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Abstract

Instrumental or goal-directed aggression is a core feature in violent offenders with psychopathic tendencies. To understand this type of behavior, previous work in the field of aggression has focused on affective processing, with mixed results. We propose that instrumental aggression is best understood in terms of the consequences of affective processing for instrumental behavior rather than affective processing per se. Therefore, we assessed the degree of affective biasing of instrumental action in a group of violent offenders with psychopathic tendencies and healthy controls using a validated affective decision-making task. Participants learned whole body approach-avoidance actions upon instrumental targets based on monetary feedback, while being primed by aversive versus appetitive facial stimuli. Unlike controls, instrumental behavior in violent offenders was not influenced by the affective stimuli. Specifically, violent offenders showed reduced instrumental avoidance in the context of aversive (vs. appetitive) stimuli relative to controls. This finding suggests that reduced affective biasing of instrumental behavior may underlie the behavioral anomalies observed in violent offenders with psychopathic tendencies. More generally, the finding underscores the relevance of examining the interaction between affect and instrumental behavior for a better understanding of dysfunctional behaviors in psychiatric populations.

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... Pathological forms of aggression as in psychopathy were investigated both in violent offenders and as continuous trait in more diverse samples. In violent offenders, avoidance behaviors towards angry faces seem to be diminished (Ly et al., 2016). This absence of avoidance behavior was related to self-reported instrumental aggression and the inability to feel personal distress when observing another's negative experiences (Louise von Borries et al., 2012). ...
... Examples could again be the aforementioned elevated plus maze in which natural movements are observed (Biedermann et al., 2017) or an open field test that was employed using real life GPS-tracking (Walz et al., 2016). Similarly, whole body movements to position oneself in relation to given stimuli could be used (Ly et al., 2016). Other tasks that need a less complicated experimental setup create approach-avoidance conflicts through risk-reward paradigms. ...
Article
FRICKE, K. and S. Vogel. How interindividual differences shape approach-avoidance behavior: Relating self-report and diagnostic measures of interindividual differences to behavioral measurements of approach and avoidance. NEUROSCI BIOBEHAV REV XX(X) XXX-XXX, XXXX. -Responding to stimuli in ambiguous environments is partially governed by approach-avoidance tendencies. Imbalances in these approach-avoidance behaviors are implicated in many mental disorders including anxiety disorders, phobias and substance use disorders. While factors biasing human behavior in approach-avoidance conflicts have been researched in numerous experiments, a much-needed comprehensive overview integrating those findings is missing. Here, we systematically searched the existing literature on individual differences in task-based approach-avoidance behavior and aggregated the current evidence for the effect of self-reported approach/avoidance traits, anxiety and anxiety disorders, specific phobias, depression, aggression, anger and psychopathy, substance use and related disorders, eating disorders and habits, trauma, acute stress and, finally, hormone levels (mainly testosterone, oxytocin). We highlight consistent findings, underrepresented research areas and unexpected results, and detail the amount of controversy between studies. We discuss potential reasons for ambiguous results in some research areas, offer practical advice for future studies and highlight potential variables such as task-related researcher decisions that may influence how interindividual differences and disorders drive automatic approach-avoidance biases in behavioral experiments.
... The psychopathic patients showed no alterations in facial expression recognition, and the lack of avoidance in response to angry faces in psychopaths was associated with self-reported instrumental aggression levels (Von Borries et al. 2012). Together, this may suggest that it is not the face processing itself but the translation from affect to action that is altered in psychopathy (see also Ly et al. 2016). Usually, the altered approach-avoidance tendencies in social psychopathologies are found when angry faces are presented with direct gaze and not with averted gaze, indicating that the anger has to be directed toward the subject to elicit avoidance tendencies and indicating that the elicited avoidance is not simply the result of a stimulus-response compatibility effect (Roelofs et al. 2010;Von Borries et al. 2012). ...
... Affective biasing of instrumental behavior is generally adaptive, and abnormalities in these processes have been associated with psychiatric disorders (Damasio 1997). For example, using a PIT-like paradigm, task-irrelevant happy and angry faces influenced approaching and avoiding whole-body movements to obtain a reward in healthy controls, but not in violent offenders with psychopathic tendencies (Ly et al. 2016(Ly et al. , 2014 The AAT tests the arbitration between automatic affective reactions and instrumental behavior. The task is subdivided into two conditions: an affect-congruent condition, in which participants are required to make approaching movements toward positive stimuli and avoiding movements toward negative stimuli, and an affect-incongruent condition, which requires the exact opposite, i.e., avoiding movements when a positive stimulus is presented and approaching movements when a negative stimulus is presented. ...
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The ability to control our automatic action tendencies is crucial for adequate social interactions. Emotional events trigger automatic approach and avoidance tendencies. Although these actions may be generally adaptive, the capacity to override these emotional reactions may be key to flexible behavior during social interaction. The present chapter provides a review of the neuroendocrine mechanisms underlying this ability and their relation to social psychopathologies. Aberrant social behavior, such as observed in social anxiety or psychopathy, is marked by abnormalities in approach–avoidance tendencies and the ability to control them. Key neural regions involved in the regulation of approach–avoidance behavior are the amygdala, widely implicated in automatic emotional processing, and the anterior prefrontal cortex, which exerts control over the amygdala. Hormones, especially testosterone and cortisol, have been shown to affect approach–avoidance behavior and the associated neural mechanisms. The present chapter also discusses ways to directly influence social approach and avoidance behavior and will end with a research agenda to further advance this important research field. Control over approach–avoidance tendencies may serve as an exemplar of emotional action regulation and might have a great value in understanding the underlying mechanisms of the development of affective disorders.
... Using the ADMT, Ly et al. (2016) examined affective decision-making in 37 violent offenders with a history of psychiatric disorders and 19 controls with no criminal record or history of mental disorder. Results showed control participants avoided angry faces, but violent offenders did not. ...
Article
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Decision-making has many different definitions and is measured in varied ways using neuropsychological tasks. Offenders with mental disorder habitually make disadvantageous decisions, but no study has systematically appraised the literature. This review aimed to clarify the field by bringing together different neuropsychological measures of decision-making, and using meta-analysis and systematic review to explore the performance of offenders with mental disorders on neuropsychological tasks of decision-making. A structured search of PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, Medline, Cinahl was conducted with additional hand searching and grey literature consulted. Controlled studies of decision-making in offenders with evidence of any mental disorder, including a validated measure of decision-making were included. Total score on each relevant decision-making task was collated. Twenty-three studies met inclusion criteria (n = 1820), and 10 studies (with 15 experiments) were entered into the meta-analysis (n = 841). All studies included in the meta-analysis used the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) to measure decision-making. Systematic review findings from individual studies showed violent offenders made poorer decisions than matched offender groups or controls. An omnibus meta-analysis was computed to examine performance on IGT in offenders with mental disorder compared with controls. Additionally, two sub-group meta-analyses were computed for studies involving offenders with personality disorder and psychopathy, and recidivists who were convicted of Driving While Intoxicated (DWI). Individual studies not included in the meta-analysis partially supported the view that offenders make poorer decisions. However, the meta-analyses showed no significant differences in performance on IGT between the offender groups and controls. Further research is required to ascertain whether offenders with mental disorder have difficulty in making advantageous decisions. An analysis of cause and effect and various directions for future work are recommended to help understand the underpinning of these findings. Trial Registration: CRD42018088402.
... In general, freezing is considered adaptive as it optimizes attentional processes and prepares the organism to actively cope with acute stress [5][6][7]. Accumulative evidence suggests that freezing, as measured via reductions in postural sway and heart rate, can be induced in human subjects in a laboratory setting using aversive stimuli in a passive viewing task [8][9][10][11][12][13].These findings are robust; passively viewing a1111111111 a1111111111 a1111111111 a1111111111 a1111111111 chose this population as the target group for the current study given their experience with directing emergency activities, which requires rapid decision making in emergency situations. Twenty experienced and 20 inexperienced fire officers were preselected based on the number of big fires they have coordinated in their current rank (! 4 for the experienced firefighters, and 3 for the inexperienced firefighters). ...
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Freezing is a defensive response to acute stress that is associated with coping and alterations in attentional processing. However, it remains unclear whether individuals in high risk professions, who are skilled at making rapid decisions in emergency situations, show altered threat-induced freezing. Here we investigated the effect of incident experience in a high risk profession on freezing. Additionally, we explored whether any effect of incident experience on freezing would be different for profession-related and -unrelated threat. Forty experienced and inexperienced firefighters were presented neutral, pleasant, related-unpleasant, and unrelated-unpleasant pictures in a passive viewing task. Postural sway and heart rate were assessed to determine freezing. Both postural and heart rate data evidenced reduced freezing upon unpleasant pictures in the experienced versus the inexperienced group. Relatedness of the unpleasant pictures did not modulate these effects. These findings indicate that higher incident experience relates to decreased threat-induced freezing, at least in a passive task context. This might suggest that primary defense responses are malleable through experience. Finally, these findings demonstrate the potential of using animal to human translational approaches to investigate defensive behaviors in relation to incident experience in high risk professions and stimulate future research on the role of freezing in resilience and coping.
Article
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Psychopathic individuals are notorious for their controlled goal-directed aggressive behavior. Yet, during social challenges, they often show uncontrolled emotional behavior. Healthy individuals can control their social emotional behavior through anterior prefrontal cortex (aPFC) downregulation of neural activity in the amygdala, with testosterone modulating aPFC-amygdala coupling. This study tests whether individual differences in this neuroendocrine system relate to the paradoxical lack of emotional control observed in human psychopathic offenders. Emotional control was operationalized with an fMRI-adapted approach-avoidance task requiring rule-driven control over rapid emotional responses. Fifteen psychopathic offenders and 19 matched healthy control subjects made approaching and avoiding movements in response to emotional faces. Control of social emotional behavior was required during affect-incongruent trials, when participants had to override affect-congruent, automatic action tendencies and select the opposite response. Psychopathic offenders showed less control-related aPFC activity and aPFC-amygdala coupling during trials requiring control of emotional actions, when compared with healthy control subjects. This pattern was particularly pronounced in psychopathic individuals with high endogenous testosterone levels. These findings suggest that reduced prefrontal coordination underlies reduced behavioral control in psychopathic offenders during emotionally provoking situations. Even though the modest sample size warrants replication, the modulatory role of endogenous testosterone on the aPFC-amygdala circuit suggests a neurobiological substrate of individual differences that is relevant for the advancement of treatment and the reduction of recidivism.
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In the present study, we investigated the effect of prior aversive life events on freezing-like responses. Fifty healthy females were presented neutral, pleasant, and unpleasant images from the International Affective Picture System while standing on a stabilometric platform and wearing a polar band to assess body sway and heart rate. In the total sample, only unpleasant pictures elicited reduced body sway and reduced heart rate (freezing). Moreover, participants who had experienced 1 or more aversive life events showed greater reductions in heart rate for unpleasant versus pleasant pictures than those who had experienced no such event. In addition, relative to no-event participants, single-event participants showed reduced body sway to unpleasant pictures, while multiple-event participants showed reduced body sway in response to all picture categories. These results indicate that aversive life events affect automatic freezing responses and may indicate the cumulative effect of multiple trauma. The experimental paradigm presented is a promising method to study freezing as a primary defense response in trauma-related disorders.
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Freezing is a common defensive response in animals threatened by predators. It is characterized by reduced body motion and decreased heart rate (bradycardia). However, despite the relevance of animal defense models in human stress research, studies have not shown whether social threat cues elicit similar freeze-like responses in humans. We investigated body sway and heart rate in 50 female participants while they were standing on a stabilometric force platform and viewing cues that were socially threatening, socially neutral, and socially affiliative (angry, neutral, and happy faces, respectively). Posturographic analyses showed that angry faces (compared with neutral faces and happy faces) induced significant reductions in body sway. In addition, the reduced body sway for angry faces was accompanied by bradycardia and correlated significantly with subjective anxiety. Together, these findings indicate that spontaneous body responses to social threat cues involve freeze-like behavior in humans that mimics animal freeze responses. These findings open avenues for studying human freeze responses in relation to various sociobiological markers and social-affective disorders.
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Despite considerable support for the inter-rater reliability of the Hare Psychopathy Checklist--Revised (PCL-R; Hare, 1991, 2003) in research contexts, there is increasing concern that scores from this instrument may be considerably less stable across examiners in applied contexts, particularly when scoring is based on separate interviews. The present study examines archival data from a sample of imprisoned sex offenders (n = 20) who obtained relatively high PCL-R total scores (> or =25) and were administered this instrument on a second occasion by a different examiner. Intraclass correlations for the total and Factor 2 score were lower than those generally reported in research studies. Of greater concern, Factor 1 scores were only negligibly related to each other (ICC(A,1) = .16). Correcting for potential range restriction among these high scoring individuals resulted in total and Factor 2 score measures of agreement that were somewhat more consistent with published research, but Factor 1 continued to display exceedingly poor agreement across examiners.
Article
The recent development of low-risk imaging technologies, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), have had a significant impact on the investigation of psychopathologies in children and adolescents. This review considers what we can infer from fMRI work regarding the development of conduct disorder (CD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). We make two central assumptions that are grounded in the empirical literature. First, the diagnoses of CD and ODD identify individuals with heterogeneous pathologies; that is, different developmental pathologies can receive a CDD or ODD diagnosis. This is indicated by the comorbidities associated with CD/ODD, some of which appear to be mutually exclusive at the biological level (e.g., posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD] and psychopathic tendencies). Second, two populations of antisocial individuals can be identified: those that show an increased risk for only reactive aggression and those that show an increased risk for both reactive and instrumental aggression. We review the fMRI data indicating that particular comorbidities of CD/ODD (i.e., mood and anxiety conditions such as childhood bipolar disorder and PTSD) are associated with either increased responsiveness of neural regions implicated in the basic response to threat (e.g., the amygdala) or decreased responsiveness in regions of frontal cortex (e.g., ventromedial frontal cortex) that are implicated in the regulation of the basic threat response. We suggest why such pathology would increase the risk for reactive aggression and, in turn, lead to the association with a CD/ODD diagnosis. We also review the literature on psychopathic tendencies, a condition where the individual is at significantly elevated risk for both reactive and instrumental aggression. We show that in individuals with psychopathic tendencies, the functioning of the amygdala in stimulus-reinforcement learning and of the ventromedial frontal cortex in the representation of reinforcement expectancies is impaired. We suggest why such pathology would increase the risk for reactive and instrumental aggression and thus also lead to the association with a CD/ODD diagnosis.
Article
The present experiment was designed to study the physiological basis of the proposition that psychopaths are indifferent to the feelings of others. Young male subjects from a prison population were divided into groups according to their Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) Pd score and then subdivided on the basis of MMPI Welsh Anxiety Scale (WAS) scores. Subjects in each group observed a model exhibiting either mild or severe distress to electric shock. Heart rate and skin conductance were measured over 15 trials in each subject. We hypothesized that the different clinical groups would exhibit different physiological emotional response patterns. The results showed that low-Pd subjects were more autonomically responsive to an emotional stimulus (modeled distress) than high-Pd subjects from the same prison population. Moreover, high-WAS subjects were more responsive than low-WAS subjects. The level of distress exhibited by the model had no effect.
The construction of the Dutch Adult Reading Test (DART) is described. The DART is the Dutch version of the National Adult Reading Test. Both tests consist of a series of words with an irregular pronunciation. The score on the test is a predictor of premorbid intelligence of brain damaged patients. Furthermore, results of reliability and validation studies with the DART are reported. The main findings, which were obtained with the NART, were replicated by the DART. These findings consist of a high correlation (.85) with verbal intelligence in healthy controls (n = 22) and insensitivity to cerebral deterioration in brain damaged and demented patients (n = 53). The test also appeared to be insensitive to cognitive deterioration in a group of psychotic patients (n = 43).
Article
A modified version of the SCID Screen questionnaire covering 103 criteria by means of 124 questions was compared with SCID II interviews in 69 psychiatric patients. The correlation between the number of criteria fulfilled in the SCID II interviews or the questionnaires was 0.84. In the SCID interviews, 54% of the patients had a personality disorder. When the SCID Screen questionnaire was used, 73% had a personality disorder. When the cut-off level for diagnosis was adjusted, the frequency found by means of the SCID screen questionnaire or the interviews was roughly the same, 58% and 54%, respectively. The overall kappa for agreement between the SCID II interviews and questionnaire with adjusted cut-off was 0.78.
Article
There has been growing consensus that children with conduct disorder (CD) constitute a very heterogeneous group containing children who vary substantially on the development, course, and causes of the disorder. While many have recognized the importance of this heterogeneity for developing better causal theories and for developing more effective treatments, there has been little consensus as to the best way to subtype children with CD. In this paper, we review a number of approaches to subtyping, each with some evidence for its validity for certain purposes. We focus on two recent approaches that have great potential for integrating past subtyping approaches and for advancing causal theory. The first approach is the division of children with CD into those with a childhood onset to their severe antisocial behavior and those with an adolescent onset to their behavior. The second approach is to designate children within the childhood-onset group who show callous and unemotional traits, which is analogous to adult conceptualizations of psychopathy. Both approaches help designate children who many show different causal processes underlying their severe aggressive and antisocial behavior, and who may warrant different approaches to treatment.
Article
The authors compared the internal consistency, 1-year temporal stability, and self-informant agreement of ratings of personality trait (NEO Five-Factor Inventory; NEO-FFI; P. T. Costa & R. R. McCrae, 1992) and personality disorder symptom severity (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R Personality Disorders Questionnaire; SCID-II-Q; R. L. Spitzer, J. B. W. Williams, M. Gibbon, & M. First, 1990) in 131 substance-dependent inpatients. Internal consistency coefficients were acceptable to very good for most NEO-FFI and SCID-II-Q scales, and temporal stability correlations were significant for all measures. Agreement between patient and informant ratings was more modest. Substance abuse and depression symptom severity moderated the temporal stability and self-informant agreement of several personality trait and disorder ratings. The authors did not find that the five factors were more reliable than the Axis II symptoms. Issues related to the reliability of personality assessment in multiply diagnosed patients are discussed.
Article
As compared with 15 normal controls, " 'primary' sociopaths showed significantly less 'anxiety' on a questionnaire device, less GSR reactivity to a 'conditioned' stimulus associated with shock, and less avoidance of punished responses on a test of avoidance learning. The 'neurotic' sociopaths scored significantly higher on the Taylor Anxiety Scale and on the Welsh Anxiety Index." Cleckley's descriptive criteria were used. 24 references. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).
Article
Postural sway and heart rate were recorded in young men viewing emotionally engaging pictures. It was hypothesized that they would show a human analog of "freezing" behavior (i.e., immobility and heart rate deceleration) when confronted with a sustained block of unpleasant (mutilation) images, relative to their response to pleasant/arousing (sport action) or neutral (objects) pictures. Volunteers stood on a stabilometric platform during picture viewing. Significantly reduced body sway was recorded during the unpleasant pictures, along with increased mean power frequency (indexing muscle stiffness). Heart rate during unpleasant pictures also showed the expected greater deceleration. This pattern resembles the "freezing" and "fear bradycardia" seen in many species when confronted with threatening stimuli, mediated by neural circuits that promote defensive survival.
Article
Most reinforcement learning models of animal conditioning operate under the convenient, though fictive, assumption that Pavlovian conditioning concerns prediction learning whereas instrumental conditioning concerns action learning. However, it is only through Pavlovian responses that Pavlovian prediction learning is evident, and these responses can act against the instrumental interests of the subjects. This can be seen in both experimental and natural circumstances. In this paper we study the consequences of importing this competition into a reinforcement learning context, and demonstrate the resulting effects in an omission schedule and a maze navigation task. The misbehavior created by Pavlovian values can be quite debilitating; we discuss how it may be disciplined.
Article
Emotion plays a critical role in many contemporary accounts of decision making, but exactly what underlies its influence and how this is mediated in the brain remain far from clear. Here, we review behavioral studies that suggest that Pavlovian processes can exert an important influence over choice and may account for many effects that have traditionally been attributed to emotion. We illustrate how recent experiments cast light on the underlying structure of Pavlovian control and argue that generally this influence makes good computational sense. Corresponding neuroscientific data from both animals and humans implicate a central role for the amygdala through interactions with other brain areas. This yields a neurobiological account of emotion in which it may operate, often covertly, to optimize rather than corrupt economic choice.
A freezing-like posture to pictures of mutilation Reliability of personality disorder symptoms and personality traits in substance-dependent inpatients
  • T M Azevedo
  • E Volchan
  • L A Imbiriba
  • E C Rodrigues
  • J M Oliveira
  • L F Oliveira
  • C D Vargas
Azevedo, T. M., Volchan, E., Imbiriba, L. A., Rodrigues, E. C., Oliveira, J. M., Oliveira, L. F.,... Vargas, C. D. (2005). A freezing-like posture to pictures of mutilation. Psychophysiology, 42, 255–260. http://dx.doi .org/10.1111/j.1469-8986.2005.00287.x Ball, S. A., Rounsaville, B. J., Tennen, H., & Kranzler, H. R. (2001). Reliability of personality disorder symptoms and personality traits in substance-dependent inpatients. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 110, 341–352. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.110.2.341
Psychopathy and the DSM-IV criteria for antisocial personality disorder
  • R D Hare
  • S D Hart
  • T J Harpur
Hare, R. D., Hart, S. D., & Harpur, T. J. (1991). Psychopathy and the DSM-IV criteria for antisocial personality disorder. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100, 391-398. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.100.3 .391
Psychometric evaluation of the Dutch version of the Impulsive
  • W G Kuyck
  • E De Beurs
  • M Barendregt
  • W Van Den Brink
Kuyck, W. G., De Beurs, E., Barendregt, M., & Van den Brink, W. (2013). Psychometric evaluation of the Dutch version of the Impulsive/ Premeditated Aggression Scale (IPAS) in male and female prisoners.
A study of anxiety in the sociopathic personality Misunderstanding analysis of covariance
  • D T G A Lykken
  • J P Chapman
Lykken, D. T. (1957). A study of anxiety in the sociopathic personality. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 55, 6 –10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/ h0047232 Miller, G. A., & Chapman, J. P. (2001). Misunderstanding analysis of covariance. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 110, 40 – 48. http://dx.doi .org/10.1037/0021-843X.110.1.40
De Zelf-Beoordelings Vragenlijst (STAI-DY) De ontwikkeling en validatie van een Nederlandstalige vragenlijst voor het meten van angst. Leuvens Bulletin, Leuvens afgestudeerden in de psychologie en pedagogiek
  • H M Van Der Ploeg
Van der Ploeg, H. M. (1981). De Zelf-Beoordelings Vragenlijst (STAI-DY) De ontwikkeling en validatie van een Nederlandstalige vragenlijst voor het meten van angst. Leuvens Bulletin, Leuvens afgestudeerden in de psychologie en pedagogiek, 30, 189 -199.
Een Nederlandstalige bewerking van de Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, STAI-DY. Lisse, the Netherlands: Swets en Zeitlinger. van Peer
  • Handleiding Bij De Zelf-Beoordelings
  • Zbv J M Vragenlijst
  • K Roelofs
  • M Rotteveel
  • J G Van Dijk
  • P Spinhoven
Handleiding bij de Zelf-Beoordelings Vragenlijst, ZBV. Een Nederlandstalige bewerking van de Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, STAI-DY. Lisse, the Netherlands: Swets en Zeitlinger. van Peer, J. M., Roelofs, K., Rotteveel, M., van Dijk, J. G., Spinhoven, P., ical Psychology, 76, 135–146. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsycho .2007.07.003
The MINI-International Neuropsychiatric Interview: A Short Structured Diagnostic Interview for DSM-IV and ICD-10 Psychiatric Disorders
  • I M Van Vliet
  • H Leroy
  • H J Van Megen
Van Vliet, I. M., Leroy, H., & Van Megen, H. J. M. (2000). The MINI-International Neuropsychiatric Interview: A Short Structured Diagnostic Interview for DSM-IV and ICD-10 Psychiatric Disorders. Dutch version 5.0.0. Leiden, the Netherlands: LUMC.
The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis—II Disorders
  • A Weertman
  • A Arntz
  • M L M Kerkhofs
Weertman, A., Arntz, A., & Kerkhofs, M. L. M. (2000). The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis—II Disorders. Lisse, the Netherlands: Swets & Zeitlinger.
Misunderstanding analysis of covariance
  • G A Miller
  • J P Chapman
Miller, G. A., & Chapman, J. P. (2001). Misunderstanding analysis of covariance. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 110, 40 -48. http://dx.doi .org/10.1037/0021-843X.110.1.40