ArticlePDF Available

Improvement of sexual behavior and semen quality by therapeutic approach and zinc supplementation on Karan Fries

Authors:

Abstract

Sub-fertility is one of the major concerns in crossbred bulls as 42.98% bulls are getting culled due to sub-fertility problems therefore, a study was planned on 18 Karan Fries bulls producing poor quality semen or not mounted. They were randomly grouped into 3 treatment groups of 6 animals each and 2 normal bulls were kept as control. Sexual behavior and semen quality were studied during pre-therapy (1 month), therapy (90 days) and post-therapy (90 days) period. Data were analyzed using ANOVA. During therapy period, first group treated with 10 g of herbal product orally, second group with 0.0082 mg of GnRH intramuscularly at 10 days interval and third group with 80 ppm of zinc for 90 days for each group. The results depicted that herbal and GnRH treatment significantly reduced the reaction time, whereas herbal, GnRH treatment and zinc supplementation significantly improved the libido score and reduced per cent of non-mounts during the therapy and post-therapy period. The volume of semen and level of testosterone improved in all treatments groups. Herbal, GnRH treatment and zinc supplementation increased the average number of good and medium quality ejaculates/month/bull and maximum efficiency achieved during the treatment period. There was increase in percent live sperm and decrease in abnormality in herbal treated and zinc supplemented group. Therefore, it can be concluded that GnRH therapy, herbal treatment and zinc supplementation will be effective to overcome the sub-fertility problem in crossbred bulls. © 2016, Indian Council of Agricultural Research. All rights reserved.
x
Present address: 1Veterinary Officer, Tamil Nadu. 3,6Senior
Scientist (bhakat.mukesh@gmail.com, gmondal1075
@gmail.com), 2,4,7Principal Scientist (vsrainandri@gmail.com,
tushar@gmail.com, guptaak2009@gmail.com), 5Ph.D Scholar
(drpr06@gmail.com), Artificial Breeding Research Centre.
In India contribution of 20.81% crossbred cows for
improvement of milk production cannot be ignored, but
major constrain has witnessed during use of crossbred bulls,
as poor semen quality, freezability and poor libido are one
of the major reasons of culling in crossbred bulls (Khatun
et al. 2013). To overcome such problems and to maximize
the efficiency of breeding bulls researcher have
administered hormones (Gauthaman et al. 2003, Sieme et
al. 2004 and Ramchander et al. 2004), fed zinc (Osman et
al. 2000, Kendall et al. 2000) and Ayurvedic treatment
(Brown 2000, Giuliano and Allard 2001). Defective
secretion of reproductive hormones leads to lack of libido,
poor semen quality and poor semen freezability in adult
animals. Treatment of bulls with Ayurvedic product and
hormone act through hypothalamic-gonadal-axis to improve
the libido and semen production performance has been
attempted so far by different researchers (Severiano et al.
2007, Baskaran and Dubey 2004). Besides, genetical and
climatic factors one of the major contributor of subfertility
problem in crossbred bulls is mineral deficiency especially
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 86 (6): 53–00, June 2016/Article
Improvement of sexual behavior and semen quality by therapeutic
approach and Zinc supplementation on Karan Fries
M SABHAPATI1, V S RAINA2, M BHAKAT3, T K MOHANTY4, P R SHIVAHRE5, G MONDAL6 and A K GUPTA7
ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, Haryana 132 001 India
Received: 5 September 2015; Accepted: 20 October 2015
ABSTRACT
Sub-fertility is one of the major concerns in crossbred bulls as 42.98% bulls are getting culled due to sub
fertility problems therefore, a study was planned on 18 Karan Fries bulls producing poor quality semen or not
mounted.They were randomly grouped into 3 treatment groups of 6 animals each and 2 normal bulls were kept as
control. Sexual behavior and semen quality were studied during pre therapy (1 month), therapy (90 days) and post
therapy (90 days) period. Data were analyzed using ANOVA. During therapy period, first group treated with 10 g
of herbal product orally, second group with 0.0082 mg of GnRH intramuscularly at 10 days interval and third group
with 80 ppm of zinc for ninety days for each group. The results depicted that herbal and GnRH treatment significantly
reduced the reaction time, whereas herbal, GnRH treatment and zinc supplementation significantly improved the
libido score and reduced% of non-mounts during the therapy and post-therapy period. The volume of semen and
level of testosterone improved in all treatments groups. Herbal, GnRH treatment and zinc supplementation increased
the average number of good and medium quality ejaculates per month per bull and maximum efficiency achieved
during the treatment period. There was increase in% live sperm and decrease in abnormality in herbal treated and
zinc supplemented group. Therefore, it can be concluded that GnRH therapy, herbal treatment and zinc
supplementation will be effective to overcome the sub fertility problem in crossbred bulls.
Key words: Crossbred bull, GnRH therapy, Herbal treatment, Semen quality, Sexual behavior, Zinc supplementation
zinc (Zn) as it plays an important role in improving male
fertility as zinc is a major component of various enzymes
especially 200 metallo-enzymes, which regulate several
cellular metabolic activities. Researchers (Kendall et al.
2000, Osman et al. 2000) have reported that higher
concentration of zinc has positive impact on semen quality,
may be due to presence of high zinc concentrations in male
accessory sex glands, seminal plasma and spermatozoa.
Therefore, the study was planned to overcome subfertility
problem in crossbred bull by therapeutic intervention using
hormone, Ayurvedic treatment and zinc supplementation.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The study was carried out at Artificial Breeding Research
centre, ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal.
Bulls were kept in loose housing system and provide 1 h
exercise in the bull exerciser, 1 day before semen collection
to maximize the libido of bulls and to ensure quality semen
production (Singh 2014). Karan Fries bulls (18) that are
not fulfilling the criteria of possessing more than 60%
progressive motility; not exceeding more than 20% total
abnormality and 4% primary abnormalities with post thaw
motility of 40% for more than 3 months were selected.
Karan Fries bulls (18) were randomly grouped into 3
treatments of 6 animals each. Experimental period was
54 SABHAPATI ET AL. [Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 86 (6)
x
categorized as pre-therapy, therapy and post therapy. During
therapy period following regimen was followed
(P<0.01) as compared to the pre-therapy and during therapy
period, may be due to summer stress during post therapy
period. Herbal and GnRH treatment significantly (P<0.01)
reduced the reaction time during therapy (29.96 and 41.10
sec) and post therapy period (30.90 and 33.89 sec) as
compared to the pre-therapy period (44.41 and 62.10 sec).
In similar line Hadi (1970) reported the use of Tentex Forte
in Nagpuri Murrah buffaloes and Sahiwal bulls Baskaran
and Dubey (2004) reported that use of Buserelin acetate in
Holstein Friesian and Jersey bulls reduced reaction time.
The decrease in reaction time in case of zinc
supplementation is in consonance with finding reported by
Osman et al. (2000) in buffalo bulls may be due to increased
level of circulatory testosterone, which is also evident after
GnRH treatment (Jimenez et al. 2007).
Herbal treatment, GnRH injection and zinc
supplementation significantly (P<0.01) improved the libido
score from pre-therapy period to therapy period and it
reached highest during post therapy period. This might be
due to the increased testosterone level mediated through
hormonal-gonadal-axis, resulted in decreased number of
mounts before ejaculation (Sieme et al. 2004). The
improvement of reaction time and libido score due to use
of herbal product may be due to androgen like activity of
the herbs as Giuliano and Allard (2001) reported that
presence of protodioscin (Brown 2000) and dopamine in
the herbal product improved the mounting activity and
erection. Not mount frequency (3.13%) encountered while
semen collection in control animals during post therapy
period, but it was not found during pre-therapy period and
during therapy period, may be due to better environmental
condition as compared to post therapy period.
In T2, T3 and T4 group, the not mount frequency was
reduced. Reduction of non mount frequency using herbal
treatment may be due to presence of sexually enhancing
chemicals protodioscin and dopamine in T. terrestris and
Mucuna plants, which stimulated the mounting activity
followed by better erection (Gauthaman et al. 2003).
Whereas, in GnRH treatment and zinc supplementation
group circulating testosterone level increased from 1.58 ng
during pre therapy period to 2.79 ng during therapy period.
In similar line Osman et al. (2000) reported reduction of
testosterone production in case of zinc deficiency.
Treatment No. of Period of Treatments
groups animals observation
Control (T1) 2 7 months Normal fertile bulls
(control)
Herbal (T2) 6 7 months 5 g speman powder + 5 g
Tentex forte daily for 90
days (orally)#
GnRH (T3) 6 7 months 0.0084 mg of Buserelin
acetate (Synthetic
GnRH)* for 90 days at 7
days interval (Intra
muscularly after semen
collection)
Zinc (T4) 6 7 months 80 PPM extra zinc
feeding daily for 90 days
(In feed)#
* Gynarich Intra muscular injection immediately after the end
of semen and blood collection at weekly intervals; # inorganic
zinc (zinc sulphate) and ayurvedic powder mix were given along
with concentrate mixture for 90 days.
Immediately after semen collection, semen was
evaluated for volume, sperm concentration
(hemocytometer), mass activity, eosin-nigrosin staining and
HOST. Sexual behavior parameters like reaction time, libido
score and per cent non mount activity were evaluated as
per Anzar et al. (1993).
Statistical analysis: The per cent of semen parameter
and other different parameters were calculated by proportion
using descriptive statistics. The semen production records
were subjected to statistical analysis using ANOVA. Group
comparison, percentage data arcsine transformations were
also done for data analysis (Snedecor and Cochran 1994).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Improvement of semen quality and sexual behaviour
after Zinc supplementation, Ayurvedic and GnRH treatment
are presented in Tables 1, 2.
Sexual behavior: In T1 group, post therapy period
average reaction time (38.57 sec) was significantly higher
Table 1. Mean± SE values of sexual behavior during different therapy periods
Treatments Therapy period
Pre During Post
Reaction Libido % Non Reaction Libido % Non Reaction Libido % Non
time score mount time score mount time score mount
(Seconds) activity (Seconds) activity (Seconds) activity
Control (T1) 22.97 b ±4.62 8.67 a ±0.33 0 26.69 b ±1.64 9.18 a ±0.38 0 38.57 a ±5.87 7.70 b ±1.16 3.13
Herbal (T2) 44.41 a ±1.42 4.33 b ±0.50 16.67 29.96 b ±1. 90 6.60 a ±0.20 0.81 30.99 b ±6.36 6.47 a ±0.97 0
GnRH (T3) 62.10 a ±19.75 3.33 b ±0.76 33.33 41.10 a b ±6.34 5.21 a ±0.44 8.11 33.89 b ±10.21 6.14 a ±1.64 2.33
Zinc (T4) 32.63±8.97 2.33 b ±0.71 46.15 27.67±2.81 4.50 a ±0.45 7.77 33.13±12.43 4.87 a ±2.74 7.23
Mean bearing different superscript within row differ significantly (*P<0.05).
June 2016] THERAPEUTIC APPROACH AND ZINC SUPPLEMENTATION IN BREEDING BULLS 55
x
Seminal characteristics
The semen quality recorded for different treatment
groups in 3 different therapy periods are presented in Table
2. In control group volume, mass activity, individual
motility, sperm concentration, acrosome integrity and HOST
were nonsignificant (P>0.05) during 3 treatment periods
whereas the% live sperm count was significantly reduced
during therapy period and post therapy period as compared
to pre-therapy period. In herbal treatment group highest
individual motility, concentration, live per cent sperms,
acrosome integrity and HOST% was recorded during
therapy period. The decline in the values during post therapy
period for above parameters may be due to withdrawal of
herbal treatment. The improvement in semen quality may
be due to improved spermatogenesis functions of testes and
accessory sex gland like prostate and seminal vesicles along
with improvement of libido as reported by Pardanani et al.
(1976) after treatment with speman powder in oligospermic
men.
In GnRH treatment group all semen quality parameters
improved. The results are in agreement with Sieme et al.
(2004) and Ramchander et al. (2004) who also reported
significant improvement in semen volume achieved by
GnRH treatment. The improvement of semen quality may
be due to stimulatory effect of GnRH leads to release of
FSH and LH from anterior pituitary. LH act on leydig cells
to synthesize testosterone, which inturn improves the
functions of all sex glands. There is also a school of thought
that GnRH treatment restores seminiferous tubule function
either through FSH and LH or FSH and testosterone through
synthesis of androgen binding protein and secretion of
tubular fluid. In case of sperm concentration contradictory
finding was reported by Bhaskaran and Dubey (2005) may
be due to the variation in GnRH dose.
All seminal parameters were increased during zinc
supplementation except concentration (Table 2). The
experiment result was in compliance with the earlier
findings of Kendall et al. (2000). The increase in semen
volume after zinc supplementation may be due to
improvement of secretory function of accessory sex glands
as Zn stimulates spermatogenesis, primary and secondary
sex organ’s growth and development and function of
prostate gland in various species (Kumar et al. 2014). Zinc
supplementation increased the mass activity and% motile
spermatozoa during supplementation which was in
correspondence with the findings of Osman et al. (2000)
and Kumar et al. (2006). Zinc is an important element for
tail morphology and sperm motility and it is involved in
the catabolism of lipids in the sperm mid-piece that is the
principal source of energy required for the movement of
spermatozoa. Zinc supplementation significantly improved
(P<0.01) mean% of live sperm count during and post-
therapy periods as compared to the pre-therapy period. The
results are in consonance with Kumar et al. (2014). The
improvement in livability and membrane integrity is due
reduction of oxidative stress through production of
antioxidative enzymes, superoxide dismutase and
Table 2 Mean ± SE values of semen quality during different therapy periods in KF bulls
Treatment Therapy Period
Pre therapy During therapy Post therapy
Volume Mass Individual Conc. live Acrosome HOST Volume Mass Individual Conc. live Acrosome HOST Volume Mass Individual Conc. live Acrosome HOST
activity motility integrity activity motility integrity activity motility integrity
Control 4.00 2.44 48.75 925.00 88.00 a 85.88 47.25 3.78 2.36 48.33 791.03 82.54 b 84.10 46.13 3.65 2.55 49.68 864.52 83.07 b 84.29 48.35
(T1) ±0.37 ±0.11 ±2.80 ±44.32 ±0.96 ±1.20 ±1.10 ±0.22 ±0.13 ±2.45 ±43.54 ±0.92 ±0.84 ±1.56 ±0.21 ±0.11 ±2.65 ±32.971 ±0.71 ±0.84 ±1.40
Herbal 4.23 1.87 35.33 626.67 67.91 b 79.60 a b 37.93 4.66 1.79 37.38 666.80 79.40 a 82.26 a 40.19 5.06 1.58 31.75 589.58 76.43 a 78.71 b 35.88
(T2) ±0.38 ±0.21 ±4.15 ±58.73 ±1.88 ±1.42 ±2.07 ±0.17 ±0.08 ±1.67 ±25.31 ±0.84 ±0.57 ±0.96 ±0.18 ±0.10 ±1.97 ±29.921 ±0.92 ±0.63 ±1.03
GnRH 3.45 b 1.55 33.00 630.00 71.58 79.70 36.20 4.60 a 1.75 36.23 657.97 78.87 80.06 39.04 4.88 a 1.80 36.38 667.72 76.91 79.81 39.01
(T3) ±0.52 ±0.20 ±4.36 ±65.49 ±3.71 ±1.59 ±2.32 ±0.21 ±0.11 ±2.14 ±32.46 ±1.44 ±0.79 ±1.29 ±0.20 ±0.11 ±2.24 ±33.012 ±1.04 ±0.77 ±1.29
Zinc 3.93 1.71 a 35.00 a 685.71 a 59.41 c 79.14 a 37.00 b 4.39 1.84 a 37.79 a 682.63 a 81.73 b 80.75 a 40.13 a 4.88 1.36 b 28.20 b 549.33 b 75.21 a 76.61 b 33.89 b
(T4) ±0.70 ±0.24 ±4.76 ±64.29 ±2.227 ±1.63 ±2.42 ±0.164 ±0.11 ±2.07 ±31.88 ±1.06 ±0.77 ±1.24 ±0.19 ±0.11 ±2.269 ±33.71 ±1.23 ±0.77 ±1.26
Mean bearing different superscript within row differ significantly (*P<0.05).
56 SABHAPATI ET AL. [Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 86 (6)
x
glutathione peroxidase as Zinc act as co factor for the
production of antioxidative enzymes.
Zinc supplementation did not show significant
improvement (p>0.05) in sperm concentration, but
maintained the pre-therapy sperm concentration without
further decline during therapy period. However, withdrawal
of zinc supplementation significantly reduced the sperm
concentration in post-therapy period might be due to
disruption of spermatogenesis process.
SUMMARY
Sub-fertility problem in crossbred bulls is one of the
major concern of semen bank as there is ever increasing
demand of good quality semen of crossbred bulls. Therefore,
to overcome subfertility problem to harvest better quality
semen; herbal treatment, GnRH injection and zinc
supplementation will be effective to improve sexual
behavior and semen quality. However, there is need of better
understanding of the basic physiological role of herbal,
GnRH and zinc on male reproduction after therapeutic
intervention for better utilization of any one of the product
to achieve better result.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The authors are thankful to the Director cum Vice-
Chancellor of National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal for
providing the facilities.
REFERENCES
Anzar M, Ahmad M, Nazir M, Ahmad N and Shah I H. 1993.
Selection of buffalo bulls. Sexual behaviour and its relationship
to semen production and fertility. Theriogenology 40: 1187–
98.
Bhaskaran R and Munilal Dubey B. 2004. GnRH therapy in
matured Holstein Friesian and Jersey bulls with impaired
reproduction. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 25 (2): 107–
09.
Bhaskaran R and Munilal Dubey B. 2005. Effect of gonadotrophin
releasing hormone to augment semen production in Jersey
bulls. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 26 (1): 14–16.
Brown G A. 2000. Effects of anabolic precursors on serum
testosterone concentrations and adaptations to resistance
training in young men. International Journal of Sport Nutrition
and Exercise Metabolism 10 (3): 340–59.
Gauthaman K, Ganesan A P and Prasad R N. 2003. Sexual effects
of puncturevine (Tribulus terrestris) extract (protodioscin): an
evaluation using a rat model. Journal of Alternative
Complementary Medicine 9 (2): 257–65.
Giuliano F and Allard J. 2001. Dopamine and male sexual
function. European Urology 40: 601–08.
Hadi M A. 1970. Clinical Trial with Tentexforte in Functional
impotency of breeding bulls. Probe (IX) 4: 173–75.
Jimenez-Severiano H, D’occhio M J, Lunstra D D, Mussard M
L, Davis T L, Enright W J and Kinder J E. 2007. Comparative
response of rams and bulls to long term treatment with
gonadotrophin-releasing hormone analogs. Animal
Reproduction Science 98: 204–24.
Kendall N R, McMullen S, Green A and Rodway R G. 2000. The
effect of a zinc, cobalt and selenium soluble glass bolus on
trace elements status and semen quality of ram lambs. Animal
Reproduction Science 62: 277–83.
Khatun M, Kaur S, Kanchan and Mukhopadhyay C S. 2013.
Subfertility Problems Leading to Disposal of Breeding Bulls.
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 26(3): 303–
08.
Kumar N, Verma R P, Singh L P, Varshney V P and Dass R S.
2006. Effect of different levels and sources of zinc
supplementation on quantitative and qualitative semen
attributes and serum testosterone level in crossbred cattle (Bos
indicus × Bos taurus) bulls. Reproduction Nutrition
Development 46: 663–75.
Kumar P, Yadav B and Yadav S. 2014. Effect of zinc and selenium
supplementation on semen quality of Barbari bucks. Indian
Journal of Animal Research 48 (4): 366 – 69.
Osman K T, El-Shamaa I S, Ibrahim M A and Gabr G A. 2000.
Impact of zinc supplement on some reproductive traits in
Egyptian buffalo bulls. Proceedings of 3rd All Africa
Conference on Animal Agriculture and 11th Conference of
Egyptian Society of Animal Production, Alexandria, Egypt,
6–9th November: pp. 453–58.
Pardanani D S, Delima R J, Rao R V, Vaze A Y, Jayatilak P G and
Sheth A R. 1976. Study of the effect of speman on semen
quality in oligospermic men. Indian Journal of Surgery 38:
1–34.
Ramchander, Bugalia N S, Sandeep Karwasra, Garg S L and
Agarwal V K. 2004. Testosterone profiles and seminal
characteristics in GnRH treated cow bulls. Indian Journal of
Animal Sciences 74 (2): 180–81.
Severiano H J, D’Occhio M J, Lunstra D D, Mussard M L, Davis
T L, Enright W J, Kinder J E. 2007. Comparative response of
rams and bulls to long-term treatment with gonadotropin-
releasing hormone analogs. Animal Reproduction Science 98:
204–24.
Sieme H, Troedsson M H T, Weinrich S and Klug E. 2004. GnRH
on sexual behavior and frozen/thawed semen viability in
stallions during the non-breeding season. Theriogenology 61
(1): 159–71.
Singh S. 2014. ‘Selected management interventions and
biostimulation to augment libido and sperm production in
Sahiwal bulls.’ M.V.Sc. Thesis, NDRI Deemed University,
Karnal, Haryana.
Snedecor G W and Cochran W G. 1994. Statistical Methods. 6th
edn. Oxford and IBH Publ. Co., New Delhi, India.
... Zinc, Cu and Mn arecomponents of superoxide dismutase, which plays a major role in the protection of spermatozoa from oxidative stress. Zinc supplementation (80 ppm) in Karan Fries bulls for 90 days increased all seminal parameters (volume, mass activity, individual motility, live sperm count, acrosome integrity and HOST) except sperm concentration in comparison to control group (Sabhapati et al., 2015). Organic trace-mineral supplementation improved bull semen quality (Rowe et al., 2014). ...
... In contrast to present study, Kumar et al. (2005) found increased live spermatozoa (%) in Zn supplemented group in crossbred bulls. Sabhapati et al. (2015) also observed increased live spermatozoa (%) in Zn supplemented group in Karan Fries during supplemented period. The result in this study revealed that Zn and Cu influence the HOST positive spermatozoa in T 3 than T 1 and T 2 groups perhaps because HOST measures single factor i.e. membrane integrity and Zn has been reported to elicit membrane stabilizing action by interacting with some functional groups of the intrinsic component of sperm membrane. ...
... however, dismounting time was lower (P<0.01) in group supplemented with 50% Cu and Zn, as CuSo 4 and ZnSo 4 against T 1 (control) and T 2 group in Murrah bulls which indicated the complete thrust and ejaculation but the mechanism of action was not known. Sabhapati et al. (2015) observed significant difference in reaction time in Zn supplemented groups in Karan Fries bulls which was attributed to increased body testosterone level. ...
Article
Full-text available
The effect of dietary supplementation of Cu and Zn on semen quality parameters and certain bio-chemicals parameters were evaluated in Murrah bulls. Twelve mature Murrah bulls (4-6 years of age) were divided into three groups (n=4) T1, T2, and T3 based on semen volume and concentration and were fed as per ICAR standard (2013). However, the animals were supplemented with 0%, 25%, and 50% Cu and Zn above the basal diet in T1, T2 and T3 groups, respectively for 180 days. Quantitative and qualitative characteristics of semen, blood and seminal plasma antioxidant status, blood and semen minerals (Cu, Zn, Ca and Mn) were determined in experimental Murrah bulls. Semen ejaculate volume (mL) increased in T2 and T3 while sperm concentration (million/mL), intact acrosome (%), HOST reacted spermatozoa (%) increased in T3 group compared to T1 and T2 groups. No difference was observed in mass motility, pH, live spermatozoa (%) in semen sexual behaviour except dismounting time which was decreased in T3 than T1 and T2 (plessthan0.05). SOD activity in blood plasma and LPO activity decreased in seminal plasma in both T2 and T3 groups than T1, whereas catalase activity did not show any significant difference. Cu and Zn supplementation in T2 group improved plessthan0.05) Zn level in blood and seminal plasma and Cu level in blood plasma only, but not in seminal plasma. Therefore, it can be concluded that supplementation of Zn and Cu at 50% above the recommended levels of ICAR (2013) improved the qualitative and quantitative attributes of semen in Murrah bulls.
... Rahman et al. [27] found that zinc sulfate treatment at a rate of 100 mg/buck/day improved the semen traits and seminal plasma antioxidant capacity in Beetal bucks. Likewise, Sabhapati et al. [28] reported that the feed supplemented with 80 mg/kg Zn improved the semen volume and the testosterone level in crossbred bulls. Kumar et al. [10] also reported that supplementation of a basal diet containing 32.54 mg/kg Zn with 35 or 70 mg/kg of Zn significantly improved the semen quality and quantity in crossbred bulls within a 6-month period. ...
... In addition, Zn is important in the maturation of sperm cells during their passage through the epididymis [33], and it plays a major role in the motility of spermatozoa [1]. Zn is also an important element for the development of tail morphology and motility as it is involved in the catabolism of lipids, which are the main source of energy of the sperm mid-piece during the movement of spermatozoa [28]. Yamaguchi et al. [1] demonstrated that Zn is a principal trace element for the maintenance and regulation of both spermatogenesis and sperm motility. ...
... Yamaguchi et al. [1] demonstrated that Zn is a principal trace element for the maintenance and regulation of both spermatogenesis and sperm motility. However, in the present study, no significant increase in sperm motility was observed, and this finding is possibly due to the presence of a certain amount of Zn in the basal diet unlike in most of the previous studies wherein the diets were Zn deficient or the test animals used were of infertile status, such as in the works of Sabhapati et al. [28] and Kumar et al. [10]. Moreover, the percentage of abnormal sperm in all groups in the present study was not significant, similar to the findings of Kumar et al. [10] and Rahman et al. [27]. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study evaluated the effects of the different dietary zinc (Zn) levels on semen quality, on spermatozoa and seminal plasma antioxidant status, and on the seminal and blood plasma mineral status in mature male Cashmere goats during the breeding season. Twenty-eight mature male Liaoning Cashmere goats were divided into four groups based on body weight (56.2 ± 2.45 kg) and semen characteristics; these goats were fed with basal diet supplemented with 0, 20, 40, or 80 mg Zn/kg DM (zinc sulfate) for 3 months. Results showed that the Zn-supplemented diets linearly increased the semen volume (0.98, 1.04, 1.27, and 1.17 ml for the 0, 20, 40, and 80 mg Zn/kg DM supplementation, respectively) (P < 0.05) and the total sperm output (3.87, 4.52, 5.73, and 5.33 × 10⁹/ml for the 0, 20, 40, and 80 mg Zn/kg DM supplementation, respectively) (P < 0.05); by contrast, Zn supplementation exerted no effect on sperm concentration, motility, and abnormal sperms rate. The activities of copper zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD) (linear P < 0.05) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) (linear P < 0.05; quadratic P < 0.01) were highest in the intermediate supplementation (40 mg Zn/kg DM). Moreover, the malondialdehyde (MDA) content of spermatozoa decreased linearly (P < 0.01) with the increase in Zn supplementation. In seminal plasma, the highest GSH-Px activity was observed in 20 mg Zn/kg DM supplementation (P < 0.05). Catalase (CAT) activities both in the spermatozoa and seminal plasma showed no difference in all treatments. Seminal plasma Zn level was highest in 40 mg Zn/kg DM (linear P = 0.068), and K increased linearly (P = 0.001) with increasing Zn level. Furthermore, blood plasma Zn (linear P < 0.01; quadratic P < 0.05), Fe (linear P < 0.05; quadratic P < 0.05), and Mg (linear P < 0.05) increased with increasing Zn supplementation. These results indicated that dietary Zn supplementation in Cashmere goats during the breeding season improved the semen quality and quantity, elevated the antioxidative indices and Zn concentration, and decreased the MDA content both in spermatozoa and seminal plasma.
... The positive outcome of zinc oral administration was supported by studies on the use of zinc or zinc in combination with other elements (vitamin E, Se) (Ghallab et al., 2017;Abaspour et al., 2018). In this respect, zinc concentration showed a significant positive correlation with quality of semen (Kendall et al., 2000;Sabhapati et al., 2016). Also, Bindari et al. (2013) and Prakash et al. (2017) reported that the deficiency of zinc results in poor semen quality in bulls. ...
Article
A twenty weeks experimental trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of using tonophosphan (8 ml injection), zinc oxide (ZnO) at 0.8 g oral dose and ascorbic acid (AA) at 0.5% oral dose of live body weight on reproductive performance of Egyptian buffalo bulls (n = 20, 550–600 kg). The overall mean of all treated groups yielded marked improvement in all semen physical characteristics. Reaction time (RT), scrotal circumference, testicular volume, the concentration of semen fructose, testosterone, total proteins, and albumin in blood plasma were significantly (P ≤ 0.05) improved in all treatment groups compared with the control, but were greater in tonophosphan group. The highest concentrations of phosphorus and zinc in blood or semen were observed in tonophosphan and zinc treatments, respectively as compared to other groups. Overall mean of all semen physical characteristics and sperm outputs were not affected by advancing collection weeks. Meanwhile, the testosterone concentration and testicular volume increased (P ≤ 0.05), whereas the reaction time did not vary. The conception rate of buffalo cows was the highest (P ≤ 0.05) in tonophosphan (82.8%), followed by ascorbic acid and zinc (77.1 and 74.2%) as compared to the control group (60%). These findings suggested that tonophosphan, zinc oxide, and ascorbic acid supplementation improved the reproductive performance of Egyptian buffalo bulls; however, tonophosphan showed better performance.
Article
Full-text available
Subfertility problems are encountered frequently in the cattle and buffalo bulls commercially maintained for semen production in dairy farms and under field conditions for natural insemination. Reports are scarce on the incidence of subfertility in breeding bulls, especially in India. The objective of the present study was to assess the incidence of the male reproductive anomalies leading to disposal of bovine bulls at GADVASU dairy farm, Ludhiana, Punjab (India). Data on frequency of various subfertility and disposal pattern of bulls maintained at the dairy farm, GADVASU, were collected for 12 yrs (1999 to 2010) and compiled from different record registers. Percentage of bulls that produced freezable semen (out of reserved ones) was less in cattle (25.641%) as compared to that of buffalo (30.4%). Various subfertility traits like poor libido and unacceptable seminal profile were found to be the significant reasons (p
Article
Full-text available
The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of supplementation of zinc and selenium on semen quality in twelve Barbari bucks of proven fertility. The experimental animals were randomly divided into two groups of six and fed without any supplementation (control) or with 150-ppm zinc sulfate and 0.50-ppm sodium selenate (test group). Semen was collected on days 0, 60, 75, 90 and 105 to study its characteristics. In control group, no significant change was observed in semen quality during the study period. In test group, semen quality was improved in terms of a significant (P< 0.05) increase in semen volume, progressive motility, sperm count, percent live spermatozoa, acrosomal integrity and hypo osomotic swelling (HOS) responding spermatozoa and decrease in abnormal spermatozoa after 60 days of supplementation. Mass motility increased significantly (P< 0.05) only at 105 days as compared to 0 day. It is concluded that the supplementation of Zn and Se can improve semen quality in goats.
Article
Full-text available
Forty-four buffalo bulls, used for artificial insemination, were studied to develop libido, mating ability and sexual behavior indices for selection purposes. For each index, 5 categories (i.e., excellent, very good, good, fair and poor) were established. The sexual behavior index was found to be more reliable than the libido and mating ability indices. Buffalo bulls in good to excellent categories were considered acceptable sires. Reaction time, sexual aggressiveness, and scores of libido, mating ability and sexual behavior differed significantly among the various categories of the 3 indices. Libido significantly correlated with mating ability (r=0.89; P<0.001). Sexual behavior expressed significant relationship with age (r=0.41; P<0.01) and body weight (r=0.48,. P<0.01), but was nonsignificant with the scrotal circumference (r=0.28; P>0.05) of buffalo bulls. However, these relationships were absent (P>0.05) in the acceptable sires. Semen production was correlated with sexual behavior in only the fair and poor categories of buffalo bulls (r=0.84; P<0.005). Sexual behavior had no relationship with the fertility rate of buffalo bulls (r=0.44; P>0.05). It is concluded that the sexual behavior index can be used successfully for the selection of buffalo bulls. Excellent- to good bulls should be used in an artificial breeding program if they qualify in the other selection indices.
Article
Full-text available
The effects of androgen precursors, combined with herbal extracts designed to enhance testosterone formation and reduce conversion of androgens to estrogens was studied in young men. Subjects performed 3 days of resistance training per week for 8 weeks. Each day during Weeks 1, 2, 4, 5, 7, and 8, subjects consumed either placebo (PL; n = 10) or a supplement (ANDRO-6; n = 10), which contained daily doses of 300 mg androstenedione, 150 mg DHEA, 750 mg Tribulus terrestris, 625 mg Chrysin, 300 mg Indole-3-carbinol, and 540 mg Saw palmetto. Serum androstenedione concentrations were higher in ANDRO-6 after 2, 5, and 8 weeks (p <.05), while serum concentrations of free and total testosterone were unchanged in both groups. Serum estradiol was elevated at Weeks 2, 5, and 8 in ANDRO-6 (p <.05), and serum estrone was elevated at Weeks 5 and 8 (p <.05). Muscle strength increased (p <.05) similarly from Weeks 0 to 4, and again from Weeks 4 to 8 in both treatment groups. The acute effect of one third of the daily dose of ANDRO-6 and PL was studied in 10 men (23 +/- 4 years). Serum androstenedione concentrations were elevated (p <.05) in ANDRO-6 from 150 to 360 min after ingestion, while serum free or total testosterone concentrations were unchanged. These data provide evidence that the addition of these herbal extracts to androstenedione does not result in increased serum testosterone concentrations, reduce the estrogenic effect of androstenedione, and does not augment the adaptations to resistance training.
Article
Full-text available
The use of the D1/D2 dopamine receptor agonist apomorphine for the treatment of erectile dysfunction provides strong support in favor of a participation of the dopaminergic system in the control of sexual function. However, the exact involvement of dopamine in the control of sexual motivation and genital arousal in males is unknown. Experimental data in male rats suggested an implication of dopamine in sexual motivation as well as in copulatory performance. Specific tests allowing assessment of sexual motivation showed that the release of dopamine at the level of the nucleus accumbens (innervated by the mesolimbic dopaminergic pathway) and the medial preoptic area of the hypothalamus (innervated by the dopaminergic incertohypothalamic pathway) positively regulated the anticipatory/motivational phase of copulatory behavior. A permissive role of dopamine released at the level of the median preoptic area of the hypothalamus in the display of copulatory behavior has also been demonstrated. It is noteworthy that these participations of the dopaminergic system are not specific for sexual behavior but rather reflect the involvement of dopamine in the regulation of cognitive, integrative and reward processes. Because of its role in the control of locomotor activity, the integrity of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway is also essential for the display of copulatory behavior. Somehow more specific to sexual function, it is likely that dopamine can trigger penile erection by acting on oxytocinergic neurons located in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, and perhaps on the pro-erectile sacral parasympathetic nucleus within the spinal cord. In conclusion, central dopamine is a key neurotransmitter in the control of sexual function.
Article
GnRH treatment (50 μg, 100 μg and 200 μg i/v) in cow bulls significantly increased plasma testosterone profiles at 1hr post-treatment and levels remained significantly elevated till 6 hr post-injection. Magnitude of testosterone rise and its maintenance was GnRH dose dependent. Semen volume and individual sperm motility showed significant increase after highest GnRH dose (200 μg) but mass activity, sperm concentration and live sperm count were significantly increased after injection of 100 μg and 200 μg of GnRH.
Article
Supplemental zinc and selenium were administered to ram lambs grazed on pastures that were not considered to be deficient in either element. The breeding season and polygamy of the ram mean that his requirements for semen production will be relatively large over a short breeding season and this may induce a localised deficiency of zinc and/or selenium, thus resulting in a decrease in semen quality and production.Thirty-three 8-month-old ram lambs were kept at grass and fed a supplement of barley and peas, with ad libitum access to grass silage when grazing became restricted. On day 0, the rams were allocated to two groups by restricted randomisation of live weight. One group each had a zinc, cobalt and selenium soluble glass bolus (Zincosel(R), Telsol) administered with the other group not receiving a bolus to act as a control. Blood samples were taken by jugular venipuncture at day 0 (prior to bolus administration) and at days 23, 44, 65 and 86. Blood samples were analysed for zinc status (plasma zinc concentration) and selenium status (erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity). Semen was collected once a week between days 44 and 86, by diversion during a natural mount. Semen quality was assessed by ejaculate volume, spermatocrit, sperm concentration, abnormal morphology, motility, percentage live (negrosin-eosin stain), membrane integrity (hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOS)) and seminal fluid glutathione peroxidase activity and zinc concentration. The bolused lambs had a significantly increased erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity (P<0.01) on all samplings after bolusing and had significant increases in motility, proportion of live sperm and proportion of intact membranes indicated by the HOS. The bolused ram lambs had an increased selenium status and apparent improvement in semen membrane quality.
Article
Apart from its claims for improvement of sexual functions in men, the puncturevine plant (Tribulus terrestris: TT) has long been considered as an energizer and vitalizer in the indigenous system of medicine. Sexual behavior and intracavernous pressure (ICP) measurements were taken in rats to scientifically validate the claim of TT [containing protodioscin (PTN)] as an aphrodisiac. Forty sexually mature male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups of 10 each. Group I served as a control group and groups II, III, and IV were treated with three different doses of TT extract (2.5, 5 and 10 mg/kg body weight, respectively), orally, once daily for 8 weeks. Weight was recorded and the rats from all four groups were subjected to sexual behavior studies with primed females and various parameters namely mount and intromission frequencies (MF and IF, respectively), mount, intromission and ejaculation latencies (ML, IL, and EL, respectively) as well as postejaculatory interval (PEI) were recorded. In addition, blood pressure and ICP were recorded for all rats at the end of study. Increases in body weight (by 9, 23, and 18% for groups II, III & IV) and ICP (by 43% and 26% for groups III and IV) were statistically significant compared to the control group. Increases in MF (by 27% and 24%) and IF (by 19% and 22%) for the groups III and IV were statistically significant. Decreases in ML (by 16%, 23%, and 22% for groups II, III, and IV) and PEI (by 20% for group III) were statistically significant compared to the control. The weight gain and improvement in sexual behavior parameters observed in rats could be secondary to the androgen increasing property of TT (PTN) that was observed in our earlier study on primates. The increase in ICP which confirms the proerectile aphrodisiac property of TT could possibly be the result of an increase in androgen and subsequent release of nitric oxide from the nerve endings innervating the corpus cavernosum.
Article
Twelve fertile stallions were divided into two groups, either receiving gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) (n=6) or Placebo (n=6). Based on the history of frozen/thawed semen characteristics three stallions within each group were assigned as being “good freezers” [GnRH (+); Placebo (+)] and three stallions were assigned as being “poor freezers” [GnRH (−); Placebo (−)]. The study was performed as a “blinded” investigation and stallions were treated twice daily by an intramuscular injection of 1 ml GnRH (Buserelin®, 50 μg) or Placebo. The experiment was divided into three time periods. Period A (pre-treatment) was performed between 16 November and 20 December; Period B (treatment) was performed during 6 weeks between 21 December and 31 January; and Period C (post-treatment) was performed between 1 February and 12 February.