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Children and the Internet: Great Expectations, Challenging Realities

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Abstract

Is the internet really transforming children and young people's lives? Is the so-called `digital generation' genuinely benefiting from exciting new opportunities? And, worryingly, facing new risks? This major new book by a leading researcher addresses these pressing questions. It deliberately avoids a techno-celebratory approach and, instead, interprets children's everyday practices of internet use in relation to the complex and changing historical and cultural conditions of childhood in late modernity. Uniquely, Children and the Internet reveals the complex dynamic between online opportunities and online risks, exploring this in relation to much debated issues such as: · Digital in/exclusion · Learning and literacy · Peer networking and privacy · Civic participation · Risk and harm Drawing on current theories of identity, development, education and participation, this book includes a refreshingly critical account of the challenging realities undermining the great expectations held out for the internet - from governments, teachers, parents and children themselves. It concludes with a forward-looking framework for policy and regulation designed to advance children's rights to expression, connection and play online as well as offline.

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... New technologies usually generate feelings and attitudes that range from enthusiasm to fear not only among laypeople (Contarello & Fortunati, 2006) or in the press (Christidou, et al., 2004;Ricci, 2010), but also among scholars and practitioners themselves (Livingstone, 2010;Livingston & Sefton-Green, 2016), this often leading to various forms of moral panic (e.g., Bennett et al., 2008) nested in oversimplified views of intergenerational changes (Livingstone & Sefton-Green, 2016). ...
... The social representations as action (Wagner, 2016) entail, thus, a debate with the digital culture, online participation and exclusion (Jenkins, 2006;Jenkins et al., 2009). For example, children's uncertainty about who is listening to them online (Livingstone, 2010) echoes the feeling of looseness and uncertainty reported by Contarello and Sarrica (2007). Thus, social representations of the Internet might very well be preventing people to fully take up opportunities for greater participation. ...
... Moreover, as we gain some evidence that online and offline activities are being psychologically bridged (Livingstone, 2010), the more it seems that the social representations of the Internet are likely to rely on and combine a range of opposite categories: virtual vs real, artificial vs natural, human vs machine. The mobile phone, for example, was rapidly represented as a prosthesis of the human body and foreseen as the device that would popularize Internet (Contarello & Sarrica, 2007) as it is actually happening nowadays. ...
Thesis
This work focused on the meanings and experiences with the Internet in Portuguese schools from the perspective of the social representations theory. The main goal was to explore and map the relationship between the social representations of the Internet and the social identity, attitudes, and digital literacy of students, teachers, and guardians. Three studies have been conducted following a mixed-methods approach. Study 1 was an extensive exploratory survey of 1013 participants (8th-grade and 11th-grade students, teachers, and guardians) from three Portuguese public schools. We aimed to adapt, construct, and test measures to understand the social representations of the Internet in education. Study 2 consisted of 26 in-depth interviews with principals or responsible personnel of schools across the country about their views on the Internet in education. Study 3 was an extensive survey of 202 participants, exclusively focused on 8th-grade students, teachers, and guardians, from 25 schools distributed across the country. It explored the relationship between the symbolic field of the social representations of the Internet and social identity, attitudes, and digital literacy. Data were analyzed with quantitative and qualitative procedures, including correspondence textual analysis to project social groups and other relevant variables onto representational fields. Results showed that there is a clear relationship between the semantic field of the Internet and social groups. Students share a representation of the Internet based on digital culture, while teachers and guardians share a representation based on information and values. Students admitted the influence of the Internet on their generation but claimed not to be personally affected. Results also revealed that participants do not identify with the typical member of their group. As for the educational scenario, data revealed a very heterogeneous picture. The Internet experience shapes and is shaped by three dimensions of school functioning: administrative, pedagogic, and social. Data suggest that the representations of the social groups inform the practices and experiences reported in the interviews and surveys. The Internet is used – mainly within a replacement and not transformative model – to meet the perceived expectations of the students and society (e.g., labor market). However, students’ attitudes towards the Internet, digital literacy, and perceived usage during the week are not significantly different from teachers’ attitudes. On the other hand, in Study 1, significant differences were observed in these indicators concerning guardians, possibly explained by low educational levels. Results have considerable educational implications. They suggest that educational and social experiences and practices are aligned with common sense ideas about the relationship between the youth and digital media. Educators are losing the opportunity to use the Internet as a medicine to heal the social tissue of intergenerational relations and fulfill schools’ mission, that of bridging society, transmitting a legacy, and inspiring the future.
... New technologies usually generate feelings and attitudes that range from enthusiasm to fear not only among laypeople (Contarello & Fortunati, 2006) or in the press (Christidou, et al., 2004;Ricci, 2010), but also among scholars and practitioners themselves (Livingstone, 2010; Livingston & Sefton-Green, 2016), this often leading to various forms of moral panic (e.g., Bennett, Maton, & Kervin, 2008) nested in oversimplified views of intergenerational changes (Livingstone & Sefton-Green, 2016). ...
... The social representations as action (Wagner, 2016) entail, thus, a debate with the digital culture, online participation and exclusion (Jenkins, 2006;Jenkins et al., 2009). For example, children's uncertainty about who is listening to them online (Livingstone, 2010) echoes the feeling of looseness and uncertainty reported by Contarello and Sarrica [5]. Thus, social representations of the Internet might very well be preventing people to fully take up opportunities for greater participation. ...
... Moreover, as we gain some evidence that online and offline activities are being psychologically bridged (Livingstone, 2010), the more it seems that the social representations of the Internet are likely to rely on and combine a range of opposite categories: virtual vs. real, artificial vs. natural, human vs. machine. The mobile phone, for example, was rapidly represented as a prosthesis of the human body and foreseen as the device that would popularize the Internet [5], as it is actually happening nowadays. ...
Article
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In this paper, we draw upon the empirical research about the social representations of the Internet in order to propose a theoretically-driven agenda. A systematic review of empirical, peer-reviewed literature was conducted. The corpus of analysis consisted of 12 papers which fell into five themes: (i) the Internet and quality of life; (ii) the Internet as a moving representation; (iii) the Internet and ageing; (iv) the Internet and mobile culture; and (v) the Internet and education. The research about the social representations of the Internet is still limited in number, depth and breadth. Notwithstanding, it conveys important insights about the evolving, symbolically-loaded meanings of the Internet as a prosthesis of knowledge and as a means of communication, with consequences for identity and intergroup relations, contributing to expand the theoretical and empirical debates on the field of digital media. The research agenda for studying the Internet from a social representations' perspective includes three major theoretical foci: social cognition; social identity and intergroup relations; and social thinking in times of big data. Social representations can provide the Papers on Social Representations, xx (x), x.1-x.33 (2021) [http://psr.iscte-iul.pt/index.php/PSR/index] x.2 field with powerful conceptual tools to learn how people deal with novelty and to navigate through huge quantity of data generated online. In change, digital media can contribute to further social representations theory developments. To learn how communication flows on the Internet and how people make sense of the Internet and Internet-related phenomena (including automatically generated contents, mass and social media accounts) equals to set the clock for the present time schedule.
... Many parents experience difficulties trying to protect their children online. Evidence suggests that they find it socially and technically challenging for which they feel ill-equipped and under-resourced to administer [30]. Therefore, many parents are challenged by the task of protecting their children's safety online, and thus will be likely to have lower parental self-efficacy (PSE). ...
... Parents may be worried that technology use detracts from or replaces "real life" interaction [67]. Alternatively, parents may lack the skills needed to tackle the technical aspects of online safety protection [30]. Therefore, parental online safety knowledge is likely to affect their parental online risk management and their PSE. ...
... Many parents of autistic children report difficulties trying to protect them online [22]. Taking into account that parents report difficulties trying to protect their children online as they find that they are socially ill-equipped and under-resourced to do [30] and many autistic children struggle to transition offline to online [23,43,46], our fifth hypthesis (H5) states that: ...
Conference Paper
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Many autistic children are active online users. Research suggests that they are subject to distress and poor wellbeing following online safety threats. However, it is unclear if autistic children are more likely to experience online safety risks compared with non-autistic children. We conducted a parental online safety survey. Two groups of parents (autistic children, n=63; non-autistic children, n= 41) completed questionnaires about their child's online safety behaviours, wellbeing, and their own parental self-efficacy (PSE). Our results highlight that autistic children experience significantly more online safety risks than non-autistic children and poorer wellbeing than autistic children who did not experience online safety risks. Parents of autistic children reported carrying out significantly less risk management and reported poorer PSE than parents of non-autistic children. Having an autistic child and parental online safety knowledge were significant predictors of PSE. These results will help inform the co-design of interventions to protect autistic children online. CCS CONCEPTS • Security and privacy~Human and societal aspects of security and privacy
... Aarsand, 2007;Björk-Willén & Aronsson, 2014;Johansson, 2000;Klerfelt, 2007;Sjöberg, 2002), har forskningen nu landat i ett utforskande av mediernas betydelse för människan i vardagen. Mycket av den forskning som bedrivs idag handlar också om barn och ungas liv online, om risker och möjligheter med nätet, om lärande och umgänge i sociala medier och om hur gränserna mellan online och offline suddas ut i takt med att medier i allt högre grad präglar vardagen (Dunkels, 2007;Findahl, Dunkels & von Feilitzen, 2013;Livingstone, 2009;Livingstone, Haddon, Görzig, 2012). En svensk studie som kan nämnas i sammanhanget är Mikael Forsmans (2014) Duckface/Stoneface. ...
... En central utgångspunkt i förståelsen av barn-och medieforskningen (i västvärlden), är att den länge har präglats av en starkt polariserad samhällsdebatt rörande barn och ungas användning av medier, vilken forskare ofta influeras av och tar avstamp i (Buckingham, 2000;Buckingham & Willett, 2006;Livingstone, 2009). Två motstridiga diskurser kan skönjas. ...
... Men begrepp som dessa har stött på stark kritik och anses exotisera och essentialisera barn och unga samt bortse från de sociala och kulturella aspekter som ett mediebruk alltid är inbäddat i (Buckingham, 2008;Herring, 2008). När det gäller färdigheter och kunskaper om digitala redskap är spridningen inom en generation stor, menar Sonia Livingstone (2009). Synsättet på barn som digitala infödingar präglas också av en slags teknisk determinism. ...
Thesis
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Children's mediated world. Sibling interaction, play and consumption This thesis focuses on sibling interaction and children’s everyday media practices in their homes. Ten sibling pairs, aged four to nine years, have been followed in their homes during a six-month period with media ethnographic methods. The data mainly consist of video recorded sibling interactions. The thesis draws on sociocultural theories, cultural sociological perspectives and insights from social interaction research. The analyses are grounded in the social interaction and meaning making acts that take place in media activities in the home settings. However they also extend to a broader societal context, in order to show how social structure and social action are constantly interwoven in children’s lives. The thesis documents how the media represent an important part of the child's everyday culture. Media create key reference frames and common platfo rms for the children’s games and play activities. The siblings use media and various artifacts to negotiate, challenge or assume desirable positions. Media artefacts can also be used as a way to present oneself. The younger siblings progressively work their way into the older siblings’ media landscapes, and the elder siblings become guides or role models in handling video games, music, and YouTube activities. In addition to purely practical skills when it comes to handling the technical equipment, the older siblings also mediate local taste hierarchies, norms, and values. The thesis also describes how children are social actors who interpret and reinterpret the constant ongoing movements in the media landscape. Moreover, the thesis highlights how consumption is closely linked to media practices. Mobiles, games consoles and membership on virtual gaming sites become highly valued phenomena and status markers in children’s media worlds.
... Minimising digital "footprints", identifying risks and developing responses to socially challenging content and interactions are key to cybersafety (Roddel, 2006). While it is true that digital media introduces new forms of risk (Livingstone, 2009), it also provides a range of new opportunities. In fact, online risk and opportunity are often intertwined. ...
... In particular, social media provide a space in which their burgeoning independence and social relations with others can be experimented with. These practices are shaped by the sociocultural context in which they are enacted, meaning that this is far from a homogenous group (Livingstone, 2009). ...
... Despite the fact that many social media platforms have a minimum user age of 13 years, there is evidence that children younger than this are opening social media accounts (Young, 2019). While children are often described as "youthful experts" or "pioneers" (Livingstone, 2009), there are several areas of social media use, such as privacy and self-representation, that are particularly challenging for pre-teens. These complex issues are overlooked by cybersafety education and provide the impetus for this research. ...
Article
Cybersafety has been a mainstay of digital education since computers arrived in classrooms in the mid 1990s. Whether schools encourage students to be ‘cybersmart’ (Australia), ‘netsafe’ (New Zealand) or to be aware of ‘cybersecurity strategies’ (Mexico and Chile) most now devote a relatively large amount of time and money to teaching young people how to ‘stay safe’ online. In this article, we argue that it is time for schools to move beyond the cybersafety discourse to encourage students to think more critically about the digital media they use. Reporting on the digital practices of 276 pre-teens aged 7-12 years in Australia and Uruguay, we contend that the everyday digital challenges young people face are now beyond the scope of most cybersafety programs. Our findings highlight that many of the issues pre-teens are negotiating call for more nuanced and sustained educational programs that support the development of critical social media literacies. In particular, with the proliferation of mass user platforms and artificial intelligence, there is a need for schools to educate students around managing and protecting their personal data. The article concludes with a discussion of the digital learning required for young people in an increasingly datafied society.
... These settings enable a dialectic between the staging of a performance, framed by social conventions and particular codes of self-representation, and the reflexivity developed through expected or actual feedback from audiences. Identity displays in SNAs, and the particular conception of public and private self that they promote, are dependent on the kind of audience that has been imagined by the subject (Donath & Boyd, 2004), and are further shaped by the design of the website (Livingstone, 2008(Livingstone, , 2009. ...
... Many respondents noted that they liked to use emoji to express their emotions and feelings. Similar findings were reported by other studies (Desjarlais & Willoughby, 2010;Kraut et al., 2002;Livingstone, 2009;Orr et al., 2009;Zilka, 2019Zilka, , 2020a. ...
Article
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In this mixed-method study, we sought to examine attitudes, expression of emotions, and the use of emoji in social networking by children, adolescents, and young adults. A total of 551 participants from Israel completed questionnaires, and 110 participants were also interviewed. The findings indicate that the participants love the social networking applications (SNAs). The reasons they mentioned are availability, accessibility, convenience, efficiency, speed, reliability, and the ability to express emotions by adding emoji. Many have stated that it is easier for them to express feelings in SNAs, that they do not feel embarrassed, and are handling the reactions of others better than in face-to-face situations. They think that they have extensive and productive communication, and attach great importance to the content and messages they receive and send. Some participants did not like the difficulty in maintaining privacy and the exposure to unwanted content.
... This expansion in children's ICT use and the popular narratives surrounding it have transformed everyday family relationships and reconfigured the use of domestic spaces. Indeed, children's engagement with offline spaces and relationships are now increasingly mediated by their experiences of digital environments (Livingstone, 2009). These changes have also greatly impacted parents' lives and their parenting priorities (Lim 2020;Livingstone and Blum-Ross 2020). ...
... The source of these new risks include 'adult stranger' as well as other children, thereby positioning children as simultaneously at risk and a potential threat to other children (Finkelhor 2011). These risk perceptions around digital media exist alongside the opportunities that ICT offers children at a time when technical skills are needed in multiple aspects of social life (see Livingstone 2009). ...
Article
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This article draws upon my qualitative study with 8-to-12-year-old British Indian children and their professional middle-class parents, to demonstrate the ways in which parental mediation of children’s digital leisure play out within the home. Using the relational lens of ‘generational order’, I identify the ways in which children ‘navigate’ their way around restrictive parental mediation of digital technologies just as parents ‘navigate’ multiple moral discourses emerging from media and policy circles imploring them to curb children’s screen-time. Understanding these ‘navigation’ strategies around children’s digital media use at home throws fresh light on parent-child relations, children’s agency and their imbrications with wider generational structures. I conclude by arguing that greater empirical analyses of the relational aspects of parenting and childing are needed for Childhood Studies to fully appreciate the way generational structures inflect the lived geographies of childhood and parenthood in the context of children’s home-based digital leisure.
... Gran parte del dibattito scientifico e pubblico su questi temi è improntato prevalentemente sul determinisimo tecnologico come hanno notato Buckingham (2008), Livingstone (2009) ed altri, ovvero dalla convinzione che la tecnologia da sola definisca i cambiamenti sociali e psicologici a prescindere da come e da chi la utilizza. Inoltre, entrambe le ipotesi esagerano la differenze tra i "vecchi" ed i "nuovi" media. ...
... Secondo diversi studiosi (Gee, 2013;Perez Tornero&Varis, 2010, Jenkins&Kelley, 2013, Jones&Hafner, 2012Ito et al, 2008;Livingstone, 2009; ecc.), i media sono strumenti che hanno vantaggi e svantaggi ed i loro effetti dipendono semplicemente da come vengono usati. Pertanto, la media education spesso viene vista come una soluzione adeguata sia per proteggere i bambini dagli effetti negativi dei media che per educarli ad usare i media efficacemente al fine di partecipare alla democrazia. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Media literacy è un risultato del processo della media education che dura tutta la vita (Potter, 2013), poiché le competenze che fanno parte della media literacy possono essere sempre migliorate, permettendo a chiunque di accedere, usare, condividere, valutare criticamente e produrre i vari contenuti multimediali. Negli ultimi anni (2016, 2018), l’UNICEF ha condotto alcune ricerche in Montenegro sul consumo dei media e sulle competenze digitali dei bambini di età compresa fra i 9 e i 17 anni e dei loro genitori, da cui è emersa una propensione alla connessione in Rete transgenerazionale: la maggioranza dei bambini (91%) e dei genitori (80%) è online. Seppur la TV e Internet sono utilizzate di più, le diverse competenze della media literacy non sono sempre ben sviluppate nei ragazzi, così come sono limitate le capacità dei genitori di sostenere i loro figli, dato che in generale il loro livello di media literacy non è così avanzato. Questi risultati suggeriscono che bisogna sostenere azioni di media education sia nazionali che locali per migliorare la media literacy delle famiglie. Per questa ragione, nel 2018, UNICEF, insieme all’Agenzia per i media elettronici, ha iniziato una campagna nazionale di media literacy con lo scopo di promuovere la media education dei genitori e dei bambini, migliorare la qualità dei rapporti dei media sui problemi dei diritti dei minori e migliorare la qualità della produzione dei media per i giovani in Montenegro. Un’anno dopo il suo inizio, 1 cittadino montenegrino su 2 è consapevole di questa campagna.
... Still, electronically mediated games, albeit playful, is generally perceived to be inferior to analogous play with regards to supporting a healthy childhood and mental and physical development [15]. Nonetheless, smartphones are a natural part of our modern tech-based society that inevitably has weaved itself into the fabric of children's everyday lives [11,[16][17][18]. This has prompted children to develop a strong set of digital skills and to constantly explore the many opportunities available online [19,20]. ...
... The results of the present study also emphasize the importance of smartphones as an asset to remain social when being outdoors. In general, the increased opportunities for using a phone and attending social media accounts wherever they are, have had a major impact on the everyday lives of children [16,21]. For example, Machackova and Olafsson found that 9-12-year-olds considered smartphones and social media to be one of the most important tools to uphold their social needs and a common way of finding new friends [45]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The growing use of smartphones has been pointed out as one of the main reasons for the decrease in children’s outdoor time. However, there is still a gap in our understanding of how smartphone use affects children’s outdoor experiences and activities. The aim of the study is to explore children’s dependency on their smartphones, what smartphone functions children use when outdoors and how smartphone use affects children’s outdoor experiences. The study uses a mixed methods design which implements interviews with a small sample of children (N = 34) in order to help develop a questionnaire for a larger sample (N = 1148). Both datasets are included in the analysis with a complimentary perspective. The results suggest that children are highly dependent on having their smartphones available as an integrated part of their lives. However, smartphones also create favorable conditions for rich and valuable outdoor lives by expanding children’s and parents’ sense of security, children’s outdoor sociality, and children’s opportunities to mold their outdoor experiences. We stress that children’s passion for the digital world needs to be reconsidered as not ‘all bad’, but more as a condition in modern children’s lives and an asset to embrace in future strategies for actively engaging children in outdoor activities.
... These contradictions are due to all classification systems being governed by a similar model based solely on the principle of "content-based risk" (Livingstone, 2009;Felini, 2015;Kublenz, 2016). The purpose of them all is to identify the presence of "any content which is illegal, offensive, obscene or which might permanently impair the development of young people" (PEGI, 2015, p. 11). ...
... Digital content for a children's audience should respond to more requirements than just the absence of violence, sex, drugs or inappropriate language by verifying that its content is not harmful for more subtle reasons than exposure to nudity or drugs. The unique principle of "content-based risk" (Livingstone, 2009;Felini, 2015;Kublenz, 2016) must be overcome if a child developmental research-based approach is to succeed. ...
Article
Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, the provision and downloading of educational apps for children have both increased. This paper reports the results of an extensive literature review of the age-rating systems of digital content (audiovisual and games) used around the world and demonstrates the weakness of those instruments that prove ineffective in choosing digital content for children. Age-rating systems are arbitrary and only focus on explicit content that is considered harmful to preschool children. The paper proposes an alternative model of app analysis based on child development. The main objective of the research is to determine the developmental appropriateness of apps for young children and its effects on children’s responses through a content analysis of 318 apps and a test of a subset of them (N=25) with a sample of 53 children aged 3-5. To this end, exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis is used to extract a composite index of the apps’ developmental appropriateness, which was used to specify a path analysis. The results show that developmental appropriateness is associated with the highest positive ratings by children and, indirectly, with play time.
... They have high risk to be involved into many risky behaviors which may get themselves into CSA dangers. As Livingstone [13] recorded, children and teenagers have around 50% to providing personal information to strangers and the message leaking pathway can be ins, blog, chatting room and others. 40 per cent of teens will watch adult pornography online and 10% will meet an online contact [13]. ...
... As Livingstone [13] recorded, children and teenagers have around 50% to providing personal information to strangers and the message leaking pathway can be ins, blog, chatting room and others. 40 per cent of teens will watch adult pornography online and 10% will meet an online contact [13]. All these behaviors will higher possibility of suffering from online offending. ...
... With the expansion of 'new' media, especially of information and communication technologies (ICTs), sociological interest has grown substantially around how children interact with the internet and digital media (Livingstone, Mascheroni and Staksrud, 2018;Livingstone et al., 2014;Livingstone, 2009Livingstone, , 2007Holloway and Valentine, 2003). In a pioneering study of children's ICT use in their everyday contexts of the school and the home, Holloway and Valentine (2003) challenged the technological determinism that assumes that access to technologies will invariably produce fixed outcomes for children. ...
... Children, they argued, were more concerned with the influence of ICT on their lived identities at home and school and how these were perceived by their peers than they were about future job prospects that technological literacy can bring. These arguments have continued to frame the discussion around digital media within childhood studies (see Livingstone, 2009). It has been repeatedly pointed out that notwithstanding how children employ ICT in their local context, children are largely constructed within the dominant adult-centric discourses as lacking an adequate sense of responsibility or emotional competence to match their growing technological abilities (Wyness, 2012;Holloway and Valentine, 2003). ...
Article
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In this article, I contend that the sociology of leisure in particular and leisure studies in general has been shaped by adult-centric assumptions which have marginalized children’s perspectives on and experiences of leisure within theory building exercises. Consequently, leisure researchers who do empirical work on children’s leisure have largely eschewed critical debates about children’s agency, social positioning and lived citizenship among others that have been developed by the ‘new’ sociology of childhood. Failure to build bridges with other areas of scholarship such as sociological childhood studies, has intensified the intellectual isolation of leisure research. Here, I propose a sustained dialogue between leisure studies and childhood studies which will not only widen the intellectual breadth of leisure theory and make it more inclusive, but also enable leisure studies to have an impact on the new social studies of childhood. In illustrating what such a collaboration might entail, I outline a conceptual schema of three interlocking genres of children’s leisure – namely organized, family and casual leisure – based on existing studies conducted by researchers in leisure, childhood and family studies that offer a roadmap for the development of a new critical sociology of children’s leisure.
... Our working model is grounded in several linked areas of theory (Livingstone, 2009). ...
... To conclude this book and to draw together the many insights and findings in the foregoing chapters, we examine the similarities and differences among individuals in order to propose a typology of young internet users, and then look at the associations among factors shaping online risk and safety. Our motivation here is the recognition that, on the one hand, it is hardly helpful to consider every different way in which each individual child goes online but, on the other, it is problematic that discourses of 6 childhood and of the internet tend to treat 'children' as a homogenous category and to construct 'the internet' as something unitary and fixed (Hasebrink et al., 2011, Livingstone, 2009). Our research recognises that the internet is complex in its affordances and diverse in its uses, and that children are not all the same. ...
Chapter
Introduction Rapid adoption of the internet and other online technologies is presenting policy makers, governments and industry with a significant task of ensuring that online opportunities are maximised and the risks associated with internet use are minimised and managed. Online opportunities are the focus of considerable public and private sector activity, and diverse ambitious efforts are underway in many countries to promote digital learning technologies in schools, e-governance initiatives, digital participation and digital literacy. The risks associated with the technologies are receiving similar attention through national and international initiatives that address child protection, cybersecurity and privacy, and through discussions explaining the potential for state and/or self-regulation. Policy initiatives assume particular circumstances, understandings and practices applying to children, their parents and teachers. These assumptions may be more or less accurate and well judged, and at worst, they may be unnecessarily anxious or already out of date. Herein lies the value of direct research on children's contemporary experiences across diverse contexts. But although technological and regulatory change since the early 2000s has been accompanied by research seeking to understand the social shaping and consequences of internet use, early research tended to be more descriptive than theoretical (Wellman, 2004). However, since researchers seek to understand and predict children's online experiences, mere descriptions of survey findings are insufficient. Consequently, a central feature of the EU Kids Online project has been to develop a theoretical framework within which its findings can be interpreted because, in the absence of theory, three problems occur. First, it is difficult to say what ‘findings’ mean since they are open to multiple interpretations – for example, is a certain percentage large or small, surprising or banal? Second, findings tend to be mere lists of percentages that cannot be connected to the findings of other studies, either in the domain of children's internet use or in relation to other studies of risk in childhood, the nature of parenting, or the role of the internet in adolescent development. Third, theory is needed to generate predictions and, so, to go beyond the particularity of any one data set in order to anticipate the consequences of different combinations of factors in future situations.
... ' Access' , however, includes several dimensions. In addition to economic capital, education, social resources and cognitive resources help individuals know which hardware and digital services to purchase and update, and how to 'domesticate' them, that is, how to fit them meaningfully into their lives (Livingstone, 2009). In expanding this idea, we may say that the totality of all these resources and the awareness of the emerging techno-culture are relevant factors that shape digital stratification (cf. ...
Book
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This collective monograph can be seen as a retrospective logbook of the long journey of the research group “Me. The World. The Media” (in Estonian “Mina. Maailm. Meedia”, abbreviated as MeeMa). The book offers a reflexive review of the long-term experience of researching the transformations in Estonian society, particularly by using the lens of social morphogenetic analysis developed by Margaret Archer and her co-workers. Specifically, the book aims to re-conceptualise the main results of the empirical studies from 2002 to 2014 by synthesising different theoretical perspectives on social change.
... 35% "Children and the Internet". [4] This study shows the importance of the correct using to the internet in positive way by raise the level of awareness among children. ...
Article
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Recently, the world face a huge technological revolution over internet applications making the using of the internet occupies an important place among the people and made a large proportion of people from different classes and ages since the using of this kind of applications used for long hours on the Internet (using social media applications and important websites). Although, those applications provided without controlling all available components, though the using it increases with the progress of days. Hence, because this lack of interest causes many of the sites that are harmful to personal interests and threaten the safety of children and their personal thoughts. The basic idea is to provide educational assistance to children through the sites and help them to learn new useful stuff. Hence, must provide an improved web browser that brings the capability for the childs to browse the internet in a safe form from harmless website. This kind of browsers contains a big amount of useful information that provided in the aim of educate them (learning information related to a specific felid of study), e.g. games, videos and social media applications, by this way it considers as an attractive and interesting way that makes the learning way in an advanced stage of development when browsing the sites. This kind of sites and browsers protect children from using the internet for bad and non-useful information by controlling all the data that transmit and revived by this browser. Though, it supports many of activates in highly degree of interest and censorship in rule system. This paper aims to create web browser for children to protect them from the crime and bad sites in addition to give all benefits in interesting way. Keywords Website. browser, security, services, web browser and system design.
... So far, the following attempts have been made to explain this. If children have higher ICT proficiency, parents might struggle with a potential authority shift that might lead to changes in the traditional balance of power in the family (Livingstone 2009;Nelissen & Bulck 2018). For instance, in the investigations of Kiesler et al. (2000) a teenage girl describes situations in which she notices that her father has trouble using the computer: (Kiesler et al. 2000: 344). ...
Technical Report
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Although digital technologies are an integral part of all areas of life, children and young people use ICT (Information and Communication Technology) most frequently at home. The omnipresence of digital technologies affects the social interactions in their homes and thus influences the family dynamics. Therefore, this working paper reviews the existing the literature on the effect of new technologies on family life from the perspective of the individual family members, but also looks at families as a whole. This review shows that the use of digital devices is becoming increasingly privatized and mobile. Still, families enjoy the joint use of digital technologies by actively engaging in ICT activities together or by appreciating the passive co-presence of other family members during their digital experiences. Individual ICT activities are a primary source for entertainment and a way to relax but are also a root cause of family conflicts. Unlike solitary ICT use, joint digital family activities can create a strong sense of ‘we-ness’ among family members which promotes family cohesion. As a result, digital technologies are part of the daily act of reproducing family and can thus be understood as a central element of the concept of ‘doing family’.
... La familiarización progresiva e imparable de las generaciones más jóvenes con las tecnologías digitales y el uso de Internet ha valorado la idea de que los "nativos digitales" tienen habilidades y capacidades técnicas únicas, muy superior a las de los adultos. De hecho, hay que tener en cuenta que pocas veces sucedió en la historia que los hijos tuvieran una experiencia y conocimiento práctico superior que el de sus padres, a excepción de, por ejemplo, lo que ocurre con el aprendizaje de la lengua y la cultura del país de adopción con los hijos de los inmigrantes, ya que los inmigrantes de segunda generación se encontrarán en una situación de mayor integración cultural en la sociedad de acogida con respecto a sus padres, sobre todo bajo el perfil del dominio lingüístico (Livingstone, 2009). El debate en torno al origen del término "nativos digitales", sin embargo, está abierto y quizás sea improductivo. ...
Article
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Hija de una exitosa retórica, la expresión digital natives (que se refiere a las nuevas generaciones nacidas y criadas dentro de un entorno marcado por la presencia cada vez más penetrante e inclusiva de las nuevas tecnologías de comunicación), implica la necesidad de repensar la supuesta superioridad en el dominio y competencia en el uso de las tecnologías y las plataformas de comunicación, de los nativos con respecto a los inmigrantes (padres, profesores, generaciones precedentes en general). La banalizante metáfora de los nativos digitales evade, de hecho, una mayor reflexión sobre los riesgos asociados con la disolución de las formas de mediación ejercida por los agentes de socialización tradicionales (escuela y familia en primer lugar) en los jóvenes, en lo que concierne a la utilización de los medios digitales. Este ensayo pretende una reflexión en la necesaria implementación de estrategias para una educación crítica adecuada. Se conocen con el nombre de media education o media literacy, (educación en los media), pero no se debe cometer el error de suponer que los jóvenes de hoy en día no necesitan de ninguna educación, como declara provocativamente el título.
... Livingstone, çocukların bilişsel ve sosyal gelişmeleri devam ettiği için internet ile ilişkili olası zararları yönetme konusunda kırılgan ve zayıf olduğunu ifade etmektedir. 19 Bu durumun en önemli nedenlerinden birisi, çocuğa dışarıdan ve çevrimiçi uzaydan gelebilecek tehdit ve travmalara karşı koruyucu bir çevresel faktörün eksikliği ya da yokluğudur. ...
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With the development of technology, digital tools have become an important part of our current lives. Cyber psychology, which emerged as a new but increasingly important sub-field of psychology; in addition to mainstream psychology, conducts interdisciplinary studies with other fields such as clinical psychology, crim- inology, philosophy, sociology, media, communication and security. Cyber psychology is a discipline that ex- plores the impact of digital technologies and the internet on people and communities. Cyber psychology uses theories in mainstream psychology and explains new interactions with other disciplines to explain how individu- als interact with each other online and to what extent these interactions can affect their lives outside the offline area. In the light of these theories, a new definition of "cyber self” and "cyber society " including individual, social and cultural transformations are made. Clinical cyber psychology conducts studies for the psychological integration of individuals with online and offline life. Cyber dissociation produced by Öztürk & Çalıcı, a new concept, is pre- dicted to be one of the most important subfields where clinical and forensic cyber psychology will work. Cyber dissociation emerges as a defense in the initial stage in order to ensure the integration of individuals' offline and online lives due to the widespread use of social media tools and the fact that the current life forces people to cre- ate cyber selfs in the cyber environment and creates a duality in the psychological structure of the individuals in the process. The subfields of cyber psychology, which conducts interdisciplinary studies, range from clinical cyber psychology to forensic cyber psychology. Most studied areas in cyber psychology are; online relationships, online dating, online crimes, cyber victimization, cyber revictimization, cyber bullying and cyber harassment. Conduct- ing interdisciplinary studies within the scope of cyber psychology, identification and control of interactions in cyber space, which is an unlimited space and changing and transforming from day to day, and all kinds of actions taken in this environment, effective intervention/prevention programs and legal arrangements should be done. Pro- fessionals working in the fields of clinical and forensic cyber psychology have important duties. Keywords: Cyber psychology; cyber trauma; cyber revictimization
... Again, the precise risk here is unclear and seems to relate to internet users' reputations both now and in the future, but it could also refer to contact and conduct risks (children participating in aggressive, sexual, or values-related behaviors). These kinds of sweeping statements ignore the more nuanced benefit and risk analysis that many scholars and researchers suggest when teaching young people about media (e.g., Livingstone 2009;). ...
... Moreover, people are more likely to give away personal information if a request comes from a "friend", jeopardizing security such as "phishing" schemes. Yet studies have shown that young people tend to be aware of potential privacy threats and that many are rather proactive about minimizing them (Livingstone 2009). On another note, privacy is also implicated in users' ability to control impressions and manage social contexts (see next section). ...
Chapter
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Over the past decade, social media has become a widely used umbrella term that refers to the set of tools, applications, and services that enable people to interact with others using network technologies such as personal computers and smartphones. Social media tends to be associated with a convergence of production, distribution, and consumption practices and a blending of user creativity, collaboration, and sharing-enabled and sharing-assisted network technologies. In this way, social media is said to have deeply penetrated into the mechanics of everyday life, affecting people's interactions, institutional structures and professional routines. This entry offers an inclusive perspective of the "fabric of social media", which underpins understandings of both social and media. In particular, it highlights the dynamics of empowerment, always-on lifestyle, and professionalization.
... Popular media construct esports careers as viable and legitimate as well as explicitly encourage parents to consider it seriously, particularly if they do not identify as gamers or esports fans. Appealing to parental concerns around video games is important since adults are responsible for monitoring and moderating young people's gameplay within the family home (Llorens, 2017, 474), especially in an era where there is an increasing emphasis on children's safety due to the emergence and mass integration of digital technologies into the family household (Livingstone, 2009). ...
... While the participants had very limited offline, face-to-face interactions outside, they showed contrastingly high levels of interaction with people such as friends, peer groups and even family members online. All but two participants felt more socially connected through This can be partly explained by Livingstone's (2009) work on the prevalence of 'bedroom culture'. Many youth social activities and experiences are increasingly moving away from the outdoors and into the bedroom due to increased use of personal devices. ...
Article
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The complexities and changing experiences of human connections have long been debated. In the digital age, technology becomes an increasingly crucial dimension of sociality. This article critically discusses the sociality of ‘hidden’ young people who shut themselves in the bedroom and are typically assumed to be socially withdrawn. This article challenges this reclusive depiction and presents qualitative evidence from the first study of this phenomenon in the UK/Scottish context, while studying this comparatively across two sites. Thirty-two interviews were conducted with Hong Kong and Scottish youth ‘withdrawn’ in the bedroom for 3 to 48 months; hidden youth’s sociality was found to be more nuanced and interconnected than previously assumed. This article argues that young people can become especially attached to online communities to seek solace and solidarity as they experience social marginalisation. Technology and online networks play an important role in enabling marginalised young people to feel connected in the digital age.
... Schools appear to struggle to find the right balance between school-based 'in house' disciplinary responses that may involve parents and formal police involvement to incidents deemed more serious; a struggle related to definitional understandings of cyberbullying among administrators and students as well as parents (Campbell et al., 2019). However, research on how schools and law enforcement are responding to cyberbullying, as well as student perceptions and experiences with cyberbullying, remains centered on urban areas (boyd, 2014;Livingstone, 2009;Patchin et al., 2020). In Canada studies on rural crime and policing with a focus on youth is still emerging (e.g., Ruddell & O'Connor, 2021;Adorjan & Ricciadelli, 2017], and even less attention has been given to police responses to cyber conflicts in rural regions. ...
Article
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Policing research, still largely concentrated on urban contexts, is increasingly recognizing the unique features of police work in rural regions. Beyond notable differences such as lower overall levels crime and fewer (though more sporadically distributed) people, little is also known regarding rural police understandings and responses to online mediated harms, including relatively serious forms of cyberbullying, non-consensual ‘sexting’, and other forms of crime mediated online. Interviews with police officers (N = 42) here focus on their views regarding police work in response to cyber-mediated harm facing youth in rural and remote Atlantic Canada. Responses center on how rural regions play a role in mediating the nature of online conflict and police respond to such conflict. Officers highlight several related challenges, such as lack of parental support, and how some youth ‘define deviancy down’, referring to a lack of recognition regarding the harm caused by cyberbullying and non-consensual sexting (including issues related to the distribution of child pornography). Implications are discussed for research on rural policing where evidence-based practices remain lacking.
... Surveillance and technology scholars assume that children need their own free and unsupervised spaces (Steeves & Jones, 2010) that allow for heightened mobility (Fotel & Thomsen, 2004) and spontaneous interactions with others to develop independence and autonomy (Livingstone, 2002). Close monitoring, on the other hand, hinders resilience (Livingstone, 2009) and discourages pro-social behavior (Kerr et al., 1999). For example, resorting to the panic button offered by most location-tracking applications, such as Life360, promotes dependence rather than self-reliance, preventing children from practicing important social skills (Simpson, 2014). ...
Article
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This study examines parental surveillance of preadolescents based on location-tracking applications installed on their smartphones. Applying reflexive thematic analysis to 24 semi-structured, in-depth interviews with mothers of middle-school children, the study asks how mothers with different parenting styles describe their surveillance ideologies and practices, and what are the sociocultural imageries that motivate their use of location-tracking applications. The findings offer six criteria for evaluating different familial surveillance climates, organizing them in a three-tier model that demonstrates the multidimensionality of digital parental surveillance. Consequently, the study challenges the presumed link between parental surveillance and strict parenting styles (e.g., authoritarian, helicopter). Acknowledging the increasing normalization of digital parental surveillance, the study advances a balanced and pragmatic view of this trend while illuminating participatory methods of implementing what is often considered a suppressive practice.
... Nem Marx chegou ao ponto de marcar de modo tão incisivo o poder do capital como essencialmente máquina de expropriação da libido, embora naturalmente a exploração do trabalho e as projeções fantasmáticas da "forma-mercadoria" do valor, culminando na "formadinheiro", tenham desde a publicação de "O Capital" inspirado inúmeras aproximações psicanalíticas entre a mais-valia e o mais-de-gozar (em toda a vertente lacaniana em que bebe, por exemplo, Eugênio Bucci, [2021] A relação entre crianças e mídias digitais tem sido há mais de duas décadas objeto de pesquisas e definições incapazes de superar a ambiguidade, senão a pura contradição. Sonia Livingstone (1995), uma das vozes mais autorizadas, subscreve os alertas lançados por Jens Qvortrup há pelo menos 25 anos 2 . São alertas para mudanças estruturais, entre as quais ganha relevo o surgimento da família pós-tradicional, e para mudanças radicais, com foco nas sociedades consumistas marcadas pela expansão das indústrias criativas, da "sociedade do espetáculo" e até de um "ludo-capitalismo" (SANTOLARIA, 2021). ...
Article
Neste artigo, desenvolve-se uma reflexão a partir da ideia de um ludo-capitalismo enquanto máquina de organização do medo da morte e da libido posta a serviço da concentração de capitais e domesticação do imaginário. Crise de imagem, gamificação da infância, plataformização são pensadas à luz da ideia de uma “história da revolução digital”. Conclui-sem que no centro da transformação digital está a emergência da dimensão “lúdica” da existência como sinal privilegiado da nossa dimensão humana.
... smartphones, tablets) allow young children to interact with them around any space of their houses or even in other spaces such as cars or restaurants. Discussions about the use of digital media by very young children are caught between discourses that emphasise their potential for current or future development and learning (Marsh et al., 2017;Livingstone et al., 2015;Sefton-Green et al., 2016), and the risks at various social and psychological levels (Livingstone, 2009). In the context of the home, families are working through this reality across cultural, social and economic backgrounds, adjusting family practices and environments to hyper-connected society. ...
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This chapter seeks to gain an understanding of how parents accompany their very young children aged under three into ‘digital society’ by examining their mediating practices and ideologies regarding the children’s digital activities. It draws on diverse data (observations/video-recordings and interviews with parents at home) from cases of five middle-class family children in Spain and Portugal. The data was collected in 2017 following the protocol developed for A Day in the Digital Lives of 0-3 Year-Olds [Gillen et al. 2019 A day in the digital lives of children aged 0-3. Full report: DigiLitEY ISCH COST Action 1410 Working Group 1: Digital Literacy in Homes and Communities. http://www.research.lancs.ac.uk/portal/en/publications/-(19b42af9-7828-4950-afca-69fdce62702e).html.]. We problematise the complex relationship between parental beliefs, self-perceptions and actual practices regarding the place of digital technologies in children’s lives and development. We do so by examining mediation as an emergent process in which family members co-create the interactional ecologies [Kyratzis and Johnson (Linguistics and Education 41:1–6, 2017); Erickson (Discourse, learning, and schooling. Cambridge University Press, 1996)], and by seeing mediation as a set of strategies within family routines [Livingstone (Computers in Human Behavior, 23:920–941, 2007)]. Specifically, we analyse mediation at the levels of the digital media ecology/environment in the home [Plowman (Interacting with Computers 27:36–46, 2015)], the actual digital media activities and mediation practices, and the parents’ broader media ideologies and beliefs on technologies [Gershon (Journal of Linguistic Anthropology 20:283–293, 2010)], to explore the relations and contradictions between these levels.
... Thus, girls who game may not only have fewer in-person girls to game with, but also to a greater extent be excluded from nongaming social interaction with same-aged girls, and the socialization that follows. (Hygen et al., 2020: 870-71) This gender difference also intersects with age in that there do not appear to be particular gender differences in gaming among young children, but girls tend to reduce the time they spend gaming from their early teens onwards, while boys increase their playing time (Livingstone, 2009). In later adolescence, boys have been found to play more frequently than girls do and spend more time on each playing session (Lucas and Sherry, 2004). ...
Book
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Nuancing Young Masculinities tells a complex story about the plurality of young masculinities. It draws on the narratives of Finnish young people (mostly boys) of different social classes and ethnicities who attend schools in Helsinki, Finland. Their accounts of relations with peers, parents, and teachers give insights into boys’ experiences and everyday practices at school, home, and in leisure time. The theoretical insights in this volume are wide-ranging, illuminating the plurality of masculinities, their dynamism, and intersections with other social identities. The young people’s enthusiastic and reflexive engagement with the research dispels stereotypes of boys and masculinities and offers a unique and holistic re-imagining of masculinities, Nuancing Young Masculinities provides a nuanced and compelling understanding of young masculinities.
... In terms of actors' participation in digital communication, innovative media studies have already illuminated meaning-making and public participation in digital media production (e.g., Carpentier, 2011) and how social media relate to contemporary media culture (e.g., Fuchs, 2014). In youth media studies, pioneering work has been conducted into how networks support youth creativity (Drotner, 2018;Eleà & Mikos, 2018;Livingstone, 2009). The field of digital humanities has focused on digital archives, computational cultural analytics, textual mining, analysis, and visualisation (e.g., Manovich, 2013), whereas recent co-design studies have explored media innovation and citizenship (e.g., Björgvinsson et al., 2012;Huybrechts et al., 2017). ...
Article
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Increasingly, the means of engaging young people in constructive public debate and democratic society has shifted to online digital media platforms. This assumes that participants have the necessary media literacy skills to engage in a meaningful way. We discuss how and to what extent responses in an online blog elicited by two different scenes from the popular youth television series Skam [ Shame ] demonstrate agonistic deliberation and media literacy in digital dialogue spaces. Our study includes an analysis of the rhetorical characteristics of the dialogues; the mapping of key themes that characterise reactions of blog commentators in the online discussions; and a discussion of the characteristics of – and degree of deliberation in – online comments. We propose that narratives which employ agonistic deliberation around pertinent social themes are most likely to encourage and elicit public engagement that moves beyond emotional outbursts, reflecting a deeper consideration of the themes and topics.
... But what is meant by digital literacy? We are used to see young people with digital tools always in hands, we define them as digital natives and as a generation 'always on' because of the massive use of social media, app and other ICT tools, but this easy access to the tools does not necessarily mean that they are digital literate (Livingstone, 2009). As Danah Boyd states considering the example of social media, […] it's important to realize that most teens are engaging with social media without any deep understanding of the underlying dynamics or structure. ...
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Most reports depict young people among the major users of Internet and social media. Assuming the hypothesis that digital media can have a strategic role in empowering youth’s creativity, we might consider them not only as consumers but as active creators. High education can support the development of a creative thinking to generate and extend ideas, to suggest hypotheses, to apply critical imagination, and to look for innovative outcomes. Since 2012, the master's degree in journalism, public and corporate communication of the University of Bologna promotes Laboratories involving the students in different communication activities also in collaboration with other institutional and social actors. In this paper we focus on the last edition of the Laboratory in Digital Communication and Social Media Management, where students make up a web editorial office. An average of 70 students takes part to the Laboratory. Everyone is called to contribute to the management of the Compassunibo blog, the official blog of the master's degree, a space for report, articles, news and storytelling, as well as to manage the official social network profiles. Through our participant observation and the thematic analysis of contents we reflect on how a teaching method based on ‘pro-activity’ can improve digital creativity and foster a critical awareness on professional ICT skills. The analysis starts from the output produced by the students using digital platforms as WordPress for blogging, Instagram, Facebook, YouTube, and Twitter for content marketing on social media, and Spotify for podcasting. Students act like content creators who learn by doing, sharing abilities and experiences with others. They gain awareness of the gatekeeper’s role about news and social issues that they propose to a community of readers made up particularly by their peers. At the same time, they have the role to build and reinforce the community’s bonds. Creating digital contents allows them to develop skills such as sources searching, frame analysis and interpretation, web writing and search engine optimization (SEO). Using the social media and podcast in a professional way they learn to practice new forms of digital literacy. Overall, this learning experience in Laboratory allows students not only to get technical communication skills but also to develop a greater and mature awareness to cooperate effectively in a team, and an immediate portfolio for their future job.
... In addition, a safety by design approach is called for to address elderly non-users' security and safety concerns. It is essential to incorporate risk and safety concerns into the design stage of Internet technologies (Livingstone, 2009). ...
Article
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This study compares the computer- and Internet-related conceptions of Finnish and American elderly people who deliberately refuse to use the Internet. It seeks to answer the following questions based on various social representations: Are there similarities and differences in the way the Finnish and American respondents classify the computer and the Internet? Are there similarities and differences in the images the Finnish and American respondents use to depict the computer and the Internet? How do the social representations of the computer and the Internet express the respondents’ distinct identities, history and culture? An analysis of written accounts provided by elderly Finnish and American people showed that both groups expressed an understanding of the computer and the Internet as a ‘Tool and Thing’ and ‘Danger’. However, differences existed between their understanding of the computer as a ‘Depriver of Freedom’ and ‘Marker of Differences’. The study concludes that their distinct identities, interests, history and culture may be some of the factors that limit their motivation and capacity to welcome and use the computer. To promote digital inclusion, the elderly should be provided with Internet-related information, training and support. At the same time, however, digital inclusion policies should also encompass a choice for Internet non-use.
... Digital literacy is a polysemic concept that is still evolving, and involves much more than how people learn to use digital technologies. It is not skill-based literacy, but a literacy requiring a broad range of capabilities (Bawden, 2008) as well as the ability to understand and evaluate critically the digital world (Livingstone, 2009). ...
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The chapter is an attempt to structure the lesson in a holistic way with the use and application of edu- cational robotics. Emphasis is given on developing students’ creativity, which is one of the dominant challenges of modern educational system, as it can be achieved through an educational environment focused on it. The use of STEAM method can help students develop creativity and at the same time develop skills such as programming and using new technologies (ICT). In fact, robotic constructions can help students understand basic principles of science such as mechanics and mathematics while solving problems related to their daily lives. During the project, students work in groups and highlight their skills in areas such as the creation of a mock up, the construction and presentation of robots, etc. This process gives the course a manifold holistic approach, as the knowledge the student acquires from different domains is used towards one direction, instead of the classical approach according to which only one subject is analyzed
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There has been significant media interest in the possible dangers of child predation on the internet, but it is not necessarily a new type of offence (Wolak, Finkelhor, Mitchell & Ybarra, 2008). Indeed, in many cases it seems to bear more resemblance to statutory rape than paedophilia. Nevertheless, the Internet does seem to provide an easier route for child predators to encounter and engage with children and teenagers, and the question as to if it enables child predators in their acts should be considered. This chapter will attempt to address this question. Initially paedophilia will be defined, and problems with its diagnosis will be considered. An attempt will be made to quantify the problem of online child predation, and the techniques used by online child predators will be described. The psychology of child predators will be considered, including an overview of some of the main theories of paedophilic behaviour. The psychology of victims will also be considered, with an overview of the risk factors of online predation, along with the psychological effects on victims. Potential solutions will then be reviewed, including rehabilitation efforts and prevention methods. Finally, future trends in online predation will be considered.
Article
Technology is transforming children's lived experience with spatial play. In particular, parents may interact with children differently depending on whether they play together with tangible or digital materials. The present research examined whether the medium for play (tangible or digital) affected kindergarten‐aged children's language experience during puzzle play and explored immediate effects on spatial reasoning. Sixty parent–child dyads played with a tangible or a digital set of tangram puzzles for 10 minutes; children received the Children's Mental Transformation Task (CMTT) before and after the play session. Their performance on the most challenging problems of the CMTT improved after tangible, but not digital, play. This effect was related to parental use of orientation and transformation words during the play session and unrelated to the success of puzzle completion. Moreover, we found that the digital interface, specifically the prescribed movements to use the app, affected parental use of deictic words (eg, here, there), and that this relation may be driven by children's production of a pointing‐like action. Together, these results shed light on the interaction between material for play, parent spatial talk and children's spatial reasoning. Practitioner notes What is already known The use of touchscreen devices for play by children has become increasingly common. Parents tend to engage children in device‐relevant talk more than task‐relevant talk when using electronic devices. Hands‐on experience with tangible materials provides short‐term and long‐term benefits on children's spatial reasoning. What this paper adds With their parents, children at 5 to 6 years completed more puzzles of tangible materials than of digital materials; the design interface of the digital puzzles affected children's action experience. Tangible materials invited parents to talk about orientation and transformation more than digital materials. The design interface that prompted children to produce pointing‐like gestures invited parents to use more deictic words (eg, here, there). Children's spatial reasoning was elevated after playing with tangible (but not digital) puzzles. This elevation was related to parental talk about orientation and transformation. Implications for practice and/or policy This study sheds light on the considerations for parents and educators when choosing tangible or digital materials for children to engage in spatial play. The results inform about design principles of educational technology for spatial learning by children at the kindergarten age. What is already known The use of touchscreen devices for play by children has become increasingly common. Parents tend to engage children in device‐relevant talk more than task‐relevant talk when using electronic devices. Hands‐on experience with tangible materials provides short‐term and long‐term benefits on children's spatial reasoning. What this paper adds With their parents, children at 5 to 6 years completed more puzzles of tangible materials than of digital materials; the design interface of the digital puzzles affected children's action experience. Tangible materials invited parents to talk about orientation and transformation more than digital materials. The design interface that prompted children to produce pointing‐like gestures invited parents to use more deictic words (eg, here, there). Children's spatial reasoning was elevated after playing with tangible (but not digital) puzzles. This elevation was related to parental talk about orientation and transformation. Implications for practice and/or policy This study sheds light on the considerations for parents and educators when choosing tangible or digital materials for children to engage in spatial play. The results inform about design principles of educational technology for spatial learning by children at the kindergarten age.
Article
Research on parental mediation of children’s online engagements situate historically long­standing anxieties within the dynamics of present-day information communications technologies (i.e., concerns over new “cyber risks,” as well as opportunities). Yet, there remains a lack of emphasis on children’s reactions to and experiences with parental strategies and responses. In the current article, we highlight research involving semi-structured focus groups (n=35) with Canadian teenagers (n=115). We highlight themes directly related to parental digital mediation, including the role of ICTs in driving addictive behaviors, social connection, differences in parental responses between sons and daughters, and differences concerning age and birth order. Disrupting cultural discourses of young people who lack agency in relation to their use of ICTs, our discussions with teens reveal qualified support, even degrees of sympathy, for parental efforts to restrict access and use of digital technologies, but illuminate multifaceted reasons for resistance: their vital role not only for social connection but access to crucial information and knowledge.
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Familial and intimate relationships at a distance are reconstituted in a multitude of ways, as the proliferation of social media and communication technologies afford the scaling up of privacy and publicness, also blurring the lines between presence and absence in transnational space. Based on a longitudinal and mixed method research on the impact of migration on Filipino left-behind young adult children (n = 28) and their carers (n = 28), we seek to examine the mediation of transnational parenting and how it shapes the ways left-behind sons and daughters (aged 17-19 years old) navigate heteronormative ideals of marriage and familyhood.
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Researching young children and mobile media unpacks the concept of digital dexterity. This chapter draws on literature that recognises the diverse cultural, social, and material contexts that help to shape childhood development of digital skills and competency in an ongoing, uneven, and distributed process. And so, as this book explores through various spaces and products of young children’s mobile media practice, digital dexterity is not simply a purely physical or bodily capacity, but instead something that is produced and distributed through a diversity of relations in the ways mobile media technologies are imagined, mobilised, and mediated. That is, how mobile media are imagined through popular discourses surrounding both interfaces and children’s digital literacies, mobilised through the environments in which children encounter and engage with media, and mediated by parental norms as well as the design and affordances of digital products in, for example, codifying touch and gesture. These imaginaries, mobilisations, and mediations of young children’s digital dexterity map onto broad areas of academic interest—discourses of digital interfaces and associated literacies, affordances, and ecologies of household media, and the governance or mediation of children’s media practices—which are discussed in this chapter.
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O objetivo do artigo é apresentar parte dos resultados de uma pesquisa-ação que teve como foco o desenvolvimento das competências comunicativas em francês, a partir da utilização das Tecnologias de Informação e Comunicação (TIC), por estudantes do Ensino Médio de uma escola pública federal da cidade do Rio de Janeiro. A base da proposta foi a incorporação do uso das tecnologias digitais - sobretudo a partir do tablet oferecido pela escola e do smartphone pessoal dos estudantes - à Abordagem Comunicativa de ensino de francês, sob a perspectiva acional preconizada pelo Quadro Europeu Comum de Referência para Línguas. As atividades desenvolvidas, ao longo de um ano letivo, em conjunto com os dezesseis participantes, de quinze e dezessete anos de idade, foram realizadas no âmbito do projeto DELF - Diploma de Estudos de Língua Francesa, visando à preparação para os exames do nível A2.PALAVRAS-CHAVE: competências comunicativas língua estrangeira; recursos digitais para língua estrangeira; tecnologias de informação e comunicação em educação; pesquisa-ação.
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‘You’ve gotta befriend them but not be their friend’ is how one youth worker thoughtfully described the secret to successful youth practice. This paper draws on experiences of youth workers in the United Kingdom to consider how the growth of digital technologies comes to be negotiated and articulated in professional practice. Situating these experiences alongside young people’s accounts, this article highlights a distinction between young people’s relationship with the digital and adult perceptions of youth and technology. The aim of this paper is to consider what factors contribute towards this divide and where adult perceptions come from, if not from the experiences of young people themselves. The article then goes on to discuss the potential consequences of the presence of technology and discourses surrounding the digital for youth worker’s engagements with young people in professional practice. Overall, this article argues for the enduring relevance of youth workers and physical youth centres in a digital age and joins several scholars in critiquing the chronic under-investment in youth workers and provision in the UK and beyond.
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The main goal of this paper is to discuss the progress of women invisibilization at brazillian’s Political Economy of Communications. To demonstrate our assumptions, we have analyzed in detail female visibility in these two decades of EPTIC journal, taking into consideration spaces of prominence, authoral distribution, and bibliographic reference. Trying to contribute to the reduction for this historical invisibility, we also present a table with 50 female author’s papers that we consider essential for the study of research objects linked to the Political Economy of Communications. Keywords: Feminist political economy of communication; diversity; social inclusion; Gender and PEC.
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This chapter seeks to gain an understanding of how parents accompany their very young children aged under three into ‘digital society’ by examining their mediating practices and ideologies regarding the children’s digital activities. It draws on diverse data (observations/video-recordings and interviews with parents at home) from cases of five middle-class family children in Spain and Portugal. The data was collected in 2017 following the protocol developed for A Day in the Digital Lives of 0-3 Year-Olds [Gillen et al. 2019 A day in the digital lives of children aged 0-3. Full report: DigiLitEY ISCH COST Action 1410 Working Group 1: Digital Literacy in Homes and Communities. http://www.research.lancs.ac.uk/portal/en/publications/-(19b42af9-7828-4950-afca-69fdce62702e).html.]. We problematise the complex relationship between parental beliefs, self-perceptions and actual practices regarding the place of digital technologies in children’s lives and development. We do so by examining mediation as an emergent process in which family members co-create the interactional ecologies [Kyratzis and Johnson (Linguistics and Education 41:1–6, 2017); Erickson (Discourse, learning, and schooling. Cambridge University Press, 1996)], and by seeing mediation as a set of strategies within family routines [Livingstone (Computers in Human Behavior, 23:920–941, 2007)]. Specifically, we analyse mediation at the levels of the digital media ecology/environment in the home [Plowman (Interacting with Computers 27:36–46, 2015)], the actual digital media activities and mediation practices, and the parents’ broader media ideologies and beliefs on technologies [Gershon (Journal of Linguistic Anthropology 20:283–293, 2010)], to explore the relations and contradictions between these levels.
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This book intends to fill a gap that remains open in the scientific area of Sociology of Childhood. It brings together the contributions of 55 authors, recognized both nationally and internationally, from diverse countries, in a renewed critical analysis of contemporary issues, themes and challenges currently placed in research on childhood and on the child. The main goal is to share in a single volume a significant set of scientific reflections on key concepts of contemporary research in the area, in Portuguese and English, aiming to reach wider audiences around the globe.
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Full-text available
This book intends to fill a gap still open in the scientific area of Sociology of Childhood. It brings togheher the contributions of 55 authors, nationally and internationally recognized, from diverse geographies, in a renewed critical analysis on issues, themes and challenges currently placed in research on childhood and on the child(ren). The main goal is to share in a single volume a significant set of scientific reflections on key concepts of contemporary research in the area, in Portuguese and English, aiming to reach wider audiences around the globe.
Chapter
Full-text available
This book intends to fill a gap still open in the scientific area of Sociology of Childhood. It brings togheher the contributions of 55 authors, nationally and internationally recognized, from diverse geographies, in a renewed critical analysis on issues, themes and challenges currently placed in research on childhood and on the child(ren). The main goal is to share in a single volume a significant set of scientific reflections on key concepts of contemporary research in the area, in Portuguese and English, aiming to reach wider audiences around the globe.
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The present study aims at studying the impact of social media on socio-emotional well-being of children. The methodology used here was random sampling through snowballing technique. A sample of around 50 children aged 11-18 years was collected to understand their responses about their own socio-emotional well-being. The results of the study showed that people use social media for different reasons, but they also face a variety of challenges, from physical health to mental health issues, the most prominent of what is needed is gratitude, resilience, calmness, compassion, and the pursuit of hobbies, fitness, and one's own peace of mind and happiness.
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The opportunity for online engagement increases possible exposure to potentially risky behaviors for teens, which may have significant negative consequences. Effective family communication about online safety can help reduce the risky adolescent behavior and limit the consequences after it occurs. Our paper contributes a theory of communication factors that positively influence teen and parent perception of communication about online safety and provides design implications based on those findings. While previous work identified gaps in family communication regarding online safety, our study quantitatively identified the factors that significantly contribute to parents' and teens' differing perceptions. We analyzed data from a survey of 215 teen-parent pairs through a cross-sectional design and examined the factors that contribute to increased family communication about online safety. For parents, active mediation, technical monitoring, and a perceived positive affect of the teen were associated with higher levels of family communication. Our results were similar for teens, except that the teen's online safety concern and parental monitoring were also positively associated with increased family communication, while restrictive mediation was associated with lower levels of family communication. Many existing designs for online safety support a restrictive approach, despite teens not wanting technical restrictions. A key implication of our findings is that teens view active mediation and monitoring positively in respect to family communication. Contrary to mainstream narratives, this finding suggests that teens value parental involvement and do not desire complete independence online. By examining specific mechanisms which can hinder or improve family communication between parents and teens regarding online safety, we recommend solutions that give teens an active role in their online safety and facilitate effective family communication through cooperation between both parties, rather than technologies that promote parental restriction.
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This article examines d/Discourses about screen media and parenting as reflected in parents' discursive construction of their decision‐making processes connected with domestic media practices. The analysis focuses on three parent interviews from a dataset of 51 parent interviews conducted in three states in the USA. The article illustrates ways d/Discourses connected with health, education, ethnicity and disability that are specific to these three households intersect with d/Discourses concerning children and media. The article argues that general categories describing parenting practices overlook the microcultures of households, erasing the emotional labour embedded in processes of decision‐making.
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"Addiction" to internet-connected technology continues to dominate media discourses of young people. Researchers have identified negative outcomes, including decreased mental health, resulting from anxieties related to technology, e.g., a fear of missing out and social connectivity related to online technologies. Not enough is known, however, regarding young people's own responses to these ideas. This paper highlights discussions with teenagers around the idea of internet addiction, exploring their experiences and perceptions regarding the idea that "kids today" are addicted to their devices, especially smartphones and the social network sites they often access from them. Thirty-five focus group discussions with 115 Canadian teenagers (aged 13-19 years old) center on their use of information communication technologies, especially contemporary social network sites such as Snapchat, Instagram and Facebook. Our discussions reveal (1) that teens are actively embracing the label of addiction; (2) their ironic positioning occurs despite a felt sense of debased agency in relation to the power of the algorithms and affordances of the technologies mediating their use; and (3) rather than a stark divide between adults as "digital immigrants" versus young people as "digital natives," our teens positioned themselves in contrast to both their parents and younger siblings, both of whom are criticized as addicted themselves. A consistent theme is the influence of peer groups who socially compel addictive behaviours, including the fear of missing out, rather than the technologies per se. Wider implications for thinking beyond solely young people as suffering from online addiction are considered.
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New forms of online citizen journalism have refreshed political communication in Africa. Newinformation technologies are providing readers with previously unavailable opportunities tocomment and produce their own news and information that is able to influence political processes.However, all is not rosy about Africa’s new citizen journalism. While it has produced reliable andquality information that African democracies require, it has also produced vigilante journalism - avindictive and revengeful form of gathering and disseminating news and information. Vigilantejournalism is similar to the necklacing that was common in South African in the 1980s. The articlediscusses how, at the height of the Zimbabwe crisis (2007-2008), the news website, ZimDaily, leda vigilante campaign to publicly name and have perceived relatives and children of Zimbabweanruling party officials deported from ‘Western’ countries. The idea was to help resolve the politicaland economic crises in Zimbabwe. The editors refused to question the ethics and morality ofthe exercise. Thus, encouraged by the website’s editors, Zimbabwean users of the website tookthe law in their own hands and published addresses, telephone numbers and other personalinformation about anyone thought to be related to those in government in Zimbabwe. This blurredthe boundaries between citizen and vigilante journalism. The resultant vigilante journalism bygroups seeking instant justice was in a way similar to the necklacing, even though this was in avirtual sense. It is clear that the emerging new media spaces in Africa function like double-edgedswords able to either build or destroy democracy.
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This study was conducted with the aim to identify the relationship availability facilities at home with compulsive Internet use among primary school student in Taiping Perak. This study use quantitative method. The questionnaire were distributed to 2 primary school and involve 100 primary school student in Taiping Perak as a sample in this study. The findings of this study indicates that there is a positive relationship between the availability of facilities at home and compulsive Internet use among primary school students.
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Despite advances in technology, nearly everyone experiences technical chal- lenges using home computers and the Internet. In a field trial of household Internet usage, 89% of 93 families needed support from a computer help desk in the 1st year they used the Internet. However, usually only the most technically involved members of the family requested external technical support, and this behavior was associated with other computer-related behaviors in the house- hold. We explore the process by which a family member with comparatively high technical skill or enthusiasm, often a teenager, becomes the family guru,
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Using time-diary data from a national sample of young school-age children, we examine the correlates of time spent at home on computing for cognitive and other measures of well-being. We observe modest benefits associated with home computing on three tests of cognitive skill, and on a measure of self-esteem. Most young children who spend time at home on computer-based activities spend no less time on activities such as reading, sports or outside play than children without home computers. However, young children who use home computers a lot, for over 8 hours a week, spend much less time on sports and outdoor activities than non-computer-users. They also have substantially heavier body mass index than children who do not use home computers.
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What is the Internet doing to local community? Analysts have debated about whether the Internet is weakening community by leading people away from meaningful in-person contact; transforming community by creating new forms of community online; or enhancing community by adding a new means of connecting with existing relationships. They have been especially concerned that the globe-spanning capabilities of the Internet can limit local involvements. Survey and ethnographic data from a “wired suburb” near Toronto show that high-speed, always-on access to the Internet, coupled with a local online discussion group, transforms and enhances neighboring. The Internet especially supports increased contact with weaker ties. In comparison to nonwired residents of the same suburb, more neighbors are known and chatted with, and they are more geographically dispersed around the suburb. Not only did the Internet support neighboring, it also facilitated discussion and mobilization around local issues.
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Since the mid-1990s, teenagers have migrated from email and chat rooms to instant messaging (IM). We observed this change in data from 60 interviews with teens and their families conducted from 1996 to 2002 and a national survey of teenagers in 2002. We examined the content of conversations, communication partners, and conversation multitasking. While using IM, teens mainly talk to friends from daily life and rarely with those they met online. In terms of both partners and content, IM conversations are more like face-to-face visits than email exchanges. Teens engage in IM to be "with" friends. Conversations often consist of inconsequential small talk, but can offer opportunities for more substantial social support. Despite these similarities, teens report they enjoy IM conversations far less than they enjoy face-to-face visits and phone conversations. We offer some design recommendations focused on the integration of IM-like interactions with other online and real world communication.
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Today’s children meet a wide range of technology in their everyday lives, and they become competent users of devices such as mobile phones and games machines without any formal instruction. It appears that highly complex ICT processes and techniques can be learned through informal methods which are very much learner directed—unfocussed exploration, creative invention, trial-and-error, cooperation with friends and asking people who are more experienced. Indeed, the children themselves tend to see their activity as play rather than learning. This paper describes a project carried out in a number of informal learning situations. The children involved were relatively disadvantaged economically, and the majority were not very confident in using a PC. Most had access to both a games machine and a mobile phone, however, and rated themselves as very confident with these. The project aimed to find out how they developed competence in using unfamiliar hardware and software, and how much they learned from self-directed study in a loosely structured learning environment. In order to investigate these issues, groups of children were introduced to new software tools and left to ‘play’ with the software in order to explore the possibilities and discover new features. The children were observed and their questions answered, and the researcher also discussed their experiences with them afterwards. Despite their lack of previous experience with PCs and the particular software used for the project, the children were generally successful in gaining specified competencies with the software. Several children reflected that they were learning in the same way as they had learned to use mobile phones, although there was no evidence for transfer of specific techniques. This indicates that the role of higher order learning skills is important, and evidence emerged that the influence of self-efficacy may be more important in gaining success than previous experience with PC technology. This factor is suggested as the focus for further investigation.
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Good computer and video games like System Shock 2, Deus Ex, Pikmin, Rise of Nations, Neverwinter Nights, and Xenosaga: Episode 1 are learning machines. They get themselves learned and learned well, so that they get played long and hard by a great many people. This is how they and their designers survive and perpetuate themselves. If a game cannot be learned and even mastered at a certain level, it won't get played by enough people, and the company that makes it will go broke. Good learning in games is a capitalist-driven Darwinian process of selection of the fittest. Of course, game designers could have solved their learning problems by making games shorter and easier, by dumbing them down, so to speak. But most gamers don't want short and easy games. Thus, designers face and largely solve an intriguing educational dilemma, one also faced by schools and workplaces: how to get people, often young people, to learn and master something that is long and challenging--and enjoy it, to boot.
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Traditional typologies of consumer privacy concern suggest that consumers fall into three distinct groups: One-fourth of consumers are not concerned about privacy, one-fourth are highly concerned, and half are pragmatic, in that their concerns about privacy depend on the situation presented. This study examines online users to determine whether types of privacy concern online mirror the offline environment. An e-mail survey of online users examined perceived privacy concerns of 15 different situations involving collection and usage of personally identifiable information. Results indicate that the vast majority of online users are pragmatic when it comes to privacy. Further analysis of the data suggested that online users can be segmented into four distinct groups, representing differing levels of privacy concern. Distinct demographic differences were seen. Persons with higher levels of education are more concerned about their privacy online than persons with less education. Additionally, persons over the age of 45 years tended to be either not at all concerned about privacy or highly concerned about privacy. Younger persons tended to be more pragmatic. Content and policy implications are provided.
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Citizenship has always been a dynamic notion, subject to change and permanent struggle over its precise content and meaning. Recent technological, economic, and political transformations have led to the development of alternative notions of citizenship that go beyond the classic understanding of its relationship to nation states and rights. Civil society actors play an important role in this process by organizing themselves at a transnational level, engaging with issues that transcend the boundaries of the nation state and questioning the democratic legitimacy of other transnational actors such as international and corporate organizations. They also allow citizens to engage with "unbounded" issues and to construct a transnational public sphere where such issues can be debated. It is often assumed that the Internet plays a crucial role in enabling this transnational public sphere to take shape. Empirical analysis of discussion forums and mailing lists developed by transnational civil society actors shows, however, that the construction of such a transnational public sphere is paved with constraints. To speak of a unified transnational public sphere is therefore deemed to be problematic. It cannot be seen or construed without taking into account the local, the national, and enforceable rights in order to materialize the ideas and hopes being voiced through civil society.
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Computer technology has ushered in a new era of mass media, bringing with it great promise and great concerns about the effect on children's development and well-being. Although we tend to see these issues as being new, similar promises and concerns have accompanied each new wave of media technology throughout the past century: films in the early 1900s, radio in the 1920s, and television in the 1940s. With the introduction of each of these technologies, proponents touted the educational benefits for children, while opponents voiced fears about exposure to inappropriate commercial, sexual, and violent content. This article places current studies on children and computers in a historical context, noting the recurrent themes and patterns in media research during the twentieth century. Initial research concerning each innovation has tended to focus on issues of access and the amount of time children were spending with the new medium. As use of the technology became more prevalent, research shifted to issues related to content and its effects on children. Current research on children's use of computers is again following this pattern. But the increased level of interactivity now possible with computer games and with the communication features of the Internet has heightened both the promise of greatly enriched learning and the concerns related to increased risk of harm. As a result, research on the effects of exposure to various types of content has taken on a new sense of urgency. The authors conclude that to help inform and sustain the creation of more quality content for children, further research is needed on the effects of media on children, and new partnerships must be forged between industry, academia, and advocacy groups.
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There is continuing debate on the extent of the effects of media violence on children and young people, and how to investigate these effects. The aim of this review is to consider the research evidence from a public-health perspective. A search of published work revealed five meta-analytic reviews and one quasi-systematic review, all of which were from North America. There is consistent evidence that violent imagery in television, film and video, and computer games has substantial short-term effects on arousal, thoughts, and emotions, increasing the likelihood of aggressive or fearful behaviour in younger children, especially in boys. The evidence becomes inconsistent when considering older children and teenagers, and long-term outcomes for all ages. The multifactorial nature of aggression is emphasised, together with the methodological difficulties of showing causation. Nevertheless, a small but significant association is shown in the research, with an effect size that has a substantial effect on public health. By contrast, only weak evidence from correlation studies links media violence directly to crime.
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The 2 studies reported here use observational data from message boards to investigate how adolescents solicit and share information related to self-injurious behavior. Study 1 examines the prevalence and nature of these message boards, their users, and most commonly discussed topics. Study 2 was intended to explore the correlations between content areas raised for discussion. Both studies were intended to shed light on the role of message boards in spreading information about self-injurious practices and influencing help-seeking behavior. More than 400 self-injury message boards were identified. Most are populated by females who describe themselves as between 12 and 20 years of age. Findings show that online interactions clearly provide essential social support for otherwise isolated adolescents, but they may also normalize and encourage self-injurious behavior and add potentially lethal behaviors to the repertoire of established adolescent self-injurers and those exploring identity options.
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Search engines have become an inevitable tool for using the internet. There is still an increasing influence of search engines on internet users' behaviour and surfing experience, which has not been adequately met by scientific research. The oligopoly of three US search-engine operators and the problems that derive from distinct differences in culture and legislation in the countries in which these search engines operate, are serious topics that need adequate scientific coverage. This contribution aims to elaborate the central dimensions of search-engine research, gather together existing insights and make suggestions for future research. It examines search-engine policy and regulation in different countries, the economic implications of the oligopoly, the inter-effects between search engines and journalists in classical media, technical developments, as well as users and users' behaviour.
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The proponents of cyberspace promise that online discourse will increase political participation and pave the road for a democratic utopia. This article explores the potential for civil discourse in cyberspace by examining the level of civility in 287 discussion threads in political newsgroups. While scholars often use civility and politeness interchangeably, this study argues that this conflation ignores the democratic merit of robust and heated discussion. Therefore, civility was defined in a broader sense, by identifying as civil behaviors that enhance democratic conversation. In support of this distinction, the study results revealed that most messages posted on political newsgroups were civil, and further suggested that because the absence of face-to-face communication fostered more heated discussion, cyberspace might actually promote Lyotard’s vision of democratic emancipation through disagreement and anarchy (Lyotard, 1984). Thus, this study supported the internet’s potential to revive the public sphere, provided that greater diversity and volume of discussion is present.
Article
knit, far-reaching networks, in which people relate to shifting relationships and communities. Moreover, people don't just relate to each other online, they incorporate their computer-mediated communication into their full range of interaction: in-person, phone, fax, and even writing. I pleaded for paying more attention to how people actually communicate in real life. But this approach was disparagingly referred to as `user studies', much less exciting than writing new computer applications. new media & society Copyright 2004 SAGE Publications London, Thousand Oaks, CA and New Delhi Vol6(1):123--129 DOI: 10.1177/1461444804040633 www.sagepublications.com ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 123 Conference participants listened politely and went back to developing applications
Article
The theme of the Internet and the public sphere now has a permanent place on research agendas and in intellectual inquiry; it is entering the mainstream of Political communication studies. The first part of this presentation briefly pulls together key elements in the public sphere perspective, underscoring three main analytic dimensions: the structural, the representational, and the interactional. Then the discussion addresses some central themes in the current difficulties facing democracy, refracted through the lens of the public sphere perspective. In particular, the destabilization of political communication systems is seen as a context for understanding the role of the Internet: It enters into, as well as contributes to, this destabilization. At the same time, the notion of destabilization can also embody a positive sense, pointing to dispersions of older patterns that may have outlived their utility. Further, the discussion takes up obvious positive consequences that follow from the Internet, for example that it extends and pluralizes the public sphere in a number of ways. Thereafter the focus moves on to the interactional dimension of the public sphere, specifically in regard to recent research on how deliberation proceeds in the online public sphere in the contemporary environment of political communication. Finally, the analytic category of deliberative democracy is critically examined; while useful, some of its rationalist biases, particularly in the context of extra-parliamentarian politics, limit its utility. It is suggested that the concept of civic cultures offers an alternative way to understand the significance of online political discussion.
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The spread of digital media and communications in the lives of children and youth have raised new questions about the role of media in learning, development and cultural participation. In post-industrial societies, young people are growing up in what (2006) has dubbed “convergence culture”—an increasingly interactive and participatory media ecology where Internet communication ties together both old and new media forms. A growing recognition of this role of digital media in everyday life has been accompanied by debate as to the outcomes of participation in convergence culture. Many parents and educators worry about immersion in video gaming worlds or their children’s social lives unfolding on the Internet and through mobile communication. More optimistic voices suggest that new media enable young people to more actively participate in interpreting, personalizing, reshaping, and creating media content. Although concerns about representation are persistent, particularly of video game violence, many of the current hopes and fears of new media relate to new forms of social networking and participation. As young people’s online activity changes the scope of their social agency and styles of media engagement, they also encounter new challenges in cultural worlds separated from traditional structures of adult oversight and guidance. Issues of representation will continue to be salient in media old and new, but issues of participation are undergoing a fundamental set of shifts that are still only partially understood and recognized.
Chapter
Information technologies have become a staple of adolescents’ lives with young people among the most connected in countries that have seen high levels of Internet and cell phone diffusion by the first decade of the 21st century (Livingstone and Bober 2004; National Telecommunications and Information Administration 2004). However, merely knowing various digital media’s rates of use says little about how young people are incorporating IT into their everyday lives. Ignoring nuanced measures of use, it is difficult to determine whether digital media are leveling the playing field for youth or whether they are raising new barriers for some while advantaging the societal positions of others. While many have suggested that we must move past the binary classification of haves and have-nots when it comes to information technology uses, few have offered a detailed conceptual framework for such an undertaking, one that can then inform empirical studies of usage differences. This chapter considers the various domains in which users of the Internet may possess different levels of knowhow. In addition to presenting the conceptual framework, it also draws on unique data about a diverse group of young people’s Internet uses to illustrate existing differences along the lines of the discussed dimensions.
Article
As adolescent Internet use grew exponentially in the last decade, with it emerged a number of correspondent expectations. Among them were the following: (1) that gender predicts usage, i.e., that boys spend more time online, surfing the web and playing violent games, while girls chat or shop online; (2) that Internet use causes social isolation and depression, especially for teens; and (3) that adolescents use the Internet for anonymous identity experimentation. These expectations were based on research with earlier technologies when the Internet was less diffused in the adolescent population. By means of highly detailed daily reports of adolescents' home Internet usage and peer-related adjustment, the present research sought to compare these expectations with the actual experiences of early and mid-adolescents in 2000 and 2001. Participants were 261 7th and 10th graders from suburban California public schools who completed four consecutive end-of-day reports on their school-based adjustment and Internet activity (including detailed logs of instant messages). Results challenge prevailing expectations regarding gender, well-being, and identity play. For the most part, adolescent boys' and girls' online activities have become more similar than different. On average, boys and girls alike described their online social interaction as (1) occurring in private settings such as e-mail and instant messages, (2) with friends who are also part of their daily, offline lives, and (3) devoted to fairly ordinary yet intimate topics (e.g., friends, gossip). No associations were found between Internet usage and well-being. Online pretending was reported to be motivated by a desire to play a joke on friends more often than to explore a desired or future identity, but participants reported a range of pretending content, contexts, and motives.
Article
The physical, emotional, and psychological changes that occur in adolescence prompt youths to have serious questions about their bodies, relationships, and health that are often personal, sensitive, or embarrassing. Past research has shown that adolescents are often reluctant to consult physicians, peers, and others for personal health questions due to concerns about confidentiality. One new venue for health information is the Internet, which is a promising resource due to its accessibility, interactivity, and anonymity. This study is a snapshot investigation of a popular health support website, which utilized a peer-generated bulletin board format to facilitate the discussion of adolescent health and social issues. Analyses of two health bulletin boards—one on teen issues and one on sexual health—were conducted on the questions and replies found on 273 topics of mainly anonymous adolescents collected over a 2-month period. Results revealed that the questions most frequently posted and viewed reflected interests and concerns about their changing physical, emotional, and social selves: Romantic relationships were the most frequent topic on the teen issues bulletin board; sexual health was the most frequent topic on the sexuality bulletin board. The bulletin boards proved to be a valuable forum of personal opinions, actionable suggestions, concrete information, and emotional support and allowed teens to candidly discuss sensitive topics, such as sexuality and interpersonal relations.
Article
This study presents the interrelationships between stressful life events, motives for Internet use, social support, and the use of the Internet among a sample of adolescents and children aged 8 to 18 (N = 717). The results show that stressful life events are significantly associated with the consumption of the Internet for mood management (such as entertainment and information seeking) and social compensation (such as recognition gaining and relationship maintenance) motives. Secondly, the more children and adolescents exhibit high levels of social support, either online or offline, the less they find stressful life events upsetting. Thirdly, as individuals exhibit greater ability to personally access different types of social support to meet their needs, their motivations for Internet use are characteristically more allied to mood-management and social-compensation. This study reasserts that the mental and physical impact of stressful life events are in fact buffered by one's degree of social support and Internet use, particular examples of which are entertainment and relationship maintenance, and positive coping strategies, which temporarily reduce stress and anxiety.
Article
Objective. The literature on gender and technology use finds that women and men differ significantly in their attitudes toward their technological abilities. Concurrently, existing work on science and math abilities of students suggests that such perceived differences do not always translate into actual disparities. We examine the yet-neglected area concerning gender differences with respect to Internet-use ability. In particular, we test how self-perceived abilities are related to actual abilities and how these may differ by gender. Methods. We use new data on web-use skill to test empirically whether there are differences in men's and women's abilities to navigate online content. We draw on a diverse sample of adult Internet users to investigate the questions raised. Results. Findings suggest that men and women do not differ greatly in their online abilities. However, we find that women's self-assessed skill is significantly lower than that of men. Conclusions. Women's lower self-assessment regarding their web-use skills may affect significantly the extent of their online behavior and the types of uses to which they put the medium. We discuss the implications of these findings for social inequality.