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Use of silicon for skin and hair care: An approach of chemical forms available and efficacy

  • MEDCIN Instituto da Pele


Silicon is the second most abundant element on Earth, and the third most abundant trace element in human body. It is present in water, plant and animal sources. On the skin, it is suggested that silicon is important for optimal collagen synthesis and activation of hydroxylating enzymes, improving skin strength and elasticity. Regarding hair benefits, it was suggested that a higher silicon content in the hair results in a lower rate of hair loss and increased brightness. For these beneficial effects, there is growing interest in scientific studies evaluating the efficacy and safety of using dietary supplements containing silicon. Its use aims at increasing blood levels of this element and improving the skin and its annexes appearance. There are different forms of silicon supplements available and the most important consideration to be made in order to select the best option is related to safety and bioavailability. Silicon supplements are widely used, though there is wide variation in silicon bioavailability, ranging from values below 1% up to values close to 50%, depending on the chemical form. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the scientific literature related to the different chemical forms of silicon supplements available and the limitations and recent progress in this field. According to reported studies, among the different chemical forms available, the orthosilicic acid (OSA) presents the higher bioavailability, whereas the others forms have absorption inversely proportional to the degree of polymerization. However, clinical studies evaluating safety and efficacy are still lacking.
An Bras Dermatol. 2016;91(3):331-5.
Use of silicon for skin and hair care: an approach of chemical
forms available and efficacy*
LidianeAdvinculadeAraújo1 FlaviaAddor2
Patrícia Maria Berardo Gonçalves Maia Campos1
Received on 27.08.2014
* StudyperformedatFaculdadedeCiênciasFarmacêuticasdeRibeirãoPreto,ofUniversidadedeSãoPaulo(USP)–RibeirãoPreto(SP),Brazil.
Financial Support: None.
 ConictofInterest:None.
1 UniversidadedeSãoPaulo(USP)–RibeirãoPreto(SP),Brazil.
2 Privateclinic–SãoPulo(SP),Brazil.
 ©2016byAnaisBrasileirosdeDermatologia
this element and improving the skin and its annexes appearance. There are different forms of silicon supplements
available and the most important consideration to be made in order to select the best option is related to safety
Keywords: Biological availability; Collagen; Dietary supplements; Hair; Silicon; Silicon compounds; Skin aging
Silicon is the second most abundant element on
most abundant trace element in the human body.1,2 It
is present in the water and in plant and animal sourc-
for optimal synthesis of collagen and for activating
thehydroxylationenzymes, improvingskinstrength
and elasticity. It was shown that physiological con-
blasts to secrete collagen type I.3-5Inthecaseofhair,
it is suggested that higher silicon content in the hair
brightness. Nails are also affected by the presence of
composition.4,5 For these benecial effects, there is
growing interest in scientic studies to examine the
of this element and hence lead to improvements in the
skin and its annexes. There are different forms of sili-
con supplements available and to select the most suit-
ableoption,themost importantconsiderationstobe
made are regarding safety and bioavailability. In some
although there is great variation in silicon bioavail-
However, it is observed that there is still no
consensus among researchers about the statement
that silicon is an essential element for man or about
containingsilicon.Thus,it isextremelyimportantto
critically evaluate the information published so far
used in complementary supplements to the diet. That
was the aim of this study.
An Bras Dermatol. 2016;91(3):331-5.
The aging process occurs by two main mecha-
nisms: intrinsic and extrinsic. The intrinsic aging is un-
the accumulation of irreversible degenerative changes
associated with aging.4,8,9 The extrinsic aging primar-
ily results from damage caused by ultraviolet radia-
tion. Other factors related to this type of aging include
smoking, pollution and inadequate nutrition. These
are described,8,9 in addition to a reduction of silicon
levels and hyaluronic acid in the connective tissues.10
it to act as an organ of protection from external trau-
ma. They present as essential components of structur-
al integrity of the connective tissue and are present in
largequantities intheskin,bonesandjoints.9,11A re-
duction in the amount of collagen in the skin of about
rectly related to the wrinkles depth.11,12
Changes occurring after menopause are even
lageninthe rst 5 years and annual loss of 0.55% of
elastin.13,14 The biosynthesis process of collagen after the
collagen that has been lost as part of the degradation
processes associated with age.9 The decrease of collagen
that occurs after menopause especially correlates with
decreased bone mineral density associated with age.14
protein is as a potential tool for improving and pre-
venting skin aging.
Considering the abundance of silicon in the hu-
in men and women.15
groups showed that silicon was an essential element
in chickens and mice.16,17 These experiments demon-
strated that nutritional deciencies of silicon led to
skeletal deformities such as abnormal skull and long
associated with higher concentrations of this element
rosis,skinagingandfragilehairandnails.10,15 Howev-
or not silicon is an essential nutrient for humans and
remainstobeclearlydened.15,18-20 Most of the silicon
excretion and that levels of silicon in blood correlate
with the levels present in urine.21Forthisreason,var-
ious studies evaluate the serum concentration as well
as the one present in urine in order to study the bio-
availability of silicon and its derivatives.
Silicon occurs naturally in foods in the form of
siliconoxideandsilicates, whicharepresentin water
and in plant and animal sources and are found in high
concentrations especially in cereals.18,22 The main sourc-
es of silicon from the diet in the Western Hemisphere
provide about 75% of the total silicon ingested by man.23
However, there are studies that question the
low solubility of some compounds, especially those
that are polymerized.15,24 Thus, although signicant
times it is presented in an insoluble form and cannot
be directly absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract. The
can then be absorbed. It is described in the literature
that the aging process is associated with an increase in
gastricpH,which decreasesthe conversion capacity
of this silicon found in foods in the bioavailable form.5
it is considered the most readily available form of sili-
con to humans.19 It is stable when diluted (<10-4M)but
polymerizesinhigher concentrationsinapH closeto
Questions on the bioavailability of silicon from the min-
eral water are reported in the literature. In a study con-
ducted with rats that received supplementation with
OSAin thewatertheyingested,therewerenosignif-
icant differences in the concentration of silicon present
in bones in relation to baseline.1Inbeer,itdemonstrated
that about 80% of the total silicon found corresponds
332 Araújo LA, Addor F, Campos PMBGM
An Bras Dermatol. 2016;91(3):331-5.
Useofsiliconforskinandhaircare:anapproachofchemicalformsavailableandefcacy 333
a reduced bioavailability.10Forthisreason,silicon-con-
concentrateOSAandstabilizeit inawayto makeit
more bioavailable.
Different consumptions patterns of supple-
ments containing silicon are observed around the
world. As an example, the organic silicon – com-
consumedinFrance, whileinGermanythe colloidal
meric while other silicates show different degrees of
icon absorption values in experiments with rats and in
some preliminary studies in humans.25,27 Some studies
have shown that it is readily absorbed after digestion
and observed no adverse events with its use. Never-
not conducted.28
Jugdaohsingh et al,in2013,conductedastudy
the maximum recommended dose of 10.5 mg/Si/day.
The authors concluded that MMST intake is safe and
that it was absorbed. They also presented data to prove
that,afteringestion, thereisconversionof MMSRin
However,in responsetothepublishedarticle,
VandenBerghequestionedsomepointsof thestudy,
claiming that studies of longer duration in humans
and toxicological tests in vitro and in animals are need-
ed in order to prove the safety of using the supplement
studieswerenotpresentedin the article in question
and they are also scarce in the available literature on
the subject. The statement on MMST conversion in
The authors of the original study published a
responsethat keptemphasizingthestudy’sndings.
They argued that they used rigorous methodology and
that,intheadoptedconditions, they could conclude
it was safe to use the supplement containing MMST.
Theauthors,however,agreedthat studieswithlarg-
er numbers of volunteers and greater length of time
would be needed for the continuation of research in-
volving this supplement.30
MMST has been used as a silicon source for a
long time around the world, especially in Europe.28
the safety have been reported.31,32 However, the Eu-
ropean Food Safety Authority (EFSA) considers that
silicon supplement.19
The greatest number of studies in the literature
addition to representing the most bioavailable form of
and choline chloride. Given the lack of data about ad-
ious silicates are classied as substances “generally
line has important characteristics that place it in the
positionofan idealstabilizerforOSA, inadditionto
promotingbenetsduetoitsowncharacteristics.33 In
highconcentrations,cholineavoids extensive polym-
Furthermore,aspreviously mentioned,choline
present in the compound may have a synergistic effect
withOSA, since it is well known its participation in
many basic biological processes.33 Choline is a precur-
protection against the collagen breakdown mediated
by homocysteine.34,35
In2009,EFSArequestedascienticopinion to
the Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources
Added to Food concerning ch-OSA safety. The only
objective was to evaluate ch-OSA as a silicon source
in terms of daily amounts that can be consumed and
Based on different studies conducted in animals
and in humans, the Panel concluded that the silicon
present in ch-OSA is bioavailable and that its use in
risksforsafety, providingthatthecholinemaximum
Studies were analyzed both in animals and in
humans so the conclusion on bioavailability and safe-
ceivedsupplementcontainingch-OSA or placebofor
23 weeks evaluated the evolution of serum silicon con-
334 Araújo LA, Addor F, Campos PMBGM
An Bras Dermatol. 2016;91(3):331-5.
centration. There was a 4.9% increase at this concen-
tration in the group of animals receiving silicon.36 In
anotherstudy, VandenBergheassessed the bioavail-
the gestation (16 weeks) and lactation (four weeks)
period. In the offspring of pigs that received supple-
ment containing silicon, signicantly higher silicon
offspring of the control group. The authors attributed
this result to the bioavailability of silicon in the sup-
plementcontainingch-OSAandalso tothematernal
transfer capability of absorbed silicon.37 The silicon ab-
sessed in a study of 14 healthy volunteers aged 22-34
years. Each volunteer received successive oral doses
in serum concentration of silica compared to baseline
wasobservedforch-OSA.6,19 This study demonstrated
that the bioavailability of silicon is to a great extent
dependent on the chemical form of the compound.
in vivo absorption of silicon by evaluating its serum
absorption for the different sources used were found.
healthy volunteer. It was observed that a diet rich in sil-
when compared with the period in which the volunteer
silicon urinary excretion was observed when the eval-
uated supplementation consisted of tablets containing
dry extract of horsetail. However, the silicon serum
levels remained constant. Only the biologically active
silicon present in solution at 2% silicon in a matrix of
thesignicantincreaseofsiliconinbothserum levels
by its chemical form and matrix.
Sripanyakorn et al measured silicon uptake
centration of silicon. The results conrmed that the
degreeofsilicon polymerizationisinverselypropor-
tional to intestinal absorption.7
Regardingtheskin,itissuggested thatsiliconis
important for optimal synthesis of collagen and for ac-
tivating the hydroxylation enzymes, important in the
and elasticity. Silicon is also associated with the synthesis
of glycosaminoglycans. Concerning the hair, it is sug-
gested that strands with higher silicon content tend to
have lower falling rate and higher brightness. Nails are
is one of the predominant mineral in their composition.
The presence of soft and brittle nails can indicate system-
there is an increased protection against nail infections.4,5
tween 40 and 65 years and with clear clinical signs of
facialphotoaging, the effect of the intake of supple-
OSAtaken daily.Also, serumconcentrationsofvari-
ous components in the blood were evaluated in order
to verify safety of oral treatment. The silicon intake
under these experimental conditions was considered
this treatment. This study, according to the authors,
wasthe rstrandomized,double-blind,placebo-con-
trolled trial that showed positive results in the skin
microtopography and anisotropy after the intake of
istics and in its mechanical properties.
improvement in the fragility of nails and hair in the
before the start and after the end of the study.
teers had thin hairs and were divided into 2 groups:
ch-OSA and placebo. The rst group received daily
dosesof10mgof silicon, for a periodof9months.4
Morphology and mechanical properties of hair were
evaluated at the beginning and at the end of the study.
loss of hair tensile strength suggests that it has a struc-
turaleffecton hair bers.Accordingto the authors,an
is the chemical form of silicon prevalent in physiological
to form complexes with amino acids and peptides.4,38,39
An Bras Dermatol. 2016;91(3):331-5.
Useofsiliconforskinandhaircare:anapproachofchemicalformsavailableandefcacy 335
The analysis of the scientic literature on the
use of supplements containing silicon shows great
different conditions of human health and presents aes-
theticproperties.Amongthevarious chemicalforms
form that presents greater bioavailability; other forms
have absorption inversely proportional to the degree
of polymerization. We also observed that ch-OSA is
and bioavailability of the different existing chemical
of volunteers and long follow-up period.q
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Mailing address:
Patrícia Maria Berardo Gonçalves Maia Campos
Avenida do Café, S/N
Monte Alegre
14040-903 - Ribeirão Preto - SP - Brazil
How to cite this article:AraújoLA,AddorF,CamposPMBGM.UseofSiliconforskinandhaircare:anapproachof
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... Silicon (Si) is the second most abundant element on Earth, present in water, plants and animals [134] and it has semi-metallic properties. In nature, it is not normally found in free form but is usually present as a chemical compound of silicon dioxide, a complex compound, or silicon silicate [135,136]. ...
... In nature, it is not normally found in free form but is usually present as a chemical compound of silicon dioxide, a complex compound, or silicon silicate [135,136]. The silicon present in food is solubilized in the acidic environment of the stomach, becoming easily absorbed orthosilicic acid (OSA) [134]. Si is mainly absorbed from the diet [135,137] (Table 1). ...
... Si is mainly absorbed from the diet [135,137] (Table 1). Another important source of silicon used in dietary supplements is horsetail (Equisetum arvense) [134]. ...
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Human skin is continually changing. The condition of the skin largely depends on the individual’s overall state of health. A balanced diet plays an important role in the proper functioning of the human body, including the skin. The present study draws attention to bioactive substances, i.e., vitamins, minerals, fatty acids, polyphenols, and carotenoids, with a particular focus on their effects on the condition of the skin. The aim of the study was to review the literature on the effects of bioactive substances on skin parameters such as elasticity, firmness, wrinkles, senile dryness, hydration and color, and to define their role in the process of skin ageing.
... Silicon is a fundamental element for the skin, hair, and nails, as it takes part in the activation of hydroxylating enzymes and in collagen and glycosaminoglycans synthesis, influencing skin and its annexes health. 1 Evidences suggest that silicon deprivation could negatively impact on collagen formation and deposition in many tissues. 9 The development of nanotechnological techniques has allowed the production of nanosilicon particles, with dimensions of 10-20 nm and a greater active surface and bioavailability that facilitate cellular absorption. ...
... Nanosilicon positively affects skin hydration binding a large amount of water and normalizing the content of glycosaminoglycan. 1 A randomized, placebo-controlled trial conducted on 48 women with fine hair, showed that the oral intake of choline-stabilized orthosilicic acid, a bioavailable form of silicon, resulted in an improvement of hair morphology and tensile proprieties. 10 In our study, a local improvement in skin hydration and barrier function of the treated forearms was observed at T20, in both patients taking the active compound and those taking placebo. ...
Background: Silicon is an abundant element in the human body and plays an important role in the skin, taking part in the synthesis of collagen and glycosaminoglycans. The use of nanotechnology methods, which processes materials at an atomic and molecular scale, has allowed the development of nanosilicons. Aims: The study evaluates the effectiveness of a food supplement and a topical solution containing nanosilicon in improving skin hydration and elasticity. Methods: A total of 30 female subjects were randomized to receive the placebo (n = 15) and the active compound (n = 15). All enrolled subjects took the food supplement twice a day for 20 days and then once a day for the next 20 days, and they also had to apply the nanosilicon solution on the right forearm four times a day. Evaluation of several parameters was performed after 20 and 40 days through the use of non-invasive instrumental methods (Corneometer® CM 825, Cutometer® MPA 580, Visioscan® VC, Tewameter® TM 200). Results: Both treatment groups showed a statistically significant improvement in barrier function and in skin hydration on the right forearm after 20 days; increase in skin elasticity was observed only in the group taking the active compound. Conclusions: The study showed that the administration of a food supplement and a topical solution, both containing nanosilicon, improves hydration, elasticity, and skin barrier function.
... As a result, the ideal conditions for skin regeneration, wound healing, and reduction of scars are created [15,16]. It has been proven that this environment is appropriate for the synthesis of collagen [17]. ...
... POSS molecules substituted with one or more cation-containing groups can be applied in conditioners and hair care products. Furthermore, they can be used as styling agents as ionic attractive forces towards charged sites on strands of hair [17]. Due to adhesive features, POSS molecules can be applied to increase the long-wear properties of hair coloration. ...
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The rising demand for innovative and sophisticated personal care products is a driving factor for manufacturers to obtain new formulations that will fulfill the customers’ preferences. In recent years, silsesquioxanes have attracted the attention of the cosmetics industry. These compounds have been proposed to be used in novel cosmetic formulations as emollient, dispersant, and viscosity modifiers. Therefore, this publication aims to review the main important aspects of polyhedral oligosilsesquioxanes as ingredients of personal care formulations, taking into consideration different types of products. The methods of obtaining these compounds were also presented. Additionally, the detailed analysis of patents dedicated to the application of silsesquioxanes in cosmetic formulations was also performed.
... Moreover, if it exists in the blood, as silicic acid, it has no adverse effect on human physiology as it does not bind to proteins (De Araújo et al., 2016). In fact, in favorable concentrations, silica plays an important biological role in bone, brain, nerve, skin, and memory health. ...
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The use of nanotechnology in food production systems is being investigated globally, though there is limited research on its effect on fish nutrition. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the effects of silica nanoparticles (NPs) on the nutrition and physiology of tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Four isonitrogenous diets (300 g/kg crude protein) with NPs (0, 1, 2, and 3 mg/kg diet) were fed to fish (6.52 ± 0.20 g) in a recirculatory aquaculture system for 56 days. Throughout the study period, the effects of silica NP on survival rate, blood cell count, hemoglobin (Hb) level, condition factor (CF), and final product composition (except lipid content) were insignificant. However, growth performance and feed efficiency increased with an increasing level of silica NP, up to 2 mg/kg, and then decreased. This increase was due to the highest apparent protein digestibility and dry matter digestibility when fish were fed silica NP at 2 mg/kg. However, fish at the early stage showed better performance in all dietary groups than in later. Blood glucose (BG) content and histology of the kidney revealed that fish were stressed when a 3 mg/kg silica NP was used and they adapted through excessive excretion via expanded glomeruli. Though no significant effect on villi length was observed, silica NP increased the surface area widening the villi of the gut along with the number of goblet cells in the intestine significantly, when supplemented at a level of 2 mg/kg. The bioaccumulation of silica shows that incorporating silica NP in the fish feed will not compromise human health safety upon consumption. Although silica NP at 1 mg/kg and 3 mg/kg yielded some improvements to growth and final product quality, a 2 mg/kg silica NP generated the best results in all measured parameters.
... Additional studies have to be performed on the efficacy of SCSs using more clinically-relevant bone defect models prior to their clinical use for treating bone diseases/injuries such as osteoporotic fracture, diabetic bone metabolism and other traumatic injury. Silicon supplement has been reported to have a good safety profile in the literature [39]. The present results show that there was no significant difference in the plasma levels of inflammatory factors between the SCS-implanted group and the blank control group (p > 0.05 for all comparisons) (SI-4). ...
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Sensory nerves promote osteogenesis through the release of neuropeptides. However, the potential application and mechanism in which sensory nerves promote healing of bone defects in the presence of biomaterials remain elusive. The present study identified that new bone formation was more abundantly produced after implantation of silicified collagen scaffolds into defects created in the distal femur of rats. The wound sites were accompanied by extensive nerve innervation and angiogenesis. Sensory nerve dysfunction by capsaicin injection resulted in significant inhibition of silicon-induced osteogenesis in the aforementioned rodent model. Application of extracellular silicon in vitro induced axon outgrowth and increased expression of semaphorin 3 A (Sema3A) and semaphorin 4D (Sema4D) in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG), as detected by the upregulation of signaling molecules. Culture medium derived from silicon-stimulated DRG cells promoted proliferation and differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and endothelial progenitor cells. These effects were inhibited by the use of Sema3A neutralizing antibodies but not by Sema4D neutralizing antibodies. Knockdown of Sema3A in DRG blocked silicon-induced osteogenesis and angiogenesis almost completely in a femoral defect rat model, whereas overexpression of Sema3A promoted the silicon-induced phenomena. Activation of “mechanistic target of rapamycin” (mTOR) pathway and increase of Sema3A production were identified in the DRG of rats that were implanted with silicified collagen scaffolds. These findings support the role of silicon in inducing Sema3A production by sensory nerves, which, in turn, stimulates osteogenesis and angiogenesis. Taken together, silicon has therapeutic potential in orthopedic rehabilitation.
... Şekil 10. Polimetilmetakrilat (PMMA) yapısıSilikon, Dünya üzerinde en bol bulunan ikinci elementtir62 . Büyük çapta biyomedikal uygulamalarda kullanılmaktadır. ...
Yara, vücutta bir dış etki ile oluşan, doku yapı ve bütünlüğünü bozan her türlü lezyondur. Yara tedavisinde uygulanacak yöntemin etkinliği, yara tipine uygun olarak seçilmesine bağlıdır. Doğru yöntem, doğru materyal ve yara örtüsü uygulama süresi seçimi yara iyileşmesi için kritik parametrelerdir. Bu makalede yara örtülerinde kullanılan iyileştirme özellikli polimerler doğal ve sentetik polimerler olmak üzere iki ana başlık altında toplanarak incelenmiştir.
... In tissues, on the other hand, H 4 SiO 4 is largely bound to glycosaminoglycan's and widespread in the aorta, trachea, tendon, bone, and skin (Sripanyakorn et al., 2005). In mammals, Si plays a key role in collagen formation, bone development, and mineralization, in the structural integrity of nails, hair, and skin (Schwarz and Milne, 1972;Araújo et al., 2016). Also, an ample amount of dietary Si reduces the risk of lethal disease like Alzheimer's atherosclerosis (Farooq and Dietz, 2015). ...
Silicon (Si) is an omnipresent and second most abundant element in the soil lithosphere after oxygen. Silicon being a beneficial element imparts several benefits to the plants and animals. In many plant species, including the cereals the uptake of Si from the soil even exceeds the uptake of essential nutrients. Cereals are the monocots which are known to accumulate a high amount of Si, and reaping maximum benefits associated with it. Cereals contribute a high amount of Si to the human diet compared to other food crops. In the present review, we have summarized distribution of the dietary Si in cereals and its role in the animal and human health. The Si derived benefits in cereals, specifically with respect to biotic and abiotic stress tolerance has been described. We have also discussed the molecular mechanism involved in the Si uptake in cereals, evolution of the Si transport mechanism and genetic variation in the Si concentration among different cultivars of the same species. Various genetic mutants deficient in the silicon uptake have been developed and many QTLs governing the Si accumulation have been identified in cereals. The existing knowledge about the silicon biology and available resources needs to be explored to understand and improve the Si accumulation in crop plants to achieve sustainability in agriculture.
Over the last decades, different compositions of bioactive glasses in various forms of nano/microparticles, fibers, and 3D scaffolds have been proposed as multifunctional therapeutic materials to induce biological responses in soft tissues, including skin wounds. The superiority of bioactive glasses over the other materials is the possibility of incorporating multiple biologically active elements such as cerium, cobalt, copper, gallium, selenium, silver, and zinc in their structure, which can target different stages of the wound healing process following the release of these therapeutic ions in the wound environment. Since no wound care approach is yet completely satisfying, diverse biomaterial‐based wound care approaches are already under development to address the unfulfilled clinical needs of patients with severe burn injuries and chronic wounds. In this regard, the use of bioactive glasses seems to be an effective approach in complementing the current role of polymeric biomaterials in wound healing applications. The purpose of this chapter is to focus on the application of bioactive glasses in the healing process and particularly their specific biological effects in the wound bed, which may facilitate the healing of hard‐to‐heal wounds.
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Skin care formulations with antioxidants are being widely explored for their benefits to human skin. The purpose of this study was to formulate a stable w/o emulsion containing anthocyanin derived from Malus dosmestica fruit extract and to further explore its beneficial effects on normal human skin. Anthocyanin was extracted using various solvents from the peel of Malus dosmestica fruit. w/o creams containing anthocyanin has been prepared and systematically characterized for various physiochemical properties in terms of stability at varying conditions of storage. An efficacy study has been carried out on 12 male healthy Asian subjects to determine effects of anthocyanin on skin melanin, erythema, skin moisture, trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL) and on skin sebum. Solvent system containing methanol/acetone/water (3.5: 3.5: 3 v/v/v) including 1% formic acid established a best recovery of anthocyanin from fruit peel. W/O emulsions presented promising stability profile when kept at different storage conditions over 90 days period. All skin parameters studied, anthocyanin has been found more efficacious (p<0.05) for its effects on skin melanin and erythema content of skin. It has been shown that a topical application of anthocyanin derived from Malus domestica has substantial potential for human skin system and needs some patient oriented studies could warrant its potential for damaged skin.
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This article is in response to Vanden Berghe: There are not enough data to conclude that Monomethylsilanetriol is safe. Nutrition & Metabolism 2013 10:66: www. nutritionandmetabolism. com/content/10/1/66
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This article is in response to Jugdaohsingh et al.: The silicon supplement ‘Monomethylsilanetriol’ is safe and increases the body pool of silicon in healthy Pre-menopausal women. Nutrition & Metabolism 2013 10:37: The response from the authors is published as Jugdaohsingh et al.: Response to Prof D. Vanden Berghe letter: ‘There are not enough data to conclude that Monomethylsilanetriol is safe’. Nutrition & Metabolism 2013 10:65: Abstract The authors claim that the silicon supplement 'Monomethylsilanetriol’ (MMST) is safe and is converted to orthosilicic acid (OSA) after ingestion. Critical analysis of the study results indicates that the presented data are insufficient to conclude that the use of MMST in food or food supplements is safe. Long term safety studies in humans and toxicological testing in vitro and in animals are an absolute requisite for such a conclusion but these are lacking in the present study and in the literature. Furthermore, none of the presented data show that MMST is actually converted to OSA, as OSA was not analyzed in neither serum or urine of supplemented subjects.
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Background: Several studies have confirmed dramatic changes in skin surface parameters during the winter months. Although there are many studies supporting the positive effects of topical treatment, there are no published studies demonstrating the effects of oral supplementation in the prevention of negative skin changes during winter. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of an oral micronutrient supplement in preventing the negative effects of winter weather on skin quality using noninvasive biometrologic instruments. Methods: This study included 80 healthy female volunteers aged 35-55 years with phototype II-IV skin. Randomization was balanced. Two tablets of a micronutrient supplement (Perfectil® Platinum) or placebo were administered once daily for 4 months. The volunteers were examined at baseline, after 4 months, and 6 weeks after termination of treatment (month 5.5). The evaluation included skin microrelief by Visioscan® as the main outcome, and the secondary outcomes were results on standard macrophotography, skin tension by Reviscometer®, skin high-frequency ultrasound, and self-assessment. Results: For all pseudoroughness and microrelief indicators, there was a significant increase from baseline to month 4 in the placebo group (P<0.05) but no change in the active group. Descriptive statistics for the mean minimum, mean maximum, and minimum to maximum ratio on the nonexposed study zone showed a significant and dramatic difference between baseline and month 4 and between baseline and month 5.5 (P<0.05) in the active group, indicating decreasing anisotropy of the skin. High-frequency ultrasound on the exposed study zone revealed that skin thickness was significantly decreased in the placebo group during winter but was stable in the treated group (P<0.01). The photography scaling and self-assessment questionnaire revealed no significant changes in either group. Conclusion: These results indicate that the skin is prone to seasonal changes during winter, particularly in exposed areas. The data also indicate that oral supplementation can be a safe treatment, with no serious side effects, and may prevent or even eliminate the negative effects of winter on the skin.
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SUMMARY Following a request from the Commission to the European Food Safety Authority, the Scientific Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food was asked to provide a scientific opinion on the safety of choline-stabilised orthosilicic acid (ch-OSA) added for nutritional purposes as a source of silicon in food supplements and on the bioavailability of silicon from this source. Choline-stabilised orthosilicic acid is a mixture of orthosilicic acid and choline chloride. The present opinion deals only with the safety of ch-OSA as source of silicon and with the bioavailability of silicon from this source. The safety of silicon itself, in term of amounts that may be consumed and the consideration of silicon as a nutrient are outside the remit of this Panel.
Silicon is required for normal growth and development in the chick when a low silicon diet is fed in a trace element controlled environment. Day-old deutectomized cockerels fed a purified amino acid diet showed significantly retarded growth and development within 2 to 3 weeks. Chicks fed the same diet plus a silicon supplement showed 50 percent higher growth and normal development. Silicon meets the criteria for an essential trace element.
Convincing evidence that silicon is a bioactive beneficial trace element continues to accumulate. The evidence, which has come from human, animal, and in vitro studies performed by several laboratories, indicate that silicon in nutritional and supra nutritional amounts promotes bone and connective tissue health, may have a modulating effect on the immune or inflammatory response, and has been associated with mental health. A plausible mechanism of action for the beneficial effects of silicon is the binding of hydroxyl groups of polyols such that it influences the formation and/or utilization of glycosaminoglycans, mucopolysaccharides, and collagen in connective tissue and bone. In addition, silicon may affect the absorption, retention or action of other mineral elements (e.g., aluminum, copper, magnesium). Based on findings from both animal and human experiments, an intake of silicon of near 25 mg per day would be a reasonable suggestion for an adequate intake that would assure its nutritional benefits. Increased intakes of silicon through consuming unrefined grains, certain vegetables, and beverages and cereals made from grains should be recognized as a reasonable dietary recommendation.