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Provisions of Disabled Facilities at The Malaysian Public Transport Stations

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  • Universiti teknologi MARA (Perak), Malaysia

Abstract and Figures

Public transport stations need to provide access and facilities for people with disabilities (PWD) in fulfilling the requirements of the Malaysian Standard Code of Practice on Access of Disabled Persons (MS). However, most public transport stations in Malaysia are reported as still lacking in terms of providing good designs and facilities for the PWDs. This inaccessible environment affects the PWDs to negatively participate in the social and economic mainstream. The research aims at identifying the compliance of disabled facilities provided at the electronic train service (ETS) railway station in Perak. Two research objectives were established (1) to identify the range of disabled facilities provided at the ETS railway station in Perak and (2) to determine the compliance of the disabled facilities as outlined in the MS. Eight ETS railway stations in Perak were chosen for the case study. Purely qualitative methods were adopted. An observation checklist was developed by conducting document analysis on three main documents. The findings suggest that there are 14 disabled facilities to be provided at the ETS railway stations. Majority of these facilities are available and comply with the MS. Conversely, some improvement can be made to further promote sustainability atmosphere of the ETS railway stations.
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a harya966@perak.uitm.edu.my
Provisions of Disabled Facilities at The Malaysian Public Transport
Stations
Haryati Mohd Isa1,a, Halmi Zanol2 , Kartina Alauddin1 and Mohd Hafizuddin Nawi3
1Dr, Quantity Surveying Department, Faculty of Architecture, Planning and Surveying, UiTM Perak Branch, Malaysia
2Assoc. Prof, Dr, Town and Regional Planning, Faculty of Architecture, Planning and Surveying, UiTM Perak Branch, Malaysia
3Quantity Surveying Department, Faculty of Architecture, Planning and Surveying, UiTM Perak Branch, Malaysia
Abstract. Public transport stations need to provide access and facilities for people with disabilities (PWD) in
fulfilling the requirements of the Malaysian Standard Code of Practice on Access of Disabled Persons (MS).
However, most public transport stations in Malaysia are reported as still lacking in terms of providing good designs
and facilities for the PWDs. This inaccessible environment affects the PWDs to negatively participate in the social
and economic mainstream. The research aims at identifying the compliance of disabled facilities provided at the
electronic train service (ETS) railway station in Perak. Two research objectives were established (1) to identify the
range of disabled facilities provided at the ETS railway station in Perak and (2) to determine the compliance of the
disabled facilities as outlined in the MS. Eight ETS railway stations in Perak were chosen for the case study. Purely
qualitative methods were adopted. An observation checklist was developed by conducting document analysis on three
main documents. The findings suggest that there are 14 disabled facilities to be provided at the ETS railway stations.
Majority of these facilities are available and comply with the MS. Conversely, some improvement can be made to
further promote sustainability atmosphere of the ETS railway stations.
1 Introduction
Malaysia is moving towards Vision 2020 to be a fully
developed country. Under this vision, nine challenges had
been outlined. Amongst them is to establish a fully caring
society and culture, in which the welfare of the people
will revolve around a strong and resilient family system.
This also includes people with disabilities (PWDs). The
Persons with Disabilities Act 2008 (Act 685) (PWDA)
stressed that PWDs shall have the same rights to access
and use public facilities, amenities, services and
buildings. The needs of the PWDs in the development
cannot be ignored [1] and [2]. As in Malaysia, it is a
mandatory for all public buildings to provide access and
facilities for PWDs since the requirements to fulfill the
Malaysian Standard (MS) are stated in the Uniform
Building (Amendment) By-Laws (UBBL) 1991. The
implementation of these codes of practice has always
been highlighted [3] and [4]. Conversely, [5] reported
that Malaysia is still lacking in considering equal
accessibility and facilities for this group.
With regard to this problem, a research was mooted to
identify the compliance of disabled facilities provided at
the electric train service (ETS) railway station in Perak.
In line with this aim, two objectives were established to
operationalize the research: (1) to identify the range of
disabled facilities provided at the ETS railway station in
Perak (2) to determine the compliance of the disabled
facilities provided as outlined in the MS.
2 Literature review
2.1 Persons with disabilities (PWD) generally
The Persons with Disabilities Act 2008 (Act 685)
(PWDA) defines PWDs as persons with physical, mental
and intellectual disabilities that hindered them from fully
participating in a normal way in the community way of
life. This includes people with impairment, senior
citizens, or even a pregnant woman. According to [6],
impairment can be divided into three categories namely
hearing impairment, visual impairment and
physical/mobility impairment. People become disabled
when society fails to accommodate them in social and
infrastructural development, either purposely or
inadvertently [7]. Consequently, this will affect not only
the person with impairment, but also to the affected
family [8].
The United Nations estimates that there are 650
million disabled people in the world which corresponds
to 10% of global population [9]. In 2010, Statistics
Department reported that there are approximately 5.1%
PWDs in Malaysia and this figure had increased
annually. Thus, this resulted a demand for the provisions
of access and facilities in and outside a building,
especially in public services. Indeed, this should be a
crucial element to be considered in reducing the mobility
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Commons Attribution
License 4.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
constraints of PWDs. Furthermore, [9] added that the
simplest way of increasing the use of public
transportation facilities is by establishing a safe,
convenient and comfortable environment for the full
participation of these citizens. However, several
researchers revealed that the present provisions are
inadequate and not disabled friendly [10,4,5]. This
suggests for serious action to be taken by the government
as the public facility provider.
2.2 Relevant legislation, statutory and guidelines
Various acts and legislation have been created for PWDs
rights in developed as well as developing countries. The
establishment of such standards rules and legislation
signify a strong ethical value and positive support from
the government to ensure equal rights for all citizens. It
also serves as guidelines for the professionals to plan and
design their tasks. In Malaysia, the government had
established The Persons with Disabilities Act 2008 (Act
685), Uniform Building (Amendment) By-Laws (UBBL)
1991 and Malaysian Standards i.e ; MS 1183:1990 Code
of Practice for Means of Escape for Disabled Persons,
MS 1184:2002 Code of Practice on Access for Disabled
Persons to Public Buildings (1st revision) and MS
1331:2003 Code of Practice on Access for Disabled
Persons Outside Buildings (1st revision).
2.3 Accessibility for PWDs
Although Malaysia offers technologically advanced
services and facilities, not all of the societies are able to
conduct their activities. Amongst the reason is lack of
physical access for the PWDs. The facilities provided do
not cover all categories of PWDs [11]. He also added that
despite of the legislation, statutory and guidelines
available, there is still lack of compliance made by the
building owners. Furthermore, [4] argued that the access
and facilities provided at the public transportation
terminal is designed inefficiently and leads to a limited
space for the PWDs to move about. Realising this
problem, access audit should be conducted to ensure the
compliance of those requirements as set in the MS.
3 Research methodology
Eight ETS railway stations in Perak were chosen for
observation. An observation checklist was developed prior
to conducting document analysis on three main documents
i.e The Persons with Disabilities Act 2008 (Act 685),
UBBL 1991 and MS.
The purpose of conducting the observation was to
observe the compliance of the existing disabled facilities
provided in the case studies. Table 1 shows a sample of
the checklist used during the observation. After the
observation was conducted, the entire checklist was by
using descriptive analysis to determine types of facilities
provided and the compliance of each of the facilities
provided at all stations to the standard provided.
Table 1. Observation checklist for disabled facilities at
ETS railway stations in Perak
Date: Station: Time:
Standards
Availability
PWD Parking
a) Located at the main entrance
b) Located at the flat surface
c) With adequate width (2400mm)
d) There is a signage indicating the
parking
e) Marking indicating disabled
parking
f) Enough space for wheelchair user
to manoeuvre (extra space min
900mm)
Walkway
a) Surface with non-slip
b) Clear width (min 1200mm enable
wheelchair)
c) Properly connected
Ramp and kerb
a) Ramp consists of landing (min
length 1200mm) at int
erval of not
more than 600mm length of ramp)
b) Surface with non-slip
c) Enable wheelchair user(1200mm
min width)
d) Proper gradient (Max 1:12-min
1:20)
e) Provided with handrails at both
sides
f) Kerb is provided at both sides (min
100mm length)
Doorway/Main entrance
a) Doorway width is adequate for
wheelchair user (min 900mm
width)
b) Threshold is leveled with step ramp
(if any)
Guiding block/Tactile
a) Installed at proper location
b) Each block is installed adjacent to
one another
c) Contrast in colour
d) Detectable underfoot
Handrail
a) Fixed with proper height at ramp
(min 840-900mm in height)
b) At ramp/stairway extended
300mm in length at both sides
c) Contrast in colour
d) Surface with non-slip grip
Special lane for wheelchair user to
Platform 2
a) Surface with non-slip
b) Clear width (min 1200mm)
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Staircase
a) Tread with non-slip surface
b) Tread width (260-300mm)
c) Riser height (max 180mm)
d) Handrails provided at both sides
e) Landing and floor contrast in
colour/brightness/texture to the stairs
Prayer room
a) Ablution area accessible to wheelchair user
b) Door width accessible to wheelchair user
c) Step ramp at door
d) Floor with non-slip surface
Disabled toilet
a) Have adequate space for wheelchair user
(min 2000 x 3400mm and for ambulant
disabled min 1200 x 2400mm)
b) Handrail is provided
c) Water closet pedestal (450mm-460mm
height)
d) Wash hand basin (800-830mm height)
e) Accessible tap with flexible hose
f) Adequate door width (1200mm for
wheelchair user or 900mm for ambulant
disabled)
Signage
a) Clearly shows the direction/information
b) Signage
c) Signage is equipped with braille instruction
d) Signage is installed at proper locations;
- Parking area
- Walkway
- Main entrance/doorway
-
Toilet/washroom
- Platform
- Ticket counter
Elevator
a) Accessible to wheelchair user (door width
800-1000mm)
b) Guiding block is provided at the elevator
c) Handrail 600mm long and 1000mm above
floor
d) All control buttons not higher than 1400mm
above finished floor
e) Enough space for wheelchair user to
maneuver in the elevator (1800 x 1800mm)
Escalator
Guiding block is provided at the elevator
4 Findings
4.1. Types of disabled facilities to be provided at
ETS railway stations
Figure 1 shows the range of types of facilities to be
provided at the public railway stations. There are 14 types
of disabled facilities to be provided in ETS railway
stations namely disabled parking, walkway, ramp and
kerb, doorway at main entrance, guiding block, handrail,
staircase, signage, disabled toilet, ticket counter, elevator,
escalator, prayer room and special lane for wheelchair
users to Platform 2.
Walkway
Ramp and kerb
Guiding block
Handrail
Signage
Disabled toilet
Elevator
Escalator
Prayer room
Special lane for wheelchair user to
Platform 2
Figure 1. Types of disabled facilities to be provided at
ETS railway station
Table 2 presents the availability of disabled facilities
at ETS railway stations in Perak. Generally, all of the
facilities are available at all stations. RS1 and RS3 are
two most equipped stations with disabled facilities
provided. Majority of the PWD facilities are provided at
all stations namely disabled parking, walkway, ramp and
kerb, doorway at man entrance, guiding block, handrail,
staircase, signage, disabled toilet, ticket counter and
special lane for wheelchair user to Platform 2.
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Table 2. Availability of the disabled facilities in ETS railway stations in Perak
Facilities
Availability
%
Rank
RS
1
RS
2
RS
3
RS
4
RS
5
RS
6
RS
7
RS
8
1.
Disabled parking
100
1
2.
Walkway
100
1
3.
Ramp and kerb
100
1
4.
Doorway at main entrance
100
1
5.
Guiding block
100
1
6.
Handrail
100
1
7.
Staircase
100
1
8.
Signage
100
1
9.
Disabled toilet
100
1
10.
Ticket counter
100
1
11.
Elevator
x
x
x
x
x
x
25
3
12.
Escalator
x
X
x
x
x
x
x
13
4
13.
Prayer room
x
88
2
14.
Special lane for wheelchair user to
Platform 2
100
1
%
93
86
93
86
86
86
86
86
Rank
1
2
1
2
2
2
2
2
Note: Available x Not available
Three most uncommon facilities provided at all ETS
stations in Perak are prayer room, elevator and escalator.
Only RS1 has an escalator because it is the biggest ETS
station and caters for the largest amount of passengers.
However, there is no prayer room provided in this station
since it is constructed during the colonial era. Meanwhile,
it is also found that elevator is only provided at RS1 and
RS3.
4.2 Analysis of the compliance of the disabled
facilities provided at the ETS railway stations
with the MS
4.2.1 Analysis of walkway
There are three standards of walkway to be complied
such as surface with non-slip, clear width of minimum
1200mm and properly connected.
Table 3. Analysis of walkway towards MS
Standards
Compliance
R
S
1
R
S
2
R
S
3
R
S
4
R
S
5
R
S
6
R
S
7
R
S
8
1. Surface with non-slip
2. Clear width (min 1200mm
enable wheelchair)
3. Properly connected
Note: Comply x Not comply
All stations had complied with the walkway
standards. However, the size and material of walkway at
RS1 differs from other stations in Perak.
4.2.2 Analysis of the doorway at main entrance
All stations complied with the only one standard outlined
by the SIRIM.
Table 4. Analysis of doorway at main entrance towards
MS
Standards
Compliance
R
S
1
R
S
2
R
S
3
R
S
4
R
S
5
R
S
6
R
S
7
R
S
8
1. Doorway width is
adequate for wheelchair
user (min 900mm width)
2. Threshold is leveled with
step ramp (if any)
x
x
x
x
X
x
x
x
Note: Comply x Not comply
All main entrance doors have adequate width to
enable the wheelchair user to pass through the doors.
There is no threshold provided at any station because
the surface of the main entrance doorway on the premises
is flat.
4.2.3 Analysis of ticket counter
In general, all stations in Perak had complied with the
standard of MS. Each station provides a special counter
and it is accessible to the PWDs.
4.2.4 Analysis of disabled parking
There are six standards of disabled parking to be
observed at all stations. This is shown in Table 5.
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Table 5. Analysis of disabled parking towards MS
Standards
Compliance
Remarks
R
S
1
R
S
2
R
S
3
R
S
4
R
S
5
R
S
6
R
S
7
R
S
8
1.
Located at the main entrance
Only one disabled parking at RS1
Two disabled parking at RS2,
RS3, RS4. RS5. RS6, RS7 and
RS8
2. Located at the flat surface
3. With adequate width (2400mm)
4. There is a signage indicating the
parking
x
x
x
x
5.
Marking indicating disabled
parking
x
Marking indicating disabled parking
at RS3 and RS4 are not up to the
SIRIM standard
6. Enough space for wheelchair user
to maneuver (extra space min
900mm)
x
x
x
Note: Comply x Not comply
Although all stations have provided disabled parking,
only RS3 and RS4 comply with all the standards.
However, both stations did not comply with the disabled
marking sign as outlined by the Standards and Industrial
Research Institute of Malaysia (SIRIM). Instead of using
the disabled symbol, it only uses the cross line marking.
Correct disabled marking
symbol as SIRIM
Wrong marking indicating
disabled parking
Figure 2. Disabled parking marking symbol
The disabled parking provided at all stations are
located at the main entrance and on a flat surface with
adequate width of 2400mm except there are inadequate
space provided. However, the space is inadequate for a
wheelchair user to maneuver from the car. This is
observed at RS1, RS2 and RS8.
It is also found that, signage indicating disabled
parking is not complaint to the incomply standard at all
stations. This is mostly due to vandalism There is also
construction wastages found at the walkway to the
disabled parking in RS6 and may expose the PWDs to
the risk of accident.
4.2.5 Analysis of signage
Generally, all stations have provided signage .
However, none had complied with all standards listed in
the checklist. There is no signage provided at parking
area at RS6, RS7 and RS8. In addition, there is no
signage with braille instruction provided. This is
important especially for disabled person with sight
impairment.
Table 6. Analysis of signage towards MS
Standards
Compliance
R
S
1
R
S
2
R
S
3
R
S
4
R
S
5
R
S
6
R
S
7
R
S
8
1. Signage is installed at
proper locations
a) Parking area
x
x
x
b) Walkway
c) Main
entrance/doorway
d) Toilet
e) Platform
f) Ticket counter
2. Clearly provide the
direction/information
3. Signage is
illuminated/lighted
x
4. Signage equipped with
Braille instruction
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
Note: Comply x Not comply
RS7 is observed to be the most incompliant station in
providing this facility. Besides no not having any
signage in braille signage instruction, there is also no
signage provided at the parking area and the signage is
not illuminated. . Similarly, problems are also found at
RS5 and RS6.
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Table 7. Analysis of ramp and kerb towards MS
Standards
Compliance
Remarks
R
S
1
R
S
2
R
S
3
R
S
4
R
S
5
R
S
6
R
S
7
R
S
8
1. Ramp consists of landing (min
length 1200mm) at interval of not
more than 600mm length of ramp)
Two ramps provided at all stations
2. Surface with non-slip
3. Enable wheelchair user(1200mm
min width)
4. Proper gradient (Max 1:12-min
1:20)
5. Provided with handrails at both
sides
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
Only one side
No hand
l at RS6
Inadequate length of ramp
6. Kerb is provided at both sides
(min 100mm length)
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
No kerb provided except at RS1
Note: Comply x Not comply
4.2.6 Analysis of ramp and kerb
Table 7 listed all six standards of ramp and kerb to be
complied at all stations. Although all stations provide
ramp, only RS1 complies with all standards in the
checklist. Meanwhile, for the other stations, there is only
one handrail or wall provided at both sides of ramp. It is
also found that, one of the ramps at RS6 has no handrail
and does not comply with the standard length. Thus, the
wheelchair user might encounter difficulty to pass
through this facility.
It is also observed that there is no kerb provided to
prevent the wheelchair user from falling at RS2, RS3,
RS4, RS5, RS6, RS7 and RS8 because there is a handrail
or wall built at both sides.
4.2.7 Analysis of handrail
There are four standards to be complied when providing
this facility. This is outlined in the table below.
Table 8. Analysis of handrail towards MS
Standards
Compliance
R
S
1
R
S
2
R
S
3
R
S
4
R
S
5
R
S
6
R
S
7
R
S
8
1. Fixed with proper
height at ramp (min
840-900mm in height)
2. At ramp/stairway
extended 300mm in
length at both sides
3. Contrast in colour
4. Surface with non-slip
grip
N/A
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
Note: Comply x Not comply
All stations had provided handrail for PWD except for
RS1., However, the handrail is not covered with a non-
slip material to prevent from sweat, slippery and fall.
4.2.8 Analysis of prayer room
There are four standards of PWD prayer room as
highlighted by the MS. All stations provide prayer room
except RS1. It is found that all prayer rooms complies to
all the standards required except for the provision of
ramp in the prayer room and at the ablution area.
Table 9. Analysis of prayer room towards MS
Standards
Compliance
R
S
1
R
S
2
R
S
3
R
S
4
R
S
5
R
S
6
R
S
7
R
S
8
1. Ablution area accessible
to wheelchair user
N
/
A
2. Door width accessible to
wheelchair user
3. Step ramp at door
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
4. Floor with non-slip
surface
Note: Comply x Not comply
4.2.9 Analysis of the special lane for wheelchair
users to Platform 2
The purpose of this special lane is to ease the wheelchair
users to travel from Platform 1 to Platform 2. It is
observed that all stations had provided this facility.
However, its location is far from the main area at the
platform.
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Table 10. Analysis of guiding block towards MS
Standards
Compliance
Remarks
R
S
1
R
S
2
R
S
3
R
S
4
R
S
5
R
S
6
R
S
7
R
S
8
1.
Installed at proper location
Not installed at all important areas
except for RS3
2. Each block is installed adjacent to
one another
3. Contrast in colour
4.
Detectable underfoot
Some of the blocks provided is
undetectable except at RS3
Note: Comply x Not comply
4.2.10 Analysis of guiding block
Guiding block is detectable underfoot and paced at all
main areas at the station such as disabled toilet, ticket
counter and ramp. The purpose of this facility is to help
the PWD, particularly with sight impairment to aware of
danger in front using their touch sensing of the feet. Thus,
they can independently and safely access the station.
Table 10 shows that all stations comply with
standards outlined in the MS. Nevertheless, only RS3
complied with all the standards.
4.2.11 Analysis of disabled tolet
There are six standards to be complied in the provision of
disabled toilet in public railway stations.. All stations had
provided disabled toilet and complied with the MS
standards. However, it is found that all doors at the
disabled toilet do not follows the standards and causes
difficulty to the wheelchair users.
All disabled toilets at RS3, RS5, RS7 and RS8, are
closed cannot be used are closed to avoid vandalism.
Meanwhile, the disabled toilets at RS3, RS5 and RS8 are
also closed due to poor maintenance of this facility.
4.2.12 Analysis of elevator and escalator
There are five standards for elevator and one standard for
escalator. Only two stations i.e RS1 and RS3 provide
elevator in its premises. . or However, for stations that
has no elevator, the PWDs can use the special lane
provided. All elevators provided complied with the
standards as outlined in the checklist.
Escalator is only provided at RS1 because it is the
largest ETS station in Perak. Nonetheless, there is no
guiding block provided in front of the escalator, as
required by the standard.
5 Discussions
The findings indicate that although all ETS stations in
Perak are attempting to accommodate the PWDs needs,
there are several facilities that are in comply with the MS.
This is in-line with [10] stating that most of the public
buildings in Malaysia are still lacking in the provision of
user-friendly built environment for the disabled persons.
Inaccessibility found in some stations is mainly due to
poor design, poor planning, poor maintenance and lack of
enforcement on guidelines provided.
It is also reveals that braille signage is something that
could be uncommonly seen in the stations. According to
[11,12]Corn (1990), Small et al (2012) and Syazwani &
Mariam, 2012), difficulties in way finding by either the
visual or hearing impairment persons will significantly
contributes to safety and comfort issues, particularly
when they are travelling alone. Meanwhile, the provision
of adequate gradient of ramp, size of disabled parking,
height of ticket counters and special lane for travelling
are important facilities to be provided for the wheelchair
users. Adding into this, [12] also recommended that the
public facilities should be designed not merely for the
PWDs but also to greatest scope as possible, including
common people such as children, parents with baby
stroller, expectant mothers, library staff caring huge stack
of books and elder people.
Clearly, this research has provided some benchmark
for planners, local authority and designers in planning
and designing or even in improving the existing disabled
facilities provided in the ETS stations. This is crucially
important so that the PWDs will no longer feel isolated
for the continuous development that is becoming more
challenging.
6 Conclusions
This research would significantly promote and enhance
the public buildings for better value by focusing on the
disabled friendly facilities. Moreover, it also promotes
the friendliness atmosphere of the ETS railway stations
for better usage and accessibility.
Finally, in improving or designing the public transport
stations, feedback from the users are utmost important.
There are also needs for more innovative and good design
to create a barrier-free environment and infrastructure.
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DOI: 10.1051/
00016 (2016)
,matecconf/2016MATEC Web of Conferences 66 6
IBCC 2016
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... The purpose of this study was to explore the current formal and informal systems supporting young children with disabilities in Malaysia as perceived by parents and caregivers who identify signs of disability (such as developmental delay) in infancy and early childhood. Although policies have been adopted, implementation in the forms of inclusion and accommodation of children and adults with disabilities in Malaysian schools and society remain limited [7,8]. Parents' experiences may provide insight into how the broader context impacts their perceptions, decisions, and outlook on their children's future, and may help identify where there are gaps between policy and experience in disability. ...
... In particular, the Iban did not have access to local diagnostic services, and it was a considerable hardship to access medical services in more urban parts of the country due to geographic distance, linguistic challenges, and financial hardships. Isa, Zanol, Alauddin, and Nawi [7] found that most public transportation stations in Malaysia are lacking in design and acceptability for persons with disability, making transportation to diagnostic services difficult. Some parents who did receive diagnostic services expressed a continued lack of understanding about their child's disability, particularly with the diagnoses of autism and dyslexia. ...
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Background: This study examined parents’ developmental concerns for their children within the context of systems of care in Malaysia. Methods: Focus groups and interviews were conducted in peninsular Malaysia and Borneo. Results: Parents’ perceptions of developmental delay stemmed from three sources: the cultural, resource, and the social environments. Conclusion: There is a need to develop a medical support system in Malaysia that considers a life-course perspective, including prenatal care, screening/diagnosis, and services. This system should embrace a family-centered approach to diagnosis, referral, intervention, and support with sensitivity to cultural beliefs, family preferences, and barriers to care. • Implications for Rehabilitation • Parental perceptions of disability affect the strategies they use to cope. • This research found that cultural conceptions of disability, available resources, and social support affect parental perceptions of disability. • The resource environment in Malaysia significantly restricts parents’ ability to cope with their child's disability. • This research recommended that the medical system of Malaysia develops a life-course perspective to disability to provide a range of care for children with disabilities including prenatal care, screening and rehabilitation or coping services.
... PWDs have less opportunity to join community because of the inaccessible environment, and there are cases that facilities and access provided are not accessible and reachable by PWDs (Kamarudin et al., 2019;Abdullah et al., 2018). This is in-line with Isa et al.(2016) stated that inaccessibility is found in some public places due to poor design, poor planning, poor maintenance, and lack of enforcement on guidelines provided. Lack of awareness among developers to this accessible requirement is the common problem why the existing facilities in the public places and mosques are inaccessible. ...
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Mosque is an essential civic building because it functions as a community space and fulfils the spiritual need of the normal people including special population. The registered physical disabilities recorded are increasing annually and indicate that accessible facilities are widely provided in the public buildings, especially the ablution area. However, the ablution area design is still lacking, and most mosques in Malaysia do not fulfil these requirements in terms of providing facilities specifically for wheelchair users. Therefore, this research aims to come out with a new design of wheelchair ablution station with an adaption of universal design principles that extends the accessibility and efficiently cater to the need of all range of the wheelchair users. The accessible, comfort and ergonomic of ablution design are influenced by the type of wheelchair and the different of wheelchair user's anthropometry. The QUAL-quan method is used in the analysis, while the bservation of accessible facilities was made at several mosques, malls, and highway rest areas in Terengganu. Fifteen questionnaires were distributed to the wheelchair user randomly to identify the customer requirements, and the data is used for Quality-Function-Deployment (QFD) method before designing a universal ablution station design for a wheelchair user. This study showed the 3D design development of a new design ablution station with consideration of the ablution size, work surface adjustability, easy to use or user-friendly, safety, aesthetic, and water-saving.
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Caregivers of people with disabilities are employees who work in organizations either in the public or private sector that led a differentiated life from those who are not in the role of caregivers of people with disabilities. The stress and various challenges faced by caregivers with people with disabilities have affected their careers. The various challenges they have to face in the workplace affect the level of job satisfaction among them. Job Satisfaction can be defined as a measure of employee's contentedness with their job, whether or not they like the job, or individual aspects or facets of the jobs, such as the nature of work or supervision, and they can balance their work life and personal life. Therefore, this concept paper would like to uncover whether the issue of job satisfaction occurs among these caregivers. In addition, this paper aims to discuss the factors that can affect job satisfaction among these caregivers. The findings of previous research and with reference to the Model of work satisfaction by Lent and Brown (2006) and Model of Proactive Behavior by Crant (2000), show that there are job satisfaction issues among caregivers and it also reveals the factors that can affect job satisfaction among them. Finally, this paper also discusses why research related to job satisfaction among caregivers needs to be conducted and its relation to the field of human resource development.
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Physical barriers may hamper persons with disabilities (PWDs) movement in built environment. The needs of physical barrier-free environment are internationally acknowledged. This study explores the Malaysian scenario on access and facilities for PWDs by reviewing relevant legislation and guidelines, and literatures that examined the access and facilities provided in public buildings. This study identifies that Malaysia has plays its roles by establishing the relevant acts and legislation on PWDs needs and requirements. Nevertheless, previous studies on PWDs in Malaysia, demonstrated that there are still lacking on the implementation of the practice towards the acts and legislations. This study suggests that the application of the acts and legislation should be comprehensive covering all types of public buildings in Malaysia. In addition, enforcement by the local authorities and government agencies is crucial in order to successfully creating a barrier-free environment for all.
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Ensuring access to the built environment and public transportation is a crucial element in reducing the mobility constraints of people with disabilities. This study intends to investigate the accessibility of visual impaired passengers regards to interior design of Kelana Jaya Line LRT station. The access audit was evaluated at core area, transition area and peripheral area of selected LRT stations by using site observation and interview research method. A standard checklist was taken in accordance to the Malaysia Standards Code of Practice for Access of Disabled People to Public Buildings (MS1184:2002).The result shows that, although most of the stations accommodate access for disabled people however the design of facilities provided was not fully incorporate with standard requirement and user-friendly. These lead barriers to independent living for persons with disability. As a conclusion, aside from providing a complete of public access facilities, comprehension of social sensitivity and capability to plan for continuity and uniformity should be taken into consideration to eliminate the architectural barriers in the built environment in the future.
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This paper identifies the level of satisfaction on present facilities provided in shopping malls in Klang Valley, Malaysia. Literature review, data collection on case study access audit, selected interviews and questionnaires combined with details from observations and photographs were used to explore on how to achieve friendly and accessible spaces for all. The audit examined predetermination designed criteria against existing building to measure the suitability and appropriateness of the building to people with sensory disabilities and mental disabilities. Findings revealed that weaknesses found are caused by poor design and planning, lack of enforcement on policies and limited guidelines. Recommendations for the future are highlighted with options and proposed guidelines in respect to the person with disabilities (PWDs) need. The finding has provided a benchmark for consultants, local authorities and those who have interest in local built environment. INTRODUCTION The disabled are those who have long term physical, mental, intellectual or sensory impairments. However, those impairments are not the reason why people are disabled. They may feel restricted to or inconvenienced in their use of buildings due to physical obstructions such as steps or doors which are too narrow for wheelchairs, lack of facilities such as ramps, elevators, staircase, handrails, and absence of suitable facilities. These barriers may hinder their full and effective participation in society. According to Peter Tan, a Peer Counselor of Kuala Lumpur Independent Living Centre, people are disabled because of social prejudices and environmental barriers. It is caused either purposely or inadvertently because the society fails to accommodate and include them in all processes of social and infrastructural development. Previous studies revealed that Malaysia"s development policies and regulations lack the provision of user friendly built environment that include barrier-free and disabled-friendly environment although stated in building code and legislation (Tan, 2008). At the same time, there is no existing law to provide for accessibility outside buildings for disabled persons as specified in Malaysian Standard 1331: Code of Practice for Access for Disabled People Outside Buildings. Some of the reasons identified the local government, service providers and developers reluctance as they often view accessible features as burdensome and add extra costs for upgrading existing facilities for disabled convenience. This research will help to identify some of the problems on accessible issues at selected case studies in Malaysia. Through the findings, several recommendations are highlighted that could become a benchmark for a better built environment.
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This paper focuses on the person with disabilities (PWD)’s perspective of accessibility issues in built environment. The multiple-case study aims to evaluate the accessibility of several public buildings in Putrajaya based on PWDs’ level of satisfaction and perception through access audit. Four participants (visually-impaired person, hearing-impaired person, wheelchair user, and crutches user) were interviewed regarding their satisfaction and perception on the buildings’ facilities and overall accessibility during the access audit. Findings show that PWDs’ satisfaction varies based on their impairments; therefore, buildings need to provide a more inclusive environment that cater the needs of a broader range of users especially PWDs.
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Accessibility is important in daily life especially when dealing with external and internal environment. Realizing that most public transport terminals still lack in terms of good design and facilities thus a serious concern for the matters is needed to ensure the convenient for all. It has been widely accepted that disabled people, have fewer opportunities and lower quality of life than non-disabled. Added with poor accessibility, the disabled people face more challenges and difficulties while travelling and using the public transport. Therefore, it becomes increasingly difficult to ignore the disabled issues while using the facilities of the public transport.
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Malaysia is one of the fastest developing countries in the world and by the year 2020 it will become an industrialised nation according to the Malaysian government's strategic plans. This dynamic situation poses numerous opportunities and challenges for disabled people in Malaysia. Two positive outcomes are opportunities in the employment sector as well as infrastructure developments. However, there are new challenges especially with regards to mainstreaming of educational and vocational training along with the need for a dynamic placement service. The rise in industrial accidents creates a new challenge, along with the changing demographic trends which could have a negative impact on disabled people. What is striking is that disabled people and their organisations are beginning to articulate these changes and making a claim for inclusion in Malaysian society.
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This paper reports the findings of a qualitative study that investigated the embodied tourist experiences of 40 people who are vision impaired. The study, informed by the concept of “embodied ontology”, explored the corporeal and socially constructed experience of tourism. The findings highlighted the benefit of holidays for the participants and de-centred the “visual gaze” in the tourist experience. The quality of the tourist experience related to participants’ feelings of inclusion or exclusion in terms of their access to information, experience of wayfinding, travelling with a guide dog, and the knowledge and attitudes of others. It was evident that participants needed to manage their tourist experiences closely and constantly. The paper concludes that the tourism industry and community must understand the multi-sensory nature of the tourist experience if quality accessible experiences are to be available for tourists with vision impairment. Provision of multi-sensory experiences also enhances the experiences of sighted tourists.
We have human rights
  • M K Kennedy
Kennedy, M.K, and B. Hesla. (2008). We have human rights, Harvard Project on Disability, Harvard
The implementation of the SIRIM Codes of Practice for Disabled Persons by DBKL University Technology MARA Malaysia Unpublished dissertation 4 The implementation of the Malaysian Standard Code of Practice on Access for Disabled Persons by Local Authority
  • H Kamaruddin
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Kamaruddin, H. (2007). The implementation of the SIRIM Codes of Practice for Disabled Persons by DBKL. University Technology MARA Malaysia. Unpublished dissertation 4. Hikmah, K., Ahmad, E.H., Mahayuddin, M, Nor Rima, M. A., and Wan Zurea, W.I. (2012). The implementation of the Malaysian Standard Code of Practice on Access for Disabled Persons by Local Authority. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 50(2), 442-451
Provision of facilities for disabled people in electric train service (ETS) railway station in Perak Darul Ridzuan
  • M Hafizuddin
Hafizuddin, M. (2013). Provision of facilities for disabled people in electric train service (ETS) railway station in Perak Darul Ridzuan. University Technology MARA Malaysia. Unpublished dissertation