ArticlePDF Available

The Relationship between Happiness and Self-Awareness among Introverts and Extroverts

Authors:

Abstract and Figures

It is commonly believed that extroverts are happy and felicitous, and introversion is usually regarded as the state of having no fun or happiness in life. The present research is intended to investigate the relationship between extroversion (one of the Big Five Personality Traits) and happiness level among individuals to figure out whether there is any significant relationship between extroversion/introversion and happiness. Also the level of self-awareness of the extroverts and introverts is measured. In this study the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), which comprises 60 items (12 items per domain), and MUNSH Scale of Happiness as well as McGraw-Hill's Self Awareness Questionnaire were used. The participants were 150 students ranging from 18 to 50 years. The regression analysis was used to figure out the relationship between variables. The findings suggest that extroverts are happier than introverts (p < .01) and the level of self-awareness is higher in extroverts in comparison with the introverts (p < .01).
Content may be subject to copyright.
Psychology, 2016, 7, 1119-1125
Published Online July 2016 in SciRes. http://www.scirp.org/journal/psych
http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/psych.2016.78112
How to cite this paper: Bagherian, M., Mojembari, A. K., Naghibian, P., & Nik, S. F. (2016). The Relationship between Hap-
piness and Self-Awareness among Introverts and Extroverts. Psychology, 7, 1119-1125.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/psych.2016.78112
The Relationship between Happiness
and Self-Awareness among
Introverts and Extroverts
Mandana Bagherian, Adis Kraskian Mojembari, Parviz Naghibian, Sanam Farshad Nik
Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
Received 28 May 2016; accepted 12 July 2016; published 15 July 2016
Copyright © 2016 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.
This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution International License (CC BY).
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
Abstract
It is commonly believed that extroverts are happy and felicitous, and introversion is usually re-
garded as the state of having no fun or happiness in life. The present research is intended to inves-
tigate the relationship between extroversion (one of the Big Five Personality Traits) and happi-
ness level among individuals to figure out whether there is any significant relationship between
extroversion/introversion and happiness. Also the level of self-awareness of the extroverts and
introverts is measured. In this study the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), which comprises 60
items (12 items per domain), and MUNSH Scale of Happiness as well as McGraw-Hills Self Aware-
ness Questionnaire were used. The participants were 150 students ranging from 18 to 50 years.
The regression analysis was used to figure out the relationship between variables. The findings
suggest that extroverts are happier than introverts (p < .01) and the level of self-awareness is
higher in extroverts in comparison with the introverts (p < .01).
Keywords
Big Five Personality Traits, Extroversion, Self-Awareness, Introversion, Students
1. Introduction
Perhaps, one of the most important challenges in today’s life is happiness, and one of the most significant fac-
tors in determining the true meaning of life is happiness. Happiness is so significant that it can reduce the mor-
tality rate among humans and increase life expectancy among individuals (Beatle et al., 2015). Happiness has
been undoubtedly one of the most dreams of mankind and all do their best to achieve it. The level of happiness
depends on the individual’s assessment of their self and lives. These assessments can be cognitive such as the
M. Bagherian et al.
1120
judgements made concerning satisfaction or they can be emotional which are revealed in reaction to the events
in life (Blanchflower & Oswald, 2004). The happy people have a more positive idea towards life and events.
They have a higher level of satisfaction towards family, occupation, education and other aspects of life (Eysenk,
1996).
2. Literature Review
2.1. Personality
Personality refers to a set of mental characteristics used to classify people. These characteristics can have stable
effects on human behavior. Personality comprises the attributes, tendencies, or traits which result in stability in
human behavior. In fact, personality consists of the characteristics and attributes which result in human behav-
ioral differences, stability of behavior over time and behavior permanence in different situations. These charac-
teristics can be personal and common among different groups, but their patterns are uniquely personal in differ-
ent people (Feist & Feist, 2011). Those who are neurotic tend to experience anxiety, insecurity, low level
self-esteem, shame, and aggression (McCrae & Costa, 1987). In contrast, those with lower levels of neuroticism
have less negative emotional characteristics. They are less anxious, less depressed, and less amenable to stress.
On the other end are the people who are more pessimistic, dubious, unemotional, manipulative, unkind, uncoop-
erative, unstable, obstinate and aggressive. In addition, people with the higher sense of responsibility are more
organized, dependable, and ambitious with more energy and stronger wills (Koob, 2007/2015). A closer look at
an individual can provide us with a comprehensive and precise look concerning the inter-individual, experiential,
attitudinal and motivational emotional states, and personality traits can analyze the attributes more precisely
(McCrae & Costa, 1992). Based on the five personality trait model, personality can be better understood in the
light of Neuroticism, Extroversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Openness (McAdams & Pals, 2006).
Neuroticism refers to a continuum of emotional instability to emotional stability (McAdams & Pals, 2006; Ma-
honey & Stacon, 2005; Rice, 2007). According to John and Srivastava (1999), Extroversion is an energetic ap-
proach to the material and social life which consists of socialization, activity, decisiveness and courage. The in-
troverts, in contrast with the extroverts, are reported to experience less enjoyment and more pain in face to face
personal meetings (Ward & Tracey, 2004). People who are open to experience are amenable to new ideas and
unusual values and experience positive and negative emotions more deeply and intensely than the inflexible
people. These people show agreeableness (McCrae & Costa, 1987). People who are less open to experience are
more conventional, strict. They are less creative, imaginative and analytic and have lower tendency towards in-
terest (Koob, 2007/2015). Conscientiousness reflects responsibility; that is, being exact, responsible, and organ-
ized with plans (Rice, 2007/2015).
2.2. Happiness
In a study conducted by Beatie et al. among millions of men and women over 60 in England, they observed that
happiness can drastically reduce anxiety, promote their health and reduce the risk of death up to 10 years. An-
other study in Japan showed that happiness can significantly reduce the risk of death among men with age
ranges between 40 to 69 suffering from heart problems (Shirai, Iso, & Ohira, 2009). A number of studies have
also shown the significant effect of happiness on educational improvement and motivation (Ghasemi et al., 2011;
Hassanzadeh & Mahdinejad, 2013; Tabbodi et al., 2015). Other investigations also the positive relationship be-
tween happiness on the one hand and self-compassion and mindfulness on the other (Hollis-Walker & Colosimo,
2011). All these studies underscore the effectiveness of happiness in life. Some studies show that the extroverts
are happier than introverts (DeNeve & Cooper, 1998; Diener & Lucas, 1999, 2000; Lucas & Fujita, 2000). Hap-
piness and extroversion are so intertwined that a number of researchers regard extroversion as one of the impor-
tant factors of happiness (Lucas, Diener, Groob, Sue, & Shaw, 2000; Telegen, 1985; Watson & Clark, 1997).
Other researchers believe that the there are other determining factors in this regard. For instance, it is believed
that ARH (Affective Reactivity Hypothesis) can also account for happiness and enjoyment (Larsen & Ketelaar,
1991; Sterlow, 1987; Tegen, cited in Orelemans, 1985; Baker, 2014). Khosroshahi et al. (2013) have reported a
positive correlation between happiness and extroversion. Happiness is one of the most important concepts and
components in human life and a number of fields and sub-fields in Psychology attempt to define it with the in-
tention of making it easier for people to achieve. Happiness comprises three significant components: Positive
M. Bagherian et al.
1121
Emotions, Life satisfaction and Absence of negative emotions, such as depression and anxiety. Argyle et al.
(1990) and Myers and Diener (1995) also believe that happiness has emotional, social, and cognitive compo-
nents. Social components will result in the improvement of social relationship and social support. The cognitive
component results in some personal and idiosyncratic thoughts and interpretation of the information, and inter-
pret the daily events to make him more optimistic. Positive relationship with others, goal-directed life, personal
development, love of nature and mankind are also considered to be the components of happiness. Positive emo-
tions such as happiness prepare the organism for future challenges (Kar, 2004; Erkison, 2000). They believe that
those who experience the positive motivation can make use of time in their interest; therefore, they are away from
unpredictable dangers and indefinite failures which give them the chance to follow their goals.
2.3. Method
The present study enjoys a non-experimental, and correlational design based on regression analysis. The par-
ticipants were 430 students (280 female and 150 male) ranging from 18 to 50 years selected from among the
students studying in Alborz Province Universities. The convenient sampling was utilized and 150 participants
were selected based on the extroversion scores considering the mean and standard deviations.
3. Instruments
3.1. Neo Five-Factor Inventory
The Neo Five-factor Inventory was used to measure the five BIG personality traits (Costa & McCrea, 1992)
which consists of 60 questions and the five personality traits (Openness to Experience, Extroversion, Conscien-
tiousness, Agreeableness and Neuroticism) are each tested by 12 questions. This inventory is based on the five
degree Likert scale. The reliability index of this inventory was from .75 to .83. The internal consistency index,
as reported in Garoosi, Farshi, Mahyar and Ghazi Tabtabyee (2001, quoted in Hosseini et al., 2014) were .86,
.73, .56, .68, .87 for Neuroticism, Extroversion, Openness to Experience, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness
respectively. The Cronbach Alpha Index of the inventory was .765.
3.2. Memorial University of Newfoundland Scale of Happiness
Memorial University of Newfoundland Scale of Happiness has been designed to measure happiness. Kozma and
Stones (2000) designed a test which emphasizes the amount and intensity of positive and negative affects. Each
of these affects has two long range and short range aspects. The short range items illustrate state affects while
the long range items are related to the positive and negative affects. Each state affect consists of five questions
and each positive/negative affect consists of 7 questions which totally comprise 24 questions. The validity index
of MUNSH is reported to be from .70 to .85 in different studies (Kosma et al., 2000). In addition the correlation
of this scale with the other scales of mental health such as GAS Happiness Scale (.50) indicates the convergent
validity of this scale (Maki, 2005; Wals, 2006). In Iran in a research study by Babapoor et al., the internal con-
sistency of this scale was reported to be .71. Also, the same study approved the construct validity of the same
scale. In a research by Alipoor et al., the Cronbach Alpha reported for the reliability of this scale was reported to
be .76. In this scale the positive short range and long range affects are first put together and then subtracted from
the negative short range and long range affects. The highest possible score is 24. The higher the score, the better
the emotional status of the individual. The Cronbach Alpha of the scale calculated in the present study is .725.
3.3. McGraw-Hill Self Awareness Questionnaire
This questionnaire was has been designed to discover the individual’s understanding of his own self and how to
improve his own special needs, and it was revised by McGraw-Hill in 2002. The participants’ replies to the
items should reflect the tendencies and behaviors they actually have rather than the ones they love to have. This
questionnaire is a seven option Likert scale. The Cronbach Alpha calculated in the present study is .972.
4. Procedure
The present research considers questionnaires distributed among available student-samples. All instructions
were presented carefully to each participant. The researcher examined all the questioners to be answered per-
M. Bagherian et al.
1122
fectly by the participants in order to avoid missing a single question unanswered. Among 430 collected ques-
tioners, 150 samples (75 extroverted, 75 introverted) were selected and analysed.
5. Results
Before testing the hypotheses and answering the research questions four points have to be taken into account:
1) To ensure that there is a significant difference in two selected groups in regard to extroversion obtained
from the NEO scale, the two independent groups were compared with each other and Table 1 shows the results
obtained:
The results of the test show that there is a significant difference between the two groups in regard to extrover-
sion.
2) Homogeneity of the two groups with regard to demographic variables:
Chi-square was used to compare the frequency distribution of sex, education, marital status in the two groups
and the mean test was used to determine the age in the two independent groups. The results of these tests are
shown in Table 2.
The results indicate that the two groups are homogeneous with regard to demographic characteristics.
3) Normality of the Distribution of Research variables:
The results of the Kolmogorov Smirnov test is reported to show the normal distribution of the research vari-
ables (Table 3).
Based on the results, the distribution of both variables is normal, therefore the parametric tests can be used to
test the research hypotheses (Table 4).
Research Hypothesis 1: Extroverts are happier than extroverts.
Table 1. Extroversion scores for two groups (N = 150).
Group n M SD
Levenes test for
equality of variances t-test for equality of means
F Mean difference Std. error difference df t
Extraverted 75 49.40 2.52 2.010 18.99 .450 148 42.187**
Introverted 75 30.41 2.97
**p < .01.
Table 2. (a) Comparison of homogeneity of two groups with regard to sex, education and marital status (N = 150); (b)
Comparison of homogeneity of the two groups with regard to age (N = 150).
(a)
Extraverted (n = 75) Introverted (n = 75) Total (n = 150) Equality Test
f % of group % of total
F % of group % of total
f % χ2 Sig.
Sex Male 29 50.0 19.3 29 50.0 19.3 58 38.7 .000 N.S.
Female 46 50.0 30.7 46 50.0 30.7 92 61.3
Education
Bachelor students
56 47.5 37.3 62 52.5 41.3 118 78.7
2.112 N.S. Master students 18 58.1 12.0 13 41.9 8.7 31 20.7
PhD students 1 100.0 .7 0 .0 .0 1 .7
Marital Status
Single 54 46.2 36.0 63 53.8 42.0 117 78.0 3.147 N.S.
Married 21 63.6 14.0 12 36.4 8.0 33 22.0
(b)
Group n M SD Levenes test for equality of variances t-test for equality of means Sig.
F Mean difference Std. error difference df t
Introverted
75 26.33
7.23 3.860 1.32 1.141 148 1.157
N.S.
M. Bagherian et al.
1123
Table 3. Results of Kolmogorov Smirnov test.
Group Variable n M SD Most extreme differences Kolmogorov-Smirnov Z Sig.
Absolute Positive Negative
Extraverted Happiness 75 9.39 7.98 .135 .070 .135 1.169 .130 N.S.
Self-awareness
75 54.31 11.48 .137 .072 .137 1.190 .118 N.S.
Introverted Happiness 75 5.04 9.46 .102 .102 .076 .885 .413 N.S.
Self-awareness
75 48.53 10.89 .078 .054 .078 .676 .751 N.S.
Table 4. Comparison of happiness among extroverts and introverts.
Group n M SD
Levenes test for
equality of variances t-test for equality of means Effect size
F Mean difference Std. error difference df t η2
Extraverted 75 9.39 7.98 3.953* 14.43 1.429 143.93 10.093** .408
Introverted 75 5.04 9.46
*p < .05, **p < .0.
Table 5. Comparison of self-awareness among extroverts and introverts.
Group n M SD
Levenes test for
equality of variances t-test for equality of means Effect
size
F Mean difference Std. error difference df t η2
Extraverted
75 54.31 11.48 .050 1.827 5.77 148 3.160**
.063
Introverted
75 48.53 10.89
**p < .0.
Statistical Conclusion: As the t observed (10.093) is larger than t critical with the degree of freedom of 143.93
in a one tail test (2.357), the null hypothesis which states that there is no difference between the means of two
groups is rejected by 99%. In other words, the mean score of the extroverts (9.39) is on a higher level than that
of introverts (5.04). With respect to the index calculated almost 44% of the happiness variable is determined by
extroversion.
Result: Extroverts are happier than introverts.
Research Hypothesis 2: Extroverts have a higher level of self-awareness than introverts (Table 5).
Result: As the t observed (3.160) is larger than t critical with the degree of freedom of 148 in a one tail test
(2.357), the null hypothesis which states that there is no difference between the means of two groups is rejected
by 99%. In other words, the mean score of the extroverts’ self-awareness (54.31) is on a higher level than that of
introverts (48.53). Almost 6% of the self-awareness variable id determined by introversion.
Result: Extroverts have a higher level of self-awareness than introverts.
6. Discussion
The purpose of the present study was to find a meaningful relationship happiness and extroversion, and figure
out whether extroverts are happier than introverts. The statistical results prove this point. This study is line with
the previous research which states that extroverts have a higher level of happiness in their lives than introverts.
Similar studies which have focused on self-awareness have come to the conclusion that extroversion has a mea-
ningful relationship with self-awareness. In a research on 1364 participants who performed 13937 tasks, Oerle-
mans and Bakker (2014) found out that the level of happiness of the extroverts on tasks with external reinforce-
ment (Rewards) was higher than that of the introverts. Of course these results are only valid in tasks with exter-
nal reinforcement. In a study on 200 participants, Khosroshahi et al. (2012) found out that there is a direct mea-
ningful relationship between happiness, and other personality traits such as extroversion, openness to experience,
M. Bagherian et al.
1124
agreeableness and conscientiousness (p < .01) while the same study showed a negative meaningful relationship
between happiness and neuroticism (p < .01). In a similar study on 96 females and 27 males who were mentally
healthy, Hollis-Walker and Colosimo (2010) found a meaningful direct relationship between extroversion, hap-
piness, mindfulness, and self-compassion. De Young, Peterson, and Higgins (2002) in a study on 245 university
students and 222 individuals found out that extroversion and openness to experience are regarded as the sub-
components of flexibility which include all the characteristics of compatibility and flexibility.
7. Limitations
The first element leads to a limitation of the present study is the type of sampling, which is available sampling.
The fact that participants are confined to the available ones, confirms that the conclusion may suffer from some
deviations once a change occurs in sample selection. The second element, which intensifies the first one, is that
the participants are among university students of higher education, which admits the restriction of conclusion to
the exact group of participants, not others. These factors may affect findings generalization and limit its reliabil-
ity due to considering of students.
8. Directions for the Future
This research is capable of scrutinizing all types of samples in different societies to investigate the relationship
between extroversion/introversion and happiness. In addition, other personality traits can be examined for future
directions.
Conflict of Interest
There is no conflict of interest.
Participants
In this study, Participants involved human beings and consisted of university students.
Consent
There is a completely consent between authors to result this findings and publish this manuscript.
References
Argyle, M., & Lu, L. (1990). Happiness and Social Skills. Journal of Personality and Individual Differences, 11, 1255-1261.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0191-8869(90)90152-H
Blanchflower, D. G., & Oswald, A. J. (2004). Money, Sex and Happiness: An Empirical Study. The Scandinavian Journal of
Economics, 106, 393-415. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0347-0520.2004.00369.x
Costa, P. T., & McCrea, R. R. (1992). Domains and Facets: Hierarchial Personality Assessment Using the Revised NEO
Personality Inventory. Journal of Personality Assessment, 64, 21-50. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327752jpa6401_2
DeNeve, K. M., & Cooper, H. (1998). The Happy Personality: A Meta-Analysis of 137 Personality Traits and Subjective
Well-Being. Psychological Bulletin, 124, 197-229. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.124.2.197
Diener, E., & Lucas, R. E. (1999). Personality and Subjective Well-Being. In D. Kahneman, E. Diener, & N. Schwarz (Eds.),
Well-Being: The Foundations of Hedonic Psychology (pp. 213-229). New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Diener, E., & Lucas, R. E. (2000). Subjective Emotional Well-Being, Hand Book of Emotion. New York: Gulford University
Press.
Eysenk, M. W. (1996). Happiness Psychology (Translated by K. Beygi & M. Firoozbakht). Badr Publishing.
Feist, J., & Feist, G. J. (2011). Theories of Personality (Translated by Y. S. Mohammadi). Ravan Publishing.
Ghasemi, F., Rastegar, A., Ghorban, J. R., & Roozegar, M. R. (2011). The Relationship between Creativity and Achievement
Motivation with High School Students’ Entrepreneurship. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 30, 1291-1296.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.10.250
Hassanzadeh, R., & Mahdinejad, G. (2013). Relationship between Happiness and Achievement Motivation: A Case of Uni-
versity students. Journal of Elementary Education, 23, 53-65.
Hollis-Walker, L., & Colosimo, K. (2011). Mindfulness, Self-Compassion, and Happiness in Non-Meditators: A Theoretical
M. Bagherian et al.
1125
and Empirical Examination. Personality and Individual Differences, 50, 222-227.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2010.09.033
Hosseini, S., Mojembari, A. K., & Ferdosipour, A. (2014) The Contribution of Five Major Factors of Personality in Predic-
tion of Ambiguity Tolerance. Thought & Behavior in Clinical Psychology, 19, 17-26.
Khosroshahi, J. B., Hashemi Nosrat Abad, T., & Mashinchi Abassi, N. (2013). The Relationship between Personality Traits,
Emotional Intelligence and Happiness among University Students. Journal of Kermanshah University of Medical Science,
16.
Kozma, A., Stones, S., & Stones, M. J. (2000). Stability in Components and Predictors of Subjective Well Being (SWB):
Implications for SWB Structure. In E. Diener & D. R. Rahtz (Eds.), Advances in Quality of Life Theory and Research (pp.
13-30). http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-011-4291-5_2
Larsen, R. J., & Ketelaar, T. (1991). Personality and Susceptibility to Positive and Negative Emotional States. Journal of
Personality and Social Psychology, 61, 132-140. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.61.1.132
Lucas, R. E., Diener, E., Grob, A., Suh, E. M., & Shao, L. (2000). Cross-Cultural Evidence for the Fundamental Features of
Extraversion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79, 452-468. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.79.3.452
Lucas, R. E., & Fujita, F. (2000). Factors Influencing the Relation between Extraversion and Pleasant Affect. Journal of
Personality and Social Psychology, 79, 1039-1056. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.79.6.1039
Maki, A. A. (2005). The Relationship between Spirituality and Successful Aging Older Minority Women. Dissertation Ab-
stracts International of Florida State University.
McAdams, D. P., & Pals, J. L. (2006). A New Big Five: Fundamental Principles for an Integrative Science of Personality.
American Psychologists, 3, 204-217. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.61.3.204
McCrae, R. R., & Costa, P. T. (1987). Validation of the Five Factor Model of Personality across Instruments and Observa-
tion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 81-90. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.52.1.81
Myers, D. G., & Diener, E. (1995). Who Is Happy? Psychological Science, 6, 10-19.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9280.1995.tb00298.x
Oerlemans, W. G. M., & Bakker, A. B. (2014). Why Extraverts Are Happier: A Day Reconstruction Study. Journal of Re-
search in Personality, 50, 11-22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jrp.2014.02.001
Shirai, K., Iso, H., Ohira, T. et al. (2009) Perceived Level of Life Enjoyment and Risks of Cardiovascular Disease in Inci-
dence and Mortality: The Japan Public Health Center-Based Study. Circulation, 20, 956-963.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.108.834176
Tabbodi, M., Rahgozar, H., & Mozaffari Makki Abadi, M. (2015). The Relationship between Happiness and Academic
Achievements. European Online Journal of Natural and Social Science, 4, 241-246.
Ward, C. C., & Tracey, T. J. G. (2004). Relation of Shyness with Aspects of Online Relationship Involvement. Journal of
Social and Personal Relationship, 21, 611-623. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0265407504045890
Submit your manuscript at: http://papersubmission.scirp.org/
... Interestingly, another study (Niess & Wozniak, 2018) also showed that many people find it difficult to express their personal goals and even more so their fundamental human needs with regard to their well-being. Indeed, happier people are more self-aware of their own needs (Bagherian et al., 2016). Positive psychology (Seligman & Csikszentmihalyi, 2000;Waterman, 2013) provides a rich body of knowledge on these implicit goals and needs, which can inform the development of these informatics systems. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
This study investigates a technology-mediated experience design that fosters memorable and meaningful tourism experiences (MMEs). Technology has been playing an integral role in facilitating people to make personal choices on their tourism activities, from itinerary planning, online bookings, and way findings, to social sharing of people’s journeys. This study shows how technology may offer the potential to transcend personalized experiences into memorable and meaningful experiences. A review of literature in positive psychology provided three insights on MMEs. First, a holistic understanding of MMEs from one’s explicit experiential dimension to implicit experiential dimension, which includes what people do, feel, think, and value. Second, MMEs also result from pursuing growth goals derived from their past, present, and future aspirations. Lastly, character strengths, which represent positive traits of individuals, can be the pivotal component in MMEs because they are the bridge between the implicit and the explicit dimensions of experience. Experience of meaning can emerge by making the implicit explicit, thereby fostering self-awareness, a sense of purpose, and self-development towards flourishing. Therefore, this study seeks to incorporate character strengths into an informatics system so that users can cultivate their character strengths and facilitate users in the appreciation of their MMEs by connecting what they do, feel, think and value. This thesis is composed of interrelated three studies that progress through a design process. The first study explored how technology can support people to cultivate their character strengths for the creation of memorable and meaningful experiences. It resulted in a tripartite strengths-based HCI framework that encapsulates three aspects of strengths used namely, strengths well spent, reflection and introspection, and anticipation of future self. The second study focused on the stage of reflection and introspection by investigating people’s proficiencies in creating visual diary with photos generated on their memorable and meaningful journeys because comprehensive visual storytelling is the prerequisite for people to connect the experience to the associated implicit psychological motives and needs. The result informed the development of a proof-of-concept strengths-based journaling platform. The third study involved the evaluation of the platform from three perspectives. First, on the features that facilitate users to create meaning by making the implicit psychological dimensions of MMEs (e.g., character strengths, motives, and values) explicit. Second, participants’ strengths that had drawn upon on their MMEs. Third, their intentions on cultivating their characters strengths, and pursuing values gained in their future journeys. The result showed that people deepened their self-awareness by using the platform. Also, MMEs more often involved people’s moderate character strengths rather than signature strengths. Participants were more willing to pursue the value gained and develop the character strengths used in their future journeys rather than revisit the places. By making the implicit psychological dimensions explicit, this study showed that technology facilitates people to deepen their self-awareness through recognizing deep-rooted values and appreciate character strengths from their MMEs. The result of this study has multiple implications and contributions to the field of technology-mediated experience design and smart tourism innovation at the levels of empirical research, theory, and artifacts.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The fishing households' motivation is saving their money is self-encouragement to set aside funds from fishing activities to meet their family needs and useful savings funds in the future. This research aims at analyzing the fishing households' motivation in facing the uncertainty of their income that relies on their earning from the sea. This study was conducted by employing a survey in relation to discovering a description of the motivation in saving by fishing households. This study was purposively done in Pasongsongan Sub-District, Sumenep Regency, East Java. The sampling technique used was proportionate stratified random sampling. This study employed a qualitative phenomenological method, and the collected data were analyzed descriptively. The results showed that one of the fishing households' motivations for saving was the large income at the time of fish harvest, future expectations for their children's education cost, the family dependents and their own satisfaction in working as fishermen. For fishing households, saving at any amount is an economic necessity to carry on their life properly by reducing consumptive expenditures whose benefits can be reaped in the future. Fishermen save by keeping their money at home or in bank savings accounts. They also save by converting their money to gold as a form of investment that they keep at home. The highest number of the saving was fishing households with < 10 GT fishing vessels at 36.62%, while those with 10-30 GT fishing vessels at 16.90% and those with outboard motors at 9.86%. Fishing households' motivation in saving is a form of fishermen's awareness of unexpected needs in the future. In fact, in the process of saving, there are fishermen who have not considered to record their financial expenditures since they are planning to save their money in the following year. The allocation of savings made by fishing households is for their children's school fees, their own boat repairing or purchase cost. Keywords: Motivation in Saving. Fishermen, Pasongsongan, Sumenep In
Chapter
Full-text available
A little investigated explanation for the high temporal stability in SWB scores is the stability of predictors. In the current investigation, over 400 participants were followed over a 48-month period during which SWB and predictor measures were taken at the beginning, the middle, and the end of the study. Predictors of SWB included demographic variables, domain satisfactions and stresses, current hassles and uplifts, and personality characteristics and styles. Component measures of SWB included both long- and short-term affect measures. As expected, long-term components of SWB yielded average temporal stability coefficients of 0.60 while short-term components averaged coefficients of only 0.35. With the exception of demographic variables, that fail to achieve significant predictive power and daily hassles, that have small predictive power, only personalty factors and domain satisfactions, averaged over all domains, reached the stability of long-term SWB components. When structural equation modelling was employed with significant SWB predictors, including prior SWB scores, top-down and bi-directional models provided the best fit for the data. These results are more consistent with our earlier hypothesis that SWB has both trait- and state-like properties than with one that attributes SWB stability solely to environmental and personality variables.
Article
Full-text available
This study was an attempt to investigate the relationship between creativity and achievement motivation with high school students' entrepreneurship in Shiraz. In this regard, the relationship of the four dimensions of creativity (fluency, initiative, flexibility, and elaboration) accompanied by 8 characteristics of achievement motivation (hard working, vision, eagerness, purposefulness, progress, insistence, primarity of colleague experts, and the utmost use of time) with entrepreneurship were investigated. The research method was correlation and Abedi's (1993) creativity questionnaire, Hermans' (1970) Achievement Motivation Test, and Scarborough and Zimmerer' (1990) Entrepreneurship Profile were used. 365 (171 male and 194 female) students were chosen using multistage cluster sampling and were asked to complete the questionnaires. After collecting and analyzing the data, the results indicated that there was a meaningful relation between students' creativity and entrepreneurship. There was also meaningful positive relation between achievement motivation and entrepreneurship. Among the components of creativity, fluency and initiative had positive relation to entrepreneurship. Among components of achievement motivation, hard working, purposefulness, and insistence had positive meaningful relation to entrepreneurship; however, the utmost use of time had negative relation to entrepreneurship. Other components of achievement motivation had weak relations with entrepreneurship. Moreover, the results showed that girls were higher than boys in creativity, achievement motivation, and entrepreneurship. Among the four regions of education, region 2 had better situation regarding the three variables than other regions. (C) 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of the 2nd World Conference on Psychology, Counselling and guidance.
Article
The links between income, sexual behavior and reported happiness are studied using recent data on a sample of 16,000 adult Americans. The paper finds that sexual activity enters strongly positively in happiness equations. Higher income does not buy more sex or more sexual partners. Married people have more sex than those who are single, divorced, widowed or separated. The happiness-maximizing number of sexual partners in the previous year is calculated to be 1. Highly educated females tend to have fewer sexual partners. Homosexuality has no statistically significant effect on happiness. © The editors of the Scandinavian Journal of Economics 2004. Published by Blackwell Publishing.
Article
The study contributes to the literature on extraversion and momentary happiness by examining processes that might underlie this robust effect. The affective-reactivity hypothesis suggests that extraverts react more positively to rewarding situations as compared to introverts. According to the person-by-situation model, extraverts should enjoy social interactions more than introverts do. Global reports of extraversion were combined with an ecologically valid Day Reconstruction Method (DRM) to assess time spent and happiness of 1,364 participants during 13,973 activities. Multilevel results confirm that extraverts (versus introverts) experience a higher boost in momentary happiness when spending time on rewarding – but not pleasurable - activities, especially when rewarding activities are executed with others. These processes partly explain why extraverts are happier in the moment.
Article
Relationships that individuals develop using an online medium constitute a relatively new way of forming personal attachments with others. Researchers have only recently begun to explore online relationship involvement and the personality characteristics that may draw individuals to use this medium for relationship development. Although certain aspects have been proposed, including loneliness and social anxiety, to date only a few studies have explored these issues. The primary focus of this study involved examining the relation of participants’ shyness with identical aspects of online and face-to-face relational involvement. University students were surveyed, with 146 reporting involvement in at least one online relationship. Results indicated that correlations of shyness with aspects of involvement in online relationships were greater than those with involvement in face-to-face relationships. However, shyness was not significantly related to aspects of online relationship involvement. Other findings included the comparability of surveys measuring both face-to-face and online relational involvement and the relationship of participants’ sex with aspects of involvement in online relationships.
Article
This study addressed the research question regarding the relationship between spirituality and successful aging among older Black women. The participants in this study completed a questionnaire that measured spirituality and successful aging as a composite of a) physical health, b) continuity of adaptation over time, c) a sense of meaning in life, and d) psychological well-being. The goals of this study are to a) extend the previous research on the multidimensional construct of successful aging and b) add to the sparse research on successful aging for older minority women. For the purposes of this study, the relationship between spirituality and successful aging was analyzed through a separate two-stage hierarchical multiple regression analyses for each successful aging criterion variable. In order to control for the effects of potentially important variables of individual differences, the demographic variables of age, religious affiliation, marital status, education, and income were entered in stage one of the regression analysis. The overall findings of this study concluded that only meaning in life was related to spirituality in a population of older Black women. This study was consistent with prior research in several areas, such as the demographic profile for the population indicating that older Black women have lower education and lower income levels. Consistent with the literature on older adults, the participants in this study indicated that as age increases, health and adapation decreases. Finally, although spirituality was not related to successful aging in this study, the results revealed that spirituality is an important factor in the lives of older Black women.
Article
A flood of new studies explores people's subjective well-being (SWB) Frequent positive affect, infrequent negative affect, and a global sense of satisfaction with life define high SWB These studies reveal that happiness and life satisfaction are similarly available to the young and the old, women and men, blacks and whites, the rich and the working-class Better clues to well-being come from knowing about a person's traits, close relationships, work experiences, culture, and religiosity We present the elements of an appraisal-based theory of happiness that recognizes the importance of adaptation, cultural world-view, and personal goals
Article
This study examined relationships between mindfulness and indices of happiness and explored a five-factor model of mindfulness. Previous research using this mindfulness model has shown that several facets predicted psychological well-being (PWB) in meditating and non-meditating individuals. The current study tested the hypothesis that the prediction of PWB by mindfulness would be augmented and partially mediated by self-compassion. Participants were 27 men and 96 women (mean age = 20.9 years). All completed self-report measures of mindfulness, PWB, personality traits (NEO-PI-R), and self-compassion. Results show that mindfulness is related to psychologically adaptive variables and that self-compassion is a crucial attitudinal factor in the mindfulness–happiness relationship. Findings are interpreted from the humanistic perspective of a healthy personality.