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Abstract

During the mating season, male vertebrates may face a negative immunomodulation due to the increase of their plasma testosterone levels. These hormonal changes may lead to an increase in the susceptibility to parasitic diseases. During the mating season of 2013, 75 individuals of Lacerta scheriberi in a population breeding at middle elevation were screened for blood parasites, intestinal worms and ectoparasites. The prevalence and intensity of these three types of parasites in the individuals of the study population can be explained by the biology and type of transmission of these parasites and the sexual and behavioral ecology of the host lizard species. Adult male lizards living in humid bushes showed the highest levels of infection by ectoparasites. Even though there was no correlation between tick load and body condition, lizard where ticks were experimentally removed moved longer distances than those from the control group where ticks remain untouched. Moreover, the individuals with more ticks tended to have more intestinal worms. Furthermore, adult males infected by intestinal worms had a worse inflammatory skin reaction than those males without intestinal worms. Otherwise, adult male lizards with worse body condition moved less and had less parasite diversity. In relation with the hematic parasites, only adult individuals with better body condition were infected, suggesting a transmission of the parasite during intra and intersexual interactions. Therefore, these results agree with the idea that sex is costly in this population of the Iberian Schreiber's Green lizard, at least in terms of parasite infection.
XIIICongressoLusoEspanholdeHerpetologia
XIIICongresoLusoEspañoldeHerpetología
XIIIIberianCongressofHerpetology
Aveiro,30/Sep04/Oct2014
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OralCommunications     Morphology&Ecophysiology(Oct1st,17:0019:00h)
¿Porquéescaroelsexo?Unestudioecológicoenunsistemamultiparasitado
RODRIGOMEGÍAPALMA1,JUANANTONIOHERNÁNDEZAGÜERO1,JAVIERMARTÍNEZ2,SANTIAGOMERINO1
1DepartamentodeEcologíaEvolutiva,MuseoNacionaldeCienciasNaturalesCSIC.C/JoséGutiérrezAbascal2,28006Madrid,Spain.
2DepartamentodeMicrobiologíayParasitología,FacultaddeFarmacia,UniversidaddeAlcaládeHenares.28871AlcaládeHenares,
Madrid,Spain.
Durantelaépocadecelo,losmachosdelosvertebradosafrontanunainmunomodulaciónnegativadebidoalincremento
delosnivelesdetestosteronaenplasma.Estoscambioshormonalesconducenaunaumentoenlasusceptibilidada
enfermedadesdetipoparasitario.Enelaño2013,secuantificólapresenciadeectoparásitos,parásitossanguíneose
intestinalesde75individuosenunapoblacióndemediamontañadeLacertaschreiberi.Laprevalenciaeintensidaddeestos
tresgruposdeparásitossepuedeexplicarporlabiologíaytipodetransmisióndeestosparásitosylabiologíasexualyla
ecologíadelcomportamientodelhospedador.Losmachosadultosquehabitabanmásfrecuentementearbustoshigrófilos
presentaronunmayornúmerodeectoparásitos.Apesardequenohemosencontradounacorrelaciónentreelnúmerode
garrapatasylacondiciónfísicadelosindividuos,aquelloslagartosalosqueselesquitaronexperimentalmentelas
garrapatassemovieronmásquelosdelgrupocontrol.Ademáslosindividuosconmayornúmerodegarrapatas,estaban
másfrecuentementeinfectadosporhelmintosintestinales.Estosindividuostambiéntuvieronunarespuestainflamatoria
delapielmenor.Porotraparte,losmachosadultosdemejorcondiciónsemovierondistanciasmáslargasysoportaron
infeccionesporlostrestiposdeparásitosestudiados,mientrasquelosmachosconpeorcondiciónfísicasemovieronmenos
ysoportaronunadiversidaddeparásitosmenor.Porúltimo,enrelaciónconlosparásitossanguíneossóloaquellosmachos
demejorcondiciónfísicaestabaninfectados.Esteresultadosugierequelatransmisióndelosparásitossanguíneosselleva
acaboduranteloscontactosintraeintersexuales.Portanto,losdatosdenuestroestudioconcuerdanconlaideadequeel
sexoescostosoenestapoblacióndelagartoverdinegro,almenosentérminosdeinfecciónporparásitos.
Whyissexcostly?Anecologicalstudyofamultiparasitesystem
Duringthematingseason,malevertebratesmayfaceanegativeimmunomodulationduetotheincreaseoftheirplasma
testosteronelevels.Thesehormonalchangesmayleadtoanincreaseinthesusceptibilitytoparasiticdiseases.Duringthe
matingseasonof2013,75individualsofLacertaschreiberiinapopulationbreedingatmiddleelevationwerescreenedfor
bloodparasites,intestinalwormsandectoparasites.Theprevalenceandintensityofthesethreetypesofparasitesinthe
individualsofthestudypopulationcanbeexplainedbythebiologyandtypeoftransmissionoftheseparasitesandthe
sexualandbehavioralecologyofthehostlizardspecies.Adultmalelizardslivinginhumidbushesshowedthehighest
levelsofinfectionbyectoparasites.Eventhoughtherewasnocorrelationbetweentickloadandbodycondition,lizard
wheretickswereexperimentallyremovedmovedlongerdistancesthanthosefromthecontrolgroupwhereticksremain
untouched.Moreover,theindividualswithmoretickstendedtohavemoreintestinalworms.Furthermore,adultmales
infectedbyintestinalwormshadaworseinflammatoryskinreactionthanthosemaleswithoutintestinalworms.
Otherwise,adultmalelizardswithbetterbodyconditionmovedlongerdistancesintheforestandsupportedthehighest
diversityofparasites,whilemaleswithworsebodyconditionmovedlessandhadlessparasitediversity.Inrelationwith
thehematicparasites,onlyadultindividualswithbetterbodyconditionwereinfected,suggestingatransmissionofthe
parasiteduringintraandintersexualinteractions.Therefore,theseresultsagreewiththeideathatsexiscostlyinthis
populationoftheIberianSchreiber’sGreenlizard,atleastintermsofparasiteinfection.
Lacertaschreiberi,parasite,nematode,tick,hemoparasite,behavioralecology.
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