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Abstract

The so-called “gig-economy” has been growing exponentially in numbers and importance in recent years but its impact on labour rights has been largely overlooked. Forms of work in the “gig-economy” include “crowd work”, and “work-on-demand via apps”, under which the demand and supply of working activities is matched online or via mobile apps. These forms of work can provide a good match of job opportunities and allow flexible working schedules. However, they can also pave the way to a severe commodification of work. This paper discusses the implications of this commodification and advocates the full recognition of activities in the gig-economy as “work”. It shows how the gig-economy is not a separate silo of the economy and that is part of broader phenomena such as casualization and informalisation of work and the spread of non-standard forms of employment. It then addresses the issue of misclassification of the employment status of workers in the gig-economy. Current relevant trends are thus examined, such as the emergence of forms of self-organisation of workers. Finally, some policy proposals are critically analysed, such as the possibility of creating an intermediate category of worker between “employee” and “independent contractor” to classify work in the gig-economy, and other tentative proposals are put forward such extension of fundamental labour rights to all workers irrespective of employment status, and recognition of the role of social partners in this respect, whilst avoiding temptations of hastened deregulation.

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... By providing a cheap and convenient alternative to traditional taxis, Uber has disrupted the sector of inner-city transport profoundly, albeit more in the United States than in other countries (Thelen, 2018). It is one of the most controversial providers of on-demand labour (De Stefano, 2015;Vallas & Schor, 2020), and a paradigmatic example in predictions about the future of work (Rosenblat, 2018) and organizing (Davis, 2016). ...
... Uber Technologies can change these rules unilaterally without consulting its members (De Stefano, 2015) and members are forced to accept the changed version after login before they can use the app (Rosenblat & Stark, 2016). ...
... The core organization changes the thresholds for these sanctions in accordance with its business strategy (Hall & Krueger, 2018). Uber also uses tracking data to sanction drivers, e.g. if drivers accept too few rides while online, or decline too many accepted rides once they have seen the details, they can be excluded from the platform (De Stefano, 2015). ...
Preprint
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Digital platforms quickly rose to be a pervasive feature of contemporary life as they impact various domains. While researchers agree that digital platforms come in diverse forms and perform various functions, the platform debate lacks a general concept capturing their common underlying features. Considering digital platforms from an organizational perspective, we extend on seminal insights and develop the concept of platform organization. We argue that platform organizations share a common basic architecture and rely on digital technology to create a social order. According to our argument, digital platforms consist of a formal organization at the core using digital interfaces to govern the activities of participants in the platform periphery. We posit that this periphery manifests a specific social order following from a particular configuration of the five elements of organization outlined by the partial organization approach. Our concept of platform organization allows researchers to abstract from domain-specific functions and investigate underlying commonalities and differences of digital platforms. We illustrate our argument by drawing on three salient examples from the current debate: Uber, Twitter and Wikipedia. Applying the partial organization approach reveals that all three platform organizations implement a decided order using digital interfaces, while the social order they each enable varies by a degree of organization.
... Although these companies describe what they do as helping individual 'entrepreneurs' connect with potential customers, their model has been characterised as one that precarises workers and exacerbates the commodification of work (De Stefano, 2016;Woodcock and Graham, 2020). As with other platforms, the capital accumulation model of gig economy platforms is based on the collection of data and monetary fees from the transactions they mediate. ...
... Although these companies typically present themselves as mere intermediaries that help individual entrepreneurs connect with potential customers, different authors have noted the tensions between these claims and the material dimension of their practices. Although initially described by many as part of a 'sharing economy' (Schor, 2014;Schor and Fitzmaurice, 2015), this category of platforms is now more commonly described in academic literature as the 'gig economy' (De Stefano, 2016;Friedman, 2014;Woodcock and Graham, 2020). ...
... From a historical perspective, what gig economy companies do has also been situated as part of a decades-long process of precarisation and exacerbated commodification of work. In industrialised countries, this process can be traced to the proliferation of non-standard and informal work arrangements that were introduced in the 1970s and increasingly replaced traditional work contracts (De Stefano, 2016). These new forms of work were originally justified by neoliberal discourses that promoted austerity solutions to economic crises (Benanav, 2020;Harvey, 2005). ...
Thesis
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Platform companies that intermediate on-demand labour markets, usually described as gig economy platforms, are currently at the forefront of debates about the future of work. It has been widely documented in the literature that major gig economy platforms claim to offer flexibility and independence to workers, while at the same time using algorithmic control techniques to manage them. Through this, companies avoid the responsibilities of formal labour relationships and shift risks to the workers. In order to do so, however, platform companies need to rely on discursive strategies that legitimise their model. Claims to legitimacy need to appeal to shared conceptions of public value and thus are always contingent on the specific cultural contexts in which they are deployed. However, discursive strategies employed by gig economy companies outside of the USA or Europe have scarcely been explored in the literature. By applying a critical discourse analysis (CDA) to public utterances of the leaders of the Colombian gig economy platform Rappi, this dissertation will look at how platform owners strategically use discourse to justify their accumulation model in the South American context and how in doing so they may create, reproduce or legitimise social hierarchies between different groups in the platform economy. The research found that, in addition to neoliberal justifications based on the notions of markets as efficient and emancipatory, Rappi's claims for legitimacy draw elements from development discourses. Discourse on development is used to position precarious working conditions as a consequence of the underlying condition of Colombia as a 'poor' on 'underdeveloped' country. This, in turn, has the effect of depoliticising workers' concerns and subordinating them to the higher goal of achieving 'development' for the country. Moreover, this framing constructs 'underdevelopment' as a technical problem that calls for technical solutions, placing the platform provider as an actor who can deliver these solutions. By understanding discourse as existing in a dialectical relationship with non-discursive practices, this work explores how different cultural and material contexts lead to different legitimation strategies. Justifications are relevant not because they may be concealing an 'actual reality' but instead because the need for justification shapes the conditions of possibility for how accumulation models are materially implemented. Therefore, by developing a critique to the justificatory logics used by platforms, the final objective is not just to denaturalise or lay bare the discursive constructs underlying them, but rather to do so in a way that can force improvements in terms of justice by requiring new justifications to be formulated in response.
... The extreme fragmentation of work enabled by digital platforms allows it to be 'de-localized' and lends momentum to imaginaries of a planetary workforce (Graham, 2015). Place-based work, in contrast, is geographically bound or 'sticky' (De Stefano, 2016). The internet connects customers and workers, but work is performed in person. ...
... Crowdwork is particularly problematic when it comes to regulation, enforcement and labour rights (Cherry, 2019), but place-based work is not immune to many of these problems. Both types of on-demand work share high levels of worker competitiveness, isolation and lack of a shared workplace (De Stefano, 2016); nonetheless, the local embeddedness of place-based work implies the existence of a local labour market which workers can influence, and which enables many jurisdictional and regulatory problems to be resolved (Johnston, 2020). In this sense, workers' agency may be expected to take different forms in these two types of platform work. ...
... This quote hints at the prevalence of an imaginary of a legislative power as a higher administrative unit capable of regulating and constraining the power of private corporations, or in this case, platforms. This imaginary contributes to the construction of the national scale and runs counter to the fact that the platform model is designed precisely to elude existing laws and regulations (Berg et al., 2018;De Stefano, 2016). Nevertheless, this imaginary is employed by workers as it allows them to build a higher scale where new actors can be included and challenged in order to fulfil objectives that they are not able to achieve at the local scale. ...
Article
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The expansion of the platform economy has altered the spatial organization of work and employment relations, leading to deregulation and eroding workers' social power. However, despite the radical individualization and precarization of platform work, workers demonstrate agency. This article explores the political strategies employed by place-based platform workers, with a particular focus on the spatiality of their collective action. Using an ethnographic methodology , the article analyses the case studies of drivers' trade associations in Chile and the couriers' organization in Spain. The results show significant similarities between the two groups: (a) non-conventional forms of labour activism; (b) using social media to share experiences , foster solidarity and organize collectively; (c) organizing in large cities; (d) starting locally and progressing to higher scales, and (e) building national and international alliances. The article concludes that workers respond to the spatial organization of work by platforms in a multi-sca-lar way that is strongly influenced by both their imaginaries and the political and regulatory context.
... It could be assumed that CW is part of atypical work arrangements because the work is not regulated by law, the crowdworkers are barely organized, and their status (self-employed vs. employee of a platform) remains unclear (Felstiner, 2011;Berg et al., 2018;Pesole et al., 2018). Moreover, CW is low on labor protection, and social security is the crowdworkers' own responsibility (de Stefano, 2016). Extensive literature on atypical work arrangements has already proven their negative impact on the individual's perceived stress, mental health, musculoskeletal problems, and other physical health problems (e.g., Quinlan et al., 2001;Sverke et al., 2002;Tavares, 2017). ...
... The majority of platforms classify crowdworkers as independent contractors with self-employed status (Berg, 2015) and this is how crowdworkers often see themselves (Pesole et al., 2018). CW is comparable to self-employment regarding low labor protection, employment insecurity, and individual responsibility for social security (de Stefano, 2016). Even though the self-employed often appear healthier than comparable employed groups, this relation might occur because healthier workers rather choose to be self-employed (Rietveld et al., 2015). ...
Article
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Crowdwork is a new form of digitally enabled work in which organizations assign tasks to an anonymous group of workers via platform intermediaries. For crowdworkers, crowdwork offers both opportunities and risks. On the one side, crowdworkers enjoy high flexibility on when, where, and how much to work. On the other side, risks comparable to other forms of atypical employment arise: no labor regulation, unstable income, and uncertainty about whether enough tasks are available. Regulation of working hours lies within the crowdworkers’ own authority. Also, crowdwork in industrialized nations is often conducted during leisure times as a side-job to some other kind of employment. In accordance with Conservation of Resources Theory, we state that when leisure time gets used up with crowdwork, regeneration cannot occur and health declines. On a sample of N =748 German crowdworkers recruited from four different platform types, we analyzed whether participation in crowdwork is linked to increased somatic symptoms compared to regularly employed personnel. We found that crowdworkers show significantly increased somatic symptoms as compared to a German norm sample, that are stable across different kinds of tasks and platforms, gender, and age groups, and that is statistically due to the extent of participation in crowdwork. Specifically, we found that total work hours per week were not associated with an increase in somatic symptoms, but we did find associations with strain-based work–family conflict and the primary motivation to do crowdwork being to earn money. Consequences for research and labor regulations are discussed.
... Taking a more worker-centric approach, other recent research argues that the spectacular increase of on-demand work and platform economies have shifted the burden of economic risks and the pressure for lower wages to more vulnerable workers (Friedman 2014), reinforced gendered and racial inequalities (Van Doorn 2017), blurred the line between economic work and people's social lives and hobbies (Drahokoupil andFabo 2016, Kenney andZysman 2016), and exacerbate 'commodification' of workers (De Stefano 2015). Critics of work regimes in neoliberalism (Hardt and Negri 2000, Weeks 2011, Sevignani 2017 tend to see these processes as rooted in the late-capitalist mode of production. ...
... For example, some scholars argue that emerging digital economies are often imbricated with issues of precarious employment and work exploitation (Nakamura andChow-White 2012, Stevens et al. 2017). These include increase of social inequalities and social tensions (Sevignani 2017, Sunstein 2018 and the redistribution of economic risks, low wages and social and economic insecurity onto vulnerable workers and their families (Friedman 2014, De Stefano 2015. ...
Article
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This paper uses a comparative ethnographic approach to explore the ways in which social media enables new economic strategies that capitalize on women's traditional forms of reliance within their local communities. We use ethnographic examples from northern Chile, southeast Italy, and south India to show how women are successful in establishing small but prestigious entrepreneurial activities by using social media to respond to local social and cultural needs. Women use social media to transform both conventional work practices and individuals' notions of work in ways that overcome important structural constraints they face in their respective communities. These findings contrast with optimistic analyses that suggest online platforms decrease global inequalities through bringing disadvantaged people into global economic flows. This article demonstrates the effective ways in which individuals use social media to gradually change local norms related to gender and work while making small but important gains towards economic stability. This process is related to important shifts in sociality that have resulted from social media use within local communities. By focusing on entrepreneurship and gendered aspects of online economic exchange, we develop an understanding of what happens when longstanding expectations for gendered work meet commerce made possible through new media.
... AV implementation into existing modes of transport19 ...
... Therefore, research programmes and communities, as much as industry actors, link the technical with the social dimension of innovation, referring to socio-technical innovations (cf.Berkhout, Smith, and Stirling 2004). This includes, but is not limited to the circular economy, the sharing economy, the gig economy, and the platform economy(Frenken and Schor 2017;Kirchherr, Reike, and Hekkert 2017;De Stefano 2016), all of which describe new business models and a new type of products based on novel behavioural trends. The availability of vast amounts of data associated with these innovations initiated the transition towards new paradigms, posing new challenges also for governments and public administrations, e.g. in terms of privacy protection and data regulation, cybersecurity, and most recently, misinformation and social media interaction (cf.Brynjolfsson and McAfee 2014). ...
Conference Paper
Governments worldwide increasingly address challenges, such as climate change or sustainability transitions, through mission-oriented innovation policies, i.e. systemic policies that cut across sectors to target a societal problem. Achieving such missions requires socio-technical change and often results in so-called multi-technology innovations: technologies that comprise a set of complex, interacting sub-technologies of diverse characters and cater a multitude of socio-technical purposes. These innovations pose a challenge: They trigger coordination problems across policy domains, across government organisations with different interests, capacities, and mandates, as well as across policy design and implementation. However, although coordination problems are not new to public policy scholars, they remain largely unaddressed in the innovation policy context. Likewise, the innovation studies literature hardly considers the influence of public agencies in innovation systems. Combined, this merits the research question: How do public sector organisations and socio-technical innovation systems mutually shape each other, particularly in the context of mission-oriented policies? This thesis investigates the innovation systems of autonomous vehicles as an example of a multi-technology solution resulting from mission-oriented policies in three highly innovative economies: Singapore, Estonia, and Sweden. Relying on network analyses, semi-structured interviews, and process-tracing, it compares how hierarchical, market-based, and network-oriented policy coordination arrangements shape the public administration’s impact on the innovation system and vice-versa. In conclusion, socio-technical innovations, due to the challenges they trigger, shift policy coordination arrangements towards (intensified) network-oriented approaches. Accordingly, government organisations collaborate to enable the innovation system, rather than controlling it top-down or through market-based arrangements. ‘Networked transitions’, hence, allow systemic feedback loops to integrate policy design and implementation, to mitigate coordination failures, and to accelerate the system’s development towards fulfilling ‘the mission’.
... These tasks often include taking up surveys, tagging images and keywords, and translating and transcribing content, that add up to a few dollars an hour of wages for experienced workers [50]. Over the last few years, tens of millions of people all across the world have gravitated towards these platforms [45] for benefts like fexible work hours, lack of long-term commitment, and manageable tasks [14,22,45]. These benefts make these platforms especially appealing to women who are unable to join the traditional forms of work due to multiple deprivations and constraints [31]. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Women's economic empowerment is central to gender equality. However, work opportunities available to low-income women in patriarchal societies are infrequent. While crowd work has the potential to increase labor participation of such women, much remains unknown about their engagement with crowd work and the resultant opportunities and tensions. To fll this gap, we critically examined the adoption and use of a crowd work platform by low-income women in India. Through a qualitative study, we found that women faced tremendous challenges, for example, in seeking permission from family members to do crowd work, lack of family support and encouragement, and often working in unfavorable environments where they had to hide their work lives. While crowd work took a toll on their physical and emotional wellbeing, it also led to increased confdence, agency, and autonomy. We discuss ways to reduce frictions and tensions in participation of low-income women on crowd work platforms.
... Un rapport de l'Inspection Générale des Affaires Sociales datant de 2016de (IGAS, 2016 esquisse une typologie qui semble relativement appropriée pour cerner les différents périmètres que peuvent circonscrire les plateformes numériques. L'IGAS distingue trois types de plateformes classées en autant de cercles concentriques. ...
Thesis
Le développement fulgurant des plateformes numériques au début de la décennie 2010 laissait espérer l’émergence d’une économie plus émancipatrice et démocratique. Pourtant, loin des idéaux de l’économie collaborative, de nombreuses voix ont rapidement dénoncé la domination écrasante de l’économie de plateformes par une poignée d’entreprises multinationales fondées notamment sur l’exploitation de travailleurs précaires et des données personnelles des utilisateurs. C’est à l’aune de ce constat que deux universitaires et activistes américains théorisent au milieu des années 2010 un projet à la fois économique et politique, le coopérativisme de plateformes, appelant à créer et à soutenir des plateformes détenues directement par leurs usagers. L’utopie réelle du coopérativisme de plateformes prend forme au quotidien à travers une diversité de plateformes coopératives et de réseaux militants, qui promeuvent et expérimentent des pratiques alternatives au capitalisme de plateformes.
... Relevant to collaborative creativity, there are several general platforms (such as Facebook pages, Linkedin, Twitter, Instagram, Pinterest, Tumblr, GitHub) and art-specific platforms (such as Artnet, Amazon Art, Behance, Etsy, Artwork Archive, Planoly, Canva, ELLO) that have become largely unavoidable in any creative endeavour. We are only starting to explore what transformations platforms would bring to creative work (van Dijk 2014), but it is reasonable to expect that changes are comparably profound to what we have seen in the realm of gig work in general (De Stefano 2015;Wood et al. 2019). ...
Article
Full-text available
Generating new ideas and solutions is increasingly a collective phenomenon, where collaborative networks play a decisive role in finding and diffusing of novel ideas. At the same time we can take advantage of computational social science (CSS) methods to understand creativity and innovation in fundamentally new ways. I argue that these developments open the possibility to reconcile the previously segregated focal areas of creativity and innovation into a unified area of collaborative creativity. In this novel area we can treat the local community that sparks a novel idea, and the broader field that diffuses and recombines ideas in a unified fashion, and we can also understand the macroscopic historical emergence of new fields and creative arenas. I outline how CSS transforms the study of creativity and innovation, how new methods can give us access to measuring novelty and network structure at scale, and what lessons and challenges remain to motivate further work.
... In their study, participants found the idea of exposing their stress levels to be highly concerning. On-demand gig economy companies, such as Uber and Lyft, have more data than ever, but have been criticized for poorly supporting workers and avoiding their classification as employees [42]. Amazon's workers have arduous experiences in warehouses that track and optimize their movements [43]. ...
Article
Full-text available
We present a design fiction, which is set in the near future as significant Mars habitation begins. Our goal in creating this fiction is to address current work-life issues on Earth and Mars in the future. With shelter-in-place measures, established norms of productivity and relaxation have been shaken. The fiction creates an opportunity to explore boundaries between work and life, which are changing with shelter-in-place and will continue to change. Our work includes two primary artifacts: (1) a propaganda recruitment poster and (2) a fictional narrative account. The former paints the work-life on Mars as heroic, fulfilling, and fun. The latter provides a contrast that depicts the lived experience of early Mars inhabitants. Our statement draws from our design fiction in order to reflect on the structure of work, stress identification and management, family and work-family communication, and the role of automation.
... Additionally, organised capital attached a feminist hue to remote work, heralding its benefit to women's employment (see Dangler, 1994) and gender-based pay gap on account of work flexibility. However, the gender-based pay gap has not evolved in India as a consequence of major policy reforms that normally has been noticed in other growing Asian economies as a result of which participation of women in the labour market has changed resulting in an increase or decrease of skilled jobs and investment from foreign nations (see Lai and Sarkar, 2017, 2016, 2013. ...
Article
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic in India has opened doors ajar for corporations to a world full of opportunities where organisations that took strategic action related to human capital was able to maximise profitability. One such strategic tool is about dispersing workers organically so to avert workplace collectivisation. What came handy to employers to get their businesses run with a handful of workers after laying off others whom they otherwise wanted by giving the excuse of the pandemic is “work-from-home”. The new work arrangement happened to be unique to the majority workforce in India as there has been no federal labour law in the country till date that allows employers to get work done by employees from home. Many benefited from the arrangement as it offered flexibility, and employees could prevent their employers from cutting pay or laying them off during the pandemic. However, if we delve deep down into the new work arrangement, we cannot dispense with its long term adverse consequences on workplace solidarity. With older forms of workplace getting outmoded slowly, as more and more corporations even after the pandemic may choose to have their workforce dispersed by making them work from home, the unionised workforce will be in the lurch. It will cripple this small section of the workforce in India as employees would seldom be able to meet or have regular workplace meetings, ravaging collectivisation, union coverage and union density.
... Gig work, which has developed in the interstices of the legal 'grey zone' (Pichault & McKeown, 2019) between independence and employment, extracts value while assuming little responsibility for workers. Considered as self-employed, gig workers are excluded from employment protections as well as from fundamental labour rights such as freedom of association, collective bargaining or protection against discrimination (De Stefano, 2016). Beyond their legal status, which deprives them of formal structures of representation and social dialogue, workers suffer from low bargaining power regarding their working conditions and difficulty in formulating common demands due to the geographical atomisation of work and the heterogeneity of their profiles (Aloisi, 2022). ...
Conference Paper
How do low-skilled platform workers organize themselves in order to cope with the lack of state regulation and the gig nature of their job ? Based on a case study of food-delivery platform work in France, this article examines the new self-regulations of labor that results from uncertain legal developments of platform work (Aloisi, 2022), the ambiguous flexibility of algorithmic management (Shapiro, 2018) and the individual agency of platform workers (Lee et al., 2015). While the marginality of formal social dialogue and labor intermediaries (Bureau & Corsani, 2018) in platform work weakens traditional forms of work collectives, we highlight how this neglect leads platform workers to rely on more identity-based and community-based forms of regulation, particularly on religious grounds. The ambiguities of use of digital artifacts of algorithmic management indeed lead workers to construct margins of maneuver for their religious agency. This autonomy is then reinvested by the religious community of practitioners through the sharing of informational and emotional resources leading to a new religious social control over the workers. We also point out how the actualization of the digital artifact to express religious agency insidiously leads platform workers to consent to the precariousness and power asymmetries of platform labor (Srnicek, 2017).
... As professionals gain expertise and socialise within their professional 'epistemic cultures' (Cetina 2009), they often become 'locked in' to their professional cognitive frames regarding a problem (Foster & Kaplan 2011), creating an 'innovation blindness' (Leonardi 2011). Moreover, expert time and the availability of expert labour is increasingly viewed as a scarce resource (Cappelli 2014), leading to many engineering organisations to consider alternative models, including contractors and in the extreme, just-in-time workforce (De Stefano 2015). One way to overcome these challenges is by opening up problems to external, nondomain, nonexpert solvers. ...
Article
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This article proposes the solver-aware system architecting framework for leveraging the combined strengths of experts, crowds and specialists to design innovative complex systems. Although system architecting theory has extensively explored the relationship between alternative architecture forms and performance under operational uncertainty, limited attention has been paid to differences due to who generates the solutions. The recent rise in alternative solving methods, from gig workers to crowdsourcing to novel contracting structures emphasises the need for deeper consideration of the link between architecting and solver-capability in the context of complex system innovation. We investigate these interactions through an abstract problem-solving simulation, representing alternative decompositions and solver archetypes of varying expertise, engaged through contractual structures that match their solving type. We find that the preferred architecture changes depending on which combinations of solvers are assigned. In addition, the best hybrid decomposition-solver combinations simultaneously improve performance and cost, while reducing expert reliance. To operationalise this new solver-aware framework, we induce two heuristics for decomposition-assignment pairs and demonstrate the scale of their value in the simulation. We also apply these two heuristics to reason about an example of a robotic manipulator design problem to demonstrate their relevance in realistic complex system settings.
... In 2021 the number of gig workers in England and Wales has risen to 4.4 million, almost triple that of 2016, with those working as delivery or private hire drivers quadrupling in that time (TUC, 2021). 2 There is a stream of gig economy platforms being deployed across new and established markets enabled by technology that automatically distributes work and payment remotely. However, there is an imbalance of power and a lack of transparency around how algorithms used in this industry are designed to manage workers, and their emotional labour (Lutz et al., 2018, Toombs, et al., 2018, that causes frustration and growing concern for workers (De Stefano, 2015, Waters F. & Woodcock, 2017. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Gig economy is presented as disruptive, technologically driven, and forward thinking. Design is explicit in this framing, through use of slick apps to reduce friction and simplify experience for customer and worker. However, this framing is often driven by the platforms, and does not fully recognize the actual experience of work. In this paper we report on a collaborative design process on developing concepts for the future of gig work from a worker-centric perspective. This explicitly does not involve the platforms as stakeholders and uses design fiction as a tool for workers to express fears, joys, and the aspects of their work that are nuanced, reflective and surprising. We reflect on the designs created through this process, the tensions, and opportunities with working with gig work-ing couriers, and issues around power and representation when designing with and for this community.
... Intermediary firms often tout the benefits of these technologies to allow those seeking flexible employment opportunities to connect with consumers requiring timely, on-demand services. Labor advocates, however, challenge this positive assessment, arguing that online labor platforms unequally benefit intermediary firms and customers, while increasing the risk that platform workers are misclassified as independent contractors, which may deprive them of important employment entitlements and benefits (De Stefano 2016). ...
Article
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The authors investigate the relationship between platform work engagement and worker mental health on the basis of two nationally representative samples of Canadian workers. Integrating insights from the job demands–resources model and Schor’s idea of “platform dependence,” the authors examine whether a dependent attachment to the platform economy is associated with poorer mental health. Multivariate analyses reveal that dependent platform workers report higher levels of psychological distress than secondary platform workers, wage workers, and the traditional self- employed. In contrast to work conditions, which contribute little to these distress patterns, financial strain explains approximately 50 percent of dependent platform workers’ higher distress. Contingency analyses reveal that financial strain also exacerbates the mental health penalties associated with dependent platform work. These findings support a “dependent-precarity” perspective of platform work stress, raising questions about the future health challenges posed by platform work in a postpandemic economy.
... Relevant to collaborative creativity, there are several general platforms (such as Facebook pages, Linkedin, Twitter, Instagram, Pinterest, Tumblr, GitHub) and art-specific platforms (such as Artnet, Amazon Art, Behance, Etsy, Artwork Archive, Planoly, Canva, ELLO) that have become largely unavoidable in any creative endeavour. We are only starting to explore what transformations platforms would bring to creative work (van Dijk 2014), but it is reasonable to expect that changes are comparably profound to what we have seen in the realm of gig work in general (De Stefano 2015;Wood et al. 2019). ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Generating new ideas and solutions is increasingly a collective phenomenon, where collaborative networks play a decisive role in finding and diffusing of novel ideas. At the same time we can take advantage of computational social science (CSS) methods to understand creativity and innovation in fundamentally new ways. I argue that these developments open the possibility to reconcile the previously segregated focal areas of creativity and innovation into a unified area of collaborative creativity. In this novel area we can treat the local community that sparks a novel idea, and the broader field that diffuses and recombines ideas in a unified fashion, and we can also understand the macroscopic historical emergence of new fields and creative arenas. I outline how CSS transforms the study of creativity and innovation, how new methods can give us access to measuring novelty and network structure at scale, and what lessons and challenges remain to motivate further work.
... Platform work has been characterised as a new form of precarious work (De Stefano, 2016;Huws et al., 2018;MacDonald & Giazitzoglu, 2019). This is attributed, on the one hand, to the solo self-employed status of platform workers. ...
Article
Full-text available
Platform work creates a work model that is both a curse and a blessing for vulnerable labour market segments. Based on research on female precarity, the article expects that remote platform work—so‐called crowdwork—could especially attract women who need to combine income and care responsibilities. This article investigates whether women experience more precarity on crowdwork platforms than men, and why their risks differ. It analyses data from a quantitative survey with crowdworkers in Germany and the United States. The results indicate higher precarity risks for women due to care work, which are also indirectly mediated via the employment status. The higher commodification of labour and weaker social infrastructure lead to generally greater precarity risks for platform workers in the United States. The high differences between women and men in Germany underline the gendered nature of labour market dualization and precarization as well as the traditional division of housework. Policy measures should address both platform work and these structural inequalities.
... During the last decade, we have witnessed a proliferation of online platforms that match the supply and demand of flexible labour. Such online platforms mediating flexible labour are generally classed under the term "gig economy" (De Stefano, 2015), and are best-known through examples such as Uber (for taxi rides) and Deliveroo (for food delivery). The rise of these platforms created a lot of turmoil in political arenas, whereby unions, workers and digital activists have expressed their critical views of gig economy platforms as they exercise control over workers without employing them, use algorithms and reviews to assign gigs to workers or rank gigs to clients. ...
Article
In view of the precarity and economic dependency of gig workers, platform cooperatives come into the picture as alternatives to investor-owned platforms. We develop a taxonomy of platform cooperatives along the dimensions of ownership of the platform and employment by the cooperative. Platform cooperatives are then examined as worker-run matchmaking platforms for gigs, by analysing their challenges, highlighting the difficulties to raise capital, take collective decisions, and gain institutional support. On the basis of a feasibility analysis, we conclude that the identified challenges can most likely be successfully overcome by platform co-ops that organise taxi rides and professional jobs, while it may prove much more difficult in food delivery, homecare and micro-tasking.
... Moreover, workers in these platforms operate as own-account workers independently of how frequently they work for the same employer. 3 This characteristic has lead authors like Berg (2016) or de Stefano (2016) to argue that crowdworking increases the number of workers excluded from fundamental rights. ...
Research
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In recent years, crowdworking has emerged as a small but rapidly growing source of employment and income principally for young(er) people. Here, we build on previous work in identifying the determinants of crowdworkers' earnings. We focus on the reasons why young crowdworkers earn significantly higher hourly wages than their older counterparts. We show that this is due to the higher returns to experience accruing to younger crowd-workers. Educational attainment does not explain this age-based differential, as education is a negligible factor in determining crowdworkers' earnings. We also analyse why young women earn around 20% less than their male counterparts despite blind hiring. We confirm that this is partly explained by constraints on working time faced by women with children. The analysis also shows that 'freely chosen' crowdwork-as opposed to, young people crowd-working because of a lack of alternative employment opportunities-is conducive to higher levels of job satisfaction. Moreover, young crowdworkers in middle income countries earn less than their counterparts in high income countries but report higher levels of job satisfaction. This is entirely attributable to the lower quality of their options outside of crowdwork. JEL Classification: J20, J41, F41
... Bu çalışma türü daha geleneksel ve fiziksel bir işi içermektedir. Bu işler, işin önemli yönleri (fiyat ve standartların belirlenmesi ve işgücünün seçilmesi ve yönetilmesi dahil) üzerinde belirli bir düzeyde kontrol sahibi olabilecek şirketler tarafından yönetilen çevrimiçi platformlar aracılığıyla organize edilir (De Stefano, 2015;Kessler, 2014;Said, 2015;Smith ve Leberstein, 2015). Bu hizmet talebinde bulunan kişiyle herhangi bir fiziksel temas olmaksızın açık web siteleri aracılığıyla iş bulma ve tamamlamayı ve ikinci olarak 'talep üzerine çalışma' yoluyla; hizmet sağlayıcı ile hizmetin talebi arasında bir tür fiziksel etkileşimin olduğu daha geleneksel ve fiziksel bir iş atamasını içerir ve bu durumda hizmet için talepte bulunan kişi bunu (istek üzerine) mobil uygulamaları kullanarak yapar (Graham & Woodcock, 2018). ...
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Havayolu işletmeleri tarihsel süreç içerisinde farklı krizler neticesinde finansal başarısızlığa maruz kalmışlardır. 1978 yılındaki petrol krizi neticesinde yakıt maliyetleri artarak finansal krizler yaşanmıştır. 2001 yılında yaşanan ikiz kule terör saldırısı ve 2008 yılında yaşanan küresel ekonomik kriz neticesinde havayolu işletmeleri büyük zararlar etmiştir. Havayolu işletmeleri özellikle kriz zamanlarında finansal başarısızlıklara karşı tedbir almak zorundadırlar. Bu bağlamda çalışmanın amacı havayolu işletmelerinde finansal başarısızlık riskinin makroekonomik belirleyicilerinin saptanmasıdır. Bu çalışma, geleneksel havayolu işletmelerinde makroekonomik faktörlerin finansal başarısızlığa etkisi üzerine odaklanmıştır. Çalışma kapsamında finansal başarısızlık riskine etki eden faktörler, 2009 ile 2019 yılları arasında 11 geleneksel havayolu işletmesi örnekleminde inceleme yapılmıştır. Makroekonomik faktörler olarak; Faiz oranı, döviz kuru, enflasyon ve brent petrol fiyatı değişkenleri kullanılmıştır. Finansal başarısızlık göstergesi olarak Altman Z'' skoru kullanılmıştır. Yapılan rassal etkiler panel veri analizi sonucuna göre faiz oranı ve döviz kuru değişkenlerinin finansal başarısızlığı negatif etkilediği sonucuna varılmıştır.
... Since the jobs are contractual and flexible in nature, they tend to be a secondary income source for most gig workers. This is often termed as on-demand jobs, digital work, just-in-time work or shared economy, where a short-term task is assigned to an individual, for which they are contractually paid, and the platforms have high worker turnovers (De Stefano, 2016;Farrell and Greig, 2016). The contingent work is digitally mediated, and can be performed remotely at the location of the customers (Graham and Anwar, 2018). ...
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Purpose The alternative arrangements to traditional employment have become a promising area in the gig economy with the technological advancements dominating every work. The purpose of this paper is to explore the barriers to the entry of gig workers in gig platforms pertaining to the food delivery sector. It proposes a framework using interpretive structural modelling (ISM) for which systematic literature review is done to extract the variables. This analysis helps to examine the relationship between the entry barriers to gig platforms. The study further proposes strategies to reduce the entry barriers in gig sector which would help to enhance productivity and generate employment opportunities. Design/methodology/approach The study uses interpretive structural model (ISM) to ascertain the relationship between various entry barriers of the gig workers to the gig platforms. It also validates the relationship and understand the reasons of their association along with MICMAC analysis. The model was designed by consulting the gig workers and the experts allied to food delivery gig platforms namely Zomato and Swiggy. Findings It was observed that high competition, longer login hours and late-night deliveries are the significant barriers with high driving power and low dependence power. Poor payment structures and strict terms and conditions for receiving the incentives are interdependent on each other and have moderate driving and dependence power. The expenses borne by the gig workers, such as Internet, fuel and vehicle maintenance expenses have high dependence power and low driving power. Hence, they are relatively less significant than other barriers. Research limitations/implications The study is confined to food delivery sector of India, without considering other important sectors of gig economy for generalizing the framework. As the study is based on forming an ISM framework through literature review only, it does not consider other research methods for analysing the entry barriers to the gig platforms. Practical implications The study attempts to dig out the low entry barriers for gig workers in food delivery platforms as there is a dearth of analysis of these factors. This study would weave them using ISM framework to help the gig platforms overcome these barriers at various levels, thus adding to the body of literature. Originality/value The study discusses the need for understanding relationship between the entry barriers in the form of ISM model to identify the dependent and driving factors of the same.
... In relation to the labour market impact and regulation of platform work, there are several aspects that cause concern among the social partners and therefore justify regulation. This includes the imposition of a commercial relationship between the platform and its service providers, who are treated as independent and thus denied the guarantees of an employee or, even, a self-employed worker (De Stefano 2016;Kuhn 2016). As stated in Eurofound (2018), of all the transformations that the digital economy entails, its labour market impact poses important challenges to governments and the social partners. ...
... We define as a gig economy those forms of contingent work arrangements that require digital platforms (Tran and Sokas, 2017). These can be flexible (allowing being something like 'your own boss') but at the same time unstable, reducing rights and social protection for workers (De Stefano, 2015;MacDonald and Giazitzoglu, 2019;Webster, 2016). In the case of location-specific labour platforms, which are "geographically-sticky" and require workers to be in a specific location (Graham and Woodcock, 2018), this precariousness has specific spatial features too. ...
Article
On-demand delivery services are experiencing a moment of expansion, which the COVID-19 pandemic contributed to foster. For cities in quarantine, these services allow the supply of food and other primary goods without moving from home, making riders move and access them on behalf of the clients. During a pandemic, working as a rider potentially increases the risks of an already precarious job given the contractual arrangements and the algorithmic control that characterize this gig economy sector. We argue that platforms have generated forms of injustice that are reproduced and amplified by digital platforms encoded in the Global North, which are governed by regulations and optimization criteria that do not dialogue with the precarious reality of Global South cities. Focusing on the case of Santiago de Chile, our analysis draws on the triangulation and complementarity of two instruments: interviews before the COVID-19 pandemic and surveys involving riders during the COVID-19 pandemic. Our findings show that platforms generate specific forms of injustice that affect riders and their mobility in particular. The COVID-19 pandemic worsened such forms of digital injustice, increasing the pressure for constantly working and the exposure of riders to threats such as accidents, criminality and health risks.
... Platforms maintain openness on the supply side with reduced barriers for suppliers, which may result in greater alternatives for users to obtain higher customisation according to their requirements (Eisenmann et al., 2009). Additionally, platforms may apply a competency check to ensure quality of service by the suppliers (De Stefano, 2015). ...
Purpose Sharing economy-based service platforms are a relatively new way of delivering services that have received increasing attention from both practitioners and researchers. However, current research in the area is still developing in terms of offering practical insight in conjunction with a decision model that may help to determine optimal strategies for efficient service design in the sharing economy from a service triad perspective. Exploring this gap in the literature, this paper aims to develop and apply a decision model that enables managers to identify and prioritise the efficiency attributes of sharing economy-based services. It also aids in designing optimal strategies to enhance efficiency over time based on the insights obtained from users (buyers and sellers) and platform providers. Design/methodology/approach This study adopts a mixed-methods approach. The qualitative approach comprised an extensive literature review followed by in-depth interviews, and the quantitative approach adopted the quality function deployment (QFD) integrated optimisation technique to design and prioritise the most optimal strategy emanating from the application of a decision model. Findings The findings revealed that establishing global distribution, continued technological research and development (R&D) and enhancing the transactional platform are the most important strategies in the context of sharing economy platform providers (e.g. accommodation-based-platform service providers). This study also revealed that as the importance weights of the efficiency attributes changed over time, so too did the portfolio of strategies used to attain an optimal efficiency level. Originality/value The decision model brings a richer conceptual understanding of the dynamic changes over time that occur in the business ecosystem. It also allows managers of sharing economy-based platforms to select optimal strategies and make astute decisions towards achieving efficient service design.
... Junto a esto, el trabajador se hace responsable de viabilizar parte de los medios de producción (como vehículos y teléfonos celulares). Por lo tanto, varios costos y responsabilidades que pertenecían a las empresas, en particular, cómo pagar el tiempo de trabajo ocioso, se transfieren a los trabajadores (Abílio, 2019;De Stefano, 2016;Woodcock, 2020;Zwick, 2018). ...
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RESUMEN Esta comunicación tiene como finalidad discutir la mediación de la ideología del trabajo en la consolidación y superación del capitalismo de plataformas y sus implicancias en la psicología. Desde la crisis del 2008 han surgido nuevas formas de trabajo mediadas por plataformas digitales. Una de sus principales características es la demanda de trabajo no regularizado, la falta de acceso a los derechos laborales y la transmisión a los trabajadores de costos, medios de producción y horas de inactividad. Para su consolidación, las empresas-plataforma han producido discursos de mistificación de este trabajo. En ese contexto, por ejemplo, se trata a los trabajadores como emprendedores, la relación laboral como una asociación, la venta de la fuerza laboral como un reparto de recursos con finalidad social. No obstante, los movimientos de los últimos años han demostrado que los trabajadores no captan mecánicamente estos discursos y se han rebelado contra la precariedad del trabajo al que están sometidos. Por lo tanto, hay indicios de que el proceso de uberización del trabajo está marcado por ideologías laborales particulares. Es decir, desde una comprensión marxista e histórica-cultural, significados con la función de mediar los conflictos sociales relacionados con la explotación de la fuerza laboral, determinando las praxis singulares de los individuos, cuando se apropian en forma de sentido. Estos hallazgos tienen implicancias en la Psicología, en relación con la creación de una agenda de investigación e intervención que considere el proceso mediado y contradictorio de apropiación y eventual creación de ideologías laborales entre los trabajadores uberizados; así como impulsar los procesos de organización colectiva de esta categoría. Palabras clave: Ideología-Uberización-Precariedad-Lucha de clases.
... Inoltre, la diffusione del management algoritmico potrebbe preludere a un ulteriore frammentazione dei processi produttivi e a una conseguente crescita della già ampia quota di lavoro non-standard 3 . I rischi sociali che hanno caratterizzato il diffondersi delle piattaforme digitali sono venuti alla ribalta con il proliferare di mobilitazioni (Collier et al. 2017) e di cause di lavoro intentate, allo scopo di vedersi riconosciuti diritti e tutele, dagli stessi lavoratori delle piattaforme (De Stefano 2015;Donini 2020). Ciò ha parallelamente accresciuto l'interesse della ricerca scientifica sul tema. ...
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This article contributes to the growing empirical literature on the platform economy. By relying on an original European online survey on platform and non-standard work, it provides evidence on the socio-demographic and occupational characteristics of platform workers in France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Spain, and Sweden. The article aims to profile European platform workers by comparing their socio-demographic characteristics with those of non-standard workers. Further, it explores how and to which extent working on a labour platform can increase the individual perception of socio-economic vulnerability.
... Prestia (2019) affirmed that around the 1960s and 1970s the word gig referred to a performance carried out by an individual to augment their income . De Stefano (2015) declared that presently gig economy refers to adopting or using an independent worker of any parent organisation. Friedman (2014) further stated that gig workers are different from a consultant. The researcher believed that gig workers are freelancers careerists, self-employed specialists or members of a mobile workforce. Petriglieri et ...
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Safety needs to be a visceral element of construction processes in order for them to succeed. In that context, the United Arab Emirates (UAE) makes use of Estidama as a tool for building design so as to measure practices relating to sustainable building via its Pearl Rating System. To that end, in essence, it shares some similarities with UK BREEAM measures. Against this backdrop, the current research will evaluate the potential for using Estidama as a tool for implementing systems with a view to track construction workers’ health and safety (H&S). It has been pointed out that there needs to be greater appraisal when it comes to these systems within GCC nations and, on a larger level, draw linkages between cultural, socioeconomic, institutional, environments, political, and safety-related elements across construction sites owing to poor levels of understanding. Notably, meaningful comparisons of H&S statistical data could help drive enhanced performance; however, greater degrees of transparency must be ensured and the ability to secure valid information. A systematic literature forms the cornerstone of this research, and exploratory interviews are then undertaken with UAE-based construction professional staff. According to the findings, a lot of work needs to be done in order to enhance H&S performance. Governments need to demonstrate greater commitment towards enforcement, whereas the perception of legislation leaves a lot to be desired. Put simply, the prospect of implementing tools such as Estidama is not impervious to challenge. In a similar vein, questions must be asked about implementing H&S regulations with building green …
... Various studies (Jolly 2016;Rosenblat 2016;Vandaele 2018) assert that there is greater potential for workers' organization on the platforms known as on demand, through apps; meaning those for which work is done offline, taking a physical form, in a specific circumscribed territory (De Stefano 2016). In this perspective, these characteristics create better conditions for workers to form alliances, a situation which is rather more difficult on crowdwork platforms, which have hundreds of workers spread across the internet. ...
... Indeed, target five (5) of SDG 8 (Decent Work and Economic Growth) states the goal of achieving "full and productive employment" and increasing the employment opportunities particularly for young people (UNGA015). Crowdwork is a new way of working that adopts the crowdsourcing model and describes paid work that is carried out digitally and delivered entirely online mediated by digital platforms (Dahlander and Piezunka 2017;De Stefano 2015). Crowdwork platforms like MTurks, Upwork, Freelancer.com, ...
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Work is a key element in the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Crowd-work is a new way of working defined as a paid, digital platform-enabled form of work based on crowdsourcing model. Previous research on crowdwork narrowly considered its direct and immediate economic impact on individual workers overlooking its broader sustainable impact. This study goes a step further and adopts a wider sustainable development approach to examine the relationship between crowdwork and the sustainable development of the workers involved. It questions whether crowdwork contributes to the sustainable development of workers, and if so, how? An inductive research approach is adopted, and rich qualitative data was collected benefiting from a unique access to crowdworkers. The study reveals that crowdworkers develop three types of skills in the process of crowdwork namely ; domain, platform and business skills. It highlights that these developed knowledge and skills are transferred from crowdworkers to other workers and other work settings. Furthermore , it traces and identifies the process through which crowdworkers develop and transfer these skills and knowledge and categorises it into three stages of Reactive Exploitation, Proactive Expansion, and Transfer. The study concludes that this process contributes to a more sustainable human resource development not only for the crowdworkers involved but for others as well contributing to the sustainable social and economic development
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Researchers search for factors explaining the disruptive impact of labour platforms on work, yet very few studies explore how platforms approach product markets and the resultant effects on platform workers’ working conditions. Looking at this question, this paper studies distinct but similar international and regional food delivery platforms in Poland and Italy, exploring which factors explain differences in their working conditions. Two findings emerge. First, international and regional platforms differ substantially in terms of how they approach product markets. Second, these differences account for the variety within (and across) platforms’ employment outcomes.
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Ursprünglich aus den USA stammend ist Gig Work zunehmend auch in Deutschland zu beobachten. Besonders in jüngeren Altersgruppen erfreut sich diese Arbeitsform zunehmender Beliebtheit, mitunter aufgrund des hohen Maßes an Selbstbestimmung. Zwecks Begriffseinordnung wird der vorliegende Beitrag Gig Work zunächst definieren. Dazu werden unterschiedliche Ansätze verglichen, um darauf aufbauend eine Abgrenzung zu klassischen Arbeitsverhältnissen anhand von Sicherheit bzw. Flexibilität einerseits sowie Anteil am verfügbaren Einkommen andererseits abzuleiten. Der zweite Teil untersucht bereits am Markt existierende Geschäftsmodelle der Gig Economy. Dazu werden unterschiedliche Unternehmen analysiert und mit Hilfe eines Frameworks klassifiziert. Neben Uber als aktuell größter Plattform für Gig Work werden an dieser Stelle weitere Unternehmen exemplarisch genannt, die sowohl recht simple Aktivitäten als auch innovative Ansätze für oftmals komplexere Tätigkeiten anbieten. Dieser Abschnitt arbeitet Fachkenntnis und Vernetzung von Gig Workern untereinander als entscheidende Treiber heraus. Im letzten Teil werden Herausforderungen für deutsche Unternehmen aufgezeigt, die mit der Gig Economy einhergehen. Insbesondere ist zu klären, wie Unternehmen ihre Aufgaben stärker standardisieren und gleichzeitig eine höhere Flexibilität für die Mitarbeitenden ermöglichen können. Demgegenüber werden Chancen aufgezeigt, wie Unternehmen durch Gig Work profitieren können. Somit lautet die Leitfrage des letzten Abschnitts: Welche Änderungen kommen durch Gig Work auf Unternehmen zu, und wie können Unternehmen adäquat darauf reagieren?
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Tässä tutkimuksessa tarkasteltiin covid-19-pandemian aiheuttamaa toiminnan muutosta, jonka myötä työntekijät ovat siirtyneet tekemään laajennettua etätyötä, ja samalla myös tietoteknisten työkalujen käyttö on lisääntynyt. Tarkoituksena oli selvittää, miten tämä muutos on vaikuttanut henkilöstön luottamuskokemuksiin ylintä johtajistoa kohtaan ja missä määrin henkilökunta kokee ylimmän johtajiston käyttäneen luottamusta säilyttäviä ja korjaavia käytäntöjä covid-19-pandemian aikana. Tutkimus tehtiin pandemian Suomen toisen aallon aikana lokakuussa 2020 yhdessä Maavoimien hallintoyksikössä. Tuloksina löydettiin, että sekä sotilailla että siviileillä sukupuolesta riippumatta luottamuskokemus ylimpään johtajistoon on pandemiatilanteesta huolimatta keskimääräisesti vahvistunut. Työntekijöiden luottamusta ylintä johtajistoa kohtaan ovat kummassakin henkilöstöja sukupuoliryhmässä säilyttäneet ja rakentaneet erityisesti ylimmän johtajiston toteuttama avoin tiedon jakaminen, hyväntahtoinen henkilöstöpolitiikka sekä rakentava käyttäytyminen. Työntekijöiden kokemuksissa ylimmän johtajiston luottamusta säilyttävien ja rakentavien käytäntöjen soveltamisessa ei havaittu tilastollisesti merkitsevää eroa sotilaiden ja siviilien tai eri sukupuolten välillä, mutta sotilaiden kokemuksissa yksittäisenä tekijänä rehellinen tiedonjakaminen korostui erityisen positiivisesti ja toi esiin melkein merkitsevän eron siviileiden kokemuksiin verrattuna. Tämä tutkimus edistää organisaatiojohdon ja henkilöstöjohtajien tietämystä luottamuksen rakentamisen merkityksestä sekä tehokkaista luottamusta rakentavista käytännöistä työyhteisössä. Hyvät työyhteisön luottamustasot voivat vaikuttaa siten, että organisaatio muodostuu sopeutuvammaksi ja ketterämmäksi kohtaamaan erilaisia muutoksia myös nykyisessä nopeasti muuttuvassa toimintaympäristössä.
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The aim of this article is to make a contribution to understanding platform work in a comprehensive and geographically situated way, and thus to consider comprehensive responses to its precarising character. The author proposes an analytical framework in which platform work is the result of the articulation of three dimensions: technological-organisational, institutional and ideological. In turn, this framework is applied in depth to a case study: delivery platform work in Argentina. To that end a mixed methodology is employed which combines in-depth interviews and surveys responded to by 401 delivery workers.
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Conference Proceeding of the 5th international Service Management Congress by Prof. Dr. Markus Launer from Ostfaliay University of Applied Sciences. Co-Hosts: Prof. Dr. Joanna Paliszkiewicz, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Management Institute, Poland Prof. Dr. Fatih Cetin, Nigde Omer Halisdemir University, Turkey Prof. Dr. Dave Marcial, Silliman University, Philippines Prof. Dr. Joane Serrano, University of the Philippines Open University, Los Banos Prof. Dr. Erik Capistrano, University of the Philippines, Manila Prof. Dr. Kandappan Balasubramanian, Taylor University, CRiT Institute, Malaysia Prof. Dr. Melten Huri Baturay, Atilim University, Center for Teaching & Learning, Turkey Prof. Dr. Christian Harteis, University Paderborn, Germany Authors: Alazada, N.D.S., University of the Philippines Open University, Philippines Arora, Sarita, Assistant Professor, Sri Aurobindo College of Commerce and Management, India Bagos, Jenine, University of the Philippines Open University, Philippines Balasubramanian, Kandappan, Taylor's University, CRiT Institute, Malaysia Baturay, Meltem Huri, Atılım University, Center for Teaching and Learning, Ankara, Turkey Belegal, J.A.C., University of the Philippines Open University, Philippines Borbon, Noelah Mae D., Graduate School, International Tourism and Hospitality Management, Lyceum of the Philippines University-Batangas Brioso, Jessa, College of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Philippines Bucog, Fredlie P., Silliman Online University Learning, Silliman University, Philippines Calimag, Joeffrey Maddatu, Kyungsung University, Korea Çetin, Fatih, Niğde Ömer Halisdemir University, Turkey Chang, Yee-Shan, School of Hospitality, Tourism and Events, Faculty of Social Sciences and Leisure Management, Taylor’s University Malaysia, Malaysia Chen, Kuanchin, Western Michigan University, U.S.A. Das, Arindam, Alliance University, Bangalore, India De los Santos, S.G.G., University of the Philippines Open University, Philippines Habeeb, Aishath Shany, Taylor’s University, Malaysia / Maldives National University Harteis, Christian, University of Paderborn, Germany Hussain, Kashif, School of Media and Communication, Faculty of Social Sciences and Leisure Management, Taylor’s University Malaysia, Malaysia Igcasan, Margaret, University of the Philippines Open University, Philippines Jasiulewicz, Anna, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Economics, Institute of Management, Poland Kaçar, Işıl Günseli, Middle East Technical University, Turkey Kaur, Jasveen, Dr., Senior Faculty and Former Chairperson- Head, University Business School (UBS) Guru Nanak Dev University, India Konar, Rupam, School of Hospitality, Tourism and Events, Faculty of Social Sciences and Leisure Management, Taylor’s University Malaysia, Malaysia Kuno, Yasushi, The University of Electro-Communications, Japan IV Launer, Markus, Ostfalia University of Applied Sciences, Germany Łukasiewicz, Katarzyna, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Economics, Institute of Management, Poland Marasigan, S.B., University of the Philippines Open University, Philippines Marcial, Dave E., Silliman Online University Learning, Silliman University, Philippines McCartney, Francesca, Institute of Intuition Medicine, C.A., USA Montemayor, Jade O., Silliman Online University Learning, Silliman University, Philippines Narayanaswamy, T., REVA University, India Pietrzak, Piotr, Management Institute, Warsaw University of Life Sciences (SGGW), Poland Quimbo, M.A.T., University of the Philippines Open University, Philippines Ragay, A.A., Silliman University, University Library, Philippines Schindelin, Tanya, Germany Şener, İrge, Çankaya University, Turkey Serrano, Joane V., University of the Philippines Open University, Philippines Steffen, Bianca, University of Paderborn, Germany Tavakoli, Rokhshad, Sultan Qaboos University, Malaysia Thai, Trung Dam-Huy, Ph.D., Institute of International Management, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan, ROC. Toker, Sacip, Atılım University, Department of Information Systems Engineering, Ankara, Turkey Tul-Krzyszczuk, Agnieszka, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Economics, Institute of Management, Poland Uchida, Natsuko, Ferris University, Japan Vilbar, Aurelio P., University of the Philippines Campus Cebu, Philippines Villanueva, M.E., Silliman University, College of Computer Studies, Philippines Wyrzykowska, Barbara, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Economics, Institute of Management, Poland Yan, Liu, Taylor’s University, Malaysia Yang, Bo, Beijing Open University, China Zalimben, Simon, Universidad Católica Nuestra Señora de la Asunción, Paraguay Zharova, Liubov, University of Economics and Humanities, Poland and Ukrainian American Concordia University, Ukraine ISSN 2198-9184
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Crowdworking platforms are a prime example of a product that sells flexibility to its consumers. In this paper, we argue that crowdworking platforms sell temporal flexibility to requesters to the detriment of workers. We begin by identifying a list of 19 features employed by crowdworking platforms that facilitate the trade of temporal flexibility from crowdworkers to requesters. Using the list of features, we conduct a comparative analysis of nine crowdworking platforms available to U.S.-based workers, in which we describe key differences and similarities between the platforms. We find that crowdworking platforms strongly favour features that promote requesters’ temporal flexibility over workers’ by limiting the predictability of workers’ working hours and restricting paid time. Further, we identify which platforms employ the highest number of features that facilitate the trade of temporal flexibility from workers to requesters, consequently increasing workers’ temporal precarity. We conclude the paper by discussing the implications of the results.
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Industrial Revolution 4.0 has introduced highly useful technologies, which are yet to find their full-fledged utilization. One such technology is Blockchain, which is widely used in banking and finance sectors presently. The basic structure of blockchain is a distributed database system, powered by strongly encrypted network security systems, which can be used to implement numerous other secure systems. This study proposes to integrate blockchain technology into a human capital management system, where the human resource managers, the governmental bodies, the aggregators, the certifying bodies, and the freelancer or a gig worker are the stakeholders. This study is a conceptual model that will help a government body in policy making regarding employment issues. Upon implementation, this system will be beneficial to the society where unavailability of human capital could be tackled with gig economy. The system encompasses various technical and social factors that need to be built in a nation as a part of the social infrastructure. Such integrated systems will prove to be the backbone of any technologically empowered country. Where the nation has a vast population, it may take time to implement, but once implemented, it will become a basic infrastructural necessity implemented successfully.
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An appropriate starting point to comprehend stakeholders’ role in sustainable innovation is to disentangle the antecedents, management, and potential sustainable innovation outcomes. This chapter presents an interpretative framework of extant literature. Specifically, it addresses the following questions related to the inter-organizational resource-based management of sustainable innovation: (a) with whom to work; (b) when to work; (c) how to work together; (d) what challenges organizations should learn to face. Theoretical and practical implications of our framework are discussed. Attention will be devoted to stakeholder involvement in sustainability in the context of the gig economy.
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The gig economy, popularly known as shared economy or collaborative work, has acquired a public and academic interest in the twenty-first century. The concept stresses entering into short-term contracts and does not promise any permanent job. The employees in the Gig economy with temporary work relationships are also referred to as gig workers. Any unexpected change in the pulse of the economy has an impact on the gig economy. The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the economy and the gig workers over the last few months. This book chapter provides a timely intervention into the gig workers, particularly the food delivery executives in India. Their remunerations, benefits, and difficulties from a pandemic perspective are included in the chapter. The authors try to bring in the employee’s views of the work they do and the differences, which have been brought in as an aftermath of the pandemic. The chapter also throws light on the recent government initiatives to benefit gig workers in the economy.
Article
Given the widespread contribution of independent contractors to organizational innovation and competitive advantage, it is timely to reassess assumptions about the HRM practices appropriate to their management and the rationale for organizations to work with them. In the original and highly influential HR architecture model of Lepak and Snell (1999), contractor status is viewed as an outcome of the low value and/or low uniqueness of human capital resulting in the proposition to externalize and manage them using either none or minimal compliance‐based HRM practices. Developments in digital technologies and algorithmic management epitomized by online labor platforms prompt us to reconsider these assumptions and to challenge the proposed links between value/uniqueness of human capital, employment mode and HRM practices that are assumed by the HR architecture model. Using insights from online labor platforms, we argue that the significant benefits to firms of working with contractors, coupled with the possibilities offered by algorithmic management to efficiently monitor and regulate their behavior, provide a compelling reason for organizations to choose external employment modes even when workers are key to value creation. We challenge the alignment and stability of the relationships proposed by the HR architecture model, and offer propositions to extend the model by reconsidering the rationale for, and nature of, HRM practices associated with contractors. This reassessment is both timely and relevant given the growing prominence of business models where externalizing workers is central alongside the development of new forms of algorithmic human resource management to control them.
Book
Full-text available
Esta obra é produto dos resultados de pesquisa realizada no Brasil ao longo do ano de 2021 que, em uma mesma senda, se propõe a contribuir com os estudos teóricos e metodológicos, com base em uma investigação empírica sobre o trabalho controlado por plataformas digitais. Trata-se de uma pesquisa sobre as plataformas digitais de trabalho no Brasil, mas com proposta metodológica própria, que explora o contexto e a realidade do trabalho em plataformas no Brasil do presente pelas dimensões do direito, da sociologia e da economia, ou seja, com uma abordagem econômica sobre a economia digital em vários setores, sociológica em torno da composição de perfis e trajetórias ocupacionais desse trabalho e jurídica sobre a regulação e o direito do trabalho.
Chapter
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Utilizando técnicas de análise de tráfego da web, o artigo apresenta os resultados de ampla pesquisa realizada ao longo de 2021 com o objetivo de melhor dimensionar o conjunto de trabalhadores sob controle de plataformas digitais no Brasil.
Article
Online-to-offline food delivery becomes popular in recent years, but the continuous growth of food couriers’ dangerous driving behavior causes severe traffic risk. This study explores the underline reasons for courier’s dangerous driving behavior in food delivery and suggests governmental regulations to mitigate traffic risk. We consider a supply chain including a platform and consumers, where the platform employs couriers to deliver food from restaurants to consumers in a time window. To conduct the research, we formulate consumers’ demand for food with statistical analysis. We then consider a Stackberg game between the platform and the government. Referring to the practice in public traffic management, spot check and information sharing of traffic violations are two common policies in government regulations. We find government’s efforts of information publicity effective for reducing courier’s dangerous driving behavior, thus mitigating the traffic risk in food delivery. The effectiveness of efforts on spot checks is on the contrary. Therefore, we propose an optimal policy serial of spot check and information publicity respecting different decision situations. The numeral experiments indicate that the policy is effective.
Article
Violence in the workplace represents a pressing social problem, drawing attention to the need for both public and private prevention interventions. Workplace violence and workplace violence prevention serve as a crucial topic globally, given the context of violence and victimization in the workplace across a range of industries, and in the context of the Covid-19 pandemic. The objective of this article is to carry out a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of the full range of approaches to prevent workplace violence. Following PRISMA guidelines, this review uses rigorous criteria for the inclusion of studies, comprehensive search strategies to identify eligible studies, and a detailed protocol for coding study characteristics. Meta-analytic techniques are used to assess the impact of prevention interventions (at the employee- and organizational-levels) on workplace violence. Ten studies met the inclusion criteria. The weighted mean effect sizes for employee and organizational-level studies were positive and moderate, yet non-significant: d = 0.50 (95% CI = −0.05, 1.06) and d = 0.22 (95% CI = −0.62, 1.07), respectively. Variability of intervention modalities, the promising nature of some prevention interventions, and the need for consideration of a broader range of measures of workplace violence offer some directions for future research to help inform policy and practice.
Article
Full-text available
The term ‘platform capitalism’ captures a dynamic set of new work modalities that are mediated by platforms and have been brought about through advances in Information and Communication Technologies, adjustments in consumption modes and preferences, and changes in how work is conceived. Beyond work-related changes, the ascent of platform capitalism reflects wider societal, political as well as economic changes. While research on platform capitalism and its manifold manifestations abounds, there is a lack of consensus in the literature regarding its key features and characteristics. Seeking to provide conceptual clarity and to contribute to efforts of theorisation, we here analyse four main facets of platform capitalism, namely crowdsourcing, sharing economy, gig economy and platform economy. We review key definitions of each term and provide an overview of their distinctive features. This allows us to identify both similarities and differences in the framing of these four terms. We also delve into the ideologies underlying these four terms, thus providing a critique of the neophilia characterising the discourse framing platform capitalism.
Article
Full-text available
As more work enters cyberspace, takes place in virtual worlds, and collapses traditional nation-state barriers, we are entering a new era of “virtual work.” In this article, I use “virtual work” as an umbrella term to encompass work in virtual worlds, crowdsourcing, clickworking, even sweeping in, to some degree, the commonplace telecommuting and “mobile executives” that have become ubiquitous over the past decade.Are such new forms of “work” entitled to the minimum payment standards mandated under the FLSA? As the United States enters another economic crisis, and with advances in technology key to continued economic growth and stability, these questions demand serious consideration. The FLSA now faces a variety of new scenarios created by work in cyberspace, and there is a strong case that the economic and equitable purposes of the FLSA are best served by ensuring that the statute is construed broadly so that cyberworkers, clickworkers, and virtual workers receive the federal minimum wage. The advent of virtual work simultaneously provides immense promise and peril for workers in the new digital economy. New technology allowing collaboration can provide remarkable opportunities for workers and employers alike. Traditional limitations on collaboration - of travel, of meeting, of commuting - can be minimized or reduced. Employers can use virtual spaces to make contacts and recruit talent, without spending money on transportation. Simultaneously, virtual work presents many of the same enduring problems and "races to the bottom" that workers’ rights advocates have struggled with over the years. This Article begins, in Part One, with a brief background discussion of labor markets in cyberspace. The discussion here contains an in-depth description of the process of pounding the virtual pavement - looking for work in cyberspace - for the purpose of showing the special employment challenges in this context and thus why such work warrants the protection of the FLSA. With that background, Part Two discusses the application of the FLSA to work in virtual worlds, crowdsourcing, and clickworking. Finally, Part Three makes the argument that the purposes of the FLSA are best achieved by ensuring their application to virtual work in the United States. Finally, the conclusion offers some thoughts about the broader applications of this argument and some possibilities for further thought and study, to be developed in future work.
Book
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From Widgits to Digits is about the changing nature of the employment relationship and its implications for labor and employment law. For most of the twentieth century, employers fostered long-term employment relationships through the use of implicit promises of job security, well-defined hierarchical job ladders, and longevity-based wage and benefit schemes. Today’s employers no longer value longevity or seek to encourage long-term attachment between the employee and the firm. Instead employers seek flexibility in their employment relationships. As a result, employees now operate as free agents in a boundaryless workplace, in which they move across departmental lines within firms, and across firm borders, throughout their working lives. Today’s challenge is to find a means to provide workers with continuity in wages, on-going training opportunities, sustainable and transferable skills, unambiguous ownership of their human capital, portable benefits, and an infrastructure of support structures to enable them to weather career transitions.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Existing crowdsourcing markets are often inaccessible to workers living at the bottom of the economic pyramid. We present MobileWorks, a mobile phone-based crowdsourcing platform intended to provide employment to developing world users. MobileWorks provides human optical character recognition (OCR) tasks that can be completed by workers on low-end mobile phones through a web browser. To address the limited screen resolution available on low-end phones, MobileWorks divides documents into many small pieces and sends each piece to a different worker. An initial pilot study with 10 users over a two month period revealed that it is feasible to do basic OCR tasks using a simple mobile web-based application. We find that workers using MobileWorks average 120 tasks per hour at an accuracy rate of 99% using a multiple entry solution. In addition, users had a positive experience with MobileWorks: all study participants would recommend MobileWorks to friends and family. Copyright © 2011, Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence. All rights reserved.
Conference Paper
Amazon Mechanical Turk, the microtask-based platform is a huge opportunity for all its stakeholders - a means of livelihood for workers, quick and inexpensive way of getting work done for enterprises. In this paper, we explore who these workers are, what “work” means and the efforts workers take to do this work through an ethnographic study of Indian crowdworkers. To provide further analytic understanding of our findings we draw a comparison with our other studies of US based Turkers.
Article
The employment status of workers for “platform economy” firms such as Uber, Lyft, TaskRabbit and Handy has become a significant legal and political issue. Lawsuits against several such companies allege that they have misclassified workers as independent contractors to evade employment law obligations. Various lawmakers and commentators, pointing to the complexity of existing tests for employment and the costs of employment duties, have responded with proposals to limit platform companies’ liability. This article steps into such debates, using the status of Uber drivers as a test case. It argues that Uber drivers may not fall neatly into either the “employee” or the “independent contractor” category under existing tests. Nevertheless, an important principle underlying those tests — the anti-domination principle — strongly indicates that the drivers are employees. That principle also indicates that proposals to limit platform economy firms’ liabilities are premature at best and misguided at worst.
Article
The rise of the car-sharing company Uber will likely have mixed effects on labor standards. On the one hand, Uber’s partial consolidation of the car-hire sector and its compilation of data on passenger and driver behavior could enable the company and regulators to ensure safety and root out discrimination against passengers with relative ease. In that regard, Uber may be an improvement over the existing taxi sector, which is quite difficult to regulate. Uber’s longer-term impact on labor standards is quite unclear, however, and it may have dark implications for the future of low-wage work more generally.
Article
Nel Regno Unito i c.d. "contratti a zero ore", o intermittenti, costituiscono una tra le questioni piu importanti degli ultimi anni, e hanno portato il governo a regolarli nell’ambito della legge del 2015 su Small Business, Enterprise and Employment. In questo articolo gli A. presentano ed esaminano l’emergere del dato legale ed empirico del lavoro prestato in base a tale forma contrattuale e suggeriscono che, mentre ha tardato ad arrivare una sistemazione giuridica di tali contratti poiche considerati una questione irrisolta del mercato del lavoro, il pensiero corrente riguardo ad essi e sostanzialmente debole: non esiste un’entita che comprenda i contratti a zero ore come categoria a se stante; l’etichetta ha la funzione non meno che di una comoda espressione per mascherare la crescita esplosiva del lavoro precario prestato da una forza lavoro altamente frammentata. La recente "regolazione" dei contratti a zero ore, che si limita in realta a vietare le clausole di esclusiva, pertanto costituisce nient’altro che uno spostamento significativo verso la normalizzazione di qualsiasi manifestazione estrema di forme contrattuali abusive, lasciando un numero crescente di lavoratori privi del ricorso alle norme di protezione. Nella conclusione si indica la via per un approccio maggiormente coerente alla de-normalizzazione e disciplina di questo rilevante e crescente insieme di forme negoziali precarie.
Article
This book argues that a broad notion of 'personal work relations' should become the central organising idea for the future development of labour law. This concept is developed by drawing on extensive comparative research of the legal architecture of employment relations in national legal systems and EU law to analyse the traditional model of the contract of employment and the difficulties of using that traditional model to frame modern working relationships. The chapters then present a new model of the foundations of employment relationships, based on the concept of a 'personal work nexus', and explore the potential of the book's model in shaping labour law along the lines of the normative goal of 'personality in work', and its conceptual building blocks of 'dignity', 'capability', and 'stability'. Throughout, the book analyses the interaction of domestic and EU employment law, and discusses the possibility of future legal harmonisation in the area. The book concludes by exploring the potential for a common framework for European employment law, in the context of broader debates surrounding the harmonisation of European private law.
Book
For much of the twentieth century, large companies employing many workers formed the bedrock of the U.S. economy. Today, on the list of big business's priorities, sustaining the employer-worker relationship ranks far below building a devoted customer base and delivering value to investors. As David Weil's groundbreaking analysis shows, large corporations have shed their role as direct employers of the people responsible for their products, in favor of outsourcing work to small companies that compete fiercely with one another. The result has been declining wages, eroding benefits, inadequate health and safety conditions, and ever-widening income inequality.From the perspectives of CEOs and investors, fissuring--splitting off functions that were once managed internally--has been a phenomenally successful business strategy, allowing companies to become more streamlined and drive down costs. Despite giving up direct control to subcontractors, vendors, and franchises, these large companies have figured out how to maintain quality standards and protect the reputation of the brand. They produce brand-name products and services without the cost of maintaining an expensive workforce. But from the perspective of workers, this lucrative strategy has meant stagnation in wages and benefits and a lower standard of living--if they are fortunate enough to have a job at all.Weil proposes ways to modernize regulatory policies and laws so that employers can meet their obligations to workers while allowing companies to keep the beneficial aspects of this innovative business strategy.
Conference Paper
By lowering the costs of communication, the web promises to enable distributed collectives to act around shared issues. However, many collective action efforts never succeed: while the web's affordances make it easy to gather, these same decentralizing characteristics impede any focus towards action. In this paper, we study challenges to collective action efforts through the lens of online labor by engaging with Amazon Mechanical Turk workers. Through a year of ethnographic fieldwork, we sought to understand online workers' unique barriers to collective action. We then created Dynamo, a platform to support the Mechanical Turk community in forming publics around issues and then mobilizing. We found that collective action publics tread a precariously narrow path between the twin perils of stalling and friction, balancing with each step between losing momentum and flaring into acrimony. However, specially structured labor to maintain efforts' forward motion can help such publics take action.
Article
Crowd employment platforms enable firms to source labour and expertise by leveraging Internet technology. Rather than offshoring jobs to low-cost geographies, functions once performed by internal employees can be outsourced to an undefined pool of digital labour using a virtual network. This enables firms to shift costs and offload risk as they access a flexible, scalable workforce that sits outside the traditional boundaries of labour laws and regulations. The micro-tasks of ‘clickwork’ are tedious, repetitive and poorly paid, with remuneration often well below minimum wage. This article will present an analysis of one of the most popular crowdsourcing sites—Mechanical Turk—to illuminate how Amazon's platform enables an array of companies to access digital labour at low cost and without any of the associated social protection or moral obligation.
Article
It has become widely assumed that the standard employment relationship (SER) is in irreversible decline in industrialized societies. However, non‐standard and precarious work relationships often complement the SER via labour market transitions, and are not displacing it as the focal point of labour market regulation. The co‐ordination and risk management functions of the SER continue to be relevant in market economies, and the SER is adjusting to new conditions. The SER has a complex and evolving relationship to gender and to social stratification. In the European context where the SER originated and achieved its clearest legal expression, institutional solutions to precariousness and inequality are being developed, the most innovative of which avoid simple deregulation in favour of integrated policy responses involving a range of complementary regulatory mechanisms.
Article
This Article explores the meaning of workplace discrimination where reality meets the imaginary world in virtual work settings. Using a more recent development in the realm of virtual work — workplace avatars — the Article considers the impact on law of virtual performance identity by workers where appearances can be altered in virtual reality. Current protected-class approaches to antidiscrimination law have not served as the antidote to workplace bias and exclusion. Thus, the Article investigates whether avatar technology holds promise for facilitating greater inclusion of marginalized workers in the contemporary workplace. Does this mode of virtual work serve as a platform for diversity or simply create more confusion regarding our fundamental understandings of discrimination? The author’s premise is that the mechanics of online identity and the social and behavioral dynamics of virtual engagement produce a new locus for bias to flourish. While the virtual workplace holds some appeal for promoting broader acceptance within organizations, the Article claims that avatar-based virtual work environments do not constitute unconditional and neutral spaces. Overall, the Article takes an optimistic stance toward immersive environments in the employment context. However, it cautions that avatars create interpersonal dynamics that are just as dangerous to notions of belonging in the contemporary workplace as their physical counterparts. The author posits that the multidimensionality of identity in this context illuminates the limitations of the categorical approach to antidiscrimination law and concludes that the avatar makes the case for intersectionality theory in workplace law.
Article
Introduction to Regulating for Decent Work: New Directions in Labour Market Regulation (Palgrave/ILO 2011). The book is an international and interdisciplinary response to the two most significant accounts of the role and significance of labour market regulation: orthodox economic theory and the International Labour Organization’s Decent Work Agenda. It is the first volume to be compiled from the work of the Network on Regulating for Decent Work, an international and interdisciplinary research network established to support and encourage interdisciplinary research on labour market regulation. The volume advances the academic and policy debates on post-crisis labour regulation by identifying new challenges, subjects and theoretical perspectives. It identifies central themes in the contemporary regulation of labour, including the role of empirical research in assessing and supporting labour market interventions; the regulation of precarious work; and the emergence of new types of labour market. This Introduction first outlines the recent evolution of the deregulatory narrative. It then draws on subsequent chapters in the volume to address the design of theoretical, conceptual and methodological frameworks through which research on labour market regulation can be advanced. Two issues of central relevance are elaborated: the potential benefits of labour regulation and the complexity of regulatory frameworks.
Article
Rapidly innovating industries are just not behaving the way theory expected. Conventional industrial organization theory predicts that when parties in the supply chain have to make transaction-specific investments, the risk of opportunism will drive them away from contracts and toward vertical integration. Despite the conventional theory, contemporary practice is moving in the other direction. Instead of vertical integration, we observe vertical disintegration in a significant number of industries, as producers recognize that they cannot themselves maintain cutting-edge technology in every field required for the success of their product. In doing this, the parties are developing forms of contracting beyond the reach of contract theory models. In this Article, we connect the emerging contract practice to theory, learning from what has happened in the real world to frame a theoretical explanation of this cross-organizational innovation and to reconceptualize the boundaries of the firm accordingly. We argue that the vertical disintegration of the supply chain in many industries is mediated neither by fully specified technical interfaces that allow suppliers to produce a modular piece of the ultimate product, nor by entirely implicit relational contracts supported only by norms of reciprocity and the expectation of future dealings. Rather, we suggest that the change in the boundary of the firm has given rise to a new form of contracting between firms - what we call contracting for innovation. This pattern braids explicit and implicit contracting to support iterative collaborative innovation by raising switching costs. These costs, represented by the parties' parallel investment in transaction specific investment in knowledge about their collaborators' capacities, deter opportunism under circumstances when explicit contracting, renegotiation and the anticipation of future dealings cannot.
Article
Remember outsourcing? Sending jobs to India and China is so 2003. The new pool of cheap labor: everyday people using their spare cycles to create content, solve problems, even do corporate R
Article
This article confronts the thorny questions that arise in attempting to apply traditional employment and labor law to emerging online “crowdsourcing” labor markets, and offers some provisional regulatory recommendations designed to clarify the employment relationship and protect crowd workers. Crowdsourcing refers to the process of taking tasks that would normally be delegated to an employee and distributing them to a large pool of online workers, the “crowd,” in the form of an open call. The article describes how crowdsourcing works, its advantages and risks, and why particular subsections of the paid crowdsourcing industry expose employees to substandard working conditions without much recourse to the law. Taking Amazon’s “Mechanical Turk” as a case study, it investigates the legal status of the “crowd,” exploring the nature of the employment relationship and the complications that might arise in applying existing work laws. In doing so it draws on employment and labor case law, but also on other areas of internet law in order to illustrate how courts grapple with the migration of regulated activity into unregulated cyberspace. Finally, the article makes a case for regulatory intervention, based on both the vulnerability of crowd workers and the failure of the law to keep up with the technological developments that drive our information economy. To that end, it presents recommendations for legislatures seeking to expand legal protections for crowdsourced employees, suggestions for how courts and administrative agencies can pursue the same objective within our existing legal framework, voluntary “best practices” for firms and venues involved in crowdsourcing, and examples of how crowd workers might begin to effectively organize and advocate on their own behalf.
A Middle Ground Between Contract Worker and Employee
  • N Scheiber
Scheiber, N. 2015. "A Middle Ground Between Contract Worker and Employee", The New York Times (10 December), available at: http://www.nytimes.com/2015/12/11/business/amiddle-ground-between-contract-worker-and-employee.html (accessed 21 December 2015).
Belgian government: Uber drivers are contractors, not employees
  • J Sheftalovich
Sheftalovich, J. 2015. "Belgian government: Uber drivers are contractors, not employees", Slate (14 September), available at http://www.politico.eu/article/belgian-government-uberdrivers-are-contractors-not-employees/ (accessed 26 October 2015).
Paid Crowdsourcing as a Vehicle for Global Development
  • W Thies
Thies, W. et al. 2011. Paid Crowdsourcing as a Vehicle for Global Development, (ACM CHI 2011), Workshop on Crowdsourcing and Human Computation, available at http://www.msr-waypoint.net/pubs/147084/ThiesRatanDavid-Crowd-Final.pdf (accessed 26 October 2015).
China used prisoners in lucrative internet gaming work
  • D Vincent
Vincent, D. 2011. "China used prisoners in lucrative internet gaming work", The Guardian (25 May), available at http://www.theguardian.com/world/2011/may/25/china-prisonersinternet-gaming-scam (accessed 26 October 2015).
What if There Were a New Type of Worker? Dependent Contractor
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Weber, L. 2015. "What if There Were a New Type of Worker? Dependent Contractor", The Wall Street Journal (28 January), available at http://www.wsj.com/articles/what-if-therewere-a-new-type-of-worker-dependent-contractor-1422405831 (accessed 26 October 2015).
Seattle Will Allow Uber and Lyft Drivers to Form Unions
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Wingfield, N.; Isaac, M. 2015. "Seattle Will Allow Uber and Lyft Drivers to Form Unions", The New York Times (14 December), available at http://www.nytimes.com/2015/12/15/technology/seattle-clears-the-way-for-uberdrivers-to-form-a-union.html (accessed 21 December 2015).
San Precario lavora per noi
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Accornero, A. 2006. San Precario lavora per noi (Milan, Rizzoli).
Digitization and the Contract Labor Market: A Research Agenda
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Agraval, A. et al. 2013. Digitization and the Contract Labor Market: A Research Agenda, NBER Working Paper 19525.
Judge refers Spanish Uber case to European Court of Justice
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Ahmed, M. 2015. "Judge refers Spanish Uber case to European Court of Justice", The Financial Times (20 July), available at http://www.ft.com/intl/cms/s/0/02e83fde-2ee6-11e5-8873-775ba7c2ea3d.html#axzz3uwo8MzEF (accessed 21 December 2015):
The Rising of On-Demand Work, a Case Study Research on a Set of Online Platforms and Apps
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Aloisi, A. 2015. "The Rising of On-Demand Work, a Case Study Research on a Set of Online Platforms and Apps", paper presented at the IV Regulating for Decent Work Conference, ILO, Geneva, 8-10 July 2015, available at http://www.rdw2015.org/download (accessed 26 October 2015).
Social Economic and Legal Consequences of Uber and Similar Transportation Network Companies (TNC), Briefing, DG IPOL Policy Department B -Structural and Cohesion Policies, European Parliament
  • F Azevedo
  • M Maciejewski
Azevedo, F.; Maciejewski, M. 2015. Social Economic and Legal Consequences of Uber and Similar Transportation Network Companies (TNC), Briefing, DG IPOL Policy Department B -Structural and Cohesion Policies, European Parliament, PE 563.398, (October), Brussels and Strasbourg, European Parliament.
Beyond "casual work": Old and new forms or casualization in developing and developed countries and what to do about it," presentation at the IV Regulating for Decent Work Conference
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De Stefano, V. 2015. "Beyond "casual work": Old and new forms or casualization in developing and developed countries and what to do about it," presentation at the IV Regulating for Decent Work Conference, ILO, Geneva, 8-10 July 2015, available at http://www.rdw2015.org/download (accessed 26 October 2015).
The rating game. How Uber and its peers turned us into horrible bosses
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Dzieza, J. 2015. "The rating game. How Uber and its peers turned us into horrible bosses", The Verge (28 October), available at http://www.theverge.com/2015/10/28/9625968/ratingsystem-on-demand-economy-uber-olive-garden (accessed 2 November 2015).
Self-employed or not self-employed? Working conditions of 'economically dependent workers
  • Eurofound
Eurofound. 2013. Self-employed or not self-employed? Working conditions of 'economically dependent workers'. Background paper, Dublin, Eurofound.
Il lavoro non è una merce. Contro la flessibilità
  • L Gallino
Gallino, L. 2007. Il lavoro non è una merce. Contro la flessibilità, Roma-Bari, Laterza.
The future of work: Increasing reach through mobile technology
  • L Greene
  • I Mamic
Greene, L.; Mamic, I. 2015. The future of work: Increasing reach through mobile technology, ILO Asia-Pacific Working Paper Series, Bangkok, ILO.
Uber: On the Road to Nowhere
  • S Greenhouse
Greenhouse, S. 2015. "Uber: On the Road to Nowhere", The American Prospect, Winter 2016, available at: http://prospect.org/article/road-nowhere-3 (accessed 21 December 2015).
Uber Just Caved on a Big Policy Change After Its Drivers Threatened to Strike
  • A Griswold
Griswold, A. 2014. "Uber Just Caved on a Big Policy Change After Its Drivers Threatened to Strike", Slate (12 September), available at http://www.slate.com/blogs/moneybox/2014/09/12/uber_drivers_strike_they_protested _cheap_uberx_fares_uber_backed_down.html (accessed 26 October 2015).
A Proposal for Modernizing Labor Laws for Twenty-First-Century Work: The "Independent Worker
  • S Harris
  • A Krueger
Harris, S.; Krueger, A. 2015. A Proposal for Modernizing Labor Laws for Twenty-First-Century Work: The "Independent Worker", The Hamilton Project, Discussion Paper 2015-10 (December), available at: http://www.hamiltonproject.org/assets/files/modernizing_labor_laws_for_twenty_first_ century_work_krueger_harris.pdf (accessed 21 December 2015).
Horaires de travail variables et imprévisibles. Contrats zéro heure et autre formes de travail sur appel
  • M Humblet
Humblet, M. (forthcoming). Horaires de travail variables et imprévisibles. Contrats zéro heure et autre formes de travail sur appel, INWORK Policy Brief, Geneva, ILO.
Online labour exchanges, or 'crowdsourcing': Implications for occupational safety and health
  • U Huws
Huws, U. (forthcoming). "Online labour exchanges, or 'crowdsourcing': Implications for occupational safety and health", review article on the future of work (for the EU-OSHA).
The gig-economy won't last because it's being sued to death
  • S Kessler
Kessler, S. 2015a. "The gig-economy won't last because it's being sued to death", Fast Company (17 February), available at http://www.fastcompany.com/3042248/the-gigeconomy-wont-last-because-its-being-sued-to-death (accessed 26 October 2015).
Monopsony and the Crowd: Labor for Lemons?
  • S C Kingsley
Kingsley, S.C. et al. 2014. Monopsony and the Crowd: Labor for Lemons? Paper presented at the 3 rd Conference on Policy and Internet (Oxford, 25-26 September), available at http://ipp.oii.ox.ac.uk/sites/ipp/files/documents/Monopsony_and_theCrowd_SCK_ML G_SS.pdf (accessed 26 October 2015).
The Future of Crowdwork
  • A Kittur
Kittur, A. et al. 2013. The Future of Crowdwork, Paper presented at the 16th ACM Conference on Computer Supported Coooperative Work (CSCW 2013) (San Antonio, Texas, 23-27 February), available at http://hci.stanford.edu/publications/2013/CrowdWork/futureofcrowdwork-cscw2013.pdf (accessed 26 October 2015).
Crowdsourcing: Für eine handvoll Dollar oder Workers of the crowd unite?
  • T Klebe
  • J Neugebauer
Klebe, T.; Neugebauer, J. 2014. "Crowdsourcing: Für eine handvoll Dollar oder Workers of the crowd unite? Arbeit und Recht (1), S. 4-7.
The sharing economy has a race problem
  • N Leong
Leong, N. 2014. "The sharing economy has a race problem", Salon (2 November), available at, http://www.salon.com/2014/11/02/the_sharing_economy_has_a_race_problem/ (accessed 26 October 2015).