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... Lippert-Rasmussen (2018).6 We offer a systematic discussion of pertaining empirical material in a companion paper.7 Dodds and Goddard (2013).Schiebinger (2000).Allen and Castleman (2001).Content courtesy of Springer Nature, terms of use apply. Rights reserved.G. Barabás, A. Szigeti ...
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We analyze a frequent but undertheorized form of structural injustice, one that arises due to the difficulty of reaching numerically equitable representation of underrepresented subgroups within a larger group. This form of structural injustice is significant because it could occur even if it were possible to completely eliminate bias and overt discrimination from hiring and recruitment practices. The conceptual toolkit we develop can be used to analyze such situations and propose remedies. Specifically, based on a simple mathematical model, we offer a new argument in favour of quotas, explore implications for policy-making, and consider the wider philosophical significance of the problem. We show that in order to reach more equitable representations, quota-based recruitment may often be practically unavoidable. Assuming that members of groups in statistical minority are more likely to quit due to their marginalization, their proportions can stabilize at a low level, preventing a shift towards more equal representation and conserving the minority status of the subgroup. We show that this argument has important implications for addressing, preventing, and remediating the structural injustice of unfair representation.
... A popular explanation for the gender gap in academic and senior positions in universities is the cohort or pipeline argument, that is, not enough qualified women are in the pipeline for these positions (Allen & Castleman, 2001;Burton, 1997;Fitzgerald & Wilkinson, 2010). In this view, as women's participation in higher education increases, the gender gap in faculty and senior management positions is expected to narrow. ...
... This simplification of gender inequality processes has been criticised byAllen and Castleman (2001).2 There are comparative studies and studies on other countries (e.g. ...
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In the last decades, a vast number of post-industrialised economies have experienced a growing participation of women in higher education. However, men and women still differ with regard to their subsequent academic careers and labour market prospects. While several studies have disentangled the cumulative process of gender inequalities along the path to higher education, few studies cover two or more subsequent transitions in the academic career following graduation from upper-secondary education. We have investigated gender differences at five educational stages between graduation from upper-secondary education and the first post-doc position. To explain gender differences, we have integrated arguments of individual decision-making and educational, familial and work context conditions. This life course perspective leads us to propose several hypotheses on why the academic careers of men and women would differ in terms of transitions to the next education stage and graduation. We test our hypotheses using a longitudinal dataset which covers a large part of individual educational and academic careers of a cohort of students, beginning at the age of 20 years and extending up to the age of 40 years. Our results show that gender differences are more pronounced at the beginning of the academic career and tend to fade out at later stages. In particular, gender differences occur most strongly at transitions to the next educational stage rather than being caused by different graduation rates. These differences can be explained only to a very minor extent by performance. Separated analysis shows that men and women differ in their reasons to start or stop an academic career, with family circumstances in particular having different consequences.
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This chapter underlines the importance of institutional resistance and legitimating discourses in understanding why the pace of change in gender equality in higher education has been so slow. Institutional resistance has been reflected in denial of the legitimacy of the gender change agenda and resisting implementing criteria and procedures which facilitate gender equality or allocating resources for it. Legitimating discourses depict existing policies and practices as appropriate, reasonable and fair. They include excellence, choice, a depoliticised intersectional discourse, a revitalised biological essentialism and a gender-neutral discourse which obscures gendered power and sexual harassment. The chapter identifies lessons learned, the structural levers of change including gender competent leaders, empowered gender equality structures and the contribution of feminist activists to institutional transformation.
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The main aim of this chapter is to explore the positioning of females in higher education as presented in the literature, with a specific focus on gender equity and obstacles along the path to professorial level, as well as the trajectories across diverse HE systems. It thus serves as an introduction to the plethora of personal narratives of female professors hailing from diverse disciplines and cultural backgrounds, with each unique professional life story contributing to the discourses that constitute these successful academics who made it. Efforts to shift the gender bias in academia at both European and international levels (European Commission 2009) have been addressed both through policy priorities and shifts in governance mechanisms (Teelken and Deem 2013). These changes reflect wider societal changes (Winchester and Browning 2015). However, gender imbalance at professorial level remains (Macfarlane 2012). Consequently, this creates a discursive space in which to problematize the ‘gender question’ in the academy through an exploration of the multiple status differentials and hierarchies, as well as the fluid power relations that render women both subjects and objects (Midkiff 2015). The various scholars who have endeavoured to ‘unmask the rules of the game that lurk beneath the surface rationality of academic meritocracy’ (Morley 2013, p. 116) have revealed various discrimination practices that act as barriers to female academics pursuing leadership in higher education. These barriers, at times identifiable at the recruitment process (Grove 2013), revolve around gendered institutional cultures and practices, individual factors and family responsibilities. Collectively, these ‘stumbling blocks’ have been termed as ‘cultural sexism’ (Savigny 2014, p. 796) due to the pervading ‘chilly climate’ for women in academia. This critical literature narrative provides a backdrop for the subsequent experiences of ‘successful’ women professors in the book, with the ten tales of career progression serving as the mosaic to aid our understanding of these female identities in higher education.
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Philosophy, theology and engineering are each characterised by striking, yet similar, low participation rates by female academics. While these disciplines seem very different, and so the diagnosis of the causes of this under-representation might likewise be expected to differ, we show a commonality of analysis in the diagnoses of, and responses to, women's under-representation. In each, we find a shared argument that concepts and methodologies central to that discipline are gendered male. We also find a shared response which urges engagement in projects of critical re-imagination. We conclude with a case study of critical re-imagination in philosophy and draw some lessons from its successes and failures for the potential of gendered innovations to transform male dominated disciplines. While critical re-imagination of key concepts, presuppositions, and methodologies in these disciplines may be a necessary condition for improving participation rates by women, it is by no means sufficient.
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Graphic designers are generally invisible as the authors of their own work. A deliberate effort to self-promote must be made in order for them to be seen and acknowledged. The collaborative nature of design, associations with clients, and the involvement of production teams further hinders an individual graphic designer’s visible authorship. However, gender also has a major influence on the invisibility of women in the history of this industry. Historically, the most celebrated practising graphic designers in Australia have been men, as evidenced by their overwhelming presence in books and on award platforms. My research has explored and addressed the key factors that cause this gendered inequity, including the representation and understanding of the name ‘graphic design’, the biases in historical narratives, and the disparate understandings of ‘success’ and ‘significant contributions’. Applied research, in the form of four multi-model communication design projects, has been conducted to explore and address these issues. These are the Postcard Project (project one), the Slushie Installation (project two), the Anonymity Exhibition (project three), and the #afFEMatjon Website (project four). Using the theoretical lenses of feminism and building on existing literature I have validated my findings through the use of surveys, interviews, and the collation of data sets. Each of these major projects and accompanying methodologies quantify the visibility of women in Australian graphic design. In addition, this project advocates for women’s visibility on award platforms and in historical narratives, and in classrooms. The project collects, analyses, and validates the individual experiences of women in the graphic design industry. Comparisons are made regarding these findings in relation to academic and professional contexts, such as publishing, advertising, and within studios. New knowledge and insights are embodied in the creation of the designed outcomes. These include two distinct frameworks aimed at improving processes of power—the Framework for Gender Equitable Award Platforms and the Framework for Gender Equitable Histories. In addition, the Autonomous Comfort Zone Survey which is a tool that produced new primary research regarding the experience of individual Australian women graphic designers. These outcomes, plus the aforementioned four major projects, have been disseminated through many traditional and non-traditional channels. Each of these projects has been measured, using alt-metrics to determine the exposure, reach, and impact of the visibility they have created for women in Australian graphic design. This data has been comparatively mapped to demonstrate the large number of people exposed to the findings. It has also been qualitatively analysed to reveal the positive change that these outcomes have begun to make both within and beyond Australian graphic design.
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ABSTRACT The discourse surrounding female academics, with their comparatively slow academic progressionrecords, reveals a range of issues arising from gender inequality. This has, predominantly been ratified through traditional feminist perspectives of gender which enter upon women and their experience of disadvantage; a focus that leaves the experiences and positioning of male academics largely unattended and unanalysed. This paper therefore focuses whether male privilege acts to disadvantage the positions of academic women and interrogates role model configurations where this gendered relationally is evident; in pre-career experiences located in family. It explores how these experiences and practices influence gender relational outcomes for male and female academics. The research approach is qualitative and the data was collected from Sri Lankan and Australian universities. A multitude of parental and inter-familial influences, and social background factors significantly shape academics’ entry and career spirations. These social factors of motivation include class privilege, positive family support, role modelling and relatively greater opportunity available to male academics through their family backgrounds interwoven with gendered social practices. Females reported being restricted significantly due to gender ideologies than due to family values or support in this regard. Keywords: Gendered opportunity, Academic men and women, Gender-relationality, Pre-career dynamics, Gender inequality
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Various metaphors are used in the literature and media to refer to the careers and experiences of women academics. In the wake of the fascinating debate in the literature surrounding the adequacy of these expressions, considerable effort has been devoted to the pursuit of ‘the ideal metaphor’: one that is comprehensible, inclusive, intersectional, empowering; acknowledges the agency of women and all social actors within the organisation; and meets a number of other high standards. Drawing on classic arguments in the communication sciences, I argue that metaphors can hinder access to the conceptual content of one’s research and reasoning. I regard that as a potential problem, as one of the primary goals of such research is inclusion. I also contend that the use of figurative language, usually opaque and indirect, may reveal that the topic of women’s careers in academia is emotionally charged, bordering on the taboo. Finally, I problematise the assumption that underlies much of the literature: that the use of particular metaphors can influence behaviour and power relations.
Chapter
Notwithstanding extensive expansion of the system and the array of equity policy instruments put in place in response to unequal access and participation, the problem of inequality in Ethiopian higher education (HE) has persisted in the form of the underrepresentation of women, high attrition rates and low graduation rates among females and ethnic minorities, low female participation in the fields of science and technology, prejudicial views and hostilities against women, and discriminatory graduate employment (see Chaps. 5– 7). In this respect, the core argument of this chapter is that the persistence of inequality in Ethiopian HE has partly to do with drawbacks in the framing of the problem as a policy issue. The chapter shows that in the Ethiopian HE policy field, most often the problem of social inequality is represented as a problem of disparity in enrolment, poor academic performance, and lack of assertiveness of female students while structural barriers remain (for the most part) unaddressed. This superficial representation of structural inequality in Ethiopian HE has profoundly affected the equity instruments introduced at a national level. Even though affirmative action admission and recruitment policies might have widened the opportunity of individuals to get access to HE, more relevant instruments such as protective legislation against violence and sexual harassment, continuing support for equity target groups, including female students and students of rural and ethnic minority backgrounds are rarely enacted. The equity policy provisions are deficient in that they fail to challenge institutional and cultural barriers that impede disadvantaged groups’ effective participation, success and promotion within the HE system. The analysis in this chapter mainly focuses on gender equity policy provisions as exemplary cases. Following a brief theoretical account on policy issue framing, in this chapter, I take gender inequality in Ethiopian HE as an exemplary case to problematize the framing of the problem of inequality in equity policies.
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