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Exposure to Music Alters Cell Viability and Cell Motility of Human Nonauditory Cells in Culture


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Although music is part of virtually all cultures in the world, little is known about how it affects us. Since the beginning of this century several studies suggested that the response to music, and to sound in general, is complex and might not be exclusively due to emotion, given that cell types other than auditory hair cells can also directly react to audible sound. The present study was designed to better understand the direct effects of acoustic vibrations, in the form of music, in human cells in culture. Our results suggest that the mechanisms of cell growth arrest and/or cell death induced by acoustic vibrations are similar for auditory and nonauditory cells.
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Research Article
Exposure to Music Alters Cell Viability and Cell Motility of
Human Nonauditory Cells in Culture
Nathalia R. Lestard and Marcia A. M. Capella
Institute of Biophysics Carlos Chagas Filho, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro,
21941-902 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil
Correspondence should be addressed to Marcia A. M. Capella;
Received  January ; Accepted  June 
Academic Editor: Annarita Stringaro
Copyright ©  N. R. Lestard and M. A. M. Capella. is is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons
Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is
properly cited.
Although music is part of virtually all cultures in the world, little is known about how it aects us. Since the beginning of this
century several studies suggested that the response to music, and to sound in general, is complex and might not be exclusively
due to emotion, given that cell types other than auditory hair cells can also directly react to audible sound. e present study was
designed to better understand the direct eects of acoustic vibrations, in the form of music, in human cells in culture. Our results
suggest that the mechanisms of cell growth arrest and/or cell death induced by acoustic vibrations are similar for auditory and
nonauditory cells.
1. Introduction
Despite being an integral part of virtually all cultures in the
world, little is known about how music aects us. A number
of studies suggest that music may be useful in medical care,
alleviating stress and nociception in patients undergoing
surgical procedures, as well as in cancer and burned patients
[–] but the mechanisms by which these eects occur are
still unidentied. It is commonly accepted that the eects of
music are secondary to emotional responses, but Møller and
Pedersen armed that vibrotactile sensations and a feeling
of pressure might also occur in the chest and throat while
hearing sounds [].
Since the beginning of this century several studies sug-
gested that the response to music, and to sound in general, is
complex and might not be exclusively due to emotion, given
that cell types other than auditory hair cells can also directly
react to audible sound. For example, it has been shown
that sound wave stimulation makes signicant changes to
protein structure of tobacco cells, producing an increase in
𝛼helix and a decrease in 𝛽turn []; also, sound stimulation
produced eects on the cell cycle of Chrysanthemum [] and
in the callus growth of Dendranthema morifolium []. More
and  kHz promoted the growth of Escherichia coli [, ].
When considering mammalian cells, an increase in cor-
ticosterone serum levels aer environmental noise exposure
and a long-term reduction of proliferating cells in the hip-
pocampal of noise exposed rats were observed, suggesting
that exposure to chronic environmental noise at young ages
produces persistent impairment to nonauditory cells, altering
cell proliferation in the hippocampal formation []. It has
also been shown that a frequency of Hz was able to
alter the growth of human gingival broblasts in culture
frequencies) can lead to several eects in human cells in
culture, altering cell cycle, proliferation, viability, and binding
of hormone []. Since music is a summation of several
sound frequencies, and since sound is indeed a mechanical
vibration, which can cause mechanical stress, it seems not
odd that music can cause direct eects in mammalian cells.
e present report was thus designed to better understand
the direct eects of acoustic vibrations in the form of music
in human cells in culture.
Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2016, Article ID 6849473, 7 pages
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
2. Material and Methods
2.1. Cells. MCF- and MDA-MB- are human breast cancer
cell lines with characteristics of epithelial cells. e cells were
grown in Dulbecco’s Modied Eagle Medium with penicillin
and streptomycin supplemented with % fetal bovine serum
(all from Invitrogen, Brazil) in disposable plastic bottles
(Techno Plastic Product, Germany), at Cuntilconuence.
For each experiment, cells were platted on  mm plastic
Petri dishes (TPP, Germany), at 1×10
5cells/dish. For cell
migration experiments 5×104cells/dish were platted on each
well. e experiments were performed  h aer seeding, to
ensure uniform attachment of the cells. Each experiment was
repeated at least  times.
2.2. Treatment with Music. e cells were exposed for  min
to one of the three compositions: Mozart’s Sonata for Two
Pianos in D major, KV. , rst movement; Beethovens
th Symphony, rst movement; Ligeti’s Atmospheres, rst
movement; at Cinanincubatorchamber.ecellswere
exposed to the music using a coaxial speaker, model ar c,
ref. ,  Watts, from UB Natts Eletroac ´
ustica (S˜
ao Paulo,
Brazil), placed at the roof of the incubator chamber, whose
walls were lined with cork and foam. As controls, the cells
were exposed to silence (speakers were turned o in the
incubator) or to the speakers plugged to energy without
background noise or the magnetic eld produced by the
speakers. Since Beethoven’s Fih and Ligeti’s Atmospheres
move continually from piano to forte and vice versa, there is
no way to imprint a constant sound pressure. erefore, the
sound pressure levels were maintained between  and  dB
to all compositions.
2.3. Apoptosis Assay. Aer exposure to music the cells were
incubated for , , and h. At each time, the supernatants
of cells cultures were collected into conical tubes (in order
to collect suspension cells) and the remained attached cells
were washed  times with phosphate buered saline (PBS),
harvested with trypsin, and collected into the same con-
ical tube. e tubes were centrifuged min ( ×g), the
supernatant was discarded, and the pellet was resuspended
in  𝜇L of annexin V binding buer (Invitrogen, Brazil)
homogenized and transferred to ow cytometry tubes. e
cells were then stained with . 𝜇L annexin V-FITC and 𝜇L
propidium iodide (PI) (𝜇g/mL) for  min in the dark.
Aer this time  𝜇L of annexin binding buer was added
and homogenized and the cells were analyzed in a FACScan
ow cytometer (Becton and Dickinson, USA).
2.4. Signaling Pathway to Apoptosis. MCF- cells were cul-
tured and exposed to Ligeti’s Atmospheres as described
above. Aer  h of incubation, the cells were collected
and the levels of p, phospho-p, Bad, phospho-Bad,
ELISA with commercially available kits (PathScan Apoptosis
Multi-Target Sandwich ELISA Kit , CST Inc., USA).
Absorbance was read at  nm.
2.5. Cell Migration. Cell migration was characterized using
Tran s well system 𝜇m pore size (Corning, USA). e cells
PBS, and incubated with serum-free medium supplemented
with .% BSA. Aer  h starvation cells were washed 
times with PBS, harvested with trypsin, and collected into
conical tubes. Aer centrifugation for  min ( ×g), the
supernatant was discarded and the pellet was resuspended
in serum-free medium at a density of 5×10
An aliquot of  𝜇L of the cell suspension was added into
the upper chamber of the Transwell system and  𝜇Lof
medium with % SFB was added into the lower chamber. e
cells were randomly exposed for  min to the compositions
and then incubated for  hours. e inserts were xed in
% paraformaldehyde for  min and stained with % crystal
violet for  min. e inserts were then washed and the upper
surface of the membranes was wiped with a cotton swab to
remove nonmigratory cells. Migrated cells were counted in
mean cell numbers for membrane.
2.6. Statistical Analysis. Each experiment was repeated at
least  times. Data are expressed as means ±standard error
of the mean and were analyzed using Student’s t-test or
one-way ANOVA with Dunnett post test for comparison of
the dierences. Values of 𝑝less than . were considered
statistically signicant.
3. Results
In a previous study we observed that the human breast
cancer cell line MCF- responded to music by altering cell
cycle and diminishing its viability []. However, the method
used, Trypan blue assay, only permits visualization of dead
cells, which lost membrane integrity. at method could not
distinguish between necrotic and late apoptotic cells. It was
of interest to know whether cell death was due to apoptosis,
which is a more physiological type of cell death, or necrosis,
which would indicate an abrupt, sudden, death. erefore,
we now used the annexin-PI assay. According to Figure ,
living cells are gated in region R of Figure (a), showing
unlabeled cells (APi); cells undergoing apoptosis are gated
in region R of Figure (a), which shows cells labeled only
with annexin V (A+Pi);andlateapoptotic,deadcells,labeled
with both annexin V and PI (A+Pi+), are gated in region R
of Figure (a).
In Figure (c) it is shown that the percentage of live cells
(R) is signicantly diminished  h aer acoustic exposure
to Beethoven’s th Symphony or Ligeti’s Atmospheres. e
speaker alone and Mozart’s composition did not reduce sig-
nicantly the cell viability. Moreover, no signicant dierence
was observed  h or  h aer music exposition (Figures (b)
and (d), resp.).
In Figure  it is shown that Ligeti’s composition increased
signicantly the percentage of apoptotic cells (region R,
A+Pi)  h aer acoustic treatment. Beethoven’s and Moz-
art’s compositions, as well as the speaker alone, have a tend-
ency to increase the percentage of apoptotic cells, although
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
PI log
Annexin log
% of cells gated in R1
Control Speaker Beethoven Ligeti Mozart
R1 (APi)
% of cells gated in R1
Control Speaker Beethoven Ligeti Mozart
R1 (APi)
% of cells gated in R1
Control Speaker Beethoven Ligeti Mozart
R1 (APi)
F : Apoptosis induced by music in MCF- cells. e cells were exposed to each composition as explained in Section  and incubated
for , , or  h. Apoptotic cells were analyzed by ow cytometry with propidium iodide (PI) and annexin V-FITC staining. (a) Dot-plot
of control cells, showing the regions used in Figures  and . (b) Percentage of cells gated in region R (live cells) h aer exposure to the
compositions. (c) Percentage of cells gated in region R h aer exposure to the compositions. (d) Percentage of cells gated in R  h aer
exposure to the compositions. Data are presented as means ±SE of four independent experiments. 𝑝< 0.05 (signicant when compared
with control).
Control Speaker Beethoven Ligeti Mozart
% of cells
Control Speaker Beethoven Ligeti Mozart
% of cells
F : Apoptosis induced by music in MCF- cells. e cells were exposed to each composition and incubated for  h. (a) % of cells gated
in region R of Figure (a) (positive for annexin V only). (b) % of cells gated in region R of Figure (a) (positive for annexin V and PI). Data
are presented as means ±SE of four independent experiments. 𝑝< 0.05 (signicant when compared with control).
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Cleaved Caspase 3
Cleaved PARP
Ratio Ligeti/speaker
Cleaved Caspase 3
Cleaved PARP
F : Treatment of MCF- cells with Ligeti’s Atmospheres induced phosphorylation of p at Ser, as well as cleavage of Caspase  as
detected by PathScanApoptosis Multi-Target Sandwich ELISA Kit . e cells were exposed to the composition or to the speaker alone
and incubated for  h and the lysates were assayed as explained in Section . e absorbance readings at  nm are shown as a -dimensional
representation in (a), while the ratio between Ligeti’s Atmospheres and speaker is shown in (b).
the dierences were not statistically signicant in relation to
the control. In addition, the three compositions increased
signicantly the percentage of dead cells (late apoptotic cells),
gated in region R (A+Pi+).
Since these results suggest that cells are dying by apopto-
sis, we tried to identify the possible apoptosis pathway. To do
this, we used Ligeti’s Atmospheres, since it was the compo-
A+Piand A+Pi+regions).ePathScanApoptosisMulti-
Target Sandwich ELISA Kit  was used, which detects
endogenous levels of p protein, phospho-p protein, Bad,
phospho-Bad, Cleaved Caspase , and Cleaved PARP, key
molecules in signaling pathways controlling survival and
apoptosis. In Figure  a representative result from one ex-
periment (Figure (a)) and the ratio between cells exposed
to Ligeti’s Atmospheres and cells exposed to speaker (Fig-
ure (b)) are shown. It can be seen that only phosphorylated
p and Cleaved Caspase  were increased in cells exposed to
Ligeti’s Atmospheres, in relation to the speaker alone.
Because until now only one cell line was studied, we tested
whether the eects observed so far could be observed in
other cell lines: MDCK, a canine renal cell line with charac-
teristics of distal nephron []; K and K-Lucena, two
human erythroleukemia cell lines, the latest being multidrug
resistant []; and MDA-MB-, a human breast cancer cell
line previously used by our group that do not respond to
estrogens []. e rst three cell lines did not alter their
viability aer exposure to any compositions used (data not
shown). However, the breast cancer cells MDA-MB- have
also undergone apoptosis aer exposure to music, but their
response was dierent from that observed for MCF- cells, as
In this gure it is shown that the three compositions, as
well as the white noise of the speaker, reduced the percentage
of viable cells (Figure (a)). Correspondingly, they increased
the number of cells undergoing both early and late apoptosis.
to evaluate whether music could alter this potential. For
were submitted to the cell migration assay, as described in
Section . In Figure  it is shown that both Beethovens th
Symphony and Mozart’s sonata signicantly diminished the
migration of MDA-MB- cells.
4. Discussion
In a previous study we showed that music could act directly
on MCF-, a human breast cancer cell line, altering cell
cycle, proliferation, and viability. In the present report we
extend our studies, trying to understand such eects and
evaluating whether they could be obser ved in other cell types.
Interestingly, although we tested four cell lines, we noticed
that only the breast cancer cell line MBA-MD- reacted
to music and that such reaction was dierent from that
previously observed for MCF- cells. Possible explanations
for this fact could be that the human erythroleukemia cell
lines, being from blood origin, retain characteristics that help
them to cope with mechanical stress. e same argument
may be plausible for MDCK cells: being from distal nephron
origin, they are familiar with mechanical stress due to tubular
ow. erefore, it is possible that the absence of response of
these cell lines was related to their origins. is hypothesis
takes into account that in vitro direct eects of music in
nonauditory cells are related to mechanical stress, which is
reasonable, since music is, aer all, a mechanical vibration,
which can cause mechanical stress. However, at present it is
not possible to say whether such stress occurs externally (in
the culture medium), inside cells themselves or both.
We observed that the two breast cancer cell lines reacted
to music in dierent ways. While Mozart’s composition did
not alter cell viability of MCF- cells, it led MDA-MD-
 to apoptosis. Moreover, the speaker alone was able to
signicantly reduce MDA-MD- viability, while it had
no eect on MCF- cells. Moreover, the compositions of
Beethoven and Mozart inhibited MDA-MB- migration,
without altering cell viability. ese results suggest that the
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Control Speaker Beethoven Ligeti Mozart
% of cells
Control Speaker Beethoven Ligeti Mozart
% of cells
Control Speaker Beethoven Ligeti Mozart
% of cells
F : Apoptosis induced by music in MDA-MB- cells. e cells were exposed to each composition and incubated for  h. (a) % of
cells gated in region R of Figure (a) (negative for both annexin V and PI). (b) % of cells gated in region R of Figure (a) (positive for annexin
V only). (c) % of cells gated in region R of Figure (a) (positive for annexin V and PI). Data are presented as means ±SE of four independent
experiments. 𝑝< 0.05 (signicant when compared with control).
Control Speaker Beethoven Ligeti Mozart
Number of cells migrated
F : Exposition to music reduced the migration of MDA-MB- cells in vitro. Cells were exposed to each one of the three compositions,
as explained in Section , and the cell migration was observed. 𝑝< 0.05 (signicant when compared with control).
cellular response to music, and perhaps to sound in general,
is dependent not only on the nature of the sound, but also
on intrinsic characteristics of the cellular type. Since this
is the second report about the direct eects of music in
nonauditory cells in culture, more studies are needed to
achieve comprehension of these phenomena.
In the present report we also tried to observe the pathway
of apoptosis elicited by Ligetis music in MCF- cells. By
using an ELISA kit, we tested the key apoptotic molecules p
protein, phospho-p protein, Bad, phospho-Bad, Cleaved
Caspase , and Cleaved PARP and observed that only p and
Caspase  were increased.
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
e p protein is associated with DNA repair, growth
arrest, and apoptosis []. It is known that, aer a DNA
damage, p upregulates Bad transcription and that dephos-
phorylated Bad can heterodimerize with p and translocate
to mitochondria []. Moreover, PARP- is also activated
aer DNA damage and it has been shown that the interplay
between PARP- and p is dependent on the type of damage
induced to DNA []. Since there was no alteration on both
PARP- and Bad status aer exposure of MCF- cells to music,
it seems that the apoptosis induced by Ligeti’s Atmospheres
that we do not expect that music will lead to DNA damage.
We have previously shown that Ligeti’s Atmospheres induced
MCF- cells growth arrest in S-phase and also an increase in
sub-G phase, which is in accordance to our present results.
erefore, taken together, our results suggest that exposure
of MCF- cells to music can induce cell growth arrest and/or
apoptosis. Interestingly, it has been shown that intense noise
leads to hair cells apoptosis by a pathway dependent on p
and Caspase  [, ]. erefore, our results suggest that the
mechanisms of cell death or growth arrest induced by sound
(including music) are similar for auditory and nonauditory
Finally, in the present study we evaluated cell fate within
 days of experimentation. Longer observations for follow-
to understand the properties observed by music intervention
to people with disease. We expect to do this in the future.
Competing Interests
e authors declare that there are no competing interests
regarding the publication of this paper.
is work was supported by grants from CNPq and Fundac¸˜
do Cancer.
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... Results suggest each musical piece generated a different effect depending on cancer cell type. The authors hypothesise that cellular response to music, and possibly sound frequencies in general, may depend on sound characteristics as well as intrinsic characteristics of the cellular type [52]. Specific sound stimulation was found to affect neural differentiation [33]. ...
... Generally, 40 Hz demonstrated more significant results of dead RBC and WBC count and 73 Hz demonstrated more significant results of live RBC and WBC count (Fig 7B, 7C). This observation resonates with several studies and therapeutic practices attributing discrete effects of different frequencies on physiological mechanisms and cell response [33,39,51,52,70]. Previous studies demonstrated the positive effect of 40 Hz on human physiological mechanisms and human health [37,[71][72][73][74]. ...
... In correlation with previous observations by Reid et al., Purnell et al. and Albanese et al. [8,50,69], we suggest that the quality of in vitro and in vivo blood cells could be elicited non-invasively following exposure to frequency-based stimuli such as sound and music, possibly allowing blood cells to better maintain geometric properties such as membrane integrity. We consider this hypothesis to correspond to and elaborate on concepts previously indicated by Lestard & Capella and Dal Lin et al. [51,52]. ...
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The effects of sound and mechanical vibrations on blood flow and in vitro and in vivo blood cells were previously reported in various studies. Frequency-based stimulation and sound vibrations were shown to have a positive effect on peripheral blood flow, blood aggregation, Red Blood Cells longevity and enhanced release of Nitric Oxide which supports improved blood oxygenation. Different frequencies were also reported to have discrete effects on cells and physiological mechanisms. In this preliminary study, we investigated the effect of 20 minutes exposure to audible sound stimuli comprising recordings of spatial sound projections of a singing bowl at 40 Hz and 73 Hz compared to 20 minutes silence in a Faraday cage (control) on in vitro Red Blood Cells and White Blood Cells. We find that the sound stimuli have a highly significant effect on the longevity of both Red and White Blood Cells with a differentiation in effect across frequencies and projections compared to control. Results could indicate a cost-effective treatment to support improved soundness of blood transfusions as well as non-invasive interventions to increase circulating blood cells.
... Studies have shown that Western classical music can reduce the number of cancer cells (6), and there is no publication in the literature examining the effects of Turkish classical music on cancer cells using in vitro cell culture techniques. In our study, we aimed to find out whether Turkish classical music has a lethal effect on cancer cells, and if so, on which cancer cell type it is more effective. ...
... The combined audio files were played for 40 min (Group 2A, Group 3A, Group 4A), after a break of 1 hour, they were played again for 40 min for the second time (Group 2B, Group 3B, Group 4B). Audio files were played in the Class II Biosafety cabinet using LG speakers, in the range of 70-100 dB (6,8). ...
... Music also has antiproliferative properties in cancer cells (6,8,12). Ramirez-Rivera and Bernal (2019) applied Western classical music (Ludwig Van Beethoven) and metal music (Cannibal Corpse) to the AGS human gastric cancer cell line. The cell viability analysis was performed 12 h after the music applications. ...
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Objective: Cancer is one of the most common health problems in the world. Music is a therapy method that creates positive changes in human behavior. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of Turkish and Western classical music on MCF-7, SKOV-3, PC-3, U87, and COLO741 cancer cell lines. Materials and Methods: Group 1: No sound, Group 2: Turkish classical music (ney), Group 3: Western classical music (piano), and Group 4: Western classical music (violin). After listening to the cancer cells for 40 min, the audio files were interrupted for 1h, and then music was played for another 40 min. The effect of music on the proliferation of cancer cells was determined by WST-1 cell viability analysis. Statistical analyzes were performed with the SPSS program. Results: There was no statistically significant difference between the groups that were applied music once in only the MCF-7 breast cancer cells and the control group (p>0.05). A statistically significant decrease was detected in cell viability when the control group and the other groups that were applied to music twice were compared (p
... Scientific evidences thus confirmed the longpraised medicinal virtues of music, such as neurostimulation and neuroprotection (Lemarquis 2009, 2021, Jones et al. 2020. But for a few years now, more and more publications have addressed the direct effects on non-auditory cells, a less obvious aspect of the effects of music (Lestard et al. 2013, Lestard andCapella 2016). The experiences performed by researchers present very disparate results. ...
... Positive effects of music are auditory or not. The basic mechanisms could thus be common and universal (Zimmermann and Fermin 1996, Chan and Hudspeth 2005, Fettiplace and Hackney 2006, Ashmore 2008, Müller 2008, Rabbitt and Boyle 2010, Lestard et al. 2013, Lestard and Capella 2016. Thus, research has been carried out on the effects of music on the biology of different cell types. ...
... Study of effects of music on human chondrocytes has shown that use of music help to identify biomarkers and provide a new approach to the treatment of osteoarthritis (Vannoni 2012, Corallo et al. 2013, Dhungana et al, 2018, Exbrayat and Brun, 2019. On the other hand, it has been observed that the size and the granularity of tumoral MCF7 cells cultivated in vitro was altered by music (Lestard et al. 2013, Lestard andCapella 2016). In the lab Sprague-Dawley rats, music also decreased the enhancing effects of stress on the development of lung metastases provoked by previously injected carcinosarcoma cells (Nuñez et al. 2002). ...
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This review is based on recent publications about the effects of sound, and more particularly of music, on several aspects of physiology. It has been known for a long time that music has effects on the brain and on the functioning of different organs. In recent years, several publications also described specific effects of music on the physicochemical mechanisms in the other organisms, bacteria, plants and animals. These researches being rather disparate in the methodologies used and the results obtained, they need to be classified. In this review, we summarize the studies and attempt to explain the cellular mechanisms involved, by considering the properties of the plasma membrane and its links with the extracellular and intracellular medium. This field of research is currently in full expansion, but still requires further studies to understand and go further in the possible applications, the precise molecular mechanisms of effects of music still remain to be clarified. Keywords: sound, music, plant, animal, unicellular organism
... This finding suggests that the type of frequency and wavelength of the sound may play a significant consideration in the healing mechanism. The cellular response toward sound can depend on the nature of the sound (Lestard & Capella 2016). A pilot study suggested that the action of the sound towards the test organism may be non-linear and show obvious frequency individualities (Shaobin et al., 2010). ...
... A pilot study suggested that the action of the sound towards the test organism may be non-linear and show obvious frequency individualities (Shaobin et al., 2010). The mechanical vibration produced by the sound might cause mechanical stress either in positive or negative results on the cells (Lestard & Capella 2016). ...
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There has been a dearth in modern scientific literature addressing the effect of Quranic recitation on the physical context of beings compared to a psychological or spiritual dimension. Muslims believe that the Holy Qurʾān is Kalamullah (the words of God). This study distances itself from arguing the truthfulness of the Qurʾān. Instead, it is an effort out of curiosity to appreciate the Creator’s greatness from a scientist’s perspective. It is always room for improvement in seeking knowledge. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of Quranic recitation on non-audible primary cells using a monolayer cell culture model. Cartilages were harvested from commercially available rabbits’ knee joints (n=6). The cartilage cells (chondrocytes) were isolated, cultured, and assigned to five groups. Three cultured chondrocyte groups were exposed to Sūrat l-Fātiĥah (The Opening), ‘Arabic poem’ and ‘Western poem’ recitals. Two other groups served as controls. One was exposed to a muted sound speaker (but switched on), and another group had no exposure. All recitations were recorded and exposed to the cells in a standardized, controlled condition to allow scientific rigor and a systematic approach. A scratch assay was also performed to mimic a simple wound healing model. Post-exposure evaluations included basic cellular staining, immunocytochemistry against collagen I and II, sulfated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) production, and cartilage-specific gene expression analysis. All cells groups showed positive reactions to the various recitals exposures. However, based on the overall findings and chondrogenic properties preservation, the group exposed to the Qurʾān exhibited better structure and function than the other groups. The results showed that the non-audible chondrocytes devoid of spiritual dimension could respond to vocal sounds. This non-invasive study indicates that a proper Quranic recitation has a healing effect and could impact physical cells better than the other recitals.
... In Lestard and Capella (2016), a 60 W coaxial speaker was installed at the top of the acoustically treated (with cork and foam) incubator. The first movement from Mozart's Sonata for Two Pianos in D Major, KV. 488, the first movement from Beethoven's 5th symphony, and Ligeti's Atmospheres were played to the cells. ...
... To summarize, bacteria and yeast cells showed an effect of sound across a wide range of frequencies: cell colonyforming and growth rate increase using 100, 300, 1,000, 5,000, and 10,000 Hz (Aggio et al., 2012;Choi et al., 2016;Lestard & Capella, 2016). On the other hand, mammal cells showed a more selective and frequencydependent effect. ...
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There have been several studies investigating whether musical sound can be used as cell stimuli in recent years. We systematically searched publications to get an overview of studies that have used audible sound played through speaker-based systems to induce mechanical perturbation in cell cultures. A total of 12 studies were identified. We focused on the experimental setups, the sounds that were used as stimuli, and relevant biological outcomes. The studies are categorized into simple and complex sounds depending on the type of sound employed. Some of the promising effects reported were enhanced cell migration, proliferation, colony formation, and differentiation ability. However, there are significant differences in methodologies and cell type-specific outcomes, which made it difficult to find a systematic pattern in the results. We suggest that future experiments should consider using: (1) a more controlled acoustic environment, (2) standardized sound and noise measurement methods, and (3) a more comprehensive range of controlled sound parameters as cellular stimuli.
... Energy comes from many different sources -from the ion transfers of cellular chemiosmosis, to food and sunlight. The role of sound in the energy equation of biological development is less well-understood than chemical or photosynthetic processes -although recent work on the effects of sound on plant growth are indicating that it has a causal bearing on growth (Hassanien et al. 2014;Jung and Pauli 2014;Jung et al. 2018), and that music impacts non-auditory human cells in similar ways to auditory cells (Lestard and Capella 2016). In other words, the sonic exterogram has causal effects on the physiological mechanisms of the engram. ...
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The sonic environment of learning presents an opportunity to study the space of social relations as energetic dynamics. Like all communication, sound requires energy both to create and to process. In recent years, the field of ‘communicative musicality’ — an interdisciplinary field connecting ethology, sociology, and psychology — examines social relations in their sonic context. Analysing the sonic environment has become more important (and more feasible) with increasing activities online during the pandemic. We present a comparative analysis of the sonic environment considering the sonic differences between face-to-face encounters, Zoom lectures, and online gaming. Our analysis measures the Shannon entropy of Fourier transforms of the sound spectrum to produce fractal representations of sonic episodes from contrasting educational situations. We consider how these fractals connect the physics of the environment with physiology of individuals observing and acting with each other in techno-educational contexts. As an index of the ‘between-ness’ of observing systems, our analysis points to a correlation between the coherence of patterning in sound and learning experiences. With its focus on social relations and technology’s environmental effects, this analysis well-suits postdigital concerns for the contingencies and uncertainties surrounding socio-technical systems in education.
... Other studies have also focused on the effect of music exposure on various somatic and cancer cells. A study on the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line found Mozart and Ligettis music pieces to cause apoptosis and reduced viability of the cancer cells 5 . A similar study on prostrate carcinoma cell line exposed to quaranic recitation found reduced proliferation and viability denoting anti-cancer effects of quaranic 6 .Music exposure not only has been found to affect human cells, but can also affect microbial growth and viability. ...
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Carnatic music therapy has been known to exist since vedic times. However, when compared to music therapy studies from the West, not much of active research has been pursued in the field of Carnatic music therapy. This could be due to the fact that proper hypothesis drafting and organized research design is lacking in most of the studies. This review article gives an insight into the various research models available and also enriches the reader on how to design a Carnatic music therapy study.
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A interação da Música com os seres humanos tem sido estudada de diferentes formas, variando seus objetivos conforme o problema de saúde a ser considerado. Apresentamos neste trabalho que as possibilidades de uso da Música são bem amplas, sendo adequada como tratamento complementar em problemas de saúde mental, dores físicas, dependência química e também câncer. Sua eficiência independe da idade, tendo sido observados bons resultados desde bebês no ventre das mães até idosos. Seu uso pode ser ampliado se forem levadas em conta as quatro dimensões humanas: biológica, mental, emocional e espiritual.
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A música tem um lugar ativo e de essência na existência do humano, essência de essencial, de inerente, de inseparável. Presente em todos os espaços e expressões, ela é memória, poesia e revelação do belo, assim sendo não poderia ser diferente no lugar da educação: a música é o conhecimento mais próximo do ensino do sentir na sua energia altiva e na sua compleição unívoca. Quando a pedagoga compreender a imensidade da música na vida humana, terá em suas mãos a verdadeira ferramenta educadora para uma nova forma de pensar educação. É preciso arraigar as mãos de pedagogas desse sentido que o pensamento musical pode inserir conforme seu emprego. Fazer da educação: música. Neste trabalho, propomo-nos a apresentar como os cursos de Pedagogia presentes no estado do Rio de Janeiro e no Brasil atuam com relação ao conhecimento musical, observando suas grades curriculares e ementas de disciplinas. Além disso, discutimos o lugar da música na existência humana e na educação, por ser conhecimento originário, arquétipo coletivo e memória. Entendemos ser a música um conhecimento inseparável da alma. Estando ela presente ou não na grade de cursos e na legislação vigente, tê-la na escola é tão presente quanto uma batida cardíaca. Por fim, dedicamo-nos a refletir sobre propostas de inserção da música de forma consciente e consistente nesses espaços de formação para pedagogas como conhecimento que leva o homem ao maior tesouro do humano: o conhecer-se.
Background Sound is a kind of mechanical stimulus and has various effects on the growth and metabolism of plants and animal cells. In previous studies, it was confirmed that sound stimulation promotes the neurodifferentiation process of mesenchymal stem cells. In this study, we examined the effect of sound on the maturation of neuroblastoma cells, SH-SY5Y cells, and investigated its effect on an ischemic mouse stroke model. In the in vitro study, SH-SY5Y cells were exposed to the sound for 3 days and then performed rt-PCR, FACS, and western blot for analysis. In the in vivo study, mesenchymal stem cells were injected into the injured area, and then rats were exposed to sound for 4 weeks. Then, immunohistochemical staining and western blotting were performed. Results Sound upregulated the expression of presynaptic proteins synaptophysin and postsynaptic density protein 95, as well as neuronal-related proteins such as NFL, Tau, and MAP2. T-type calcium channels such as CACNA1G and CACNA1I were also induced by sound. In an experiment using the brain of ischemic mice, the expression of proteins involved in neuronal differentiation such as MAP2, NF200, and S100 was increased, while the inflammation-related proteins IFNγ, MMP9, and TNFα were decreased. In this neuronal differentiation process, both ERK and CREB, which are proteins involved in the initial signal transduction process, were activated. Conclusions Our study demonstrates that sound, with the advantage of being non-invasive and easy to use, is an effective stimulus that induces neural differentiation and maturation on animal cells.
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The majority of acquired hearing loss, including presbycusis, is caused by irreversible damage to the sensorineural tissues of the cochlea. This article reviews the intracellular mechanisms that contribute to sensorineural damage in the cochlea, as well as the survival signaling pathways that can provide endogenous protection and tissue rescue. These data have primarily been generated in hearing loss not directly related to age. However, there is evidence that similar mechanisms operate in presbycusis. Moreover, accumulation of damage from other causes can contribute to age-related hearing loss (ARHL). Potential therapeutic interventions to balance opposing but interconnected cell damage and survival pathways, such as antioxidants, anti-apoptotics, and pro-inflammatory cytokine inhibitors, are also discussed.
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ABCC1 and ABCG2 are two transporters associated with multi-drug resistance to cancer chemotherapy. Ouabain is a cardiotonic steroid, currently considered as a hormone associated with arterial hypertension. Previous studies have suggested that ouabain can modulate ABCB1 and ABCC1 expression in cancer and renal cell lines. The present study investigated the effects of physiological concentrations of ouabain on the expression and activity of ABCC1 and ABCG2 in two human breast cancer cell lines, MCF7 and MDA-MB-231, the first known to be responsive to estrogens. Cell viability and proliferation assays showed that 1 μM ouabain reduced proliferation of MCF7, but not if MDA-MB-231 cells. On the other hand, 10 nM ouabain increased proliferation of MDA-MB-231, but not of MCF7 cells. Ouabain (10 nM) prevented the cytotoxic effects of doxorubicin in MCF7 cells, but not in MDA-MB-231 cells. Treatment of cells under different ouabain concentrations for 24 h did not cause any significant effects in the expression of ABCG2 or ABCC1 in either cell line. However, the activity of ABCC1 was increased when MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells were treated with 10 mM and 1 nM ouabain respectively. These results claim attention to the possibility that breast cancer patients with high levels of endogenous ouabain may have different responses to chemotherapy.
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DNA damage induced by reactive oxygen species and several chemotherapeutic agents promotes both p53 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activation. p53 activation is well known to regulate apoptotic cell death, whereas robust activation of PARP-1 has been shown to promote a necrotic cell death associated with energetic collapse. Here we identify a novel role for p53 in modulating PARP enzymatic activity to regulate necrotic cell death. In mouse embryonic fibroblasts, human colorectal and human breast cancer cell lines, loss of p53 function promotes resistance to necrotic, PARP-mediated cell death. We therefore demonstrate that p53 can regulate both necrotic and apoptotic cell death, mutations or deletions in this tumor-suppressor protein may be selected by cancer cells to provide not only their resistance to apoptosis but also to necrosis, and explain resistance to chemotherapy and radiation even when it kills via non-apoptotic mechanisms.Cell Death and Differentiation advance online publication, 24 May 2013; doi:10.1038/cdd.2013.52.
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Increasing evidence indicates that chronic exposure to environmental noise may permanently affect the central nervous system. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term effects of early exposure to environmental noise on the hippocampal cell proliferation of the adult male rat. Early-weaned Wistar rats were exposed for 15 days to a rats' audiogram-fitted adaptation to a noisy environment. Two months later, the rats were injected with the cellular proliferation marker 5΄bromodeoxiuridine (BrdU), and their brains were processed for immunohistochemical analysis. Coronal sections were immunolabeled with anti-BrdU antibodies to identify new-born cells in dentate gyrus (DG), cornu amonis areas CA1 and CA3. In addition, blood samples were obtained to evaluate corticosterone serum levels after noise exposure. All data are expressed as mean±standard deviation. For mean comparisons between groups, we used the Student t test. We found an increase in corticosterone serum levels after environmental noise exposure. Interestingly, noise-exposed rats showed a long-term reduction of proliferating cells in the hippocampal formation, as compared to controls. These findings indicate that chronic environmental noise exposure at young ages produces persistent non-auditory impairment that modifies cell proliferation in the hippocampal formation.
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Most postoperative patients have unrelieved pain despite the use of patient-controlled analgesia. Nurses need additional effective modalities. Relaxation and music (RM), in addition to analgesics, have been shown to reduce pain more than do analgesics alone. The objectives of the study were to test an intervention of patient teaching for pain management (PT) and compare it with RM for immediate and general effects on postoperative pain. Patients having abdominal surgery and receiving patient-controlled analgesia aged 18-75 years (n = 517) were randomized to four groups: PT, RM, a combination (PTRM), and a control. A 2 x 2 factorial design was used to assess PT-Effects and RM-Effects. Immediate effects on pain were measured on visual analogue sensation and distress scales before and after five 20-min tests in the first 2 days. Because participants also listened independently, general nonimmediate effects were examined at eight other times. Using multivariate analysis of covariance with contrasts and pretest control, immediate RM-Effects on pain were found at Day 1 a.m. (p < .001), Day 1 p.m. (p = .04), and Day 2 a.m. (p = .04). No PT-Effects or nonimmediate RM-Effects were found. Patient teaching did not result in less pain and did not support the theoretical proposition that PT reduces pain. However, the immediate RM-Effects supported the proposition that nonpharmacological adjuvants to analgesics can ease pain without adding side effects.
Monoclonal antibodies were prepared against the Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell line to identify epithelial cell surface macromolecules involved in renal function. Lymphocyte hybrids were generated by fusing P3U-1 myeloma cells with spleen cells from a C3H mouse immunized with MDCK cells. Hybridomas secreting anti-MDCK antibodies were obtained and clonal lines isolated in soft agarose. We are reporting on one hybridoma line that secretes a monoclonal antibody that binds to MDCK cells at levels 20-fold greater than background binding. Indirect immunofluorescence microscopy was utilized to study the distribution of antibody binding on MDCK cells and on frozen sections of dog kidney and several nonrenal tissues. In the kidney the fluorescence staining pattern demonstrates that the antibody recognizes an antigenic determinant that is expressed only on the epithelial cells of the thick ascending limb of Henle's loops and the distal convoluted tubule and appears to be localized on the basolateral plasma membrane. This antigen also has a unique distribution in non-renal tissues and can only be detected on cells known to be active in transepithelial ion movements. These results indicate the probable distal tubule origin of MDCK and suggest that the monoclonal antibody recognizes a cell surface antigen involved in physiological functions unique to the kidney distal tubule and transporting epithelia of nonrenal tissues.
The biological effects of electromagnetic waves are widely studied, especially due to their harmful effects, such as radiation-induced cancer and to their application in diagnosis and therapy. However, the biological effects of sound, another physical agent to which we are frequently exposed have been considerably disregarded by the scientific community. Although a number of studies suggest that emotions evoked by music may be useful in medical care, alleviating stress and nociception in patients undergoing surgical procedures as well as in cancer and burned patients, little is known about the mechanisms by which these effects occur. It is generally accepted that the mechanosensory hair cells in the ear transduce the sound-induced mechanical vibrations into neural impulses, which are interpreted by the brain and evoke the emotional effects. In the last decade; however, several studies suggest that the response to music is even more complex. Moreover, recent evidence comes out that cell types other than auditory hair cells could response to audible sound. However, what is actually sensed by the hair cells, and possible by other cells in our organism, are physical differences in fluid pressure induced by the sound waves. Therefore, there is no reasonable impediment for any cell type of our body to respond to a pure sound or to music. Hence, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the response of a human breast cancer cell line, MCF7, to music. The results' obtained suggest that music can alter cellular morpho-functional parameters, such as cell size and granularity in cultured cells. Moreover, our results suggest for the 1 st time that music can directly interfere with hormone binding to their targets, suggesting that music or audible sounds could modulate physiological and pathophysiological processes.
We designed a set of devices for generating sound fields and studied the effect of sound stimulation on Dendranthema morifolium callus growth. We came to a conclusion that the promotion effect was most obvious in a frequency of 1000 Hz and a strength of 100 dB sound stimulation. However, when we increase the frequency and strength out of a certain range, this effect was reduced, or even represented a restraint effect when reached another higher range. It was found in our experiment that sound stimulation of a frequency of 1000 Hz and a strength of 100 dB obvious promoted the soluble protein and sugar in cytoplast, which is a sigh of high metabolism level and vigorous divide state in strong sound stimulation administrated D. morifolium callus.
Plant growth can be considered as the sum of cell proliferation in the meristems and the subsequent elongation of cells. The continuous proliferative capacity of plant cells is crucial for the production of new organs and thus has a significant impact on plant architecture. Now it had been found that the relationship between environmental factors and growth of plant was very close. And in this paper, the effect of sound stimulation on the cell cycle of chrysanthemum was studied to further explore the mechanism of biological effect of sound stimulation.
In this paper, the effects of sound wave on the structure of the protein of tobacco cells were studied by Circular Dichroism spectra (CD). The results show that the change of plasma membrane protein structure is closely related to the strength and frequency of the sound wave. In a certain range of frequency and strength, the sound wave makes significant changes on the membrane protein structure, producing an increase in α-helix and a decrease in β-turn. This proves that the secondary structure of membrane protein is highly sensitive to the stimulation of sound wave.