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Abstract

Vitamin E is an important fat‑soluble antioxidant and has been in use for more than 50 years in dermatology. It is an important ingredient in many cosmetic products. It protects the skin from various deleterious effects due to solar radiation by acting as a free‑radical scavenger. Experimental studies suggest that vitamin E has antitumorigenic and photoprotective properties. There is a paucity of controlled clinical studies providing a rationale for well‑defined dosages and clinical indications of vitamin E usage in dermatological practice. The aim of this article is to review the cosmetic as well as clinical implications of vitamin E in dermatology. Key words: Cosmetic, dermatology, vitamin E
© 2016 Indian Dermatology Online Journal | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow 311
Drug Prole
Department of
Dermatology, STD and
Leprosy, Government
Medical College and
Associated SMHS
Hospital, Srinagar,
Jammu and Kashmir,
India
ABSTRACT
VitaminEisanimportantfat‑solubleantioxidantandhasbeeninuseformorethan50yearsindermatology.
Itisanimportantingredientinmany cosmeticproducts.Itprotectstheskinfromvarious deleteriouseffects
dueto solarradiationby actingasa free‑radicalscavenger.Experimentalstudiessuggest thatvitaminE has
antitumorigenicandphotoprotective properties. Thereisapaucityofcontrolled clinical studies providinga
rationaleforwell‑deneddosagesandclinicalindicationsofvitaminEusageindermatologicalpractice.The
aimofthisarticleistoreviewthecosmeticaswellasclinicalimplicationsofvitaminEindermatology.
Key words:Cosmetic,dermatology,vitaminE
HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE
Vitamin E was rst described in 1922 by Herbert
M Evans and Katherine Bishop. In 1936, it
was biochemically characterized and named
tocopherol (Greek: “tocos” meaning offspring and
“phero” meaning to bring forth).[1,2]
SOURCES AND FORMS OF
VITAMIN E
Vitamin E is synthesized by plants and must
be obtained through dietary sources. Richest
sources are nuts, spinach, whole grains, olive
oil, and sunower oil.[3]
There are eight types of vitamin E (α-,β-,γ-, and
σ-tocopherols and their related corresponding
tocotrienols), γ-tocopherol being the most
abundant tocopherol in diet, whereas
α-tocopherol (α-Toc) is the most abundant
vitamin E derivative in human tissues and sera.
VITAMIN E AND EPIDERMIS:
MOLECULAR ASPECTS
γ-Tocopherol levels exceeding those of α-Toc
in human skin,[4] inhibits the production of PGE2
and nitric oxide, and also prevents sunburn
cell formation, ultraviolet (UV) B-induced lipid
peroxidation and edema,[5,6] wherefore it has
a role in epidermal protection from oxidative
stress. Vitamin E also has a role in photoadduct
formation and immunosuppression.[7]
STABILITY OF VITAMIN E
Stability of vitamin E depends on its form,
dl-α-Toc acetate being the most stable.
Vitamin E, occurring naturally in food in the form
of α-Toc oxidizes slowly when exposed to air. The
stability of topical vitamin E may be increased by
the use of vitamin E conjugates, which are esters
of tocopherol, resistant to oxidation but can still
penetrate skin layers.[8]
Although many cosmeceuticals contain vitamins
C and E, very few are actually effective in topical
application because the stability is compromised
as soon as the product is opened and exposed
to air and light.
However when a stable formulation delivers
a high concentration of nonesteried, optimal
isomer of the antioxidant, vitamins C and E
inhibit the acute UV damage as well as chronic
UV photoaging and skin cancer.[9]
Ferulic acid is a ubiquitous plant antioxidant
and its incorporation into a topical solution of
Vitamin E in dermatology
Mohammad Abid Keen, Iffat Hassan
Address for
correspondence:
Dr. Mohammad Abid
Keen,
Iqbal Abad, KP Road,
Anantnag ‑ 192 101,
Jammu and
Kashmir, India.
E‑mail: keenabid31@
gmail.com
Access this article online
Website: www.idoj.in
DOI: 10.4103/2229-5178.185494
Quick Response Code:
Cite this article as: Keen MA, Hassan I. Vitamin E in
dermatology. Indian Dermatol Online J 2016;7:311-5.
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15% l-ascorbic acid and 1% of α-Toc improves chemical
stability of the vitamins (C + E) and doubles photoprotection to
solar-stimulated irradiation of skin from fourfold to eightfold.[10]
DERMATOLOGIC INDICATIONS
Yellow nail syndrome: (Level of evidence IV)
The yellow nail syndrome includes slow growing, opaque
yellow nails with exaggerated yellow curvature, lymphedema,
and chronic respiratory disorders such as chronic bronchitis,
pleural effusions, and chronic sinusitis.[11] Vitamin E is one of
the treatment modalities for yellow nail syndrome,[12] in a dosage
of 1000 IU once a day for a period of 6 months.[13]
Dapsone‑induced hemolysis and headache: (Level of
evidence IV)
In various studies to ascertain the protective effect of Vitamin
E on the hemolysis associated with dapsone treatment, it was
seen that (dl-α-tocopheryl acetate) in a dose of 800 IU/day
confers a partial protective effect against dapsone-induced
hemolysis in patients with dermatitis herpetiformis.[14,15] Vitamin
E has also been used in dapsone-induced headache.[16]
Headache is a recognized effect of methemoglobinemia, and
reduction of previously elevated methemoglobin concentration
is presumably the mechanism by which vitamin E improves this
symptom, as improved methemoglobin concentration seems
to be the most consistent laboratory parameter in studies of
vitamin E for protection against dapsone side effects.[14]
Subcorneal pustular dermatoses: (Level of evidence IV)
Vitamin E (d-α-tocopheryl acetate) 100 IU/day, gradually
increasing to 400 IU/day for 4 weeks is one of the therapeutic
modalities in subcorneal pustular dermatoses, particularly
those showing unsatisfactory response to conventional
medications.[17]
Cutaneous amyloidosis: (Level of evidence IV)
Tocoretinate is a hybrid compound of retinoic acid and
tocopherol. In a study designed to evaluate the effects of topical
tocoretinate on lichen amyloidosis and macular amyloidosis,
it was concluded that topical tocoretinate reduces the clinical
symptoms of lichen and macular amyloidosis.[18]
Other dermatological indications for which there is
little utility for the use of Vitamin E
Atopic dermatitis
A single-blind, placebo-controlled study was performed by
Tsoureli-Nikita et al. in which 96 atopic dermatitis patients were
treated with either placebo or oral vitamin E (400 IE/day) for
8 months. They found an improvement and near remission of
atopic dermatitis and a 62% decrease in serum IgE levels in
the vitamin E-treated group. Vitamin E decreases serum levels
of IgE in atopic subjects.[19] The correlation between vitamin E
intake, IgE levels, and the clinical manifestations of atopy indicate
that vitamin E could be a therapeutic tool for atopic dermatitis.
Hailey–Hailey disease
In 1975, Ayres and Mihan reported control of the condition of
three patients with Hailey–Hailey disease by oral administration
of vitamin E in the form of d-α-tocopheryl acetate in doses of
800–1200 IU/L.[20] The exact mechanism by which Vitamin E
controls this disease is unknown, but its antioxidant action in
protecting cell membrane from lipid peroxidation, thus perhaps
preventing the formation of autoimmune antibodies, may be an
important factor.[21]
Epidermolysis bullosa
Several case reports suggest efcacy of vitamin E (300–600 IU/day)
for the management of epidermolysis bullosa.[22,23] Vitamin E
acts as an antioxidant, thus protecting the cell membranes and
intracellular organelles from lipid peroxidation.[24] It is possible
that in case of epidermolysis bullosa, there is a genetic defect
that effects the storage of Vitamin E in the tissues or in the ability
of tissues to use it, which necessitates an additional supply.[24]
Psoriasis
A natural product, called “Mirak,” for the treatment of psoriasis
has recently become available in many European countries.
Mirak consists of natural spring water, valconic earth, and
vitamin E cream. It induces a modest therapeutic effect
compared with placebo, without any signicant side effects, but
may not be able to compete with the already existing treatment
options for psoriasis.[25]
Cutaneous ulcers
Vitamin E has been seen to be useful in the treatment of
pressure sores in doses of 800 IU/L gradually increasing to
1600 IU/L in four patients.[26]
Skin cancer prevention
Mouse studies reported inhibition of UV-induced tumors in mice
fed with α-tocopherol acetate.[27] Multiple human studies have
shown no effects of vitamin E on the prevention or development
of skin cancers.[28,29]
Wound healing
Vitamin E along with zinc and vitamin C, is included in oral
therapies for pressure ulcers and burns.[30] The antioxidant
supplementation through vitamins E and C and the mineral
zinc has been seen to apparently enhance the antioxidant
protection against oxidative stress and allow less time for
wound healing.[31]
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Melasma
Vitamin E alone has shown minimal efcacy in the treatment
of melasma.[32] It has been shown to cause depigmentation by
interference with lipid peroxidation of melanocyte membranes,
increase in intracellular glutathione content, and inhibition of
tyrosinase.[33]
In a randomized, double-bind, placebo-controlled trial, a
combination of oral proanthocyanidin plus vitamin A, C, and E
was assessed in 60 Phillipino females with bilateral epidermal
melasma. The antioxidants were taken twice a day for 8 weeks
and were compared with placebo intake by mexametric and
Melasma Area and Severity (MASI) score analysis.[34] There
was a signicant reduction in MASI scores and pigmentation
by mexametry in malar regions.
Pycnogenol is a standardized extract of the bark of the
French maritime pine (Pinus pinaster), a well-known, potent
antioxidant, several times more powerful than vitamin E
and in addition, regenerates vitamin E and increases the
endogenous antioxidant enzyme system. Therefore its efcacy
in the treatment of melasma was investigated in a clinical
study in which 30 women with melasma took one 25 mg tablet
of pycnogenol with meals three times daily, that is, 75 mg
pycnogenol per day for a period of 30 days. These patients
were evaluated clinically by parameters such as the melasma
area index, pigmentary intensity index, and by routine blood and
urine tests. After a 30-day treatment, the average melasma area
of the patients decreased by 25.86 ± 20.39 mm (2) (P < 0.001)
and the average pigmentary intensity decreased by 0.47 ± 0.51
unit (P < 0.001).[35]
α-Toc derivatives inhibit tyrosinase in vitro[36] and melanogenesis
in epidermal melanocytes.[37] The antioxidant properties of
α-Toc, which interferes with lipid peroxidation of melanocyte
membranes and increases the intracellular glutathione content,
could explain its depigmenting effect.[38]
Acne vulgaris
In one of the studies conducted in a series of 98 patients,
the emphasis was based on the correction of the defective
keratinization of sebaceous follicles with a combination of
vitamin E and vitamin C.[39] This was seen to prevent the
formation of comedones, thus depriving the Propionibacterium
acnes of a culture medium. Vitamin E prevents lipid peroxidation
of serum from bacterial-induced leakage through follicles
and sebaceous glands, thus preventing inammation due to
peroxide irritation.
Vitamin E has also been used with high doses of isotretinoin
to ameliorate isotretinoin-induced side effects. However,
studies have demonstrated that vitamin E does not signicantly
ameliorate retinoid side effects when combined with isotretinoin
in the treatment of acne.[40,41]
Scleroderma
Oxidative stress is signicantly increased in patients with
scleroderma when compared with the healthy controls,
suggesting that free radical induced oxidative injury occurs
in scleroderma.[42] Antioxidants such as vitamin E might,
therefore, be benecial. Vitamin E is also believed to stabilize
lysosomal membranes, potentially inhibiting events involved in
the autoimmune process.[21]
Vitamin E supplementation has resulted in improvement in
the skin of scleroderma patients, although nondermatological
aspects of scleroderma did not improve.[43]
Various components of scleroderma, including morphea,
calcinosis cutis, and Raynaud’s phenomenon respond to
vitamin E.[44] The dose of vitamin E in these reports ranged
from 200 to 1200 IU per day.
One patient successfully treated was a 45-year-old man with
Raynaud’s phenomenon, probable early scleroderma, and
ulceration and gangrene of the ngertips. He received 800 IU
oral vitamin E daily and applied the vitamin (50 IU per mL) to the
ulcerated ngers twice daily. The ulcerations became less painful
after two weeks and healed almost completely within one month.[45]
Dermatological indications for which there are
anecdotal reports of beneficial effects of vitamin E
Chronic cutaneous lupus erythematosus[46]
Keratosis follicularis[47]
Postherpetic neuralgia[48]
Pseudoxanthoma elasticum[49]
Porphyria cutanea tarda.[50]
Recommended dose of vitamin E
In case of vitamin E, the recommended intake (6–10 mg of
α-tocopherol or the equivalent) is based solely on an estimate
of how much tocopherol the average person consumes.[51] In a
healthy adult who had been on a normal diet it would take an
estimated 4 years to fully deplete body stores of vitamin E.[52]
TOPICAL VITAMIN E IN DERMATOLOGY
Topical vitamin E has emerged as a popular treatment for a
number of skin disorders owing to its antioxidant properties. It
has been seen that reactive oxygen species have the ability to
alter the biosynthesis of collagen and glycosaminoglycans in
skin.[53] Most of the over-the-counter antiaging creams contain
0.5%–1% of vitamin E.
One of the most popular applications of vitamin E is the
treatment of burns, surgical scars, and wounds. However,
studies looking at the efcacy of vitamin E in the treatment of
burns and scars have been disappointing.[54,55]
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Topical vitamin E has also been found to be effective in
granuloma annulare.[56] Vitamin E is one of the ingredients in
over-the-counter treatments of skin aging.[57] Topical application
of the gel containing 2% phytonadione, 0.1% retinol, 0.1%
vitamin C, and 0.1% vitamin E has been seen to be fairly
or moderately effective in reducing dark under-eye circles,
especially in cases of hemostasis.[58]
VITAMIN E INTAKE DURING PREGNANCY
AND CHILDHOOD
Vitamin E supplements in pregnancy usually contain only small
doses of vitamin E, although adverse effects have not been
observed even at higher doses.[59] Theoretically, however,
due to the involvement of cytochrome P450 system in the
metabolism of orally supplemented RRR-α-tocopherol, drug
interactions have to be taken into account when supranutritional
doses of Vitamin E are provided. There is no published report
documenting adverse fetal effects due to use of topical vitamin
products.
SIDE EFFECTS
Most of the people do not experience any side effects when
taking the recommended daily dose. High dose can cause
nausea, diarrhea, stomach cramps, fatigue, weakness,
headache, blurred vision, rash, bruising, and bleeding.
Vitamin E being a fat-soluble vitamin, administration of a dose
higher than daily requirement results in accumulation inside
the body, resulting in hypervitaminosis E. Healthy adults
taking vitamin E daily at a dose of 100 mg for more than 1 year
are likely to get hypervitaminosis E, manifesting as reduced
platelet aggregation and interference with vitamin K metabolism
resulting in bleeding tendencies.[60]
Topical application of vitamin E can rarely cause contact
dermatitis,[61] erythema multiforme,[62] and xanthomatous
reaction.[63]
CONTRAINDICATIONS OR SPECIAL
PRECAUTIONS
There are no contraindications to the use of vitamin E. Patients
with coagulation disorders or taking anticoagulant medications
should be monitored for increased bleeding tendencies.
CONCLUSION
Despite development of new formulations for use in cosmetics
and skin care products, there is a lack of controlled clinical
trials providing a rationale for well-dened dosages and clinical
indications for oral and topical vitamin E. After so many years
of research on vitamin E, it is still unclear as to whether millions
of dollars worth of vitamin E products paid for by patients and
consumers have been of any benet. A better understanding of
this vitamin may help in evaluating the indications and dosage
regimens for the prevention and treatment of acute and chronic
skin disorders.
Financial support and sponsorship
Nil.
Conflicts of interest
There are no conicts of interest.
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... Therefore, it is critical for photoprotection as it reduces UV-induced damage to the skin by oxidative stress (Pandel et al., 2013). Photoprotection is essential for skin health, but sunlight is the most serious environmental stimulant that damages skin (Keen and Hassan, 2016). Vitamin E's major function in the skin is to protect against the harmful effects of free radicals, including ROS; thus, vitamin E's use in preventing UV-induced destruction has been extensively explored (Pham et al., 2016). ...
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Palm oil is rich in tocotrienols (T3s), a type of vitamin E that has garnered considerable research interest as it exhibits anti-inflammatory as well as antioxidant characteristics that are comparable to or exceed those of tocopherols (Toc). Notably, T3 must be consumed as it cannot be produced by the human body. Here, we reviewed the anti-inflammatory activities of T3s in the prevention and treatment of various inflammatory disorders; focusing on recent preclinical and clinical studies. There is compelling data from experimental models and human studies that shows that T3 administration can inhibit the release of various inflammatory mediators that contribute to age-related disease by enhancing oxidative stress, reducing melanin production and skin damage, and preventing cardiovascular disease and stroke. There is evidence to show that T3s possess neuroprotective, anticancer, and anti-osteoporosis properties. In addition, T3s also protect the gastrointestinal tract, facilitate blood glucose control in people with diabetes, and prevent fatty liver disease. Furthermore, results from some clinical studies suggest that T3s are beneficial nutritional supplements with no evident side-effects when administered to patients with neurological or cardiovascular disorders. There is growing evidence from clinical trials that shows that T3s can help prevent dementia and Alzheimer's disease. More well-designed clinical trials, as well as human intervention studies, are required to confirm the health benefits of palm T3.
... Alpha-tocopherol (α-tocopherol) used at 0.5% is a known antioxidant found in cosmetic products which has been used in this study as positive control [22]. The antioxidant ability of α-tocopherol stems from its ability to react with peroxyl radicals and singlet oxygens which favor lipid peroxidation [23]. ...
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The skin is constantly subject to external stressors (the exposome), including particulate matter and blue light. These can penetrate the deeper layers of the skin, inducing the release of free radicals and triggering an inflammatory cascade of events contributing to cutaneous aging and exacerbating inflammatory skin conditions. This study demonstrates the clinical efficacy of Indian sandalwood oil of varying concentrations against oxidative stress induced by urban dust and blue light. Twenty-two healthy human subjects entered and completed the study of 11 days. Test products containing 0.1%, 1% and 10% of sandalwood oil, as well as a placebo and a comparator control (α-tocopherol), were applied on the different investigational zones of the upper back of each subject. Exposure ensued on day 7, using a controlled pollution exposure system (CPES) and blue light at a wavelength of 412 nm. Sebum was sampled on each investigational zone following the last exposure. The level of squalene monohydroperoxide (SQOOH) was the primary endpoint. A dose-dependent decrease in SQOOH on the zones treated with 10%, 1% and 0.1% of the sandalwood oil formulation compared to the untreated zones was observed. The zone treated with the 10% sandalwood-containing formula demonstrated the highest protective efficacy with the lowest amount of SQOOH. Increasing the concentration of the sandalwood oil increased its protective antioxidant activity. The results collected from this intraindividual comparative is the first clinical trial to suggest that sandalwood oil at a concentration between 1% and 10% protects the skin against the oxidative stress induced by urban dust and blue light exposure.
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Oils, including essential oils and their constituents, are widely reported to have penetration enhancement activity and have been incorporated into a wide range of pharmaceutical formulations. This study sought to determine if there is an evidence base for the selection of appropriate oils for particular applications and compare their effectiveness across different formulation types. A systematic review of the data sources, consisting of Google Scholar, EMBASE, PubMed, Medline, and Scopus, was carried out and, following screening and quality assessment, 112 articles were included within the analysis. The research was classified according to the active pharmaceutical ingredient, dosage form, in vitro/in vivo study, carrier material(s), penetration enhancers as essential oils, and other chemical enhancers. The review identified four groups of oils used in the formulation of skin preparations; in order of popularity, these are terpene-type essential oils (63%), fatty acid-containing essential oils (29%) and, finally, 8% of essential oils comprising Vitamin E derivatives and miscellaneous essential oils. It was concluded that terpene essential oils may have benefits over the fatty acid-containing oils, and their incorporation into advanced pharmaceutical formulations such as nanoemulsions, microemulsions, vesicular systems, and transdermal patches makes them an attractive proposition to enhance drug permeation through the skin.
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Upregulation of certain enzymes, such as collagenase, tyrosinase, and elastase, is triggered by several extrinsic environmental factors, such as temperature, UV radiation, humidity, and stress, and leads to elasticity loss and skin pigmentation. Herein, dual-emissive polyaromatic carbon quantum dots (CQDs) with abundant phenolic moieties, that is green and yellow CQDs (G-CQDs and Y-CQDs, respectively), were prepared using a three-fold symmetric molecule, 1,3,5-trihydroxybenzene. The significant inhibition efficacy of the fabricated CQDs against collagenase, elastase, and tyrosinase, which play important roles in skin aging, revealed their excellent antiaging potential. The Y-CQDs with large polyphenolic–polyaromatic domains and abundant –OH groups exhibited high enzyme inhibitory efficacy against skin aging, and their collagenase, elastase, and tyrosinase inhibitory efficacies were ~75 ± 4.2%, ~52 ± 3.1%, and ~35.3 ± 4.2%, respectively, at a concentration of 100 μg mL−1. The most critical factor that delays wound healing is oxidative stress, which is caused by the overproduction of free radicals around inflamed tissue. CQDs were effective in suppressing UV-induced reactive oxygen species at the cellular level and improved cell viability. Subsequently, CQDs incorporated dual-emissive biocompatible gelatin–methacryloyl hydrogel were constructed as wound dressing material to promote wound healing via inducing proliferation of fibroblasts, enhancing cell migration and alleviating inflammation, and provide antiaging benefits. Our results demonstrated that the fabricated CQDs with remarkable optical features, low cytotoxicity, and excellent antioxidant and antiaging properties can be used as bio-imaging probes, antiaging agents, and wound dressing materials for oxidative-related diseases in the nanomedicine and cosmetic industries.
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Chitin nanofibrils (CN) and nanolignin (NL) were used to embed active molecules, such as vitamin E, sodium ascorbyl phosphate, lutein, nicotinamide and glycyrrhetinic acid (derived from licorice), in the design of antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant nanostructured chitin nanofibrils–nanolignin (CN-NL) complexes for skin contact products, thus forming CN-NL/M complexes, where M indicates the embedded functional molecule. Nano-silver was also embedded in CN-NL complexes or on chitin nanofibrils to exploit its well-known antimicrobial activity. A powdery product suitable for application was finally obtained by spray-drying the complexes co-formulated with poly(ethylene glycol). The structure and morphology of the complexes was studied using infrared spectroscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy, while their thermal stability was investigated via thermo-gravimetry. The latter provided criteria for evaluating the suitability of the obtained complexes for subsequent demanding industrial processing, such as, for instance, incorporation into bio-based thermoplastic polymers through conventional melt extrusion. In vitro tests were carried out at different concentrations to assess skin compatibility. The obtained results provided a physical–chemical, morphological and cytocompatibility knowledge platform for the correct selection and further development of such nanomaterials, allowing them to be applied in different products. In particular, chitin nanofibrils and the CN-NL complex containing glycyrrhetinic acid can combine excellent thermal stability and skin compatibility to provide a nanostructured system potentially suitable for industrial applications.
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This study aims to determine the best formulation for the peel-off mask Arachi or peanut (Arachis hypogaea L). Arachis hypogaea kefir as an active ingredient is added with variations in the concentration of F1 (0.5%) and F2 (2%) (w/v). Organoleptic tests, homogeneity, dry time, and pH were carried out on the peel-off mask that had been made. Antioxidant test (DPPH methods) was performed on masks F1 and F2. The results showed that the peel-off mask of A. hypogaea kefir had the best antioxidant activity at a concentration of 2% (F2) kefir with an IC50 value of 1.865 ppm and was very active. The characteristics of the peel-off mask have good physical stability, proven by not experiencing a change in color, odor, being homogeneous, having good dispersion power, and having a dry time ranging from 10-23 minutes. The pH value of the peel-off mask preparation is 4.52, and it is appropriate with SNI and the pH balance of normal human skin. The peel-off mask of A. hypogaea kefir can be produced because has good physical stability and antioxidant activity.
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The author conducted a comparative analysis to investigate the nutritive activities through proximate analysis and phytoconstituents of Cycas revoluta with different solvent extracts. For this purpose, the AOAC Internationals (Association of Official Agricultural Chemists) and Standard Lowry methods for protein estimation were used to forecast nutritional components such as ash%, moisture%, crude protein%, crude fat%, crude fibers%, and carbohydrate. Plants consist of a variety of phytochemicals that have variable solvation capabilities based on their polarity. The author also quantifies the effects of different solvents on the phytochemical profile and characterization of several volatile bioactive chemicals of Cycas revoluta. For phytochemical screening, a sequential extraction was performed utilizing several solvent systems, including methanol (MeOH), chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, hexane, and ethyl acetate (EtAc). The hyphenated approach gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS) was used to evaluate the volatile components. The ash content was found to be high which indicates the presence of various inorganic elements. The carbohydrates were found in more amount, followed by Protein and lipid. According to the percent yield of various extracts, certain bioactive phytochemicals are much more available in more polar solvents such as MeOH, others are soluble in intermediate solvents such as EtAc, and most non-polar organic compounds may be abstracted utilizing non-polar agents such as nH. GC–MS analysis revealed the presence of Palmitoleic acid, Phytol, Campesterol, ( +)-à-Tocopherol, Neophytadiene, á-Sitosterol and Ethyl iso-allocholate in the extract of n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol which might largely contribute in the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity.
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We have prepared from the non-saponifiable matter of wheat germ oil thress aflophanates: 1. M.p. 250°. This is a possibly the allophante of β-amyrin. The alcohol regenrated from the allopohante has no vitamin E potency. 2. M.p. 138°, readily crystallizing in long needles. The analysis agree with values required by monollophantes of an alcohol, C39H50O2. The alcohol from this allophante apparenelly has some vitamin E potency, but less than that from the third allophanate. 3. M.p. 158-160°. From this allophanate, the alcohol—for which we propose the name α-tocopherol—when given in a single dose of 3 mg. always enables vitamin E-deficient rats to bear young. α-Tocopherol shows a characteristic absoption band at 2980 Å., E1 per cent1 cm. = 90 ca. Treatment with methyl alcoholic silver nitrate converts it to a substance which has absorption bands at 2710 and 2620 Å respectively, E1 per centcm. = 480 ca., and possesses and some vitamin E activity. α-Tocopherol yields a crystaline p-nitrophenylurethane melting at 120-131°. Analyses of both the urethane and the allophanate indicate a provisional formula for α-tocopherol of C29H50O2
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A novel vitamin E derivative, (6″-hydroxy-2″,5″,7″,8″-tetramethylchroman-2″-yl) methyl 3-(2′,4′-dihydroxyphenyl)propionate (TM4R), which has a chromanoxyl ring and 4-substituted resorcinol moieties, was synthesized; and its inhibitory effects on tyrosinase, antioxidant ability, and lightening effect of ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced hyperpigmentation were estimated. TM4R showed potent inhibitory activity on tyrosinase, which is the rate-limiting enzyme in melanogenesis. The scavenging activities of TM4R on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and hydroxyl radicals were found to be nearly the same as those of α-tocopherol. Furthermore, an efficient lightening effect was observed following topical application of TM4R to UVB-stimulated hyperpigmented dorsal skin of brownish guinea pigs. These results suggest that TM4R may be a candidate for an efficient whitening agent, possibly by inhibiting tyrosinase activity and biological reactions caused by reactive oxygen species.
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Yellow nail syndrome is an acquired condition of unknown etiology, rarely seen in children, characterized by a triad of thickened yellow nails, primary lymphedema, and respiratory manifestations. We report an 8-year-old girl with this syndrome who showed improvement with Fluconazole, 200 mg once weekly and vitamin E, 1000 IU once daily.
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Lichen amyloidosis and macular amyloidosis are commonly therapy-resistant. Tocoretinate is a hybrid compound of retinoic acid and tocopherol that is commonly used for the treatment of skin ulcers. Although beneficial effect of oral retinoic acid on lichen amyloidosis is reported, tocoretinate has not been reported to be useful for the treatment of lichen amyloidosis or macular amyloidosis. We evaluated the effects of topical tocoretinate on lichen amyloidosis and macular amyloidosis lesions. Tocoretinate was topically applied daily to the lesions and clinical improvement and histological changes were evaluated. The outcome was very good for four, good for two, moderate for two and poor for two of 10 treated patients. Epidermal hypertrophy was reduced and expression of involucrin, keratin 1 and keratin 10 was decreased by tocoretinate treatment, suggesting the normalization of epidermal differentiation. Amyloid deposits remained histologically detectable, even in clinically responsive patients. Together, topical application of tocoretinate reduced the clinical symptoms of lichen amyloidosis and macular amyloidosis, and normalized disturbed epidermal differentiation.
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This review evaluates the efficacy of vitamin supplementations for prevention and treatment of pressure ulcer and surgical wounds on the basis of recent clinical intervention studies. Intervention studies show that an energy and protein-rich oral nutritional supplement providing high doses of vitamin C and zinc in combination with arginine may prevent the development of pressure ulcers. This measure seems to improve the healing of pressure ulcer, which is questionable for vitamin C alone. For surgical wounds, data from randomized controlled studies are scarce, but results on the use of vitamin C in combination with pantothenic acid are promising. Considerable evidence suggests that supplementation of vitamin C together with zinc by an oral nutritional supplement rich in energy, protein and arginine may be an efficient tool for pressure ulcer healing in contrast to single vitamin C. The evidence for prevention of pressure ulcer by such an oral nutritional supplement is comparably low. This fits also for single vitamin C supplementation in the healing of surgical wounds. Further, well designed and well powered studies on the benefit of antioxidant vitamins for wound healing within a diet providing adequate energy and protein are necessary.
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The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of supplementation of vitamin E, vitamin C, and zinc on the oxidative stress in burned children. In a prospective double-blind placebo controlled pilot study, 32 patients were randomized as no supplementation (n = 15) or antioxidant supplementation (n = 17) groups. Supplementation consisted of the antioxidant mixture of vitamin C (1.5 times upper intake level), vitamin E (1.35 times upper intake level), and zinc (2.0 times recommended dietary allowance) administered during 7 days starting on the second day of admittance into the hospital. Energy requirement was calculated by the Curreri equation, and protein input was 3.0 g/kg of ideal body mass index (percentile 50). Total antioxidant capacity of plasma and malondialdehyde were used to monitor oxidative stress. The time of wound healing was evaluated as the main clinical feature. Patients (age 54.2 +/- 48.9 months, 65.6% males), who exhibited 15.5 +/- 6.7% of total burn area, showed no differences in age and sex, when compared with controls. Intake of the administered antioxidants was obviously higher in treated subjects (P = .005), and serum differences were confirmed for vitamin E and C, but not for zinc (P = .180). There was a decrease in lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde level) (P = .006) and an increase in vitamin E concentrations in the antioxidant supplementation group (P = .016). The time of wound healing was lower in the supplemented group (P < .001). The antioxidant supplementation through vitamin E and C and the mineral zinc apparently enhanced antioxidant protection against oxidative stress and allowed less time for wound healing.
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Melasma is a common, acquired, symmetric hypermelanosis characterized by irregular brown to gray-brown macules on the cheeks, forehead, nasal bridge, cutaneous part of the upper lip, mandible, and the upper arms. Few trials have been conducted regarding the potential benefits of oral procyanidin in melasma. To assess the safety and efficacy of oral procyanidin + vitamins A, C, E among Filipino patients with epidermal melasma. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial lasting 8 weeks, involving 60 adult female volunteers with bilateral epidermal melasma, Fitzpatrick skin types III-V, was conducted at the Section of Dermatology, Research Institute for Tropical Medicine, Department of Health, Manila, Philippines. Patients received either the test drug or placebo, twice daily with meals. Changes in pigmentation were measured using a mexameter, the melasma area and severity index (MASI), and a global evaluation by the patient and investigator. Safety evaluations were performed at each follow-up visit. Fifty-six patients completed the trial. Mexameter results demonstrated a significant decrease in the degree of pigmentation in the left malar (165.85 +/- 70.909) and right malar (161.33 +/- 61.824) regions (P < 0.0001). MASI scores showed a significant improvement in the left malar (2.4862 +/- 1.67816) and right malar (1.8889 +/- 1.67110) regions (P = 0.001). Procyanidin + vitamins A, C, E proved to be safe and well tolerated, with minimal adverse events. In this 8-week trial period, oral procyanidin + vitamins A, C, E proved to be safe and effective among Filipino women with epidermal melasma.
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Antioxidant nutrients can help prevent skin damage caused by ultraviolet radiation from sunlight, but it is not clear whether serum concentrations of such nutrients influence skin cancer risk. We carried out a prospective study of the associations between serum concentrations of antioxidant nutrients and incidence (person-based and tumor-based) of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin among a random subsample of 485 adults from an Australian community. Participants were divided into thirds, ranked according to their serum concentrations of carotenoids, alpha-tocopherol, and selenium measured in 1996 and were monitored for incident, histologically confirmed BCC and SCC tumors until 2004. Although there were no associations between baseline serum carotenoids or alpha-tocopherol concentrations and incidence of BCC or SCC, baseline serum selenium concentrations showed strong inverse associations with both BCC and SCC tumor incidence. Compared with participants with lowest selenium concentrations at baseline (0.4-1.0 micromol/L), those with the highest serum selenium concentrations (1.3-2.8 micromol/L) had a decreased incidence of BCC tumors (multivariate relative risk, 0.43; 95% confidence interval, 0.21-0.86; P(trend) = 0.02) and SCC tumors (multivariate relative risk, 0.36; 95% confidence interval, 0.15-0.82; P(trend) = 0.02). Relatively high serum selenium concentrations are associated with an approximately 60% decrease in subsequent tumor incidence of both BCC and SCC, whereas serum concentrations of carotenoids or alpha-tocopherol are not associated with later skin cancer incidence. A possible U-shaped association between serum selenium concentrations and SCC of the skin needs confirmation.
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Autoimmune diseases are characterized by an alteration of the body's defense mechanism, designed for protection against infections and toxic injuries, which for unknown reasons attacks and destroys normal tissue. Some evidence strongly suggests that such diseases are the result of hydrolytic enzymes that escape from lysosomes whose membranes have been damaged by lipid peroxidation or other causes and that combine with and denature normal tissue proteins--in effect converting them into foreign proteins--to which the body then reacts by producing antibodies. During the past ten years, in a private dermatologic practice, we have conducted clinical investigations on the possible therapeutic value of vitamin E in the management of a number of disabling skin diseases of unknown etiology as well as several muscular disorders. Among the diseases that were successfully controlled were a number in the autoimmune category, including scleroderma, discoid lupus erythematosus, porphyria cutanea tarda, several types of vasculitis, and polymyositis. Since vitamin E is a physiologic stabilizer of cellular and lysosomal membranes, and since some autoimmune diseases respond to vitamin E, we suggest that a relative deficiency of vitamin E damages lysosomal membranes, thus initiating the autoimmune process.