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Children and the Internet: Great Expectations, Challenging Realities

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Abstract

Is the internet really transforming children and young people's lives? Is the so-called `digital generation' genuinely benefiting from exciting new opportunities? And, worryingly, facing new risks? This major new book by a leading researcher addresses these pressing questions. It deliberately avoids a techno-celebratory approach and, instead, interprets children's everyday practices of internet use in relation to the complex and changing historical and cultural conditions of childhood in late modernity. Uniquely, Children and the Internet reveals the complex dynamic between online opportunities and online risks, exploring this in relation to much debated issues such as: · Digital in/exclusion · Learning and literacy · Peer networking and privacy · Civic participation · Risk and harm Drawing on current theories of identity, development, education and participation, this book includes a refreshingly critical account of the challenging realities undermining the great expectations held out for the internet - from governments, teachers, parents and children themselves. It concludes with a forward-looking framework for policy and regulation designed to advance children's rights to expression, connection and play online as well as offline.

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... New technologies usually generate feelings and attitudes that range from enthusiasm to fear not only among laypeople (Contarello & Fortunati, 2006) or in the press (Christidou, et al., 2004;Ricci, 2010), but also among scholars and practitioners themselves (Livingstone, 2010;Livingston & Sefton-Green, 2016), this often leading to various forms of moral panic (e.g., Bennett et al., 2008) nested in oversimplified views of intergenerational changes (Livingstone & Sefton-Green, 2016). ...
... The social representations as action (Wagner, 2016) entail, thus, a debate with the digital culture, online participation and exclusion (Jenkins, 2006;Jenkins et al., 2009). For example, children's uncertainty about who is listening to them online (Livingstone, 2010) echoes the feeling of looseness and uncertainty reported by Contarello and Sarrica (2007). Thus, social representations of the Internet might very well be preventing people to fully take up opportunities for greater participation. ...
... Moreover, as we gain some evidence that online and offline activities are being psychologically bridged (Livingstone, 2010), the more it seems that the social representations of the Internet are likely to rely on and combine a range of opposite categories: virtual vs real, artificial vs natural, human vs machine. The mobile phone, for example, was rapidly represented as a prosthesis of the human body and foreseen as the device that would popularize Internet (Contarello & Sarrica, 2007) as it is actually happening nowadays. ...
Thesis
This work focused on the meanings and experiences with the Internet in Portuguese schools from the perspective of the social representations theory. The main goal was to explore and map the relationship between the social representations of the Internet and the social identity, attitudes, and digital literacy of students, teachers, and guardians. Three studies have been conducted following a mixed-methods approach. Study 1 was an extensive exploratory survey of 1013 participants (8th-grade and 11th-grade students, teachers, and guardians) from three Portuguese public schools. We aimed to adapt, construct, and test measures to understand the social representations of the Internet in education. Study 2 consisted of 26 in-depth interviews with principals or responsible personnel of schools across the country about their views on the Internet in education. Study 3 was an extensive survey of 202 participants, exclusively focused on 8th-grade students, teachers, and guardians, from 25 schools distributed across the country. It explored the relationship between the symbolic field of the social representations of the Internet and social identity, attitudes, and digital literacy. Data were analyzed with quantitative and qualitative procedures, including correspondence textual analysis to project social groups and other relevant variables onto representational fields. Results showed that there is a clear relationship between the semantic field of the Internet and social groups. Students share a representation of the Internet based on digital culture, while teachers and guardians share a representation based on information and values. Students admitted the influence of the Internet on their generation but claimed not to be personally affected. Results also revealed that participants do not identify with the typical member of their group. As for the educational scenario, data revealed a very heterogeneous picture. The Internet experience shapes and is shaped by three dimensions of school functioning: administrative, pedagogic, and social. Data suggest that the representations of the social groups inform the practices and experiences reported in the interviews and surveys. The Internet is used – mainly within a replacement and not transformative model – to meet the perceived expectations of the students and society (e.g., labor market). However, students’ attitudes towards the Internet, digital literacy, and perceived usage during the week are not significantly different from teachers’ attitudes. On the other hand, in Study 1, significant differences were observed in these indicators concerning guardians, possibly explained by low educational levels. Results have considerable educational implications. They suggest that educational and social experiences and practices are aligned with common sense ideas about the relationship between the youth and digital media. Educators are losing the opportunity to use the Internet as a medicine to heal the social tissue of intergenerational relations and fulfill schools’ mission, that of bridging society, transmitting a legacy, and inspiring the future.
... New technologies usually generate feelings and attitudes that range from enthusiasm to fear not only among laypeople (Contarello & Fortunati, 2006) or in the press (Christidou, et al., 2004;Ricci, 2010), but also among scholars and practitioners themselves (Livingstone, 2010; Livingston & Sefton-Green, 2016), this often leading to various forms of moral panic (e.g., Bennett, Maton, & Kervin, 2008) nested in oversimplified views of intergenerational changes (Livingstone & Sefton-Green, 2016). ...
... The social representations as action (Wagner, 2016) entail, thus, a debate with the digital culture, online participation and exclusion (Jenkins, 2006;Jenkins et al., 2009). For example, children's uncertainty about who is listening to them online (Livingstone, 2010) echoes the feeling of looseness and uncertainty reported by Contarello and Sarrica [5]. Thus, social representations of the Internet might very well be preventing people to fully take up opportunities for greater participation. ...
... Moreover, as we gain some evidence that online and offline activities are being psychologically bridged (Livingstone, 2010), the more it seems that the social representations of the Internet are likely to rely on and combine a range of opposite categories: virtual vs. real, artificial vs. natural, human vs. machine. The mobile phone, for example, was rapidly represented as a prosthesis of the human body and foreseen as the device that would popularize the Internet [5], as it is actually happening nowadays. ...
Article
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In this paper, we draw upon the empirical research about the social representations of the Internet in order to propose a theoretically-driven agenda. A systematic review of empirical, peer-reviewed literature was conducted. The corpus of analysis consisted of 12 papers which fell into five themes: (i) the Internet and quality of life; (ii) the Internet as a moving representation; (iii) the Internet and ageing; (iv) the Internet and mobile culture; and (v) the Internet and education. The research about the social representations of the Internet is still limited in number, depth and breadth. Notwithstanding, it conveys important insights about the evolving, symbolically-loaded meanings of the Internet as a prosthesis of knowledge and as a means of communication, with consequences for identity and intergroup relations, contributing to expand the theoretical and empirical debates on the field of digital media. The research agenda for studying the Internet from a social representations' perspective includes three major theoretical foci: social cognition; social identity and intergroup relations; and social thinking in times of big data. Social representations can provide the Papers on Social Representations, xx (x), x.1-x.33 (2021) [http://psr.iscte-iul.pt/index.php/PSR/index] x.2 field with powerful conceptual tools to learn how people deal with novelty and to navigate through huge quantity of data generated online. In change, digital media can contribute to further social representations theory developments. To learn how communication flows on the Internet and how people make sense of the Internet and Internet-related phenomena (including automatically generated contents, mass and social media accounts) equals to set the clock for the present time schedule.
... Many parents experience difficulties trying to protect their children online. Evidence suggests that they find it socially and technically challenging for which they feel ill-equipped and under-resourced to administer [30]. Therefore, many parents are challenged by the task of protecting their children's safety online, and thus will be likely to have lower parental self-efficacy (PSE). ...
... Parents may be worried that technology use detracts from or replaces "real life" interaction [67]. Alternatively, parents may lack the skills needed to tackle the technical aspects of online safety protection [30]. Therefore, parental online safety knowledge is likely to affect their parental online risk management and their PSE. ...
... Many parents of autistic children report difficulties trying to protect them online [22]. Taking into account that parents report difficulties trying to protect their children online as they find that they are socially ill-equipped and under-resourced to do [30] and many autistic children struggle to transition offline to online [23,43,46], our fifth hypthesis (H5) states that: ...
Conference Paper
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Many autistic children are active online users. Research suggests that they are subject to distress and poor wellbeing following online safety threats. However, it is unclear if autistic children are more likely to experience online safety risks compared with non-autistic children. We conducted a parental online safety survey. Two groups of parents (autistic children, n=63; non-autistic children, n= 41) completed questionnaires about their child's online safety behaviours, wellbeing, and their own parental self-efficacy (PSE). Our results highlight that autistic children experience significantly more online safety risks than non-autistic children and poorer wellbeing than autistic children who did not experience online safety risks. Parents of autistic children reported carrying out significantly less risk management and reported poorer PSE than parents of non-autistic children. Having an autistic child and parental online safety knowledge were significant predictors of PSE. These results will help inform the co-design of interventions to protect autistic children online. CCS CONCEPTS • Security and privacy~Human and societal aspects of security and privacy
... Particularly for adolescents, these digital spaces become crucial sources of information on topics they may feel uncomfortable discussing with adults (Kelly et al., 2011;Reid Chassiakos et al., 2016). As Livingstone (2008) highlighted, it can be argued that young individuals feel confident and empowered when seeking and finding health information online. ...
... While previous studies suggested that young people could feel empowered by accessing information online to address their health-related inquiries (Livingstone, 2008), this research indicates that their critical health literacy, particularly on TikTok, was limited (Plaisime et al., 2020). Minors demonstrated a lack of habit in verifying sources, instead relying on instinct and familiarity with the platform to identify possible deception (Morahan-Martin, 2004). ...
... Our working model is grounded in several linked areas of theory (Livingstone, 2009). ...
... To conclude this book and to draw together the many insights and findings in the foregoing chapters, we examine the similarities and differences among individuals in order to propose a typology of young internet users, and then look at the associations among factors shaping online risk and safety. Our motivation here is the recognition that, on the one hand, it is hardly helpful to consider every different way in which each individual child goes online but, on the other, it is problematic that discourses of 6 childhood and of the internet tend to treat 'children' as a homogenous category and to construct 'the internet' as something unitary and fixed (Hasebrink et al., 2011, Livingstone, 2009). Our research recognises that the internet is complex in its affordances and diverse in its uses, and that children are not all the same. ...
... As we might anticipate, some gamers prefer that all their interactions with others should be entirely digital. The fact that this pattern is maintained even at the end of the lockdown partially confirms what other studies call "bedroom culture" (Livingstone, 2009;Livingstone & Helsper, 2007), i.e. the constant temptation provided by new media environment to suggest multiple opportunities and satisfactions for young people to consider digital interactions as prevailing over the "traditional" ones. Practically there are many studies that warn about the restriction of face-to-face interactions to the detriment of digitally mediated ones (Bynner, 2005;Wyn & Woodman, 2006;Livingstone, 2009). ...
... The fact that this pattern is maintained even at the end of the lockdown partially confirms what other studies call "bedroom culture" (Livingstone, 2009;Livingstone & Helsper, 2007), i.e. the constant temptation provided by new media environment to suggest multiple opportunities and satisfactions for young people to consider digital interactions as prevailing over the "traditional" ones. Practically there are many studies that warn about the restriction of face-to-face interactions to the detriment of digitally mediated ones (Bynner, 2005;Wyn & Woodman, 2006;Livingstone, 2009). In his flagship research for those who choose to eliminate all physical interactions in favor of digital ones, Wong (2020) develops the concept of "hidden youth", with a pattern worthy to be highlighted: even if the interactions between young people are completely moved to online platforms, only a very small proportion of those interviewed confessed that they really feel alone. ...
Article
Full-text available
The study of motives in sociology and new media is often debated in the digital environment. However, little has been written about the motives that encourage gamers to be active in the virtual environment, and even less about the subject of gaming during the Covid-19 pandemic. Thus, the objective of this study is to point out some of the motives (be they social, cultural or economical) why different players have opted for gaming in an environment full of pandemic-induced lockdowns. Thereby, 28 Romanian gamers were selected from Youtube pages of a few streamers, to be interviewed twice: Once during the lockdown and once after the lockdown ended, obtaining a total of 56 interviews. Afterwards, a thematic analysis of the main identified motives was performed, which determined the identification of four main reasons in support of gaming: gaming as communicational environment, gaming as a "pandemic education" platform, gaming as nostalgia and gaming as acquiring new skills, each with its own characteristics. Even though some themes are present in the Covid-19 pandemic as they were in the past, there are new themes, such as gaming as a so-called "pandemic education", where the game appears rather as a civic consciousness. Also, the WHO initiative, #PlayApartTogether, seems to be an important incentive to identify recurring themes regarding gaming during lockdown.
... Our working model is grounded in several linked areas of theory (Livingstone, 2009). ...
... To conclude this book and to draw together the many insights and findings in the foregoing chapters, we examine the similarities and differences among individuals in order to propose a typology of young internet users, and then look at the associations among factors shaping online risk and safety. Our motivation here is the recognition that, on the one hand, it is hardly helpful to consider every different way in which each individual child goes online but, on the other, it is problematic that discourses of 6 childhood and of the internet tend to treat 'children' as a homogenous category and to construct 'the internet' as something unitary and fixed (Hasebrink et al., 2011, Livingstone, 2009). Our research recognises that the internet is complex in its affordances and diverse in its uses, and that children are not all the same. ...
Chapter
Introduction Rapid adoption of the internet and other online technologies is presenting policy makers, governments and industry with a significant task of ensuring that online opportunities are maximised and the risks associated with internet use are minimised and managed. Online opportunities are the focus of considerable public and private sector activity, and diverse ambitious efforts are underway in many countries to promote digital learning technologies in schools, e-governance initiatives, digital participation and digital literacy. The risks associated with the technologies are receiving similar attention through national and international initiatives that address child protection, cybersecurity and privacy, and through discussions explaining the potential for state and/or self-regulation. Policy initiatives assume particular circumstances, understandings and practices applying to children, their parents and teachers. These assumptions may be more or less accurate and well judged, and at worst, they may be unnecessarily anxious or already out of date. Herein lies the value of direct research on children's contemporary experiences across diverse contexts. But although technological and regulatory change since the early 2000s has been accompanied by research seeking to understand the social shaping and consequences of internet use, early research tended to be more descriptive than theoretical (Wellman, 2004). However, since researchers seek to understand and predict children's online experiences, mere descriptions of survey findings are insufficient. Consequently, a central feature of the EU Kids Online project has been to develop a theoretical framework within which its findings can be interpreted because, in the absence of theory, three problems occur. First, it is difficult to say what ‘findings’ mean since they are open to multiple interpretations – for example, is a certain percentage large or small, surprising or banal? Second, findings tend to be mere lists of percentages that cannot be connected to the findings of other studies, either in the domain of children's internet use or in relation to other studies of risk in childhood, the nature of parenting, or the role of the internet in adolescent development. Third, theory is needed to generate predictions and, so, to go beyond the particularity of any one data set in order to anticipate the consequences of different combinations of factors in future situations.
... They have high risk to be involved into many risky behaviors which may get themselves into CSA dangers. As Livingstone [13] recorded, children and teenagers have around 50% to providing personal information to strangers and the message leaking pathway can be ins, blog, chatting room and others. 40 per cent of teens will watch adult pornography online and 10% will meet an online contact [13]. ...
... As Livingstone [13] recorded, children and teenagers have around 50% to providing personal information to strangers and the message leaking pathway can be ins, blog, chatting room and others. 40 per cent of teens will watch adult pornography online and 10% will meet an online contact [13]. All these behaviors will higher possibility of suffering from online offending. ...
... These contradictions are due to all classification systems being governed by a similar model based solely on the principle of "content-based risk" (Livingstone, 2009;Felini, 2015;Kublenz, 2016). The purpose of them all is to identify the presence of "any content which is illegal, offensive, obscene or which might permanently impair the development of young people" (PEGI, 2015, p. 11). ...
... Digital content for a children's audience should respond to more requirements than just the absence of violence, sex, drugs or inappropriate language by verifying that its content is not harmful for more subtle reasons than exposure to nudity or drugs. The unique principle of "content-based risk" (Livingstone, 2009;Felini, 2015;Kublenz, 2016) must be overcome if a child developmental research-based approach is to succeed. ...
Article
Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, the provision and downloading of educational apps for children have both increased. This paper reports the results of an extensive literature review of the age-rating systems of digital content (audiovisual and games) used around the world and demonstrates the weakness of those instruments that prove ineffective in choosing digital content for children. Age-rating systems are arbitrary and only focus on explicit content that is considered harmful to preschool children. The paper proposes an alternative model of app analysis based on child development. The main objective of the research is to determine the developmental appropriateness of apps for young children and its effects on children’s responses through a content analysis of 318 apps and a test of a subset of them (N=25) with a sample of 53 children aged 3-5. To this end, exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis is used to extract a composite index of the apps’ developmental appropriateness, which was used to specify a path analysis. The results show that developmental appropriateness is associated with the highest positive ratings by children and, indirectly, with play time.
... These settings enable a dialectic between the staging of a performance, framed by social conventions and particular codes of self-representation, and the reflexivity developed through expected or actual feedback from audiences. Identity displays in SNAs, and the particular conception of public and private self that they promote, are dependent on the kind of audience that has been imagined by the subject (Donath & Boyd, 2004), and are further shaped by the design of the website (Livingstone, 2008(Livingstone, , 2009. ...
... Many respondents noted that they liked to use emoji to express their emotions and feelings. Similar findings were reported by other studies (Desjarlais & Willoughby, 2010;Kraut et al., 2002;Livingstone, 2009;Orr et al., 2009;Zilka, 2019Zilka, , 2020a. ...
Article
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In this mixed-method study, we sought to examine attitudes, expression of emotions, and the use of emoji in social networking by children, adolescents, and young adults. A total of 551 participants from Israel completed questionnaires, and 110 participants were also interviewed. The findings indicate that the participants love the social networking applications (SNAs). The reasons they mentioned are availability, accessibility, convenience, efficiency, speed, reliability, and the ability to express emotions by adding emoji. Many have stated that it is easier for them to express feelings in SNAs, that they do not feel embarrassed, and are handling the reactions of others better than in face-to-face situations. They think that they have extensive and productive communication, and attach great importance to the content and messages they receive and send. Some participants did not like the difficulty in maintaining privacy and the exposure to unwanted content.
... Still, electronically mediated games, albeit playful, is generally perceived to be inferior to analogous play with regards to supporting a healthy childhood and mental and physical development [15]. Nonetheless, smartphones are a natural part of our modern tech-based society that inevitably has weaved itself into the fabric of children's everyday lives [11,[16][17][18]. This has prompted children to develop a strong set of digital skills and to constantly explore the many opportunities available online [19,20]. ...
... The results of the present study also emphasize the importance of smartphones as an asset to remain social when being outdoors. In general, the increased opportunities for using a phone and attending social media accounts wherever they are, have had a major impact on the everyday lives of children [16,21]. For example, Machackova and Olafsson found that 9-12-year-olds considered smartphones and social media to be one of the most important tools to uphold their social needs and a common way of finding new friends [45]. ...
Article
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The growing use of smartphones has been pointed out as one of the main reasons for the decrease in children’s outdoor time. However, there is still a gap in our understanding of how smartphone use affects children’s outdoor experiences and activities. The aim of the study is to explore children’s dependency on their smartphones, what smartphone functions children use when outdoors and how smartphone use affects children’s outdoor experiences. The study uses a mixed methods design which implements interviews with a small sample of children (N = 34) in order to help develop a questionnaire for a larger sample (N = 1148). Both datasets are included in the analysis with a complimentary perspective. The results suggest that children are highly dependent on having their smartphones available as an integrated part of their lives. However, smartphones also create favorable conditions for rich and valuable outdoor lives by expanding children’s and parents’ sense of security, children’s outdoor sociality, and children’s opportunities to mold their outdoor experiences. We stress that children’s passion for the digital world needs to be reconsidered as not ‘all bad’, but more as a condition in modern children’s lives and an asset to embrace in future strategies for actively engaging children in outdoor activities.
... This expansion in children's ICT use and the popular narratives surrounding it have transformed everyday family relationships and reconfigured the use of domestic spaces. Indeed, children's engagement with offline spaces and relationships are now increasingly mediated by their experiences of digital environments (Livingstone, 2009). These changes have also greatly impacted parents' lives and their parenting priorities (Lim 2020;Livingstone and Blum-Ross 2020). ...
... The source of these new risks include 'adult stranger' as well as other children, thereby positioning children as simultaneously at risk and a potential threat to other children (Finkelhor 2011). These risk perceptions around digital media exist alongside the opportunities that ICT offers children at a time when technical skills are needed in multiple aspects of social life (see Livingstone 2009). ...
Article
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This article draws upon my qualitative study with 8-to-12-year-old British Indian children and their professional middle-class parents, to demonstrate the ways in which parental mediation of children’s digital leisure play out within the home. Using the relational lens of ‘generational order’, I identify the ways in which children ‘navigate’ their way around restrictive parental mediation of digital technologies just as parents ‘navigate’ multiple moral discourses emerging from media and policy circles imploring them to curb children’s screen-time. Understanding these ‘navigation’ strategies around children’s digital media use at home throws fresh light on parent-child relations, children’s agency and their imbrications with wider generational structures. I conclude by arguing that greater empirical analyses of the relational aspects of parenting and childing are needed for Childhood Studies to fully appreciate the way generational structures inflect the lived geographies of childhood and parenthood in the context of children’s home-based digital leisure.
... Gran parte del dibattito scientifico e pubblico su questi temi è improntato prevalentemente sul determinisimo tecnologico come hanno notato Buckingham (2008), Livingstone (2009) ed altri, ovvero dalla convinzione che la tecnologia da sola definisca i cambiamenti sociali e psicologici a prescindere da come e da chi la utilizza. Inoltre, entrambe le ipotesi esagerano la differenze tra i "vecchi" ed i "nuovi" media. ...
... Secondo diversi studiosi (Gee, 2013;Perez Tornero&Varis, 2010, Jenkins&Kelley, 2013, Jones&Hafner, 2012Ito et al, 2008;Livingstone, 2009; ecc.), i media sono strumenti che hanno vantaggi e svantaggi ed i loro effetti dipendono semplicemente da come vengono usati. Pertanto, la media education spesso viene vista come una soluzione adeguata sia per proteggere i bambini dagli effetti negativi dei media che per educarli ad usare i media efficacemente al fine di partecipare alla democrazia. ...
Conference Paper
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Media literacy è un risultato del processo della media education che dura tutta la vita (Potter, 2013), poiché le competenze che fanno parte della media literacy possono essere sempre migliorate, permettendo a chiunque di accedere, usare, condividere, valutare criticamente e produrre i vari contenuti multimediali. Negli ultimi anni (2016, 2018), l’UNICEF ha condotto alcune ricerche in Montenegro sul consumo dei media e sulle competenze digitali dei bambini di età compresa fra i 9 e i 17 anni e dei loro genitori, da cui è emersa una propensione alla connessione in Rete transgenerazionale: la maggioranza dei bambini (91%) e dei genitori (80%) è online. Seppur la TV e Internet sono utilizzate di più, le diverse competenze della media literacy non sono sempre ben sviluppate nei ragazzi, così come sono limitate le capacità dei genitori di sostenere i loro figli, dato che in generale il loro livello di media literacy non è così avanzato. Questi risultati suggeriscono che bisogna sostenere azioni di media education sia nazionali che locali per migliorare la media literacy delle famiglie. Per questa ragione, nel 2018, UNICEF, insieme all’Agenzia per i media elettronici, ha iniziato una campagna nazionale di media literacy con lo scopo di promuovere la media education dei genitori e dei bambini, migliorare la qualità dei rapporti dei media sui problemi dei diritti dei minori e migliorare la qualità della produzione dei media per i giovani in Montenegro. Un’anno dopo il suo inizio, 1 cittadino montenegrino su 2 è consapevole di questa campagna.
... One of the most noticeable changes brought about by digital texts is the shift in reading preferences [89,90]. With the advent of e-readers, smartphones, and tablets, people now have a plethora of options when it comes to reading material. ...
Article
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The proliferation of digital technologies is precipitating a transformation in the socio-cultural fabric of human existence. The present study is dedicated to investigating the coexistence of various reading practices among contemporary youth in the modern era. The advent of new forms of reading has resulted in a shift from conventional paper-based reading to electronic formats, which, in turn, has transformed the practice of reading and the way of life associated with it. The methodological foundation of this research is the socio-philosophical theory that the practice of reading, rooted in the habitus of reading, is enacted by practitioners, and organized through public initiatives. The context of the reading practice system is a distinct historical system of circumstances in which practices are reproduced. This study encompasses an empirical component, focusing on the examination of reading practices among young individuals in a large modern city, specifically within the confines of Yekaterinburg (N = 200). The research was conducted between December 2021 and January 2022. This study permits an analysis of the constituent elements of the reader's habitus model as a form of life.
... They are inclined toward entrepreneurship, which manifests in autodidacticism. Researchers have found that the most popular means of using the Internet and web applications is the smartphone (Goggin & Hjorth, 2014;Ito et al., 2010;Livingstone, 2009;Livingstone et al., 2014;Zilka, 2018b). ...
Article
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Aim/Purpose. This study examined the self-perception of adolescents and young people aged 17-21 – how they perceived their personal characteristics, self-image, vitality, belonging to a local and global (glocal) society, happiness index and activity, media usage habits in general and smartphones in particular – in other words, it sought to produce a sketch of their character. Background. Different age groups are influenced by various factors that shape them, including living environment, technological developments, experiences, common issues, events of glocal significance, and more. People belonging to Gen Z were born at the end of the previous century and the beginning of the 21st century (up to 2010). This generation was born into the digital technological age and is the first one born into the environment defined by smartphones, and social media. Its members are referred to as “digital natives” because they were born after the widespread adoption of digital technology in the Western world. They entered an environment characterized by the widespread daily use of smartphones, the Internet, and technology in general. Methodology. This was a quantitative study based on a sample of 418 Israeli adolescents and young people aged 17-21. The following questionnaires were administered anonymously and disseminated online to an audience of youths aged 17-21 across Israel: A demographic questionnaire; Self-esteem; Vitality; Belonging vs. alienation; Social-emotional aspects; Usage habits in digital environments; Usage habits of learning on a smartphone; Open questions. Contribution. The current study tried to define clusters to characterize adolescents and youth aged 17-21. Findings Results show that study participants had high self-esteem and vitality, felt be-longing, happy, and satisfied with their life, and perceived themselves as active and enterprising at an average level or above. The study identified two clusters. Participants in Cluster 1 were characterized by higher parameter averages than those in Cluster 2 on the self-image, vitality, belonging, happiness, and activism scales. Participants in Cluster 1 felt that using a smartphone made life easier, helped them solve everyday problems, made everyday conduct easier, and allowed them to express themselves, keep up to date with what is happening with their friends, disseminate information conveniently, be involved in social life, and establish relationships with those around them. They thought that it was easy to collaborate with others and to plan activities and events. Recommendations for Practitioners. When examining cluster correlations with data in relation to other variables, it is apparent that participants in Cluster 1 had more options to reach out for help, report more weekly hours spent talking and meeting with friends and feel that using a smartphone makes everyday life easier and facilitates their day-to-day conduct than did participants in Cluster 2. The smartphone allows them to express themselves, keep updated regarding what is happening with their friends and disseminate information easily, helps them be involved in social life and establish connections with those around them. They find it easy to communicate and cooperate with others and to plan activities and events. By contrast, participants in Cluster 2 felt that the smartphone complicates things for them and creates problems in their daily lives. They feel that the use of social networks burdens them and that the smartphone prevents them from being more involved in their social life, and from establishing relationships with those around them. They felt that communication by smartphone creates more problems in understanding messages. Recommendations for Researchers. One of the challenges of this generation is forming an independent identity and self-regulation in a digital, global, across-the-border era that offers a variety of possibilities and communities. They must examine the connection between the digital and personal spaces, to be able to enjoy virtual communities and a sense of togetherness, and at the same time maintain privacy, autonomy, and individuality. Many studies point to the blurring of boundaries between the private-personal and the public, at numerous problems in social networks, including social problems, shaming, and exclusion from various groups and activities. The fear of shaming and the desire to keep up with everything that is happening create a state of mental stress, and adolescents often feel that they urgently need to check their smartphones. Sharing with others can help them deal with negative content and experiences and avoid the dangers lurking in their web surfing. Yet sharing, especially with friends, often causes intimate content to become public and leads to shaming and invasion of privacy. Impact on Society. Gen Z was born into an environment where smartphones, the Internet, and technology in general, are widely used in everyday routine, and they make extensive use of technological means in all areas of life. One of the characteristics of this generation is “globalization.” The present study showed that about 84% of participants felt to a moderate degree or higher that they were citizens of the world. Future Research. The findings of this study revealed a significant difference in self-image between males and females. An attempt was made to explain the findings in light of previous studies, but the need arose for studies on the self-image of young people of Gen Z that would shed light on the subject.
... Adolescents also expect more autonomy as they get older and may push against media rules and restrictions (Symons et al., 2017). Finally, peer groups become more important to adolescents as parental influence declines (Livingstone, 2009;Pasquier, 2008), further challenging parents' attempts to manage digital media use. ...
Article
Research in parental mediation often focuses on how parents’ practices for managing digital media are aligned with normative expectations. However, there is less research that explores parental mediation as a process, with practices changing over time in response to barriers and challenges. To address this gap, the goal of the current study is to examine parents’ decisions around not monitoring or limiting adolescents’ media use. Based on focus group discussions and interviews with predominantly female (77%) and White (92%) parents living in five communities in the Midwestern United States, we explore parental mediation as a process in which decisions about children’s media use reflect competing individual, ideological, and structural factors. In eight focus groups (n = 48) and 13 follow-up interviews, we ask parents to narrate barriers to commonly suggested mediation strategies to examine how parents’ navigate factors such as efficacy, conflict, or adolescent autonomy in managing digital media use. Based on the findings, we propose that looking at barriers illustrates mediation as a process of calibration, a decision that is made and re-made as parents navigate complex and sometimes contradictory situations and expectations.
... I ragazzi e le ragazze utilizzano tablet, computer e soprattutto smartphone in modo costante, tanto che questo insieme di strumenti si inserisce a pieno titolo nelle loro abitudini e pratiche quotidiane. L'osservazione di queste dinamiche ha dato luogo a un campo di studio sempre più ricco e in costante evoluzione, dove trovano spazio diverse ricerche e analisi (tra gli altri, boyd, 2014; Livingstone, 2009;Livingstone & Sefton-Green, 2016;Turkle, 2011;Vissenberg et al., 2022). Recentemente, inoltre, il progetto "Transmedia literacy: Exploiting transmedia skills and informal learning strategies to improve formal education" 2 ha evidenziato le potenzialità dei media digitali per i giovani, in particolare le dinamiche di formazione che si sviluppano nella sfera informale, lontano dalle aule e dalla scuola. ...
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La pandemia ha portato alla ridefinizione di alcune modalità tipiche della cultura scolastica, sia da parte degli insegnanti che da parte degli studenti. In questa situazione sono emerse nuove pratiche, nuovi modi di fare didattica e allo stesso tempo nuove forme di sottrazione – o ‘resistenza’ – da parte degli studenti che hanno prodotto forme ‘altre’ di cultura digitale, scolastica e universitaria. Obiettivo della ricerca che qui presentiamo è quello di indagare quanto – e soprattutto come - sono cambiate, rispetto al periodo precedente alla pandemia generata dal Covid 19, le routine degli studenti e delle studentesse della scuola di secondo grado e dell’università, considerando, in particolar modo, il ruolo dei media digitali all’interno di queste dinamiche. Il principale strumento utilizzato è stato l’intervista, somministrata a quaranta ragazze e ragazzi delle scuole secondarie di secondo grado e dell’università, residenti in differenti regioni d’Italia. Le interviste, raccolte insieme a un piccolo team di studentesse e studenti coinvolti nella ricerca, hanno fatto emergere come, grazie ai media digitali, durante i periodi di pandemia ragazze e ragazzi abbiano usato una serie di tattiche di resistenza e ri-significazione degli spazi domestici, al fine di rispondere a una situazione inedita e inaspettata. Abstract in inglese The pandemic brought to the re-definition of some of the typical modalities of the scholar culture, both from the educators’ and the students’ points of view. In this situation emerged some new practices, new ways of teaching, and at the same time new forms of subtraction – or “resistance” – from the students’ side, which created “unusual” forms of digital scholastic and academic culture. The aim of this research is to investigate how much – and in particular how – the daily routine of the second grade and university students changed, compared to the previous phase of Covid 19, evaluating in particular the role of digital media inside these dynamics. The main tool used has been the interview, hand out to forty boys and girls from secondary and university degree, leaving in different Italian regions. The interviews, collected thanks to the support of a team of students involved in the research, arose that thanks to digital media, during the pandemic periods, boys and girls used several strategies such as resistance and re-signification of domestic spaces, aiming at responding to a previously unknown and unexpected situation.
... Network users seem to wish to belong to online communities and seem to be willing to adopt the views of their media fellows or peers and adopt stereotypical behaviours (Anderson & Jiang, 2018). Studies emphasise the importance of the internet for young people and in particular the information sharing process when they want to express their identities, to engage in communities and to maintain social connections with peers (Livingstone, 2009;Singer et al., 2009). Things become more complex as engagement with news online takes place in a more complex way compared to traditional formats, due to embedded links and other functionalities. ...
... Schools appear to struggle to find the right balance between school-based 'in house' disciplinary responses that may involve parents and formal police involvement to incidents deemed more serious; a struggle related to definitional understandings of cyberbullying among administrators and students as well as parents (Campbell et al., 2019). However, research on how schools and law enforcement are responding to cyberbullying, as well as student perceptions and experiences with cyberbullying, remains centered on urban areas (boyd, 2014;Livingstone, 2009;Patchin et al., 2020). In Canada studies on rural crime and policing with a focus on youth is still emerging (e.g., Ruddell & O'Connor, 2021;Adorjan & Ricciadelli, 2017], and even less attention has been given to police responses to cyber conflicts in rural regions. ...
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Policing research, still largely concentrated on urban contexts, is increasingly recognizing the unique features of police work in rural regions. Beyond notable differences such as lower overall levels crime and fewer (though more sporadically distributed) people, little is also known regarding rural police understandings and responses to online mediated harms, including relatively serious forms of cyberbullying, non-consensual ‘sexting’, and other forms of crime mediated online. Interviews with police officers (N = 42) here focus on their views regarding police work in response to cyber-mediated harm facing youth in rural and remote Atlantic Canada. Responses center on how rural regions play a role in mediating the nature of online conflict and police respond to such conflict. Officers highlight several related challenges, such as lack of parental support, and how some youth ‘define deviancy down’, referring to a lack of recognition regarding the harm caused by cyberbullying and non-consensual sexting (including issues related to the distribution of child pornography). Implications are discussed for research on rural policing where evidence-based practices remain lacking.
... Nem Marx chegou ao ponto de marcar de modo tão incisivo o poder do capital como essencialmente máquina de expropriação da libido, embora naturalmente a exploração do trabalho e as projeções fantasmáticas da "forma-mercadoria" do valor, culminando na "formadinheiro", tenham desde a publicação de "O Capital" inspirado inúmeras aproximações psicanalíticas entre a mais-valia e o mais-de-gozar (em toda a vertente lacaniana em que bebe, por exemplo, Eugênio Bucci, [2021] A relação entre crianças e mídias digitais tem sido há mais de duas décadas objeto de pesquisas e definições incapazes de superar a ambiguidade, senão a pura contradição. Sonia Livingstone (1995), uma das vozes mais autorizadas, subscreve os alertas lançados por Jens Qvortrup há pelo menos 25 anos 2 . São alertas para mudanças estruturais, entre as quais ganha relevo o surgimento da família pós-tradicional, e para mudanças radicais, com foco nas sociedades consumistas marcadas pela expansão das indústrias criativas, da "sociedade do espetáculo" e até de um "ludo-capitalismo" (SANTOLARIA, 2021). ...
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Neste artigo, desenvolve-se uma reflexão a partir da ideia de um ludo-capitalismo enquanto máquina de organização do medo da morte e da libido posta a serviço da concentração de capitais e domesticação do imaginário. Crise de imagem, gamificação da infância, plataformização são pensadas à luz da ideia de uma “história da revolução digital”. Conclui-sem que no centro da transformação digital está a emergência da dimensão “lúdica” da existência como sinal privilegiado da nossa dimensão humana.
... S ince early 2020, the rapid shift to online schooling, increased time of video gaming, use of social network sites, and so on has amplified risks and parental anxieties linked to young people's online activities (Livingstone 2020; Nagata, Abdel Magid, and Gabriel 2020; Orgilés et al. 2020). The "limitless victimization risk" (Hinduja and Patchin 2009:24) the Internet promotes often produces anxieties in parents and guardians, which are compounded upon other, more longstanding anxieties concerning adolescence (Livingstone 2009;Livingstone and Blum-Ross 2021). ...
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Research on parental mediation of children’s online engagements situate historically long­standing anxieties within the dynamics of present-day information communications technologies (i.e., concerns over new “cyber risks,” as well as opportunities). Yet, there remains a lack of emphasis on children’s reactions to and experiences with parental strategies and responses. In the current article, we highlight research involving semi-structured focus groups (n=35) with Canadian teenagers (n=115). We highlight themes directly related to parental digital mediation, including the role of ICTs in driving addictive behaviors, social connection, differences in parental responses between sons and daughters, and differences concerning age and birth order. Disrupting cultural discourses of young people who lack agency in relation to their use of ICTs, our discussions with teens reveal qualified support, even degrees of sympathy, for parental efforts to restrict access and use of digital technologies, but illuminate multifaceted reasons for resistance: their vital role not only for social connection but access to crucial information and knowledge.
... Thus, girls who game may not only have fewer in-person girls to game with, but also to a greater extent be excluded from nongaming social interaction with same-aged girls, and the socialization that follows. (Hygen et al., 2020: 870-71) This gender difference also intersects with age in that there do not appear to be particular gender differences in gaming among young children, but girls tend to reduce the time they spend gaming from their early teens onwards, while boys increase their playing time (Livingstone, 2009). In later adolescence, boys have been found to play more frequently than girls do and spend more time on each playing session (Lucas and Sherry, 2004). ...
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Nuancing Young Masculinities tells a complex story about the plurality of young masculinities. It draws on the narratives of Finnish young people (mostly boys) of different social classes and ethnicities who attend schools in Helsinki, Finland. Their accounts of relations with peers, parents, and teachers give insights into boys’ experiences and everyday practices at school, home, and in leisure time. The theoretical insights in this volume are wide-ranging, illuminating the plurality of masculinities, their dynamism, and intersections with other social identities. The young people’s enthusiastic and reflexive engagement with the research dispels stereotypes of boys and masculinities and offers a unique and holistic re-imagining of masculinities, Nuancing Young Masculinities provides a nuanced and compelling understanding of young masculinities.
... In terms of actors' participation in digital communication, innovative media studies have already illuminated meaning-making and public participation in digital media production (e.g., Carpentier, 2011) and how social media relate to contemporary media culture (e.g., Fuchs, 2014). In youth media studies, pioneering work has been conducted into how networks support youth creativity (Drotner, 2018;Eleà & Mikos, 2018;Livingstone, 2009). The field of digital humanities has focused on digital archives, computational cultural analytics, textual mining, analysis, and visualisation (e.g., Manovich, 2013), whereas recent co-design studies have explored media innovation and citizenship (e.g., Björgvinsson et al., 2012;Huybrechts et al., 2017). ...
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Increasingly, the means of engaging young people in constructive public debate and democratic society has shifted to online digital media platforms. This assumes that participants have the necessary media literacy skills to engage in a meaningful way. We discuss how and to what extent responses in an online blog elicited by two different scenes from the popular youth television series Skam [ Shame ] demonstrate agonistic deliberation and media literacy in digital dialogue spaces. Our study includes an analysis of the rhetorical characteristics of the dialogues; the mapping of key themes that characterise reactions of blog commentators in the online discussions; and a discussion of the characteristics of – and degree of deliberation in – online comments. We propose that narratives which employ agonistic deliberation around pertinent social themes are most likely to encourage and elicit public engagement that moves beyond emotional outbursts, reflecting a deeper consideration of the themes and topics.
... But what is meant by digital literacy? We are used to see young people with digital tools always in hands, we define them as digital natives and as a generation 'always on' because of the massive use of social media, app and other ICT tools, but this easy access to the tools does not necessarily mean that they are digital literate (Livingstone, 2009). As Danah Boyd states considering the example of social media, […] it's important to realize that most teens are engaging with social media without any deep understanding of the underlying dynamics or structure. ...
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Most reports depict young people among the major users of Internet and social media. Assuming the hypothesis that digital media can have a strategic role in empowering youth’s creativity, we might consider them not only as consumers but as active creators. High education can support the development of a creative thinking to generate and extend ideas, to suggest hypotheses, to apply critical imagination, and to look for innovative outcomes. Since 2012, the master's degree in journalism, public and corporate communication of the University of Bologna promotes Laboratories involving the students in different communication activities also in collaboration with other institutional and social actors. In this paper we focus on the last edition of the Laboratory in Digital Communication and Social Media Management, where students make up a web editorial office. An average of 70 students takes part to the Laboratory. Everyone is called to contribute to the management of the Compassunibo blog, the official blog of the master's degree, a space for report, articles, news and storytelling, as well as to manage the official social network profiles. Through our participant observation and the thematic analysis of contents we reflect on how a teaching method based on ‘pro-activity’ can improve digital creativity and foster a critical awareness on professional ICT skills. The analysis starts from the output produced by the students using digital platforms as WordPress for blogging, Instagram, Facebook, YouTube, and Twitter for content marketing on social media, and Spotify for podcasting. Students act like content creators who learn by doing, sharing abilities and experiences with others. They gain awareness of the gatekeeper’s role about news and social issues that they propose to a community of readers made up particularly by their peers. At the same time, they have the role to build and reinforce the community’s bonds. Creating digital contents allows them to develop skills such as sources searching, frame analysis and interpretation, web writing and search engine optimization (SEO). Using the social media and podcast in a professional way they learn to practice new forms of digital literacy. Overall, this learning experience in Laboratory allows students not only to get technical communication skills but also to develop a greater and mature awareness to cooperate effectively in a team, and an immediate portfolio for their future job.
... Digital literacy is a polysemic concept that is still evolving, and involves much more than how people learn to use digital technologies. It is not skill-based literacy, but a literacy requiring a broad range of capabilities (Bawden, 2008) as well as the ability to understand and evaluate critically the digital world (Livingstone, 2009). ...
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The chapter is an attempt to structure the lesson in a holistic way with the use and application of edu- cational robotics. Emphasis is given on developing students’ creativity, which is one of the dominant challenges of modern educational system, as it can be achieved through an educational environment focused on it. The use of STEAM method can help students develop creativity and at the same time develop skills such as programming and using new technologies (ICT). In fact, robotic constructions can help students understand basic principles of science such as mechanics and mathematics while solving problems related to their daily lives. During the project, students work in groups and highlight their skills in areas such as the creation of a mock up, the construction and presentation of robots, etc. This process gives the course a manifold holistic approach, as the knowledge the student acquires from different domains is used towards one direction, instead of the classical approach according to which only one subject is analyzed
... In addition, a safety by design approach is called for to address elderly non-users' security and safety concerns. It is essential to incorporate risk and safety concerns into the design stage of Internet technologies (Livingstone, 2009). ...
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This study compares the computer- and Internet-related conceptions of Finnish and American elderly people who deliberately refuse to use the Internet. It seeks to answer the following questions based on various social representations: Are there similarities and differences in the way the Finnish and American respondents classify the computer and the Internet? Are there similarities and differences in the images the Finnish and American respondents use to depict the computer and the Internet? How do the social representations of the computer and the Internet express the respondents’ distinct identities, history and culture? An analysis of written accounts provided by elderly Finnish and American people showed that both groups expressed an understanding of the computer and the Internet as a ‘Tool and Thing’ and ‘Danger’. However, differences existed between their understanding of the computer as a ‘Depriver of Freedom’ and ‘Marker of Differences’. The study concludes that their distinct identities, interests, history and culture may be some of the factors that limit their motivation and capacity to welcome and use the computer. To promote digital inclusion, the elderly should be provided with Internet-related information, training and support. At the same time, however, digital inclusion policies should also encompass a choice for Internet non-use.
... smartphones, tablets) allow young children to interact with them around any space of their houses or even in other spaces such as cars or restaurants. Discussions about the use of digital media by very young children are caught between discourses that emphasise their potential for current or future development and learning (Marsh et al., 2017;Livingstone et al., 2015;Sefton-Green et al., 2016), and the risks at various social and psychological levels (Livingstone, 2009). In the context of the home, families are working through this reality across cultural, social and economic backgrounds, adjusting family practices and environments to hyper-connected society. ...
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This chapter seeks to gain an understanding of how parents accompany their very young children aged under three into ‘digital society’ by examining their mediating practices and ideologies regarding the children’s digital activities. It draws on diverse data (observations/video-recordings and interviews with parents at home) from cases of five middle-class family children in Spain and Portugal. The data was collected in 2017 following the protocol developed for A Day in the Digital Lives of 0-3 Year-Olds [Gillen et al. 2019 A day in the digital lives of children aged 0-3. Full report: DigiLitEY ISCH COST Action 1410 Working Group 1: Digital Literacy in Homes and Communities. http://www.research.lancs.ac.uk/portal/en/publications/-(19b42af9-7828-4950-afca-69fdce62702e).html.]. We problematise the complex relationship between parental beliefs, self-perceptions and actual practices regarding the place of digital technologies in children’s lives and development. We do so by examining mediation as an emergent process in which family members co-create the interactional ecologies [Kyratzis and Johnson (Linguistics and Education 41:1–6, 2017); Erickson (Discourse, learning, and schooling. Cambridge University Press, 1996)], and by seeing mediation as a set of strategies within family routines [Livingstone (Computers in Human Behavior, 23:920–941, 2007)]. Specifically, we analyse mediation at the levels of the digital media ecology/environment in the home [Plowman (Interacting with Computers 27:36–46, 2015)], the actual digital media activities and mediation practices, and the parents’ broader media ideologies and beliefs on technologies [Gershon (Journal of Linguistic Anthropology 20:283–293, 2010)], to explore the relations and contradictions between these levels.
... Surveillance and technology scholars assume that children need their own free and unsupervised spaces (Steeves & Jones, 2010) that allow for heightened mobility (Fotel & Thomsen, 2004) and spontaneous interactions with others to develop independence and autonomy (Livingstone, 2002). Close monitoring, on the other hand, hinders resilience (Livingstone, 2009) and discourages pro-social behavior (Kerr et al., 1999). For example, resorting to the panic button offered by most location-tracking applications, such as Life360, promotes dependence rather than self-reliance, preventing children from practicing important social skills (Simpson, 2014). ...
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This study examines parental surveillance of preadolescents based on location-tracking applications installed on their smartphones. Applying reflexive thematic analysis to 24 semi-structured, in-depth interviews with mothers of middle-school children, the study asks how mothers with different parenting styles describe their surveillance ideologies and practices, and what are the sociocultural imageries that motivate their use of location-tracking applications. The findings offer six criteria for evaluating different familial surveillance climates, organizing them in a three-tier model that demonstrates the multidimensionality of digital parental surveillance. Consequently, the study challenges the presumed link between parental surveillance and strict parenting styles (e.g., authoritarian, helicopter). Acknowledging the increasing normalization of digital parental surveillance, the study advances a balanced and pragmatic view of this trend while illuminating participatory methods of implementing what is often considered a suppressive practice.
... Popular media construct esports careers as viable and legitimate as well as explicitly encourage parents to consider it seriously, particularly if they do not identify as gamers or esports fans. Appealing to parental concerns around video games is important since adults are responsible for monitoring and moderating young people's gameplay within the family home (Llorens, 2017, 474), especially in an era where there is an increasing emphasis on children's safety due to the emergence and mass integration of digital technologies into the family household (Livingstone, 2009). ...
... Moreover, people are more likely to give away personal information if a request comes from a "friend", jeopardizing security such as "phishing" schemes. Yet studies have shown that young people tend to be aware of potential privacy threats and that many are rather proactive about minimizing them (Livingstone 2009). On another note, privacy is also implicated in users' ability to control impressions and manage social contexts (see next section). ...
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Over the past decade, social media has become a widely used umbrella term that refers to the set of tools, applications, and services that enable people to interact with others using network technologies such as personal computers and smartphones. Social media tends to be associated with a convergence of production, distribution, and consumption practices and a blending of user creativity, collaboration, and sharing-enabled and sharing-assisted network technologies. In this way, social media is said to have deeply penetrated into the mechanics of everyday life, affecting people's interactions, institutional structures and professional routines. This entry offers an inclusive perspective of the "fabric of social media", which underpins understandings of both social and media. In particular, it highlights the dynamics of empowerment, always-on lifestyle, and professionalization.
... Again, the precise risk here is unclear and seems to relate to internet users' reputations both now and in the future, but it could also refer to contact and conduct risks (children participating in aggressive, sexual, or values-related behaviors). These kinds of sweeping statements ignore the more nuanced benefit and risk analysis that many scholars and researchers suggest when teaching young people about media (e.g., Livingstone 2009;). ...
... Livingstone, çocukların bilişsel ve sosyal gelişmeleri devam ettiği için internet ile ilişkili olası zararları yönetme konusunda kırılgan ve zayıf olduğunu ifade etmektedir. 19 Bu durumun en önemli nedenlerinden birisi, çocuğa dışarıdan ve çevrimiçi uzaydan gelebilecek tehdit ve travmalara karşı koruyucu bir çevresel faktörün eksikliği ya da yokluğudur. ...
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With the development of technology, digital tools have become an important part of our current lives. Cyber psychology, which emerged as a new but increasingly important sub-field of psychology; in addition to mainstream psychology, conducts interdisciplinary studies with other fields such as clinical psychology, crim- inology, philosophy, sociology, media, communication and security. Cyber psychology is a discipline that ex- plores the impact of digital technologies and the internet on people and communities. Cyber psychology uses theories in mainstream psychology and explains new interactions with other disciplines to explain how individu- als interact with each other online and to what extent these interactions can affect their lives outside the offline area. In the light of these theories, a new definition of "cyber self” and "cyber society " including individual, social and cultural transformations are made. Clinical cyber psychology conducts studies for the psychological integration of individuals with online and offline life. Cyber dissociation produced by Öztürk & Çalıcı, a new concept, is pre- dicted to be one of the most important subfields where clinical and forensic cyber psychology will work. Cyber dissociation emerges as a defense in the initial stage in order to ensure the integration of individuals' offline and online lives due to the widespread use of social media tools and the fact that the current life forces people to cre- ate cyber selfs in the cyber environment and creates a duality in the psychological structure of the individuals in the process. The subfields of cyber psychology, which conducts interdisciplinary studies, range from clinical cyber psychology to forensic cyber psychology. Most studied areas in cyber psychology are; online relationships, online dating, online crimes, cyber victimization, cyber revictimization, cyber bullying and cyber harassment. Conduct- ing interdisciplinary studies within the scope of cyber psychology, identification and control of interactions in cyber space, which is an unlimited space and changing and transforming from day to day, and all kinds of actions taken in this environment, effective intervention/prevention programs and legal arrangements should be done. Pro- fessionals working in the fields of clinical and forensic cyber psychology have important duties. Keywords: Cyber psychology; cyber trauma; cyber revictimization
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The modern educational paradigm exists in media reality. Accordingly, the challenges and trends of the modern educational space are formed around the problem of media literacy and media competence. The aim of the study is to analyze the best educational practices of the United States, Canada and the United Kingdom in the sphere of media literacy and media competence in order to identify the innovative potential of modern reforms, understand and realize modern processes in education, and design its future. The research is based on the analysis of contemporary scientific and pedagogical discourse around the issue of media literacy and media competence. The study of this issue is based on a comprehensive retrospective analysis of the works of scholars from the United States, as well as Canada, the United Kingdom. The author analyzes the historiography of this issue, which reflects different stages of its development, using a complex of historiographical and historical-comparative methods and approaches. The results of the study made it possible to identify and describe the content, focus, specificity and factors of the development of the problem of media literacy and media competence as key components of the transformation processes of the modern educational paradigm and determine the value-content orientations of scientific and pedagogical discourse. Based on the results of the analysis of the historiography of the problem, it is concluded that the theoretical basis of the problem of media literacy and media competence is made up of pedagogical, sociological, psychological and philosophical theories; the impact of media on the formation of the individual in particular and the community in general; research on information and information-psychological security of the individual; provisions on the influence of the mass media on the formation of personal qualities and behavior; provisions on the impact of informatization on the learning process; research on psychological protection of the individual in the information environment; research on the phenomenon of information culture; concepts of personal information culture development; general scientific provisions of the theory and history of the periodical press and its influence on the formation of consciousness; a provision on the need to enrich pedagogical experience by combining the best examples of pedagogical theory and practice from different countries in order to preserve universal values, ideals and individual rights.
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“It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness, it was the epoch of belief, it was the epoch of incredulity, it was the season of Light, it was the season of Darkness, it was the spring of hope, it was the winter of despair, we had everything before us, we had nothing before us …” — Charles Dickens, A Tale of Two Cities, 1859: 1
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New forms of online citizen journalism have refreshed political communication in Africa. Newinformation technologies are providing readers with previously unavailable opportunities tocomment and produce their own news and information that is able to influence political processes.However, all is not rosy about Africa’s new citizen journalism. While it has produced reliable andquality information that African democracies require, it has also produced vigilante journalism - avindictive and revengeful form of gathering and disseminating news and information. Vigilantejournalism is similar to the necklacing that was common in South African in the 1980s. The articlediscusses how, at the height of the Zimbabwe crisis (2007-2008), the news website, ZimDaily, leda vigilante campaign to publicly name and have perceived relatives and children of Zimbabweanruling party officials deported from ‘Western’ countries. The idea was to help resolve the politicaland economic crises in Zimbabwe. The editors refused to question the ethics and morality ofthe exercise. Thus, encouraged by the website’s editors, Zimbabwean users of the website tookthe law in their own hands and published addresses, telephone numbers and other personalinformation about anyone thought to be related to those in government in Zimbabwe. This blurredthe boundaries between citizen and vigilante journalism. The resultant vigilante journalism bygroups seeking instant justice was in a way similar to the necklacing, even though this was in avirtual sense. It is clear that the emerging new media spaces in Africa function like double-edgedswords able to either build or destroy democracy.
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Technology is transforming children's lived experience with spatial play. In particular, parents may interact with children differently depending on whether they play together with tangible or digital materials. The present research examined whether the medium for play (tangible or digital) affected kindergarten‐aged children's language experience during puzzle play and explored immediate effects on spatial reasoning. Sixty parent–child dyads played with a tangible or a digital set of tangram puzzles for 10 minutes; children received the Children's Mental Transformation Task (CMTT) before and after the play session. Their performance on the most challenging problems of the CMTT improved after tangible, but not digital, play. This effect was related to parental use of orientation and transformation words during the play session and unrelated to the success of puzzle completion. Moreover, we found that the digital interface, specifically the prescribed movements to use the app, affected parental use of deictic words (eg, here, there), and that this relation may be driven by children's production of a pointing‐like action. Together, these results shed light on the interaction between material for play, parent spatial talk and children's spatial reasoning. Practitioner notes What is already known The use of touchscreen devices for play by children has become increasingly common. Parents tend to engage children in device‐relevant talk more than task‐relevant talk when using electronic devices. Hands‐on experience with tangible materials provides short‐term and long‐term benefits on children's spatial reasoning. What this paper adds With their parents, children at 5 to 6 years completed more puzzles of tangible materials than of digital materials; the design interface of the digital puzzles affected children's action experience. Tangible materials invited parents to talk about orientation and transformation more than digital materials. The design interface that prompted children to produce pointing‐like gestures invited parents to use more deictic words (eg, here, there). Children's spatial reasoning was elevated after playing with tangible (but not digital) puzzles. This elevation was related to parental talk about orientation and transformation. Implications for practice and/or policy This study sheds light on the considerations for parents and educators when choosing tangible or digital materials for children to engage in spatial play. The results inform about design principles of educational technology for spatial learning by children at the kindergarten age.
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Familial and intimate relationships at a distance are reconstituted in a multitude of ways, as the proliferation of social media and communication technologies afford the scaling up of privacy and publicness, also blurring the lines between presence and absence in transnational space. Based on a longitudinal and mixed method research on the impact of migration on Filipino left-behind young adult children (n = 28) and their carers (n = 28), we seek to examine the mediation of transnational parenting and how it shapes the ways left-behind sons and daughters (aged 17-19 years old) navigate heteronormative ideals of marriage and familyhood.
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This book intends to fill a gap that remains open in the scientific area of Sociology of Childhood. It brings together the contributions of 55 authors, recognized both nationally and internationally, from diverse countries, in a renewed critical analysis of contemporary issues, themes and challenges currently placed in research on childhood and on the child. The main goal is to share in a single volume a significant set of scientific reflections on key concepts of contemporary research in the area, in Portuguese and English, aiming to reach wider audiences around the globe.
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This book intends to fill a gap still open in the scientific area of Sociology of Childhood. It brings togheher the contributions of 55 authors, nationally and internationally recognized, from diverse geographies, in a renewed critical analysis on issues, themes and challenges currently placed in research on childhood and on the child(ren). The main goal is to share in a single volume a significant set of scientific reflections on key concepts of contemporary research in the area, in Portuguese and English, aiming to reach wider audiences around the globe.
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This book intends to fill a gap still open in the scientific area of Sociology of Childhood. It brings togheher the contributions of 55 authors, nationally and internationally recognized, from diverse geographies, in a renewed critical analysis on issues, themes and challenges currently placed in research on childhood and on the child(ren). The main goal is to share in a single volume a significant set of scientific reflections on key concepts of contemporary research in the area, in Portuguese and English, aiming to reach wider audiences around the globe.
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knit, far-reaching networks, in which people relate to shifting relationships and communities. Moreover, people don't just relate to each other online, they incorporate their computer-mediated communication into their full range of interaction: in-person, phone, fax, and even writing. I pleaded for paying more attention to how people actually communicate in real life. But this approach was disparagingly referred to as `user studies', much less exciting than writing new computer applications. new media & society Copyright 2004 SAGE Publications London, Thousand Oaks, CA and New Delhi Vol6(1):123--129 DOI: 10.1177/1461444804040633 www.sagepublications.com ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 123 Conference participants listened politely and went back to developing applications
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The theme of the Internet and the public sphere now has a permanent place on research agendas and in intellectual inquiry; it is entering the mainstream of Political communication studies. The first part of this presentation briefly pulls together key elements in the public sphere perspective, underscoring three main analytic dimensions: the structural, the representational, and the interactional. Then the discussion addresses some central themes in the current difficulties facing democracy, refracted through the lens of the public sphere perspective. In particular, the destabilization of political communication systems is seen as a context for understanding the role of the Internet: It enters into, as well as contributes to, this destabilization. At the same time, the notion of destabilization can also embody a positive sense, pointing to dispersions of older patterns that may have outlived their utility. Further, the discussion takes up obvious positive consequences that follow from the Internet, for example that it extends and pluralizes the public sphere in a number of ways. Thereafter the focus moves on to the interactional dimension of the public sphere, specifically in regard to recent research on how deliberation proceeds in the online public sphere in the contemporary environment of political communication. Finally, the analytic category of deliberative democracy is critically examined; while useful, some of its rationalist biases, particularly in the context of extra-parliamentarian politics, limit its utility. It is suggested that the concept of civic cultures offers an alternative way to understand the significance of online political discussion.
Chapter
The spread of digital media and communications in the lives of children and youth have raised new questions about the role of media in learning, development and cultural participation. In post-industrial societies, young people are growing up in what (2006) has dubbed “convergence culture”—an increasingly interactive and participatory media ecology where Internet communication ties together both old and new media forms. A growing recognition of this role of digital media in everyday life has been accompanied by debate as to the outcomes of participation in convergence culture. Many parents and educators worry about immersion in video gaming worlds or their children’s social lives unfolding on the Internet and through mobile communication. More optimistic voices suggest that new media enable young people to more actively participate in interpreting, personalizing, reshaping, and creating media content. Although concerns about representation are persistent, particularly of video game violence, many of the current hopes and fears of new media relate to new forms of social networking and participation. As young people’s online activity changes the scope of their social agency and styles of media engagement, they also encounter new challenges in cultural worlds separated from traditional structures of adult oversight and guidance. Issues of representation will continue to be salient in media old and new, but issues of participation are undergoing a fundamental set of shifts that are still only partially understood and recognized.
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Information technologies have become a staple of adolescents’ lives with young people among the most connected in countries that have seen high levels of Internet and cell phone diffusion by the first decade of the 21st century (Livingstone and Bober 2004; National Telecommunications and Information Administration 2004). However, merely knowing various digital media’s rates of use says little about how young people are incorporating IT into their everyday lives. Ignoring nuanced measures of use, it is difficult to determine whether digital media are leveling the playing field for youth or whether they are raising new barriers for some while advantaging the societal positions of others. While many have suggested that we must move past the binary classification of haves and have-nots when it comes to information technology uses, few have offered a detailed conceptual framework for such an undertaking, one that can then inform empirical studies of usage differences. This chapter considers the various domains in which users of the Internet may possess different levels of knowhow. In addition to presenting the conceptual framework, it also draws on unique data about a diverse group of young people’s Internet uses to illustrate existing differences along the lines of the discussed dimensions.
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As adolescent Internet use grew exponentially in the last decade, with it emerged a number of correspondent expectations. Among them were the following: (1) that gender predicts usage, i.e., that boys spend more time online, surfing the web and playing violent games, while girls chat or shop online; (2) that Internet use causes social isolation and depression, especially for teens; and (3) that adolescents use the Internet for anonymous identity experimentation. These expectations were based on research with earlier technologies when the Internet was less diffused in the adolescent population. By means of highly detailed daily reports of adolescents' home Internet usage and peer-related adjustment, the present research sought to compare these expectations with the actual experiences of early and mid-adolescents in 2000 and 2001. Participants were 261 7th and 10th graders from suburban California public schools who completed four consecutive end-of-day reports on their school-based adjustment and Internet activity (including detailed logs of instant messages). Results challenge prevailing expectations regarding gender, well-being, and identity play. For the most part, adolescent boys' and girls' online activities have become more similar than different. On average, boys and girls alike described their online social interaction as (1) occurring in private settings such as e-mail and instant messages, (2) with friends who are also part of their daily, offline lives, and (3) devoted to fairly ordinary yet intimate topics (e.g., friends, gossip). No associations were found between Internet usage and well-being. Online pretending was reported to be motivated by a desire to play a joke on friends more often than to explore a desired or future identity, but participants reported a range of pretending content, contexts, and motives.
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The physical, emotional, and psychological changes that occur in adolescence prompt youths to have serious questions about their bodies, relationships, and health that are often personal, sensitive, or embarrassing. Past research has shown that adolescents are often reluctant to consult physicians, peers, and others for personal health questions due to concerns about confidentiality. One new venue for health information is the Internet, which is a promising resource due to its accessibility, interactivity, and anonymity. This study is a snapshot investigation of a popular health support website, which utilized a peer-generated bulletin board format to facilitate the discussion of adolescent health and social issues. Analyses of two health bulletin boards—one on teen issues and one on sexual health—were conducted on the questions and replies found on 273 topics of mainly anonymous adolescents collected over a 2-month period. Results revealed that the questions most frequently posted and viewed reflected interests and concerns about their changing physical, emotional, and social selves: Romantic relationships were the most frequent topic on the teen issues bulletin board; sexual health was the most frequent topic on the sexuality bulletin board. The bulletin boards proved to be a valuable forum of personal opinions, actionable suggestions, concrete information, and emotional support and allowed teens to candidly discuss sensitive topics, such as sexuality and interpersonal relations.
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This study presents the interrelationships between stressful life events, motives for Internet use, social support, and the use of the Internet among a sample of adolescents and children aged 8 to 18 (N = 717). The results show that stressful life events are significantly associated with the consumption of the Internet for mood management (such as entertainment and information seeking) and social compensation (such as recognition gaining and relationship maintenance) motives. Secondly, the more children and adolescents exhibit high levels of social support, either online or offline, the less they find stressful life events upsetting. Thirdly, as individuals exhibit greater ability to personally access different types of social support to meet their needs, their motivations for Internet use are characteristically more allied to mood-management and social-compensation. This study reasserts that the mental and physical impact of stressful life events are in fact buffered by one's degree of social support and Internet use, particular examples of which are entertainment and relationship maintenance, and positive coping strategies, which temporarily reduce stress and anxiety.
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Objective. The literature on gender and technology use finds that women and men differ significantly in their attitudes toward their technological abilities. Concurrently, existing work on science and math abilities of students suggests that such perceived differences do not always translate into actual disparities. We examine the yet-neglected area concerning gender differences with respect to Internet-use ability. In particular, we test how self-perceived abilities are related to actual abilities and how these may differ by gender. Methods. We use new data on web-use skill to test empirically whether there are differences in men's and women's abilities to navigate online content. We draw on a diverse sample of adult Internet users to investigate the questions raised. Results. Findings suggest that men and women do not differ greatly in their online abilities. However, we find that women's self-assessed skill is significantly lower than that of men. Conclusions. Women's lower self-assessment regarding their web-use skills may affect significantly the extent of their online behavior and the types of uses to which they put the medium. We discuss the implications of these findings for social inequality.