ChapterPDF Available

State of Kalimantan’s biodiversity



Content may be subject to copyright.
State of Kalimantan’s biodiversity
Budiharta, S., Meijaard, E. in press. State of Kalimantan’s biodiversity. In: Resosudarmo B.P.,
Imansyah, M.H., Napitupulu, L. (Eds), Development, Environment and the People of Kalimantan.
Indonesian Regional Science Association (IRSA), Jakarta.
State of Kalimantan’s biodiversity
As one of the global biodiversity hotspots (Whitten et al., 2004) and the third-largest island in the
world, Borneo continues to be somewhat of an enigma in the conservation literature and practice.
Despite years of research, significant uncertainty remains about the relative contribution of different
threats to the species diversity of this Southeast Asian island (Corlett, 2007; Koh et al., 2010; Meijaard
et al., 2012). An example of this is the recent discussion in the Indonesian media about how much
forest is actually left on the island. In 2011, the Indonesian president made a commitment to maintain
at least 45% of the forests of Kalimantan, the Indonesian part of Borneo (Presidential Regulation
3/2012 on Kalimantan Spatial Planning). Some environmental groups responded by saying that only
30% of Kalimantan actually remained covered in forests, and that this was therefore a meaningless
commitment (Satriastanti, 2012). On the other hand, the Indonesian Ministry of Forestry reported that
54.9% of Kalimantan was still covered in forest (Ministry of Forestry, 2011). This figure is close to
an estimate in a recent peer-reviewed analysis that indicated that 54.4% of forest cover remained
(Gaveau et al., 2013; Gaveau et al., 2014). Some confusion may arise from the unclear definition of
what constitutes a forest (Sasaki and Putz, 2009), but more generally there appears to be a lack of
scientific and reliable data about how much forest remains, what its ecological status is and how it is
being usedfor timber or non-timber production (production forest), biodiversity and ecosystem
conservation (conservation forest) or hydrological and soil protection (protection forest).
This lack of scientific understanding also extends to the species diversity of Borneo. Despite at least
two centuries of taxonomic research on the island, Borneo’s species and their conservation status
remain relatively poorly known. Many species records, both plant and animal, are based on just a few
observations. In Borneo, 1535% of the flora may not have been collected (Beaman and Burley,
2003). Estimates suggest that our knowledge of some higher plant families is far from complete
perhaps only 28% complete for the Fabaceae family of legumes in Southeast Asia, for example (Giam
et al., 2010). We are seldom sure whether a taxon is rare and localised or simply neglected (Abeli et
al., 2009; Cardoso et al., 2011). J.D. Holloway’s 18-volume work describing Borneo’s macro moths
is 70% complete; hundreds of new species have been identified so far and many more are likely to be
added. In short, we know neither exactly what species diversity exists on Borneo, nor how it is
affected by the wide range of threats, such as overharvesting and habitat loss. This makes effective
conservation planning difficult. Still, there are broader patterns of biodiversity that we can analyse,
and, if recognised early enough and incorporated into overall land-use planning, these biodiversity
values and associated forest ecosystem services can be protected and further contribute to the
wellbeing of the peoples of Borneo (Abram et al., 2014). Here we summarise the state of knowledge
about Borneo’s plant and animal biodiversity, the value of biodiversity to local livelihoods and threats
to its survival , and discuss some possible solutions to the ongoing biodiversity crisis.
Plant diversity
There is no doubt that the island of Borneo is among the richest biodiversity regions in the world. In
the early twentieth century, Merrill (1921) estimated that Borneo had 9,000 vascular plant species,
and several decades later Ashton (1989) mentioned between 10,000 and 15,000 species. With
improved data, updated taxonomy and new methods, these numbers were updated in recent studies
by Roos et al. (2004), who estimated 14,423 plant species for Borneo. Based on a global comparative
analysis, Kier et al. (2005) concluded that Borneo ranked first in term of plant species richness among
terrestrial ecoregions, outperforming the well-known Amazonian plant hotspot of South America
(Mittermeier et al., 2005). The island’s exceptional richness is generated by an overall high level of
biodiversity on all scales, including site (alpha) diversity, habitat (beta) diversity and landscape
(gamma) diversity.
Not only does Borneo have outstanding biodiversity richness, but it is also recognised for its high
level of endemism, with 4,089 of its plant species, or some 28% of the total, found nowhere else
(Roos et al., 2004). Among 3,000 tree species on the island, 30% are considered endemic, while 40%
of Borneo’s 290 palm species are recorded there alone (MacKinnon et al., 1996; Soepadmo and
Wong, 1995; Wong, 1998). Borneo is also a centre for orchid richness and endemism with an
estimated 1,5003,000 species, of which more than half are endemic (Chan et al., 1994; Lamb, 1991;
Wood and Cribb, 1994)
Among 109 families of tree in Borneo, the Dipterocarpaceae is the most prominent family, not just
because of its economic importance as the most widely harvested timber species, but also due to its
ecological dominance. Of the 386 described dipterocarp species in the world, 291 (75%) are recorded
from Borneo, with 156 being endemic (Soepadmo and Wong, 1995). In term of abundance, the
Dipterocarpaceae dominates tree composition, with 21% of inventoried trees belonging to this family,
followed by Euphorbiaceae (12.2%), Myrtaceae (5.2%), Sapotaceae (5.0%) and Lauraceae (4.6%)
(Slik et al. 2003). At the genus level, Shorea (meranti-merantian) stands out as the most common
genus, accounting for 12.3% of trees, followed by Syzygium (5.0%), Diospyros (3.4%), Madhuca
(3.2%) and Dipterocarpus (3.1%) (Slik et al., 2003).
Despite the overall high level of flora diversity in a regional context, the patterns of species richness
and endemicity in Borneo vary among landscapes. In general, the northeastern part of the island has
a larger number of plant species than the southwestern part. The higher biodiversity richness in the
northeast is probably driven by the mid-domain effect, meaning that diversity is concentrated in the
interior and mountainous areas of the island (Slik et al., 2003). There are some areas that have long
been regarded as centres of plant diversity, such as Mount Kinabalu and the Crocker Mountain Range
in the Malaysian state of Sabah, and the Meratus Mountains in southeast Borneo (MacKinnon et al.,
1996; Slik et al., 2003; Wong, 1998). Contemporary analysis using species distribution models of
herbarium records shows that the high mountain peaks of East Kalimantan also have a high level of
species richness (Raes et al., 2009). In addition, endemic plants are found in abundance in areas that
are biophysically distinct, in terms of altitude, edaphic condition or annual precipitation, for example.
This includes the Crocker Mountain Range, the northern parts of the Muller Mountains in central
Borneo, the lowland areas east of the Meratus Mountains and the eastern Sangkulirang Peninsula
(Raes et al., 2009).
In addition to the regional variation in diversity pointed out above, tree species diversity tends to vary
with altitude, with the lowland areas being especially rich in species. This is exemplified by the
lowland forests on the mineral soils of northeastern East Kalimantan, central West Kalimantan and
northern South Kalimantan, which are all areas of high tree species diversity. Unfortunately, in terms
of biodiversity conservation at least, these lowland areas are also important logging concession areas
(Slik et al., 2009), where unsustainable timber extraction and resulting forest loss has led to rapid loss
of species diversity (Paoli et al., 2010). Not all lowland areas harbour high levels of biodiversity. The
peat swamp forests of Central Kalimantan and the heath ecosystem of southern East Kalimantan
generally have low species diversity, not just for plants but also for a range of other species groups
(Paoli et al., 2010). Nevertheless, the species that are recorded in these areas are often unique and
found nowhere else, including Shorea venulosa, S. coriacea and S. materialis, which occur only in
heath forest, and S. albida, S. balangeran, S. macrantha, S. platycarpa and S. teysmanniana, which
are found in peat swamp forest (Raes et al., 2009; Soerianegara and Lemmens, 1994)
At the site scale, numerous floristic inventories have found that natural ecosystems in Borneo contain
extremely high level of alpha diversity. An example from a lowland forest near the Malinau River,
East Kalimantan, showed that as many as 759 trees with a diameter at breast height (dbh) of 10
centimetres or more (belonging to 205 species, 110 genera and 47 families) occurred within a 1-
hectare sample plot, making this site one of the richest in Indonesia (Sheil et al., 2010). Among them,
77 species were represented by only one individual, 43 species by two individuals, and 28 species by
three individuals. Miyamoto et al. (2003) surveyed trees with a dbh of at least 5 centimetres in a heath
forest in Kapuas, Central Kalimantan, and recorded 2,016 individuals per hectare belonging to 144
Animal diversity
Borneo is the most species-rich island in western Indonesia in terms of its absolute vertebrate
diversity, although in relative terms (that is, number of species per square kilometre), it is not as rich
as the other islands (Table 11.1). Still, it is clear that regionally in Asia and Oceania, the Southeast
Asian tropics and particularly the Sundaic islands of Sumatra, Java and Borneo stand out for their
species diversity, as exemplified by the diversity of mammal species (Figure 11.1). As with plants,
the actual number of animal species is under constant revision, and new species are added on a regular
basis. In 2012 alone, researchers described several new species and a new genus of tapeworm from
Borneo (Eyring et al., 2012; Schaeffner and Beveridge, 2012a, b, c), as well as four new species of
fish (Kottelat, 2012; Kottelat and Hui, 2011; Kottelat and Tan, 2012; Ng and Kottelat, 2012), a new
species of mud beetle (Fikacek, 2012) and a new species of frog (Hamidy et al., 2012). Several more
new frog species were described for Borneo in 2011 (Matsui, 2011; Shimada et al., 2011), a new
species of mammal in 2013 (Sargis et al., 2013) and a new subspecies of mammal in 2011 (Wilting
et al., 2011), and a new species of snake in 2008 (Das et al., 2008). Obviously, the data in Table 11.1
should therefore be considered an approximation, with all numbers likely to increase in the near future
(assuming the description of new species outpaces the rate at which species become extinct in the
Apart from obvious altitudinal and habitat limits on the distribution of animal species, there are
several different zoogeographical divisions on the island of Borneo (MacKinnon et al., 1996). They
appear to be determined mainly by geographical barriers such as rivers and mountains. For example,
the Barito River separates two species of gibbon (Hylobates albibarbis and H. muelleri), and in the
area east of the Barito and south of the Mahakam, there appear to be no orangutans (Pongo
pygmaeus). The northern part of the island stands out for its unique fauna, with many endemics being
restricted to the high mountains in that part of Borneo, although some of the north Bornean lowland
forests also harbour endemic animal species.
Table 11.1. Species counts for the main Indonesian islandsa
No. of
No. of
per square
No. of
No. of
No. of
per square
No. of
No. of
per square
Resident birds
aExcludes introduced species.
Source: Kottelat et al. (1996); MacKinnon et al. (1996); Coates and Bishop (1997); Ahmad and
Khairul-Adha (2007); Froese and Pauly (2012)
Animal distribution patterns also appear to be influenced by past and present hunting, at least for
those species with financial, nutritional or other value to people, or species that are considered a
nuisance because of their impact on crops. Species such as the Sumatran rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus
sumatrensis), banteng (Bos javanicus) and crocodiles (Crocodylus spp.) were still widespread in
Borneo in the 1930s (Nederlandsch-Indische Vereeniging tot Natuurbescherming, 1939), but
unsustainable hunting exacerbated by habitat loss and degradation has reduced the range of these
species to a fragment of their former size (Meijaard and Sozer, 1996; Rabinowitz, 1995; Timmins et
al., 2008). The influence of hunting in shaping species distributions has also been noted for
orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) (Meijaard et al., 2011; Meijaard et al., 2010) and other primates
(Nijman, 2004), and is likely to be a major factor in determining densities and patterns of absence or
presence for many Bornean animal species.
In conclusion, despite many years of scientific research, the fauna of Borneo remains relatively poorly
known, especially compared to better-studied tropical areas such as northeast Australia or the
Amazon. For only a handful of species are there relatively accurate descriptions of range and some
understanding of population trends and threats; these species include orangutans (Wich et al., 2012),
most primates (Meijaard and Nijman, 2003), some bat species (Struebig et al., 2010) and some of the
small carnivore species. For the remaining many thousand species, we rely on occasional specimens
from a few locations to make very rough estimates of their distribution. This lack of basic knowledge
makes it very different to strategically plan the conservation of Borneo’s many faunal species,
although maximising permanent forest cover is likely to maintain populations of most species.
Figure 11.1 Variation in mammalian species richness and endemism across the Indo-Malayan Region
(Boitani and Maiorano, unpublished data).
The value of biodiversity to local livelihoods
Local people in Kalimantan, especially those living in the interior of the island (often generally
referred to as Dayak), depend to a large extend on goods and ecosystem services provided by forests
(Abram et al., 2014; Meijaard et al., 2013). To fulfil their daily needs for food, fibre and fuel, they
have developed a range of lifestyles that depend more or less on forests, varying from a fully forest-
based huntergatherer lifestyle to semi-intensive agriculture such as shifting cultivation, agroforestry
and forest gardens. Many observers, however, from professional foresters to agriculturalists, consider
these systems to be rather primitive and unproductive ways of managing lands (Michon et al., 2005).
More recently, the green revolution has changed how farmers manage their lands, resulting in a shift
from semi-intensive multi-species systems to highly productive monocultures such as rubber and oil
palm plantations and timber estates for pulp production. Within the context of debating optimal land-
use strategies for Kalimantan’s people, we review the roles of biodiversity and conservation for local
One of the most important elements of biological diversity in Kalimantan is the use of a high variety
of medicinal forest plants. An interview-based survey of 1,837 reliable respondents in rural
Kalimantan showed that 34% of them used forests as an important source of traditional medicine,
with such uses increasing towards the island’s interior (Abram et al., 2014). Medicinal plants were
the fourth most commonly mentioned use of forests, after timber (67% of respondents), rattan (52%)
and hunting (45%) (Meijaard et al., 2013). Puri (2001) identified 56 plant species in northern East
Kalimantan (now North Kalimantan province) that were commonly used for medicinal purposes.
Other studies found over 250 medicinal plant species from 165 genera and 75 families that were used
by a local healer in West Kalimantan (Caniago and Stephen, 1998), and 203 species of plant that were
used by the Kenyah people of the Apo Kayan plateau, East Kalimantan (Leaman, 1996). Plants with
medicinal purposes are used to treat various ailments, ranging from common illnesses such as fever,
headaches and digestive problems to less common ones such as kidney disease and heart problems.
Some medicinal plants that are widely used include Gendarussa vulgaris (gandarusa) for the
treatment of kidney disease, Alstonia scholaris (pulai) for skin ailments, and Eurycoma longifolia
(pasak bumi) as an aphrodisiac and anti-malarial drug. Medicinal plants are mostly found in primary
and late successional forests, and some illnesses can be treated by specific plants occurring only in
these forest types, such as Mapania cuspidata (serapat), which is used to treat heart disorders.
Forest fruit, either grown in the wild or domesticated, is another commodity of significant importance
to communities, both to meet dietary needs and as a source of cash income. In a study conducted in
1991, Siregar (2006) documented at least 130 edible fruit species in Kalimantan, with 91 of them
occurring in agroforestry landscapes. The major groups of local fruit species were in the genus
Artocarpus with 15 species, Mangifera with 13 species, Garcinia and Baccaurea with 12 species
each, and Durio with seven species. Siregar mentioned that 45 of the edible fruit species were sold in
local markets, with some having high economic value. These included Artocarpus integer
(cempedak), A. heterophyllus (nangka), Mangifera indica (mangga), M. odorata (kuweni), Garcinia
mangostana (manggis), Baccaurea motleyana (menteng), Durio zibethinus (durian), D. kutejensis
(lai), D. oxleyanus (kerantungan), D. griffithii (lae), D. dulcis (lahung, red durian) and Lansium
domesticum (langsat).
Other sources of cash income generated from non-timber forest products (NTFPs) include rattan and
honey. Rattan is commonly gathered from wild clumps in secondary forests or harvested from
cultivated stems in forest gardens (simpukng). Some rattan species frequently collected for trade are
Calamus caesius (rotan sega), C. optimus (rotan taman), C. manan (rotan manau) and C. trachycoleus
(rotan jahap) (Meijaard et al., 2014). Several large trees are protected for their importance as habitat
of wild bees that produce honey. Called ‘tanyut’ (honey trees) by the Dayaks, these plants include
Koompassia malaccensis (kempas), K. excelsa (tualang), Shorea laevis (bengkirai) and
Dryobalanops lanceolata (kapur) (Mulyoutami et al., 2009). Some NTFPs are produced from
exudates, such as eaglewood (gaharu) yielded by Aquilaria spp, camphor (kapur) extracted from
Dryobalanops aromatica, gutta percha produced by Palaquium spp. and Payena leeri, and damar
resin extracted from Shorea spp. and Agathis spp. (Katz, 1997).
Many argue that traditional land-use systems such as agroforestry are low in direct economic value,
despite their potential benefit for biodiversity and the maintenance of land-use cultures. This could
be a debatable conclusion. For example, Saragih (2011) calculated the monetary value of forest for
forest-edge people in Paser, East Kalimantan, who generally implement a combination of swidden
rice farming, forest gardening, and huntinggathering in forests. In this area, approximately 19,000
hectares of primary and secondary forest supported the livelihoods of 123 households with 577
inhabitants. Saragih found that the forest contributed almost $1,000 annually to household income,
with one-third of this income generated from NTFPs such as wild honey, rattan and fruits. With an
average GDP per capita (excluding income from oil and gas) in East Kalimantan of only $1,980 in
2011 (BPS, 2012), the income generated by NTFPs clearly made a significant contribution to the
livelihoods of rural people.
One could probably argue that the traditional ways of managing forests are not the best form of land
management, considering the low economic return. However, there are limited alternative livelihoods
for forest-edge people, owing to limited knowledge and lack of access to capital, so subsistence use
of forest is the only available option (Saragih, 2011). Also, this analysis calculates only the direct
value of forest and does not account for non-use values such as water regulation, flood prevention
and carbon retention.
Threats to biodiversity in Kalimantan
The Sundaland ecoregion, where Borneo island is located, has been identified as a biodiversity
hotspot because its rich and unique biodiversity is under a high level of threat from humans (Myers
et al., 2000). Sodhi et al. (2004) reviewed key threats to biodiversity in Southeast Asia, including
deforestation, forest fire, hunting for bushmeat, and wildlife trade. At a national scale, the major
threatening processes for Indonesian flora are habitat loss caused by logging and infrastructure
development, small population size, restricted range and overexploitation (Budiharta et al., 2011).
We evaluated threats to biodiversity in Kalimantan using data extracted from the Red List of
Threatened Species compiled by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN, 2012).
We found 251 threatened species in Kalimantan, in the categories ‘least concern’, ‘near threatened’,
‘vulnerable’, ‘endangered’, ‘critically endangered’ or ‘extinct in the wild’. Data on the threats or
threatening processes were available for 176 of those species (67 animals and 109 plants). Six broad
threatening processes were identified, namely habitat loss (including habitat degradation), over-
exploitation, pollution, restricted range, small population size and predation (Figure 11.2).
Figure 11.2 Processes that threaten endangered species in Kalimantan
Source: IUCN (2012).
Habitat loss was the major threatening process, affecting 82.1% of listed animal species and 60.5%
of listed plant species (Figure 11.1). Kalimantan lost 10 million hectares of forest cover between 1985
and 1997 (World Resources Institute, 2002) and 3 million hectares between 1996 and 2002, much of
it within protected areas (Fuller et al., 2004). Around 1.4 million hectares was cleared between 2000
and 2010 (Gaveau et al., 2013). Forest loss is especially deleterious because it occurs mostly in areas
known as centres of biological diversity and endemism, as mapped by Raes et al. (2009). While
logging was the key driver of habitat loss in the past, forest conversion to monoculture plantations
and mining areas now seems to be the primary cause of deforestation. Carlson et al. (2013) calculated
that between 1990 and 2010, approximately 90% of oil palm plantations in Kalimantan were
established in previously forested areas, with expansion rates exceeding 210% annually (equal to
232,800 hectares per year). If this trend continued, they predicted that by 2020 oil palm would occupy
almost one-third of Kalimantan’s lowland areas outside protected zones. The loss or reduction of
forest cover impacts severely on sensitive interior species such as Arctitis binturong (binturong),
Elephas maximus (Asian pygmy elephant), Pongo pygmaeus (orangutan) and Neofelis diardi (Sunda
clouded leopard) (Corlett, 2007; Meijaard et al., 2005; Meijaard et al., 2012)
Over-exploitation also contributed to biodiversity degradation in Kalimantan, threatening 55.2% of
animal and 24.8% of plant species. Animals are hunted for bushmeat, such as Ratufa affinis (cream-
coloured giant squirrel), Sus barbatus (bearded pig), Cervus unicolor (sambar deer), Pongo pygmaeus
(orangutan) and Chelonia mydas (green turtle); for their skins, including Pardofelis marmorata
(marbled cat) and Pardofelis badia (bay cat); for the pet trade, such as Hylobates muelleri (Bornean
gibbon) and Trichopodus leerii (pearl gourami); and for medicinal uses, such as Presbytis hosei (grey
leaf monkey) and P. frontata (white-faced langur), which are killed for the ‘bezoar stones’ in their
bladders. As mentioned, over-exploitation was also responsible for the local extinction of
Dicerorhinus sumatrensis (Sumatran rhinoceros) in Kalimantan over 40 years ago (Michon et al.,
2005), although the recent rediscovery of the species gives a glimmer of hope that it can still be saved
from extinction (Meijaard and Nijman, 2014). More recently, demand, primarily from mainland Asia,
for species such as Manis javanica (pangolin), Gekko gecko (the once common tokek) and a range of
hornbill species has decimated populations throughout Kalimantan. Similarly, overharvesting is the
primary threatening process facing highly commercial plants such as Aquilaria spp. (eaglewood),
Shorea spp. (meranti) and Dipterocarpus spp. (keruing). The increased demand for gaharu in the
1970s drove an ‘eaglewood rush’ in Kalimantan, leading to depleted populations by the 1990s, as
indicated by much longer collecting periods (up to a month) than in the past (just a week) (Katz,
1997). Such population shortages have driven up prices, leading to even more rampant collection
practices, especially by outsiders, who tend to ignore all sustainability standards.
The impact of pollution and predation is apparent only for a number of animal species, although it is
likely to affect plant life and other species as well. Pollution threatens fresh-water animals living in
Kalimantan’s major rivers, including Acrochordonichthys chamaeleon (lakut) and Pseudomystus
myersi (ikan pisang), which suffer from mercury poisoning caused by illegal gold mining in the
Kapuas River, and Chendol lubricus, which is affected by soil sedimentation and pesticides associated
with oil palm plantation development along the Mahakam River (Jenkins et al., 2009a, b, c).
Intrinsically biological factors cause two other threatening processes: restricted species range, which
affects 17.9% of animal and 32.1% of plant species; and small population size, affecting 1.5% of
animal and 8.3% of plant species. The relatively high proportion for restricted range is attributable to
the high level of endemism in Kalimantan. A well-known example of an endemic animal is Pongo
pygmaeus (orangutan), which is found only in Borneo. Crocodylus siamensis (Siamese crocodile),
recorded only in Mesangat Lake in the Mahakam River system, is threatened by its very small
population size, with only 30 individuals estimated to remain. Plant species threatened by a restricted
range include Mangifera casturi (kasturi), which is found only in cultivated areas in South
Kalimantan, some species of Nepenthes (pitcher plants/kantung semar), for example, N. boschiana,
N. clipeata, N. ephippiata, and endemic species of Knema spp. and Horsfieldia spp. We further note
that the threat posed by small population size in Kalimantan may be underestimated because
information is available only for a small number of species. The IUCN guidelines for population size
based on the number of mature individuals use an equation for which the following variables need to
be known: population density, range area and the proportion of individuals that are mature. Such
information is available only for a few speciesfor most, we simply have no idea of population size.
Conservation strategies
It is not a trivial task to integrate conservation into regional development, considering the contrasting
perspectives of proponents of economic growth and supporters of resource conservation.
Conservationists often view economic growth in developing countries as the primary driver of the
depletion of natural capital and ecosystem services, while many others view conservation as a
hindrance to development. The emerging concept of a green economy in which conservation takes
place in multi-functional landscapes provides the opportunity to harmonise these two points of view.
Underpinning this concept is the idea that new approaches to biodiversity are possible beyond the
strict protection of biodiversity in protected areasthat landscapes can be managed for productive
purposes while minimising the impact on biodiversity.
Certainly, a major strategy for biodiversity conservation should be to maintain areas identified as
centres of biological diversity and culturally important forests, and incorporate them into protected
area networks. Protected areas in Kalimantan now cover 11.1 million hectares (21% of the total land
area), in the form of conservation forest (nature reserves, wildlife sanctuaries, national parks) and
protection forest (Ministry of Forestry, 2011). There is evidence, however, that some protected areas
(for example, Gunung Palung National Park and Kutai National Park) are not well managed, with
illegal logging and mining, land encroachment and forest fires reducing the effective area of
protection by more than half (Curran et al., 2004; Fuller et al., 2004). Other nature reserves and
wildlife reserves (such as Muara Kendawangan and Muara Kaman) are in even worse shape, with
very little natural forest cover remaining. In 2007, the three countries that share responsibility for the
island, Indonesia, Brunei Darussalam and Malaysia, signed a declaration launching Heart of Borneo,
an ambitious conservation program to protect and sustainably manage vast areas of intact, connected
forest in mountainous areas in the central part of Borneo. If it is to achieve its goals, this initiative
will need to address the underlying causes of deforestation and forest degradation, learning from the
experience of continuing forest loss in many protected areas in lowland Kalimantan.
One way to sidestep the ineffectiveness of the protected area system and the high opportunity cost of
maintaining intact forest is conservation in multi-functional landscapes. Biodiversity conservation in
well-managed logging concessions and multi-species agroforestry are examples of such an approach.
Currently, 24.8 million hectares of land in Kalimantan (46.6% of the land area) is designated as
production forest, with 10.6 million hectares under active logging concessions (Gaveau et al., 2013).
This vast forest area could contribute significantly to the persistence of wildlife if managed properly
through reduced-impact logging, the retention of key species (for example, Ficus spp. (fig), fruit trees
and trees with hollows) and the setting aside and management of high conservation value forest
(Meijaard et al., 2005). Any regime for selective logging in production forest should also include the
preservation of forest corridors between protected areas (Proctor et al., 2011). A recent analysis
indicates that about 78% of the range of the Bornean orangutan falls outside protected areas, most
notably in logging concessions (29% of the range) (Wich et al., 2012). With most orangutans found
outside protected areas and only a minimal chance that much more habitat will be formally protected,
the inevitable conclusion is that the conservation of orangutans will have to take place not only in
protected areas, but also in forests that are used for other purposes (Meijaard et al., 2012).
Considering the high level of threat caused by overexploitation, another important strategy is to
control wildlife hunting and gathering. This does not necessarily mean banning the practices
altogether, but rather the careful management of populations of interest through improved harvesting
practices (for example, minimum allowable sizes) and regulated trade (Budiharta et al., 2011).
Although Government Regulation 8/1999 on Wild Flora and Fauna Exploitation is supposed to
regulate the use of wildlife, abuse of its provisions is widespread, as indicated by reports of a number
of cases of illegal trade in endangered fauna such as Buceros vigil (helmeted hornbill), Manis javanica
(Sunda pangolin) and Helarctos malayanus (Malayan sun bear) (Fachrizal and Pahlevi, 2013). A
range of measures is needed to increase the effectiveness of the relevant laws, including more
accountable government, more effective law enforcement and a strengthened judiciary, as well as
increased public awareness. To reduce the incentive to hunt wild animals for bushmeat, local
communities should be taught how to raise livestock, which would provide an alternative source of
animal-based protein. This would not only benefit biodiversity, but would also help to improve local
Prudent land-use planning occupies a key role in the integration of conservation and development
goals. There will always be trade-offs between the costs and benefits of particular land-use decisions;
allocating intact or lightly degraded forest to mining development inevitably affects biodiversity, for
example, and providing oil palm licences in areas that contain orangutans may trigger conflict
between the animals and plantation workers. The use of a science-based optimisation approach should
make it easier to maximise the benefits, and minimise the costs, of land-use decisions. For instance,
the allocation of logging concessions could be tied to measures to minimise the impact on biodiversity
(Wilson et al., 2010), and oil palm plantations and logging concessions could be developed in ways
that contribute to the conservation of forest carbon and minimise carbon emissions (Venter et al.,
2012). One prerequisite is to collate reliable and relevant data, especially in a spatial context, that can
be used to explore potential scenarios.
Well-managed forests, and even plantations in which some natural forest is retained, can provide
habitat for Kalimantan’s orangutans and other threatened species, although much more research is
needed to determine the exact factors that contribute to the survival of such species in multi-functional
landscapes. For such landscapes to provide viable habitat for biodiversity as well as people, a
significant shift in perspective is needed among conservation groups, governments, forest managers
and local communities. We need to stop seeing conservation in black-and-white terms of unprotected
versus protected areas, or natural versus unnatural landscapes. We need to acknowledge that the
future of Kalimantan’s wildlife depends on the survival of species in human-made landscapes, not
just in pristine habitats.
We thank two anonymous reviewers and Elizabeth Thomson for editing the manuscript. We also
acknowledge the inputs from Budy Resosudarmo, Lydia Napitupulu and Muhammad Handry
Imansyah. The book is initiated by Indonesian Regional Science Association (IRSA) with supports
from United States Agency for International Development (AusAid), Support for Economic Analysis
Development in Indonesia (SEADI), Indonesia Project of Australian National University (ANU) and
Bank Kalsel.
Abeli, T., Gentili, R., Rossi, G., Bedini, G., Foggi, B. (2009) Can the IUCN criteria be effectively
applied to peripheral isolated plant populations? Biodiversity and Conservation 18, 3877-3890.
Abram, N.K., Meijaard, E., Ancrenaz, M., Runting, R.K., Wells, J.A., Gaveau, D., Pellier, A.-S.,
Mengersen, K. (2014) Spatially explicit perceptions of ecosystem services and land cover
change in forested regions of Borneo. Ecosystem Services 7, 116-127.
Ahmad, A.H., Khairul-Adha, A.R., (2007) State of knowledge on freshwater fishes of Malaysia, in:
Chua, L. (Ed.), Status of Biological Diversity in Malaysia and Threat Assessment of Plant
Species in Malaysia. Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, pp. 8390.
Ashton, P.M.S., (1989) Sundaland, in: Campbell, D.G., Hammond, H.D. (Eds.), Floristic inventory
of tropical countries. New York Botanical Garden, New York.
Beaman, J.H., Burley, J.S., (2003) Progress in the floristic inventory of Borneo, in: Padoch, C.,
Peluso, N. (Eds.), Borneo in Transition: People, Forests, Conservation and Development.
Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 93113.
BPS, (2012) Pendapatan regional/Regional income', Kaltim dalam Angka 2011 [East Kalimantan in
Figures 2011]. Central Bureau of Statistics, Samarinda, Indonesia.
Budiharta, S., Widyatmoko, D., Irawati, Wiriadinata, H., Rugayah, Partomihardjo, T., Ismail, Uji, T.,
Keim, A.P., Wilson, K. (2011) The processes that threaten Indonesian plants. Oryx 45, 172-
Caniago, I., Stephen, F.S. (1998) Medicinal plant ecology, knowledge and conservation in
Kalimantan, Indonesia. Economic Botany 52, 229-250.
Cardoso, P., Borges, P.A.V., Triantis, K.A., Ferrández, M.A., Martín, J.L. (2011) Adapting the IUCN
Red List criteria for invertebrates. Biological Conservation 144, 2432-2440.
Carlson, K.M., Curran, L.M., Asner, G.P., Pittman, A.M., Trigg, S.N., Adeney, J.M. (2013) Carbon
emissions from forest conversion by Kalimantan oil palm plantations. Nature Climate Change
3, 283-287.
Chan, C., Lamb, A., Shim, P., Wood, J. (1994) Orchids of Borneo: Volume 1. Introduction and a
selection of species.
Coates, B.J., Bishop, K.D. (1997) A Guide to the Birds of Wallacea: Sulawesi, the Moluccas and the
Lesser Sunda Islands, Indonesia. Dove Publications, Alderley.
Corlett, R.T. (2007) The Impact of Hunting on the Mammalian Fauna of Tropical Asian Forests.
Biotropica 39, 292-303.
Curran, L.M., Trigg, S.N., McDonald, A.K., Astiani, D., Hardiono, Y.M., Siregar, P., Caniago, I.,
Kasischke, E. (2004) Lowland Forest Loss in Protected Areas of Indonesian Borneo. Science
303, 1000-1003.
Das, I., Lakim, M., Lim, K.K.P., Hui, T.H. (2008) New Species of Anomochilus from Borneo
(Squamata: Anomochilidae). Journal of Herpetology 42, 584-591.
Eyring, K.L., Healy, C.J., Reyda, F.B. (2012) A New Genus and Species of Cestode (Rhinebothriidea)
from Mobula kuhlii (Rajiformes: Mobulidae) from Malaysian Borneo. Journal of Parasitology
98, 584-591.
Fachrizal, A., Pahlevi, A., (2013) Illegal wildlife trade syndicate uncovered in West Kalimantan,
hundreds of protected animal organs confiscated, Mongabay Indonesia, 26 April ed.
Fikacek, M. (2012) A new species of leaf-litter inhabiting Georissus from Borneo (Coleoptera:
Hydrophiloidea: Georissidae). Zootaxa 3316, 63-68.
Froese, R., Pauly, D., (2012) FishBase. World Wide Web electronic publication. Version (08/2012).
Fuller, D.O., Jessup, T.C., Salim, A. (2004) Loss of Forest Cover in Kalimantan, Indonesia, Since the
19971998 El Niño. Conservation Biology 18, 249-254.
Gaveau, D.L.A., Kshatriya, M., Sheil, D., Sloan, S., Molidena, E., Wijaya, A., Wich, S., Ancrenaz,
M., Hansen, M., Broich, M., Guariguata, M.R., Pacheco, P., Potapov, P., Turubanova, S.,
Meijaard, E. (2013) Reconciling Forest Conservation and Logging in Indonesian Borneo. PLoS
ONE 8, e69887.
Gaveau, D.L.A., Sloan, S., Molidena, E., Yaen, H., Sheil, D., Abram, N.K., Ancrenaz, M., Nasi, R.,
Quinones, M., Wielaard, N., Meijaard, E. (2014) Four Decades of Forest Persistence,
Clearance and Logging on Borneo. PLoS ONE 9, e101654.
Giam, X., Ng, T., Yap, V., Tan, H. (2010) The extent of undiscovered species in Southeast Asia.
Biodiversity and Conservation 19, 943-954.
Hamidy, A., Matsui, M., Nishikawa, K., Belabut, D.M. (2012) Detection of cryptic taxa in
Leptobrachium nigrops (Amphibia, Anura, Megophryidae), with description of two new
species. Zootaxa 3398, 22-39.
IUCN, (2012) IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.1.
Jenkins, A., Kullander, F.F., Tan, H.H., (2009a) Acrochordonichthys chamaeleon. In: IUCN 2012.
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2.
Jenkins, A., Kullander, F.F., Tan, H.H., (2009b) Chendol lubricus. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List
of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2.
Jenkins, A., Kullander, F.F., Tan, H.H., (2009c) Pseudomystus myersi. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red
List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2.
Katz, E., (1997) NWFPs in Bulungan, East Kalimantan, Indonesia, Non-wood forest products outlook
study for Asia and the Pacific: towards 2010, pp. 39-46.
Kier, G., Mutke, J., Dinerstein, E., Ricketts, T.H., Küper, W., Kreft, H., Barthlott, W. (2005) Global
patterns of plant diversity and floristic knowledge. Journal of Biogeography 32, 1107-1116.
Koh, L.P., Ghazoul, J., Butler, R.A., Laurance, W.F., Sodhi, N.S., Mateo-Vega, J., Bradshaw, C.J.A.
(2010) Wash and Spin Cycle Threats to Tropical Biodiversity. Biotropica 42, 67-71.
Kottelat, M. (2012) Rasbora rheophila, a new species of fish from northern Borneo (Teleostei:
Cyprinidae). Revue Suisse de Zoologie 119, 77-87.
Kottelat, M., Hui, T.H. (2011) Crossocheilus elegans, a new species of fish from northern Borneo
(Teleostei: Cyprinidae). The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 59, 195-199.
Kottelat, M., Tan, H.H. (2012) Rasbora cryptica, a new species of fish from Sarawak, Borneo
(Teleostei: Cyprinidae). Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters 23, 37-44.
Kottelat, M., Whitten, A.J., Kartikasari, S.N., Wirjoatmodjo, S. (1996) Freshwater Fishes of Western
Indonesia and Sulawesi. Periplus Editions, Hong Kong.
Lamb, A., (1991) Orchids of Sabah and Sarawak, in: Kiew, R. (Ed.), The state of nature conservation
in Malaysia. Malayan Nature Society & IDRC, Canada., pp. 78-88.
Leaman, D.J., (1996) The medicinal ethnobotany of the Kenyah of East Kalimantan (Indonesian
Borneo). University of Ottawa, Ottawa.
MacKinnon, K., Hatta, G., Halim, H., Mangalik, A. (1996) The Ecology of Kalimantan. Periplus
Matsui, M. (2011) Taxonomic revision of one of the Old World's smallest frogs, with description of
a new Bornean Microhyla (Amphibia, Microhylidae). Zootaxa 2814, 33-49.
Meijaard, E., Abram, N.K., Wells, J.A., Pellier, A.-S., Ancrenaz, M., Gaveau, D.L.A., Runting, R.K.,
Mengersen, K. (2013) People’s Perceptions about the Importance of Forests on Borneo. PLoS
ONE 8, e73008.
Meijaard, E., Achdiawan, R., Wan, M., Taber, A. (2014) Rattan: The decline of a once-important
non-timber forest product in Indonesia. Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR),
Bogor, Indonesia.
Meijaard, E., Buchori, D., Hadiprakarsa, Y., Utami-Atmoko, S.S., Nurcahyo, A., Tjiu, A., Prasetyo,
D., Nardiyono, Christie, L., Ancrenaz, M., Abadi, F., Antoni, I.N.G., Armayadi, D., Dinato,
A., Ella, Gumelar, P., Indrawan, T.P., Kussaritano, Munajat, C., Priyono, C.W.P., Purwanto,
Y., Puspitasari, D., Putra, M.S.W., Rahmat, A., Ramadani, H., Sammy, J., Siswanto, D.,
Syamsuri, M., Andayani, N., Wu, H., Wells, J.A., Mengersen, K. (2011) Quantifying Killing
of Orangutans and Human-Orangutan Conflict in Kalimantan, Indonesia. PLoS ONE 6,
Meijaard, E., Nijman, V. (2003) Primate Hotspots on Borneo: Predictive Value for General
Biodiversity and the Effects of Taxonomy. Conservation Biology 17, 725-732.
Meijaard, E., Nijman, V. (2014) Secrecy considerations for conserving Lazarus species. Biological
Conservation 175, 21-24.
Meijaard, E., Sheil, D., Nasi, R., Augeri, D., Rosenbaum, B., Iskandar, D., Setyawati, T.,
Lammertink, A., Rachmatika, I., Wong, A., Soehartono, T., Stanley, S., O'Brien, T. (2005)
Life after logging: reconciling wildlife conservation and production forestry in Indonesian
Borneo. CIFOR, Bogor, Indonesia.
Meijaard, E., Sozer, R. (1996) Reported sightings of crocodiles in Kalimantan. Crocodile Specialist
Group Newsletter 15, 12-14.
Meijaard, E., Welsh, A., Ancrenaz, M., Wich, S., Nijman, V., Marshall, A.J. (2010) Declining
Orangutan Encounter Rates from Wallace to the Present Suggest the Species Was Once More
Abundant. PLoS ONE 5, e12042.
Meijaard, E., Wich, S., Ancrenaz, M., Marshall, A.J. (2012) Not by science alone: why orangutan
conservationists must think outside the box. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
1249, 29-44.
Merrill, E.D. (1921) A Bibliographic Enumeration of Bornean Plants. Journal of the Straits Branch
of the Royal Asiatic Society Special Number.
Michon, G., Aulong, S., Berenger, E., Clement, I., Goloubinoff, M., Katz, E., Sellato, B. (2005)
Domesticating forests: how farmers manage forest resources. CIFOR, Bogor, Indonesia.
Ministry of Forestry (2011) Forestry Statistics of Indonesia 2010. Ministry of Forestry, Jakarta,
Mittermeier, R.A., Gil, P.R., Hoffman, M., Pilgrim, J.D., Brooks, T., Mittermeier, C.G., Lamoreux,
J., da Fonseca, G.A.B. (2005) Hotspots Revisited: Earth's Biologically Richest and Most
Endangered Terrestrial Ecoregions. Cemex, Mexico City.
Miyamoto, K., Suzuki, E., Kohyama, T., Seino, T., Mirmanto, E., Simbolon, H. (2003) Habitat
differentiation among tree species with small-scale variation of humus depth and topography
in a tropical heath forest of Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. Journal of Tropical Ecology 19,
Mulyoutami, E., Rismawan, R., Joshi, L. (2009) Local knowledge and management of simpukng
(forest gardens) among the Dayak people in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. Forest Ecology and
Management 257, 2054-2061.
Myers, N., Mittermeier, R.A., Mittermeier, C.G., da Fonseca, G.A.B., Kent, J. (2000) Biodiversity
hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature 403, 853-858.
Nederlandsch-Indische Vereeniging tot Natuurbescherming (1939) Nature in south and east Borneo.
Fauna, flora and conservation in the southern and eastern of Borneo, Batavia.
Ng, H.H., Kottelat, M. (2012) Chaca serica, a new species of frogmouth catfish (Teleostei:
Siluriformes) from southern Borneo. Zootaxa 3,258.
Nijman, V. (2004) Effects of habitat disturbance and hunting on densities and biomass of the endemic
Hose's leaf monkey Presbytis hosei (Thomas, 1989) (Mammalia: Primates: Cercopithecidae)
in east Borneo. Contributions to Zoology 73.
Paoli, G.D., Wells, P.L., Meijaard, E., Struebig, M.J., Marshall, A.J., Obidzinski, K., Tan, A.,
Rafiastanto, A., Yaap, B., Slik, J.W.F. (2010) Biodiversity Conservation in the REDD. Carbon
balance and management 5, 7.
Proctor, S., McClean, C., Hill, J. (2011) Protected areas of Borneo fail to protect forest landscapes
with high habitat connectivity. Biodiversity and Conservation 20, 2693-2704.
Puri, R. (2001) Bulungan Ethnobiology Handbook: A Field Manual for Biological and Social Science
Research on the Knowledge and Use of Plants and Animals among 18 Indigenous Groups in
Northern East Kalimantan. Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), Bogor.
Rabinowitz, A. (1995) Helping a Species Go Extinct: The Sumatran Rhino in Borneo. Conservation
Biology 9, 482-488.
Raes, N., Roos, M.C., Slik, J.W.F., van Loon, E.E., ter Steege, H. (2009) Botanical richness and
endemicity patterns of Borneo derived from species distribution models. Ecography 32, 180-
Roos, M.C., Keßler, P.J.A., Robbert Gradstein, S., Baas, P. (2004) Species diversity and endemism
of five major Malesian islands: diversityarea relationships. Journal of Biogeography 31,
Saragih, B., (2011) Economic value of non-timber forest products among Paser Indigenous People of
East Kalimantan, Centre for Environmental Science (CML), Faculty of Social and Behavioural
Sciences, Leiden University. Leiden University, Leiden, the Netherland.
Sargis, E.J., Woodman, N., Reese, A.T., Olson, L.E. (2013) Using hand proportions to test taxonomic
boundaries within the Tupaia glis species complex (Scandentia, Tupaiidae). Journal of
Mammalogy 94, 183-201.
Sasaki, N., Putz, F.E. (2009) Critical need for new definitions of “forest” and “forest degradation” in
global climate change agreements. Conservation Letters 2, 226-232.
Satriastanti, F.E., (2012) SBY sees Kalimantan as the "lungs of the world", Jakarta Globe, 20 January
ed, Jakarta.
Schaeffner, B.C., Beveridge, I. (2012a) Cavearhynchus, a new genus of tapeworm (Cestoda:
Trypanorhyncha: Pterobothriidae) from Himantura lobistoma Manjaji-Matsumoto & Last,
2006 (Rajiformes) off Borneo, including redescriptions and new records of species of
Pterobothrium Diesing, 1850. Systematic parasitology 82, 147-165.
Schaeffner, B.C., Beveridge, I. (2012b) Description of a new trypanorhynch species (Cestoda) from
Indonesian Borneo, with the suppression of Oncomegoides and the erection of a new genus
Hispidorhynchus. Journal of Parasitology 98, 408-414.
Schaeffner, B.C., Beveridge, I. (2012c) Prochristianella Dollfus, 1946 (Trypanorhyncha:
Eutetrarhynchidae) from elasmobranchs off Borneo and Australia, including new records and
the description of four new species. Zootaxa 3505, 1-25.
Sheil, D., Kartawinata, K., Samsoedin, I., Priyadi, H., Afriastini, J.J. (2010) The lowland forest tree
community in Malinau, Kalimantan (Indonesian Borneo): results from a one-hectare plot. Plant
Ecology & Diversity 3, 59-66.
Shimada, T., Matsui, M., Yambun, P., Sudin, A. (2011) A survey of morphological variation in adult
Meristogenys amoropalamus (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae), with a description of a new cryptic
species. Zootaxa 2905, 33-56.
Siregar, M. (2006) Species Diversity of Local Fruit Trees in Kalimantan: Problems of Conservation
and Its Development. Biodiversitas 7.
Slik, J.W.F., Poulsen, A.D., Ashton, P.S., Cannon, C.H., Eichhorn, K.A.O., Kartawinata, K.,
Lanniari, I., Nagamasu, H., Nakagawa, M., Van Nieuwstadt, M.G.L., Payne, J., Saridan, A.,
Sidiyasa, K., Verburg, R.W., Webb, C.O., Wilkie, P. (2003) A floristic analysis of the lowland
dipterocarp forests of Borneo. Journal of Biogeography 30, 1517-1531.
Slik, J.W.F., Raes, N., Aiba, S.-I., Brearley, F.Q., Cannon, C.H., Meijaard, E., Nagamasu, H., Nilus,
R., Paoli, G., Poulsen, A.D., Sheil, D., Suzuki, E., Van Valkenburg, J.L.C.H., Webb, C.O.,
Wilkie, P., Wulffraat, S. (2009) Environmental correlates for tropical tree diversity and
distribution patterns in Borneo. Diversity and Distributions 15, 523-532.
Sodhi, N.S., Koh, L.P., Brook, B.W., Ng, P.K.L. (2004) Southeast Asian biodiversity: an impending
disaster. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 19, 654-660.
Soepadmo, E., Wong, K.M. (1995) Tree Flora of Sabah and Sarawak: Volume One. Forest Research
Institute (FRIM), Sabah Forestry Department and Sarawak Forestry Department, Kuala
Lumpur, Malaysia.
Soerianegara, I., Lemmens, R. (1994) Plant Genetic Resources of South East Asia 5 (1): Timber trees:
Major commercial timbers. PROSEA Bogor, Indonesia.
Struebig, M., Christy, L., Pio, D., Meijaard, E. (2010) Bats of Borneo: diversity, distributions and
representation in protected areas. Biodiversity and Conservation 19, 449-469.
Timmins, R.J., Duckworth, J.W., Hedges, S., Steinmetz, R., Pattanavibool, A., (2008) Bos javanicus,
in IUCN (2012) 'IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: version 2012.2.
Venter, O., Possingham, H.P., Hovani, L., Dewi, S., Griscom, B., Paoli, G., Wells, P., Wilson, K.A.
(2012) Using systematic conservation planning to minimize REDD+ conflict with agriculture
and logging in the tropics. Conservation Letters, no-no.
Whitten, T., van Dijk, P., Curran, L., Meijaard, E., Supriatna, J., Ellis, S. (2004) Sundaland. Hotspots
revisited: Another look at Earth’s richest and most endangered terrestrial ecoregions. Mexico:
Wich, S.A., Gaveau, D., Abram, N., Ancrenaz, M., Baccini, A., Brend, S., Curran, L., Delgado, R.A.,
Erman, A., Fredriksson, G.M., Goossens, B., Husson, S.J., Lackman, I., Marshall, A.J., Naomi,
A., Molidena, E., Nardiyono, Nurcahyo, A., Odom, K., Panda, A., Purnomo, Rafiastanto, A.,
Ratnasari, D., Santana, A.H., Sapari, I., van Schaik, C.P., Sihite, J., Spehar, S., Santoso, E.,
Suyoko, A., Tiju, A., Usher, G., Atmoko, S.S.U., Willems, E.P., Meijaard, E. (2012)
Understanding the Impacts of Land-Use Policies on a Threatened Species: Is There a Future
for the Bornean Orang-utan? PLoS ONE 7, e49142.
Wilson, K.A., Meijaard, E., Drummond, S., Grantham, H.S., Boitani, L., Catullo, G., Christie, L.,
Dennis, R., Dutton, I., Falcucci, A., Maiorano, L., Possingham, H.P., Rondinini, C., Turner,
W.R., Venter, O., Watts, M. (2010) Conserving biodiversity in production landscapes.
Ecological Applications 20, 1721-1732.
Wilting, A., Christiansen, P., Kitchener, A.C., Kemp, Y.J.M., Ambu, L., Fickel, J. (2011)
Geographical variation in and evolutionary history of the Sunda clouded leopard (Neofelis
diardi) (Mammalia: Carnivora: Felidae) with the description of a new subspecies from Borneo.
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 58, 317-328.
Wong, K., (1998) Patterns of plant endemism and rarity in Borneo and the Malay Peninsula, in: Peng,
C.I., Lowry II, P.P. (Eds.), Rare, threatened, and endangered floras of Asia and the Pacific rim.
Institute of Botany, Academia Sinica Monograph Series, Taiwan, pp. 139-169.
Wood, J.J., Cribb, P.J. (1994) A check-list of the orchids of Borneo. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
World Resources Institute (2002) State of the forest: Indonesia. WRI, Washington, DC.
... Kalimantan (Indonesian Borneo) is one of the biggest islands in Indonesia. It harbors great plant biodiversity with high level of endemicity, making this region an important biodiversity area to conserve (de Bruyne et al. 2014;Budiharta and Meijaard 2017). Nonetheless, large-scale deforestation and land-use conversion have become the major threats to biodiversity in Kalimantan since most biological elements in the region occur in its natural tropical forest (Siregar et al. 2018;Gaveau et al. 2016). ...
... Local people in Kalimantan have a long interaction with plants from generation to generation, so they are very familiar with the plant usages to meet their daily needs. The indigenous people in Kalimantan, often known as Dayak, have been using a large diversity of plant for food, herbs, medicinal purposes, building materials, condiments, etc. (Budiharta and Meijaard 2017;Royyani and Efendy 2015;Haryanti et al. 2015). Another use of plant that has been long practiced by the Dayak is for dyeing or coloring purposes. ...
Full-text available
Wahdina, Setiadi D, Purwanto Y, Qayim I. 2021. Natural dye plants used by Dayak Iban in Sungai Utik, Kapuas Hulu, West Kalimantan, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 22: 1397-1404. Natural dye plants used by indigenous people in Indonesia are considered an important and unique gene pool, especially in Kalimantan (Indonesian Borneo), known to have high biodiversity and endemicity. Dayak Iban people in Sungai Utik, Kapuas Hulu District, West Kalimantan Province, Indonesia are considered a culturally important group, recognized by their customary forest and harmonious living with nature. One of the traditional knowledge practiced by this group is the use of dye plants for along time to make traditional woven fabric and various plaiting handicrafts. This study aims to investigate the types of natural dye plants used by the Dayak Iban people in Sungai Utik, and how the local people use them traditionally. Information about the dye plants used and their utilization process was obtained through in-depth interview methods. We also identified the color produced by the dye plants. There were 15 plant species used as dye plants in Sungai Utik Village. The dye plants are used for plaiting and yarn dyeing as traditional woven material with white, red, and black colors are the only colors used. The most important dye plants are engkerebai kayoh (Psychotria malayana) for red dye color and rengat kikat (Clerodendrum laevifolium) for black dye color. The coloring process includes the yarn oiling, tying, measuring, dyeing, and drying, followed by weaving process. The people in Sungai Utik obtain the dye plants in their customary forest as they keep their forests as a highly valuable treasure.
... On the other hand, Borneo (incl. East Kalimantan) is also recognized for its outstanding biodiversity richness and high species endemism level (Budiharta and Meijaard 2014), thus become interesting area to study. ...
Full-text available
Hapsari L, Trimanto, Budiharta S. 2020. Spontaneous plant recolonization on reclaimed post-coal mining sites in East Kalimantan, Indonesia: Native versus alien and succession progress. Biodiversitas 21: 2003-2018. Comparative vegetation analyses subjected to recolonization of spontaneous plants were carried out in two post-coal mining reclamation sites, with different ages of reclamation, specifically 9 years old and 17 years old, in Bontang, East Kalimantan. This study aims to determine the spontaneous plant diversity and composition, identify the spontaneous alien plant species invasion (IAS), analyze the underlying micro-climates and soil factors and their association to the spontaneous plant recolonization, also to evaluate the succession progress. Results showed that both reclamation sites have undergone some vegetation and environmental improvements. The plant succession stage of both sites were identified at the same stage, as establishment phase of early-succession stage in transition to mid-succession stage. The spontaneous plants were comprised of two layers, i.e. (i) understories include grasses, ferns, lianas, herbs, shrubs and tree seedlings; and (ii) saplings include some of trees and small trees. Plant diversity indices on both sites were in moderate category. At understory layer, the 9-y.o. site was mostly dominated by grass Polytrias indica, whereas the 17-y.o. site was dominated by shrub Asystasia gangetica. At sapling layer, the 9-y.o. site was mostly dominated by Glochidion obscurum, whereas the 17-y.o. site was dominated by Macaranga tanarius. Dominant pioneer tree and shrub species in two reclamation sites mostly from general species component of secondary tropical forests from the families Euphorbiaceae, Phyllantaceae, Melastomaceae, Leguminosae, and Lamiaceae. It was recorded seven IAS in the 9-y.o. site, which six out of seven species were dominant. Meanwhile, in the 17-y.o. site was recorded eight IAS but only four species were dominant. Two dominant noxious weed species were also identified. Each IAS and noxious weed species has invasiveness traits that make them well-grown, successfully recolonized and invaded the reclamation site. Environmental factors include air temperature, air moisture, and light intensity; and soil conditions include pH, C/N ratio and physicochemical properties affected the variation of spontaneous plant establishment on each reclamation site. These comparative study findings may become inputs for coal mining operations management to evaluate and improve their reclamation program; such as by soil reconditions, controlling the populations of IAS, and planting more intensively of native tree species.
... Borneo is among the richest biodiversity regions in the world. In general, plant diversity in Borneo at a regional scale is found to be highest in the northeastern part and the central mountainous region of the island, and therefore these areas are considered as biodiversity hotspot (Myers et al. 2000;Slik et al. 2003;Sodhi et al. 2004;Budiharta and Meijaard 2014;de Bruyn et al. 2014). Besides its diversity, the Indonesian part of Borneo (i.e., Kalimantan), has been known as a region with many endemic species of flora. ...
Full-text available
Fiqa AP, Fauziah, Lestari DA, Budiharta S. 2019. The importance of in-situ conservation area in mining concession in preserving diversity, threatened and potential floras in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 20: 198-210. East Kalimantan is the most well-known province in Indonesia with high natural resources, particularly from the mining sector. While delivering benefits for economic development, coal mining operation negatively affects biodiversity. Effort to mitigate impacts on biodiversity is by establishing an in-situ conservation area inside the coal mining area. This area is preserved in the form of arboretum from existing natural forests. The aim of this research is to identify the importance of conservation area in a mining concession in East Kalimantan regarding its plants’ diversity, conservation status, and utilization. The research was conducted by doing vegetation analysis and inventorying plant biodiversity inside the in-situ conservation area by using plot samples. The result showed that the in-situ conservation area protects at least 142 species with a high level of biodiversity on all vegetation phases, indicated by Shannon Wiener diversity indices in which all phase have an index higher than 3. It protects 22 species listed in IUCN Red List of threatened species and contains at least 90 potential plants utilized by traditional Dayak people in their daily life. This study highlights that the conservation area is an important part in mining management to protect biodiversity, and suggest that in-situ conservation area should be preserved by every mining concession. © 2019, Society for Indonesian Biodiversity. All rights reserved.
Full-text available
In recent years, agroforestry has gained increasing attention as an option to simultaneously alleviate poverty, provide ecological benefits, and mitigate climate change. The present study simulates small-scale farmers’ agroforestry adoption decisions to investigate the consequences for livelihoods and the environment over time. To explore the interdependencies between agroforestry adoption, livelihoods, and the environment, an agent-based model adjusted to a case study area in rural Indonesia was implemented. Thereby, the model compares different scenarios, including a climate change scenario. The agroforestry system under investigation consists of an illipe (Shorea stenoptera) rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) mix, which are both locally valued tree species. The simulations reveal that farmers who adopt agroforestry diversify their livelihood portfolio while increasing income. Additionally, the model predicts environmental benefits: enhanced biodiversity and higher carbon sequestration in the landscape. The benefits of agroforestry for livelihoods and nature gain particular importance in the climate change scenario. The results therefore provide policy-makers and practitioners with insights into the dynamic economic and environmental advantages of promoting agroforestry.
Commercial forest plantations of fast-growing species have been established globally to meet increasing demands for timber, pulpwood, and other wood products. Industrial plantations may contribute to tropical forest conservation by reducing exploitation of primary and secondary natural forests. Whether such plantations can support critical elements of biodiversity, including provision of habitat and movement corridors for species of conservation concern, is an important question in Southeast Asia. Our objectives were to investigate relationships between habitat gradients and community attributes of medium-sized to large mammals in a mixed plantation mosaic in Bengkoka Peninsula, Sabah, East Malaysia. Data on mammals were collected using 59 remote camera stations deployed for a minimum of 21 days (24-hour sampling occasions) in three major land-use types: natural forest, Acacia plantations, and non-Acacia plantations (oil palm, rubber, young Eucalyptus pellita). We used sample-based rarefaction to evaluate variation in species richness with land use. We used generalized linear models and ordination analyses to evaluate whether variation in mammal detections and species composition was associated with habitat gradients. We recorded >22 mammal species over 1572 sampling occasions. Natural forest area was positively associated with mammal species richness and detections of threatened mammals. Overall detections of mammals increased with decreasing elevation, but decreased within, and close to, Acacia plantations. Detections of threatened mammals increased with greater proportions of natural forest and Acacia and increasing proximity to roads. Sample-based rarefaction indicated that species richness of mammals in Acacia and natural forest was considerably higher than observed. Both natural forest and Acacia plantations shared similar values for species richness and diversity, but non-Acacia plantations scored lower in both metrics. Mammal species composition differed among different types of land use. Smaller generalists used non-Acacia plantation forests. A variety of other mammals including some threatened species used natural forest, Acacia, or a combination of the two. Acacia plantations possess attributes supporting a diversity of mammal species, including those we defined as threatened based on IUCN criteria. However, this is likely a function of the habitat mosaic with natural forest in the study area and the mangrove forests on the fringes of the peninsula serving as refuges of mammal diversity. Retention and restoration of natural and mangrove forests may therefore enhance the conservation potential of industrial Acacia plantations. Additionally, controlled road access in conjunction with anti-poaching operations and strengthening public awareness are essential to reduce the threat of overexploitation.
Conference Paper
Mitochondrial DNA of Bornean Orang Utan populations suggests that there are three different subspecies (Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus; Sarawak & Northwest Kalimantan, P. p. wurmbii; Southern West Kalimantan and Central Kalimantan, P. p. morio; East Kalimantan and Sabah). The subspecies of Orang Utans in captivity are difficult to determine through morphological observation. Thus, misidentification by ranger or zoo staffs leads to unwanted consequences especially towards conservation efforts of Orang Utan. The main objective of this study was to identify the subspecies and the geographic origin of 10 Orang Utans in Zoo Melaka and A’ Famosa by using partial mitochondrial D-loop gene sequences. DNA of all individuals was extracted from FTA Card. Data analyses were performed using Maximum Parsimony, MP and Neighbor Joining, NJ. Molecular phylogeny analysis revealed that all the samples likely belong to one species of Sumatran Orang Utan (P. abelii) and three different subspecies of Bornean Orang Utans (P. p. pygmaeus, P. p. morio, and P. p. wurmbii). The results obtained in this study indirectly help the management of zoos in term of conservation and visitor’s education.
Full-text available
Hose's leaf monkey Presbytis hosei is endemic to Borneo and occurs only in tall forest. In recent decades Borneo has lost a large part of its forest cover, mostly in low-lying coastal regions. Large intact tracts of forest remain in the interior, but these are by and large inhabited by tribes that subsist in part by hunting. The combined effects of habitat disturbance and hunting on the densities and biomass of Hose's leaf monkey were studied in Kayan Mentarang National Park in Borneo's far interior. Over four months, data on densities and hunting were collected by transect walks in four forest types. Hose's leaf monkeys were hunted to deter crop-raiding, for their meat, and to obtain bezoar stones (visceral secretions used in traditional medicine). Hose's leaf monkeys occurred in single male groups of 7-8 individuals in densities from 0.8 to 2.3 groups km-2. Densities of Hose's leaf monkeys were positively correlated with certain vegetation characteristics, e.g. tree height and height of first bough, and negatively correlated with distance to the nearest village. Biomass of Hose's leaf monkeys declined considerably as a result of habitat disturbance and hunting from 92 kg km-2 in primary hill forest inside the reserve to 38 kg km-2 in old secondary forest and 31 kg km -2 in young secondary forest near villages. A review of the few studies conducted on the effects of habitat disturbance and hunting on Hose's leaf monkeys reveal inconsistent trends in biomass and density responses.
Full-text available
The decrease in population of local fruit trees due to the forest destruction in some places in Kalimantan is a worrying trend.The genetic diversity of fruits in Kalimantan has been saved partly through indigenous agroforestry, as species cultivated from generation to generation by indigenous people have created miniature forests in the village agroecosystem. However, there is no doubt that the existence of local fruit trees has been threatened by the introduction of a superior fruit cultivars and other commercial plant species such as coconuts (Cocos nucifera), oil palm (Elaeis guinensis) and rubber trees (Hevea braziliensis). An ex-situ conservation program is proposed for the maintenance of diversity amongst local fruit species.
Full-text available
Previous analyses of molecular and larval morphology have suggested that Meristogenys amoropalamus is composed of two cryptic species, but no diagnostic characters of their adult morphology have been reported. Here, we compared adult characters of these two species and found that they differed in iris colour (yellowish-green and sandy brown), tympanum size and relative limb length. Based on the results of analysis of DNA sequences of the type specimens and a discriminant analysis using 18 morphological variables, we conclude that the lineage with green irises is the true M. amoropalamus, and that the lineage with sandy brown irises is a new species, M. dyscritus sp. nov. In northern Sabah, M. dyscritus is dis-tributed in altitudes lower than those of M. amoropalamus, but the distributional ranges of their larvae overlap in some streams. Meristogenys amoropalamus has larger and lighter-coloured ova, smaller clutch sizes and a more interstitial lar-val life than M. dyscritus. These differences suggest that M. amoropalamus has a more cryptic life during its larval period than M. dyscritus.
Full-text available
Background: While Borneo’s forests are globally recognised for their diverse vegetation many regions remain uncharacterised. Aims: We examine the tree community in one hectare of lowland (hill) forest near the Malinau River. Methods: We objectively sited a 1-ha plot in primary forest. All stems over 30 cm girth were measured and identified. Results: Stem basal area was typical for Asian rain forests, but the numbers of stems (759) and species (205) were high. The most abundant species were Gluta wallichii, Cleistanthus bakonensis and Lithocarpus cantleyanus, while those contributing most to basal area were Shorea venulosa, Dipterocarpus lowii and Calophyllum lowii. Dipterocarpaceae was the dominant family amongst the largest stems and contributes a third of stand basal area (11.5 m2). Thirty-three secondary species contribute 24% of stems and 16% of the plot’s basal area. Conclusions: This is one of the richest hectares of forest trees reported from Indonesia. Species possess broad edaphic preferences and diverse biogeographic affinities. Tree species density likely reflects disturbance history and climatic stability as well as a combination of site factors reflecting the complex local geology, rugged landscape context, and associated edaphic variation. Further botanical explorations in Malinau and other poorly known regions of Borneo are required. Keywords: dipterocarps; exploration; floristic composition; lowland forest; species diversity
Prochristianella cairae n. sp. is described from the spiral intestines of two species of bamboo sharks, Chiloscyllium punctatum Müller & Henle and Chiloscyllium indicum (Gmelin) (Hemiscyllidae) off the coast of Malaysian Borneo. The species is distinguished from congeners by enlarged microtriches covering the whole scolex peduncle, a unique arrangement of hooks on the basal swelling, a dissimilar number of hooks in each principle row in the metabasal armature and hook files 1 and 1' not being distinctly separated. Prochristianella jensenae n. sp. is described from the spiral intestines of three species of whiptail stingrays, Pastinachus solocirostris Last & Manjaji-Matsumoto, Pastinachus atrus (Macleay) and Pastinachus gracilicaudus Last & Manjaji-Matsumoto (Dasyatidae) from coastal waters off Indonesian and Malaysian Borneo and Western Australia, from Himantura uarnak (Gmelin) (Dasyatidae) off Nickol Bay, Western Australia and from Rhinoptera neglecta Ogilby (Myliobatidae) off Weipa, Queensland, Australia. This species lacks gland-cells within the tentacular bulbs, one of the most distinctive features of this family. Prochristianella kostadinovae n. sp. is described from the spiral intestines of Himantura uarnak 2 (Dasyatidae) (sensu Naylor et al. 2012) from the Gulf of Carpenteria. It differs from congeners in its metrical data, a metabasal tentacular armature with 10 hooks per principle row, hooks 1(1') being uncinate with an elongate base and widely spaced and hooks 4(4') smaller than neighbouring hooks 3(3') and 5(5'). Prochristianella scholzi n. sp. is described from specimens of the Taeniura lymma species complex (Dasyatidae) (sensu Naylor et al. 2012) from three localities in Malaysian and Indonesian Borneo. This species has arrays of billhooks on the basal swelling, but differs from similar congeners in having very few, tiny gland-cells within the tentacular bulbs and a metabasal tentacular armature with 9-10 hooks per half spiral row and hooks 4(4') being much smaller than the neighbouring hooks 3(3') and 5(5'). Examinations of new material from northern Australia and Indonesian and Malaysian Borneo provided additional information on Prochristianella aciculata Beveridge & Justine, 2010, Prochristianella butlerae Beveridge, 1990 and Prochristianella clarkeae Beveridge, 1990. In total, 17, 7 and 29 (respectively) new host records and 14, 9 and 28 (respectively) new locality records are added. These records extend the geographical range of all three species in the Australasian region and also represents the first record of P. aciculata from Australian waters and the first record of P. butlerae from the Indo-Malayan region. Prochristianella clarkeae is the least host specific taxon within Prochristianella, infecting 43 different host species.
Chaca serica, a new species of frogmouth catfish from the Kahayan, Kapuas and Mentaya river drainages in southern Borneo, is described here. It can be distinguished from congeners in having the following combination of characters: the oral margin of the lower lip lacking (vs. having) a series of rugose ridges, presence of nasal barbels, presence of papillae around the eyes, a temporal fossa extending to the supraoccipital, 7-8 serrae on the anterior edge of the pectoral spine, four pectoral-fin rays, absence of a row of fimbriate skin flaps on the body dorsal to (and sometimes also ventral to) the lateral line, dorsal procurrent caudal-ray base 32.8-37.3% SL, and ventral procurrent caudal-ray base 16.0-19.2% SL.
This article describes the first application of systematic conservation planning for prioritizing REDD+ (reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation) strategies and agricultural expansion. For a REDD+ program in Indonesian Borneo, we find that the most cost-effective way to reduce forest-based emissions by 25% is to better manage protected areas and logging concessions. A more ambitious emissions reduction target would require constraining agricultural expansion and logging, which incurs opportunity costs. We discover, however, that these impacts can be mitigated by relocating oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) agricultural leases to areas that store, on average, 130 tons less carbon per hectare and are 8% more productive for oil palm. This reduces the costs of meeting REDD+ targets, avoids conflict with agriculture, and has the unanticipated effect of minimizing impacts on logging. Our approach presents a transparent and defensible method for prioritizing REDD+ locations and strategies in a way that minimizes development trade-offs and promotes implementation success.
Southeast Asia has the highest relative rate of deforestation of any major tropical region, and could lose three quarters of its original forests by 2100 and up to 42% of its biodiversity. Here, we report on the current state of its biota and highlight the primary drivers of the threat of extinction now faced by much of the unique and rich fauna and flora of the region. Furthermore, the known impacts on the biodiversity of Southeast Asia are likely to be just the tip of the iceberg, owing to the paucity of research data. The looming Southeast Asian biodiversity disaster demands immediate and definitive actions, yet such measures continue to be constrained by socioeconomic factors, including poverty and lack of infrastructure. Any realistic solution will need to involve a multidisciplinary strategy, including political, socioeconomic and scientific input, in which all major stakeholders (government, non-government, national and international organizations) must participate.