaction and loyalty. This suggested that, similar to other restaurant segments, employee service and food are of great importance for ethnic restaurants as well. Verifying the moderating role of atmospherics, however, this study found that good employee service can be more effective for increasing the satisfaction and loyalty of customers with a low perception of the atmospherics compared to those with a higher perception. Further, providing quality food is particularly critical for creating customer satisfaction in ethnic restaurants where atmospherics are not satisfactory. More detailed findings and implications are also discussed.
d.). In search of services quality. Available at download.marcinotorowski.com/artykuly/ServicesQuality.pdf, retrieved on
  • M Otorowski
Otorowski, M. (n.d.). In search of services quality. Available at download.marcinotorowski.com/artykuly/ServicesQuality.pdf, retrieved on 30 November 2014.
Revising in the Effects of supply chain management practices towards operational performance of chain restaurant in Kuala Lumpur
  • B T A Rafeah
Rafeah, B. T. A. (2012). Revising in the Effects of supply chain management practices towards operational performance of chain restaurant in Kuala Lumpur. Master Thesis in Food Service Management, Universiti Teknologi MARA.
A National Study of Human Resource Practices, Turnover, and Customer Service in the Restaurant Industry
  • R Batt
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Batt R., Jae E. L., & T., L. (2014). A National Study of Human Resource Practices, Turnover, and Customer Service in the Restaurant Industry. Restaurant Opportunities Centers United.
Fuzzy cognitive map for optimising solutions for reatiniing full-service restaurant customers
  • S C Chen
Chen, S.C. (2012). Fuzzy cognitive map for optimising solutions for reatiniing full-service restaurant customers. Paper presented at the International Conference on Asia Pacific Business Innovation and T echnology Management.