A Multi-Functional Electrolyte for Lithium-Ion Batteries: II. Boiling Electrochemical Performance

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The high thermal conduction resistances of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) severely limit the effectiveness of conventional external thermal management systems (TMSs). One potential solution is to remove heat locally inside the cell by evaporating a volatile component of a multi-functional electrolyte (MFE). Low boiling point hydrofluoroethers (HFE) were first used by Arai to increase LIB electrolyte flash points, and have been proven to be compatible with LIB chemistry. HFE-7000 and ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC) 1:1 by volume are used to solvate 1.0 M LiTFSI to produce a MFE for the proposed cooling system. In part I, the non-boiling electrochemical performance of the MFE was compared to a carbonate-only electrolyte. The results showed that despite its high volatility, HFE-7000 is a feasible co-solvent for LIBs. In the present study, copper antimonide (Cu2 Sb) and lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4 ) are used in a full cell architecture with the MFE in a custom electrolyte boiling facility. The facility enables direct viewing of the vapor generation within the full cell and characterizes the galvanostatic electrochemical performance. Test results show that the LFP/Cu2 Sb cell is capable of operation even when a portion of the more volatile HFE-7000 is continuously evaporated under an extreme heat flux.

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... Furthermore, a novel system that utilized an internal evaporator with micro-channels incorporated in a thick current collector ( Fig. 6(b)) was investigated by Bandhauer et al. [141] and then applied to their follow-up study for side cooling [142] and edge cooling [143]. Subsequently, they proposed an internal BTM system with the mixture of multi-functional electrolyte and volatile co-solvents [144,145]. However, all these above cooling methods were performed for prismatic cells. ...
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