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Electrosmog and autoimmune disease

  • Autoimmunity Research Foundation
  • Autoimmunity Research Foundation

Abstract and Figures

Studies in mice have shown that environmental electromagnetic waves tend to suppress the murine immune system with a potency similar to NSAIDs, yet the nature of any Electrosmog effects upon humans remains controversial. Previously, we reported how the human Vitamin-D receptor (VDR) and its ligand, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin-D (1,25-D), are associated with many chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. We have shown how olmesartan, a drug marketed for mild hypertension, acts as a high-affinity partial agonist for the VDR, and that it seems to reverse disease activity resulting from VDR dysfunction. We here report that structural instability of the activated VDR becomes apparent when observing hydrogen bond behavior with molecular dynamics, revealing that the VDR pathway exhibits a susceptibility to Electrosmog. Further, we note that characteristic modes of instability lie in the microwave frequency range, which is currently populated by cellphone and WiFi communication signals, and that the susceptibility is ligand dependent. A case series of 64 patient-reported outcomes subsequent to use of a silver-threaded cap designed to protect the brain and brain stem from microwave Electrosmog resulted in 90 % reporting “definite” or “strong” changes in their disease symptoms. This is much higher than the 3–5 % rate reported for electromagnetic hypersensitivity in a healthy population and suggests that effective control of environmental Electrosmog immunomodulation may soon become necessary for successful therapy of autoimmune disease. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s12026-016-8825-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
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Electrosmog and autoimmune disease
Trevor G. Marshall
Trudy J. Rumann Heil
Published online: 13 July 2016
ÓThe Author(s) 2016. This article is published with open access at
Abstract Studies in mice have shown that environmental electromagnetic waves tend to suppress the murine immune
system with a potency similar to NSAIDs, yet the nature of any Electrosmog effects upon humans remains controversial.
Previously, we reported how the human Vitamin-D receptor (VDR) and its ligand, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin-D (1,25-D), are
associated with many chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. We have shown how olmesartan, a drug marketed
for mild hypertension, acts as a high-affinity partial agonist for the VDR, and that it seems to reverse disease activity
resulting from VDR dysfunction. We here report that structural instability of the activated VDR becomes apparent when
observing hydrogen bond behavior with molecular dynamics, revealing that the VDR pathway exhibits a susceptibility to
Electrosmog. Further, we note that characteristic modes of instability lie in the microwave frequency range, which is
currently populated by cellphone and WiFi communication signals, and that the susceptibility is ligand dependent. A case
series of 64 patient-reported outcomes subsequent to use of a silver-threaded cap designed to protect the brain and brain
stem from microwave Electrosmog resulted in 90 % reporting ‘‘definite’’ or ‘‘strong’’ changes in their disease symptoms.
This is much higher than the 3–5 % rate reported for electromagnetic hypersensitivity in a healthy population and suggests
that effective control of environmental Electrosmog immunomodulation may soon become necessary for successful
therapy of autoimmune disease.
Keywords Electrosmog VDR Autoimmune disease PPPM WiFi Electromagnetic hypersensitivity
‘Electrosmog’’ describes the electromagnetic waves sur-
rounding us in our environment. According to NASA [1]:
‘As you sit watching TV, not only are there visible
light waves from the TV striking your eyes, but also
radio waves, transmitting from a nearby station, and
microwaves carrying cellphone calls and text mes-
sages, and waves from your neighbor’s WiFi, and
GPS units in the cars driving by. There is a chaos of
waves from all across the spectrum passing through
your room right now.’
Every year, the quantity and nature of radio and
microwaves contained in this Electrosmog increases.
However, research into whether they might interact with
human biology, and exactly how they might interact, is a
field clouded by the jargon and complexity of each
technology and hampered by inadequate experimental
The only known natural source of microwave electro-
magnetic radiation is the negligibly weak cosmic radiation
from space, although significant sources of natural
Electronic supplementary material The online version of this
article (doi:10.1007/s12026-016-8825-7) contains supplementary
material, which is available to authorized users.
&Trevor G. Marshall
Autoimmunity Research Foundation, Thousand Oaks, CA,
NP-Private Practice Associates, Scottsdale, AZ, USA
Trevor G. Marshall
Immunol Res (2017) 65:129–135
DOI 10.1007/s12026-016-8825-7
Content courtesy of Springer Nature, terms of use apply. Rights reserved.
radiation have existed at lower radio frequencies due to
atmospheric phenomena such as the aurora borealis and
thunderstorms. Until the 1950s, Electrosmog frequencies
remained out of the microwave region, but by the 1960s
television channels began microwave transmissions. Cel-
lular phone technologies emerged during the 1980s; WiFi
during the 1990s. Both extensively use microwave fre-
quency bands. The recent release of WiGig and anti-col-
lision vehicle radars in the 60 GHz region embody a
1000-fold increase in frequency, and photon energy, over
the exposures mankind experienced up until the 1950s.
It is generally accepted that exposure to low-energy
radio waves does not produce any sign of harm. However,
low-level exposures to ionizing radiation, for example the
exposures caused by nuclear energy accidents, do indeed
affect human biology. It may take years of accumulated
exposure before the subsequent symptoms become
Both ionizing X-rays and non-ionizing microwaves are
forms of electromagnetic radiation. The energy in X-rays,
however, is much higher, usually above a thousand elec-
tron volts (1 keV), while the energy in each microwave
photon is usually just a few micro-electron volts (leV) [1].
A primary effect of low-dose ionizing radiation (from
radon and X-rays) is suppression of our body’s immune
defenses [2,3], something which often does not become
apparent until the body catastrophically fails to overcome
an acute challenge. The emerging use of radon exposure to
mitigate rheumatoid arthritis symptoms in humans [4]isan
interesting exploitation of radiation’s immunosuppressive
With low-level non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation,
Lushnikov [5] found a suppressed immune response in
mice. Subsequently, Gapeev (aka Gapeyev) [6,7] showed
that the effect on mice of low-intensity non-ionizing
electromagnetic waves was roughly equivalent to effect of
the NSAID diclofenac. Most recently, some suppression of
inflammation was reported in lizards which had been
exposed to pulsed DECT radiation simulating the cordless
phones used in many homes [8].
Proteins are continually in motion, responsive
to electromagnetic waves
We have previously reported [913] that the drug olme-
sartan could be retargeted to produce immunostimulation
in patients with autoimmune disease. During that research,
we used the emerging field of molecular dynamics (MD) to
analyze the actions of both the drug olmesartan and the
native ligand, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin-D (1,25-D) on the
VDR [14]. Molecular dynamics is computationally inten-
sive, as interactions between each atom in the VDR pro-
tein, its activating ligand, and the surrounding water are
calculated incrementally as a function of time. We found
that hydrogen bond exchange within the VDR exhibited
structural resonances at frequencies typically found in
modern Electrosmog.
Turton et al. [15]inNature Communications 2013 used
MD to study the interaction between lysozyme and its
ligand triacetylchitotriose at much higher frequencies than
Electrosmog. They were then able to confirm that the
lysozyme complex was indeed underdamped by using
femtosecond optical Kerr Effect spectroscopy. They con-
cluded that the lysozyme complex was marginally unstable,
and non-ionizing terahertz electromagnetic radiation is
likely to alter ‘‘proper biological function.’
We used MD software to create a movie which allowed
us to easily visualize the relative motion of each atom in
the VDR as a function of time. The MD output comprises a
very large number of incremental combinations of protein
and ligand, which can be displayed as frames of a movie
film. This allows the relative motions of each atom in the
interaction to be studied.
Two frames from a movie of a VDR molecule being
activated by olmesartan are shown in Fig. 1(the movie is
available as ‘‘olmesartan.MP4’’ in the ‘‘Supplementary
Information’’ file). These frames, separated by a time
interval of 900 femtoseconds, show the VDR helical
‘backbone’’ and the position of several key atoms. The
circular area labeled as ‘‘B’’ highlights the carboxyl group
of glutamine at position GLU420 in PDB:1DB1, a crystal
structure model of the VDR [14].
How Electrosmog interacts with human metabolism
There is no need to go into detail to understand the action
of Electrosmog on human proteins. All one needs to notice
is that, in Fig. 1, the two oxygen atoms of the carboxyl
group at ‘‘B’’ have spun by 90°in the time between the two
frames. Although all the atoms of the VDR are constantly
in motion, these two oxygens are key because they are
involved in forming hydrogen bonds with the DRIP205
coactivator. When the VDR is not activated, this carboxyl
group binds with the lysine to its left (LYS264) and cannot
position the coactivator where it needs to be for proper
gene transcription. Activation forces these residues apart so
they can bind with the coactivator. The shape of the
Our emulation protocol was essentially similar to that of Turton
et al. except that we used Gromacs 3.3 running on a multiprocessor
Linux operating system. Because the VDR is a much larger molecule
than lysozyme, we had to emulate 239 amino acids containing a total
of 2415 atoms. They were bathed in thousands of molecules of water.
For each of our dozens of experiments, we computed 500,000
emulation steps to get 750 picoseconds of real time data. Each run
often took several days of CPU time. We used the NDLP bounding
box of Wassenaar [16,17] to keep the number of water molecule
calculations to a minimum.
130 Environment and Autoimmunity (2017) 65:129–135
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whole VDR molecule changes as it is activated by the
Whenever an electromagnetic field is present, a Lorentz
Force [18] will act upon any charged atom in motion, such
as these moving oxygen atoms, a force which could either
boost or hinder the proper activation of the VDR molecule.
Whether activation is assisted or blocked depends on the
frequency content of the molecular interactions, and that of
the impinging electromagnetic waves.
So why do not human beings suffer immediate symp-
toms when exposed to Electrosmog? Recall the time
interval between the two frames in Fig. 1—900 fem-
toseconds—corresponding to a wave frequency near
1 terahertz (THz). Very few waves oscillating at that fre-
quency are able to reach the molecules of a human body,
and none of them are currently present in Electrosmog.
Consequently, Electrosmog does not yet directly affect
motions of the individual atoms.
However, at least in the case of the VDR activation, the
bulk of the molecule changes shape with characteristic
frequencies already found in today’s Electrosmog. Groups
of hundreds of atoms which form the helical ‘‘backbone’
of the VDR do shift together at the lower frequencies
present in Electrosmog.
The number of hydrogen bonds formed between olme-
sartan and the VDR over time shows many periods of
marginally stable activation, as can be seen in Fig. 2.
Despite an initial 170 ps sinusoidal instability, the number
of hydrogen bonds builds to a stable range within 300 ps of
the olmesartan getting to the binding pocket. However,
even this ‘‘stable’’ region beyond 300 ps shows consider-
able fluctuation, with a noticeable tendency to oscillations
having the same characteristic 170 ps period. An FFT of
the data
confirmed a primary response peak at a frequency
just below 6 GHz (which corresponds to the 170 ps inter-
val). WiFi routers operate in this frequency range, and
these routers already comprise a significant proportion of
indoor Electrosmog.
The VDR is even more susceptible when bound
with its natural ligand
The primary natural ligand for the VDR is 1,25 dihy-
droxyvitamin-D, a ligand with fewer oxygen atoms than
olmesartan. The hydrogen bond count for this 1,25-D and
Fig. 2 A plot (from the Gromacs g_hbond software) of the instan-
taneous number of hydrogen bonds formed between olmesartan and
the VDR sampled every 37.5 femtoseconds during the first 750 ps of
VDR activation
Fig. 1 Frames 131 and 155 from a movie showing activation of the
VDR by olmesartan, obtained using Gromacs for molecular dynamics
emulation. Most of the 239 amino acid residues making up the
PDB:1DB1 VDR are shown in helical representation, with the atoms
of GLU420 and LYS264 highlighted in ‘‘ball and stick’’ notation. The
ligand olmesartan can be seen within circle ‘A’’ and GLU420 within
The mathematics package ‘GNU Octave’’ was used to compute the
FFTs in this study. It is an open source mathematics package similar
to Wolfram’s MATLAB.
Environment and Autoimmunity (2017) 65:129–135 131
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VDR combination is therefore lower. Consequently, the
VDR ‘‘backbone’’ is less rigid than when olmesartan is
used as the ligand. Figure 3shows 2250 ps of activity,
three times as long a time frame as is shown in Fig. 2.
The modes of functional resonance in the natural ligand/
VDR combination are slower, and the FFT (Fig. 4) con-
firms multiple hydrogen bond exchange rate peaks in the 3,
5 and 6 GHz, frequency bands, close to those typically
found in Electrosmog from WiFi and 4G-LTE cellular
communication devices.
Electromagnetic waves in Electrosmog exert
sufficient force to affect biological function
The force exerted on a moving charge by an electromag-
netic wave is dependent on the charge’s velocity, the
wave’s frequency and the wave’s amplitude [18]. With
environmental Electrosmog, the amplitude is an uncon-
trolled variable, and amplitudes can easily exceed
-16 dBm
(1 V/m at 1 GHz) when close to cell phones,
cell towers and WiFi access points.
There are many studies which document biological
effects at these higher levels, and the 2012 ‘‘BioInitiative’
consensus [19] collated and summarized many of them.
However, very few studies tried to define the lowest level at
which electromagnetic waves might start to affect biology.
Bise [20] reported in 1978 that human EEG was changed by
wave amplitudes as low as -100 dBm, with -60 dBm
giving multiple subjects immediate frontal headache. Sadly,
such levels are impossible to replicate in 2016 without the
use of a Faraday cage, as the Electrosmog background levels
in our cities rarely fall below -50 dBm (100,000 times
stronger than the -100 dBm signals used by Bise).
While investigating the report of Gapeev [21] that the
near-field zone of an antenna seemed more biologically active
than the far-field zone, we received reports that 27.12 MHz
signals from our near-field (capacitive wave) antenna, similar
in design to Figure 9 of Sacco and Tomilin [22], could be
sensed by patients, but not by healthy individuals. This
occurred at levels around -90 dBm, levels below wideband
thermal noise. Even though Bise reported human responses at
similarly low levels, our observation needs independent
replication before we would claim it as definitive.
However, the BioInitiative report noted ‘‘At least five
new cell tower studies are reporting bioeffects in the range
of 0.003–0.05 lW/cm
researchers report headaches, con-
centration difficulties and behavioral problems in children
and adolescents; and sleep disturbances, headaches and
concentration problems in adults.’’ This level corresponds
to -36 dBm, an exposure frequently being reported by
slow responders in our olmesartan immunostimulation
follow-up cohort. After consultation, and some initial data
gathering with electromagnetic level meters, we decided to
suggest that these slow responders might be wise to take
steps to protect themselves from Electrosmog.
The sleeping caps case series
Patients began to initiate protection by purchasing com-
mercially available shielded clothing and tenting from
retailers. This clothing typically has silver-coated polyester
threads interwoven with the supporting fabric so that the
Fig. 3 A plot (from the Gromacs g_hbond software) of the instan-
taneous number of hydrogen bonds formed between 1,25-D and the
VDR sampled every 37.5 femtoseconds during the first 2250 ps of
VDR activation
Fig. 4 A fast Fourier transform of the hydrogen bond data from
Fig. 2
Just as there are many units of measurement for ionizing radiation,
so there are many ways of measuring non-ionizing electromagnetic
radiation. For ionizing, one can choose dose units of Rad, Grey,
Roentgen, Rem, Sieverts and the common dps (disintegrations per
second, often metered as counts per minute). For non-ionizing, one
can use Volts/metre as a measure of field strength, Watts/metre
Decibels relative to 1 mW (dBm). The authors usually use dBm, as,
being logarithmic, the dBm measure can easily denote wide variations
in field strengths (it is easier to visualize -7 0dBm than ‘0.002 V/
m’’). Once the wave’s frequency is known, it is simple to convert
between each non-ionizing unit of measurement.
132 Environment and Autoimmunity (2017) 65:129–135
Content courtesy of Springer Nature, terms of use apply. Rights reserved.
garment is capable of partially blocking microwave Elec-
trosmog (see Fig. 5).
We quickly realized that frequent anecdotal reports of
symptomatic improvement, especially when the brain and
brain stem were ‘‘shielded’’ during sleep, warranted stan-
dardization with a garment whose electromagnetic shield-
ing performance could be more easily analyzed and
optimized. ‘‘Sleeping caps’’ (Fig. 6) were sewn and, upon
informed request, distributed free of charge to members of
our follow-up olmesartan cohort. A total of 64 patients took
part in this case series, with a variety of immune diagnoses
including arthritis, lupus, multiple sclerosis, sjogrens and
celiac. As these patients were all ill, many undergoing
olmesartan treatment with therapeutic intent, we decided
that ethical considerations precluded the distribution of
‘placebo caps’’ without the silver threads.
We decided to make the reporting task minimally
onerous by asking patients to initially wear the cap once
for 4 h during sleeping and once for 4 h during normal
activity (many are house-bound). We sought patient-re-
ported outcomes (PRO) of whether the garment had ‘‘No
Effect,’’ a ‘‘Weak Effect,’’ a ‘‘Definite Effect’’ or a
‘Strong Effect,’’ regardless of whether the effect was
good or bad (Fig. 7).
A full 90 % of the 64 patients reported a ‘‘Definite’’ or
‘Strong’’ change in their symptoms. This compares with
the 3 % incidence for electromagnetic hypersensitivity
typically expected in the population as a whole [23].
While a placebo or nocebo effect might be expected to
bias our PRO data, follow-up reports have indicated a
durable response over many months. Additionally, Dieu-
donne [24] has questioned the likelihood of nocebo cau-
sation in EHS.
Immunopathology from Electrosmog
When the Electrosmog in a patient’s environment is
reduced, the immune system tends to become more active.
This may result in immunopathology. Indeed, some
patients have reported a surge in disease symptoms,
occasionally an intolerable surge, after WiFi routers and
cell phones have been switched off in their homes. Others
have reported that travel to a very quiet area, such as a
remote canyon, caused a surge in their immune symptoms.
While further research is needed to clarify these reac-
tions, autoimmune patients seem predisposed to Electros-
mog hypersensitivity at levels currently existing in typical
home and work environments, and this factor may be
affecting their therapeutic response.
Fig. 5 A X20 micrograph of a microwave-blocking fabric woven
with a mesh of silver-coated polyester strands among the supporting
bamboo fibers
Fig. 7 Abar chart of the 64 PRO patient responses reporting
whether there was no change in symptoms from wearing the cap for
4 h during sleep and work, or a weak, definite, or strong change
Fig. 6 A photograph of a sleeping cap sewn from the microwave-
shielding fabric
Environment and Autoimmunity (2017) 65:129–135 133
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The experiments described in this paper confirm that bio-
logical molecules are constantly moving and interact with
timescales measured in picoseconds. As a result, forces will
be exerted on the charged atoms within these molecules by
incident electromagnetic fields, including Electrosmog.
There is no reason to suspect that a pulsed electro-
magnetic wave of 1 ls duration (1000 times slower than a
typical molecular response) might cause any less damage
to biology than a continuous wave of the same magnitude.
It is therefore important to have very-fast-acting peak-
reading signal level meters when measuring the biological
interaction potential of electromagnetic waves.
Much of the research literature in this field is criticized
as not being sufficiently authoritative because experiments
have not been conducted under the current pragma of
placebo control and simplistic (p=0.05) analysis of
results. Research in this area will only move forward when
critics start to examine qualitative study outcomes—for
example, observations which might indicate that a Faraday
cage should have been an element of a study’s experi-
mental methodology, or that a 2–3 days acclimatization or
immune—washout might have changed the study results.
Furthermore, it seems likely that signals a million times
lower than those currently being used in research may be
sufficient to elicit a tangible change in human biology. In
order to better understand the amplitude at which bioeffects
become apparent, it is important that experimental guide-
lines be delineated which ensure that Electrosmog does not
confound a study’s results.
Finally, we need to plan how to handle subjects whose
symptoms become untenable (due to immunopathology)
during acclimatization to an Electrosmog-quiet environ-
ment, or during immune washout. We cannot ignore the
increasing body of evidence showing electromagnetic
effects on the immune system. The ‘‘controversial’’ nature of
electromagnetic hypersensitivity will not diminish until we
grasp the complexity of the task we face in defining exactly
how electromagnetic waves interact with human biology.
Acknowledgments The authors wish to thank Joyful Smith, Amy
Proal and Paul Albert for their assistance, Tsjerk A. Wassenaar for
helping with Gromacs internals, the Drug Design Laboratory at the
University of Milan for its Vega-ZZ software, and Greg P. Blaney
MD (recently deceased) for having worked tirelessly on our project.
Funding This study was supported by the Autoimmunity Research
Foundation, an IRS 501(c)3 charitable nonprofit organization.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest The authors have no conflicts of interest to
Ethical approval The authors state that they have obtained appro-
priate institutional review board approval or have followed the prin-
ciples outlined in the Declaration of Helsinki for all human or animal
experimental investigations. In addition, for investigations involving
human subjects, informed consent has been obtained from the par-
ticipants involved.
Informed consent Informed consent has been obtained from the
participants involved.
Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the
Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://, which permits unrestricted
use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give
appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a
link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were
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Supplementary resource (1)

... The smaller the wavelength, the higher the energy density per wavelength unit. In this case, with MMW it is about 25 times higher than with cell technology microwaves [258]. This means MMW are capable of resulting in significant damage throughout the biome, including possibly to all flora and fauna present, but not due to wavelength alone. ...
... Millimeter wave energy, with the very small wavelengths associated with such high-frequency radiation, couples maximally with human skin tissue. Because of this efficient skin coupling, beneficial/therapeutic effects have been known for decades, especially in former Soviet Union countries, from short-term MMW exposures, while longer exposures have produced potentially adverse effects [258,269,281,282]. ...
Ambient levels of electromagnetic fields (EMF) have risen sharply in the last 80 years, creating a novel energetic exposure that previously did not exist. Most recent decades have seen exponential increases in nearly all environments, including rural/remote areas and lower atmospheric regions. Because of unique physiologies, some species of flora and fauna are sensitive to exogenous EMF in ways that may surpass human reactivity. There is limited, but comprehensive, baseline data in the U.S. from the 1980s against which to compare significant new surveys from different countries. This now provides broader and more precise data on potential transient and chronic exposures to wildlife and habitats. Biological effects have been seen broadly across all taxa and frequencies at vanishingly low intensities comparable to today’s ambient exposures. Broad wildlife effects have been seen on orientation and migration, food finding, reproduction, mating, nest and den building, territorial maintenance and defense, and longevity and survivorship. Cyto- and geno-toxic effects have been observed. The above issues are explored in three consecutive parts: Part 1 questions today’s ambient EMF capabilities to adversely affect wildlife, with more urgency regarding 5G technologies. Part 2 explores natural and man-made fields, animal magnetoreception mechanisms, and pertinent studies to all wildlife kingdoms. Part 3 examines current exposure standards, applicable laws, and future directions. It is time to recognize ambient EMF as a novel form of pollution and develop rules at regulatory agencies that designate air as ‘habitat’ so EMF can be regulated like other pollutants. Wildlife loss is often unseen and undocumented until tipping points are reached. Long-term chronic low-level EMF exposure standards, which do not now exist, should be set accordingly for wildlife, and environmental laws should be strictly enforced.
... Therefore, a chaos wave can be created, that generates a real electromagnetic field in the space in which we survive. In this context, we recall the well-known concerns about the harmful effects of medical systems and, more recently, towards smartphones and other portable devices, with wireless equipment, worn very close to the users body (Trevor et al, 2016;Walker et al., 2014). Admitting that the animal body is sensitive to extremely weak electromagnetic fields also involves generating a specific response to their action, including an information component (Munteanuet al., 2010). ...
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The large-scale assessment of the effects of ambient electromagnetic radiation on human, animal and plant health requires the coverage of large areas, which still exceed the capacity of conventional measurement methods.The aim of this study was to monitor the potential of electromagnetic pollution of some devices and systems used in medical procedures for diagnosis and veterinary therapy, in order to apply measures to protect staff and patients. The investigations consisted of the comparative monitoring of the electrosmog in six enclosures equipped with devices and veterinary medical equipment. The measurements were performed in three spectra of electromagnetic waves. The recorded values were the basis for assessing the polluting impact of the following devices: a surgical aspirator, two operating tables, an electrocautery, an automatic injector, an X-ray system, a computed tomography and a defibrillator. The analysis of the recorded values revealed the achievement of the maximum levels of the electrosmog around the telescopic tables and the automatic injectors. Roentgen and CT systems have proven to be less polluting, due to being designed and manufactured with efficient protection features. In conclusion, we propose the application of passive and active protection measures in rooms with high potential for electromagnetic pollution.
... "Electromagnetic radiation is among the potential pollutants with an ability to affect wildlife adversely." (Balmori, 2014, p.315) Electrosmog refere-se às ondas eletromagnéticas que nos cercam no meio ambiente onde estamos presentes como, por exemplo, quando estamos a ver televisão, ouvir radio, quando atendemos chamadas no telemóvel ou enviamos mensagens, quando utilizamos GPS enquanto conduzimos ou quando usamos os equipamentos eletrónicos sem fios que temos WiFi (Marshall & Heil, 2017). ...
... In 2016, the European Academy for Environmental Medicine (EUROPAEM) published new guidelines [Oberfeld et al., 2016] for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of EMF-related health problems and illnesses, a confirmation that such issues are real and potentially harmful. Effects include damage to mitochondrial structure and function [Hao et al., 2015], neuron degeneration, blood barrier permeation in rat brain [Poulletier de Gannes et al., 2017], or even suppression of the murine immune system [Trevor and Rumann, 2017]. ...
The morphophysiological response of Phaseolus vulgaris L. to low‐power electromagnetic radiation was investigated in order to assess the potential harmful effects of long‐term continuous exposure. The plants were grown in two separate electromagnetic field (EMF) shielded rooms, in a controlled, greenhouse‐like environment. One batch was continuously irradiated during the growth period (from sowing to maturity) and the other one was used as a reference. An unmodulated signal at 915 MHz (the central frequency between the uplink and downlink of the GSM900 mobile communications band) was used, with a maximum power density of 10 mW/m2 measured near the plants. The plants were analyzed using ultraviolet–visible, statistical, morphometric, and electron microscopy methods. Significant differences were observed regarding the height of the plants, number of inflorescences, and chlorophyll and carotenoid content, all closely connected with the ultrastructural changes observed in the leaves. The irradiated batch grew higher (19% increase in plant height, 20% increase in stem and leaves' dry mass), with 18% fewer inflorescences, and extremely long roots (34% increase in dry mass). The ultrastructure of the irradiated leaves showed irregular cells and a higher content of plastoglobules in the chloroplasts. All results indicate that the irradiated plants suffered significant morphological modifications during their long‐term exposure to the specific EM radiation. Bioelectromagnetics.
... Another option of (partial) clothe shielding is wearing metal grid caps (called "sleeping caps") on the head during sleep or even during the daytime. A recent article reported that from 64 EHS patients who were asked to wear metal grid caps on their heads for 4 h during sleep and for another 4 h during normal activity, 90% reported a "definite or strong change in their symptoms" (Marshall and Rumann Heil, 2017). This article did not include statistical analysis, there was no control cap without metal grid to test for a possible placebo effect, and did not report whether the "change in the symptoms" was an improvement or worsening. ...
Due to the continuous rising ambient levels of nonionizing electromagnetic fields (EMFs) used in modern societies-primarily from wireless technologies-that have now become a ubiquitous biologically active environmental pollutant, a new vision on how to regulate such exposures for non-human species at the ecosystem level is needed. Government standards adopted for human exposures are examined for applicability to wildlife. Existing environmental laws, such as the National Environmental Policy Act and the Migratory Bird Treaty Act in the U.S. and others used in Canada and throughout Europe, should be strengthened and enforced. New laws should be written to accommodate the ever-increasing EMF exposures. Radiofrequency radiation exposure standards that have been adopted by worldwide agencies and governments warrant more stringent controls given the new and unusual signaling characteristics used in 5G technology. No such standards take wildlife into consideration. Many species of flora and fauna, because of distinctive physiologies, have been found sensitive to exogenous EMF in ways that surpass human reactivity. Such exposures may now be capable of affecting endogenous bioelectric states in some species. Numerous studies across all frequencies and taxa indicate that low-level EMF exposures have numerous adverse effects, including on orientation, migration, food finding, reproduction, mating, nest and den building, territorial maintenance, defense, vitality, longevity, and survivorship. Cyto- and geno-toxic effects have long been observed. It is time to recognize ambient EMF as a novel form of pollution and develop rules at regulatory agencies that designate air as 'habitat' so EMF can be regulated like other pollutants. Wildlife loss is often unseen and undocumented until tipping points are reached. A robust dialog regarding technology's high-impact role in the nascent field of electroecology needs to commence. Long-term chronic low-level EMF exposure standards should be set accordingly for wildlife, including, but not limited to, the redesign of wireless devices, as well as infrastructure, in order to reduce the rising ambient levels (explored in Part 1). Possible environmental approaches are discussed. This is Part 3 of a three-part series.
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Earlier animal studies have provided evidence that non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) may be caused by exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation. This was recently confirmed by the U.S. National Toxicology (NTP) study that showed an increased incidence of malignant lymphoma in female mice exposed to the GSM modulated or the CDMA modulated cell phone RF radiation. Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare malignancy in humans with poor prognosis. An increasing incidence has been reported in recent years. Based on a case-report we present the hypothesis that use of the hand-held mobile phone may be a risk factor for PCNSL. The increasing incidence of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in Sweden is discussed in relation to etiologic factors.
E-Textiles have gained enormous attention due to their specific characteristics in various non-conventional applications such as electromagnetic shielding materials. With the advent of various high frequency-driven devices, the need to restrict the non-ionizing radiations from their undesired effects became imperative. Due to the ease of production, better electrical conductivity and durability, the conductive hybrid cover yarns with continuous metallic filaments have earned its place as the most convenient form of yarns to develop E-textiles. However, controlling the amount of conducting material in yarns poses a challenge as the increase in size of the metallic filaments are associated with reduced electromagnetic shielding effectiveness due to increased stiffness of yarns, which resists in proper interlacement and hence causes openness in fabrics. The proposed design of conductive hybrid cover yarns is proven to have better tensile properties and modulus, therefore this design is more suitable to produced fabrics with higher cover factors. The amount of conducting material in the proposed design increased significantly without changing the size of the continuous filaments. Moreover, 99.9% shielding effectiveness is achieved with this increased metal content in fabrics in S-band and partly C-band microwave frequencies.
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We examined (a) the expression of the antioxidative factor glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and the transcription factor nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) following low-dose X-irradiation in endothelial cells (ECs) and (b) the impact of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Nrf2 on functional properties of ECs to gain further knowledge about the anti-inflammatory mode of action of low doses of ionizing radiation. EA.hy926 ECs and primary human dermal microvascular ECs (HMVEC) were stimulated by tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, 20 ng/ml) 4 h before irradiation with single doses ranging from 0.3 to 3 Gy. The expression and activity of GPx and Nrf2 were analyzed by flow cytometry, colorimetric assays, and real-time PCR. The impact of ROS and Nrf2 on peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) adhesion was assayed in the presence of the ROS scavenger N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) and Nrf2 activator AI-1. Following a low-dose exposure, we observed in EA.hy926 EC and HMVECs a discontinuous expression and enzymatic activity of GPx concomitant with a lowered expression and DNA binding activity of Nrf2 that was most pronounced at a dose of 0.5 Gy. Scavenging of ROS by NAC and activation of Nrf2 by AI-1 significantly diminished a lowered adhesion of PBMC to EC at a dose of 0.5 Gy. Low-dose irradiation resulted in a nonlinear expression and activity of major compounds of the antioxidative system that might contribute to anti-inflammatory effects in stimulated ECs.
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Low-frequency collective vibrational modes in proteins have been proposed as being responsible for efficiently directing biochemical reactions and biological energy transport. However, evidence of the existence of delocalized vibrational modes is scarce and proof of their involvement in biological function absent. Here we apply extremely sensitive femtosecond optical Kerr-effect spectroscopy to study the depolarized Raman spectra of lysozyme and its complex with the inhibitor triacetylchitotriose in solution. Underdamped delocalized vibrational modes in the terahertz frequency domain are identified and shown to blue-shift and strengthen upon inhibitor binding. This demonstrates that the ligand-binding coordinate in proteins is underdamped and not simply solvent-controlled as previously assumed. The presence of such underdamped delocalized modes in proteins may have significant implications for the understanding of the efficiency of ligand binding and protein-molecule interactions, and has wider implications for biochemical reactivity and biological function.
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Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS)/myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) has long been associated with the presence of infectious agents, but no single pathogen has been reliably identified in all patients with the disease. Recent studies using metagenomic techniques have demonstrated the presence of thousands of microbes in the human body that were previously undetected and unknown to science. More importantly, such species interact together by sharing genes and genetic function within communities. It follows that searching for a singular pathogen may greatly underestimate the microbial complexity potentially driving a complex disease like CFS/ME. Intracellular microbes alter the expression of human genes in order to facilitate their survival. We have put forth a model describing how multiple species-bacterial, viral, and fungal-can cumulatively dysregulate expression by the VDR nuclear receptor in order to survive and thus drive a disease process. Based on this model, we have developed an immunostimulatory therapy that is showing promise inducing both subjective and objective improvement in patients suffering from CFS/ME.
Cambridge Core - General and Classical Physics - Electricity and Magnetism - by Edward M. Purcell
Conference Paper
Background and objectives Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the joints. For RA treatment, primarily drugs are used. However additional pain relieve is achieved when RA patients are treated either locally with low doses of sparsely ionising photons or by exposure to Radon. Main contributors to the inflammatory state in RA are adipokines, mainly produced by adipose tissue. To assess the effect of low radiation doses, we measured levels of adipokines in serum of patients with musculoskeletal diseases during Radon treatment. In additional in vitro experiments, we examined whether irradiation modifies the effects of recombinant adipokines on the expression of inflammatory and bone destructive factors in synovial fibroblasts (SF), key players in RA. Material and methods Serum samples were collected from patients before and after treatment with radon baths. Adipokine levels were measured by ELISA. Human SF from RA patients (RASF) and healthy donors (NSF) were pretreated with adipokines for 24h prior to irradiation with X-rays, and cell supernatants were collected after 24h to measure inflammatory factors known to contribute to the inflammatory process in RA (IL-6, IL-8, MMP-1). Results In the serum of patients, a significant decrease of the level of the adipokine visfatin was observed after therapy. The level of adiponectin was either reduced or unchanged, and no marked difference was observed for leptin. The results obtained in vitro using primary SF confirm the induction of proinflammatory factors by stimulation with adipokines. Irradiation of SF after treatment with adipokines, in turn, significantly reduces the expression of inflammatory factors. Conclusion Our data show for the first time a reduction of adipokine levels in serum of Radon treated patients. Since it is known that an elevated visfatin level positively correlates with serum levels of inflammatory factors IL-6 and CRP in RA patients, we hypothesise, that the decrease in serum visfatin level after low-dose irradiation affects the inflammatory process in the joint. Our in vitro results suggest the release of inflammatory factors after adipokine stimulation in both NSF and RASF can be reduced by low-dose X-ray irradiation, therefore potentially inhibiting inflammation in the joint of RA patients.
Purpose During the last three decades, the number of devices that emit non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation (EMR) at the wireless communication spectrum has rapidly increased and possible effects on living organisms have become a major concern. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of radiofrequency EMR emitted by a widely used wireless communication device, namely the Digital Enhanced Communication Telephony (DECT) base, on the immune responses of the Aegean wall lizard (Podarcis erhardii). Materials and methods Adult male lizards were exposed 24 h/day for 8 weeks to 1880-1900 MHz DECT base radiation at average electric field intensity of 3.2 V/m. Immune reactivity was assessed using the phytohemagglutinin (PHA) skin swelling and mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) tests. Results Our results revealed a noticeable suppression (approximately 45%) of inflammatory responses in EMR-exposed lizards compared to sham-exposed animals. T cell-mediated responses were marginally affected. Conclusion Daily radiofrequency EMR exposure seems to affect, at least partially, the immunocompetence of the Aegean wall lizard.
Idiopathic Environmental Intolerance attributed to Electromagnetic Fields (IEI-EMF) is a condition in which symptoms are attributed to electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure. As electro-hypersensitive (EHS) people have repeatedly been observed, during provocation trials, to report symptoms following perceived rather than actual exposure, the hypothesis has been put forward that IEI-EMF originates from psychological mechanisms, especially nocebo responses. This paper examines this hypothesis, using data from a qualitative study aimed at understanding how EHS people come to regard themselves as such. Forty self-diagnosed EHS people were interviewed. A typified model of their attribution process was then elaborated, inductively, from their narratives. This model is linear and composed of seven stages: (1) onset of symptoms; (2) failure to find a solution; (3) discovery of EHS; (4) gathering of information about EHS; (5) implicit appearance of conviction; (6) experimentation; (7) conscious acceptance of conviction. Overall, symptoms appear before subjects start questioning effects of EMF on their health, which is not consistent with the hypothesis that IEI-EMF originates from nocebo responses to perceived EMF exposure. However, such responses might occur at the sixth stage of the process, potentially reinforcing the attribution. It remains possible that some cases of IEI-EMF originate from other psychological mechanisms. Bioelectromagnetics. 2015;9999:XX–XX. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
The human body is a superorganism in which thousands of microbial genomes continually interact with the human genome. A range of physical and neurological inflammatory diseases are now associated with shifts in microbiome composition. Seemingly disparate inflammatory conditions may arise from similar disruption of microbiome homeostasis. Intracellular pathogens long associated with inflammatory disease are able to slow the innate immune response by dysregulating activity of the VDR nuclear receptor. This facilitates the ability of other species to gradually accumulate in tissue and blood, where they generate proteins and metabolites that significantly interfere with the body's metabolic processes. The microbes that contribute to this dysfunction are often inherited from family members. Immunosuppressive therapies for inflammatory disease allow pathogens driving these processes to spread with greater ease. In contrast to immunosuppression, treatments that stimulate the immune system seem to allow for reversal of this pathogen-induced genomic dysregulation.
Purpose of review: To demonstrate how dysbiosis of the human microbiome can drive autoimmune disease. Recent findings: Humans are superorganisms. The human body harbors an extensive microbiome, which has been shown to differ in patients with autoimmune diagnoses. Intracellular microbes slow innate immune defenses by dysregulating the vitamin D nuclear receptor, allowing pathogens to accumulate in tissue and blood. Molecular mimicry between pathogen and host causes further dysfunction by interfering with human protein interactions. Autoantibodies may well be created in response to pathogens. Summary: The catastrophic failure of human metabolism observed in autoimmune disease results from a common underlying pathogenesis - the successive accumulation of pathogens into the microbiome over time, and the ability of such pathogens to dysregulate gene transcription, translation, and human metabolic processes. Autoimmune diseases are more likely passed in families because of the inheritance of a familial microbiome, rather than Mendelian inheritance of genetic abnormalities. We can stimulate innate immune defenses and allow patients to target pathogens, but cell death results in immunopathology.