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Mushroom Cosmetics: The Present and Future

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Mushrooms have been valued as a traditional source of natural bioactive compounds for centuries and have recently been exploited for potential components in the cosmetics industry. Numerous mushrooms and their ingredients have been known to be beneficial to the skin and hair. The representative ingredients are as follows: phenolics, polyphenolics, terpenoids, selenium, polysaccharides, vitamins, and volatile organic compounds. These compounds show excellent antioxidant, anti-aging, anti-wrinkle, skin whitening, and moisturizing effects, which make them ideal candidates for cosmetics products. This review provides some perspectives of mushrooms (and/or extracts) and their ingredients presently used, or patented to be used, in both cosmeceuticals for topical administration and nutricosmetics for oral administration. With the small percentage of mushrooms presently identified and utilized, more mushroom species will be discovered, verified, and cultivated in the future, boosting the development of relevant industry. Combining with progress in genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and systems pharmacology, mushrooms can find their way into cosmetics with multiple approaches.
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cosmetics
Review
Mushroom Cosmetics: The Present and Future
Yuanzheng Wu 1,2, Moon-Hee Choi 1, Jishun Li 2, Hetong Yang 2and Hyun-Jae Shin 1,*
1Department of Chemical Engineering, Graduate School of Chosun University, Gwangju 501-759, Korea;
wuyzh@sdas.org (Y.W.); aamoony1222@naver.com (M.-H.C.)
2Biology Institute of Shandong Academy of Sciences, Jinan 250014, China; yewu2@sdas.org (J.L.);
yanght@sdas.org (H.Y.)
*Correspondence: shinhj@chosun.ac.kr; Tel.: +82-62-230-7518
Academic Editor: Enzo Berardesca
Received: 12 May 2016; Accepted: 4 July 2016; Published: 8 July 2016
Abstract:
Mushrooms have been valued as a traditional source of natural bioactive compounds
for centuries and have recently been exploited for potential components in the cosmetics industry.
Numerous mushrooms and their ingredients have been known to be beneficial to the skin and
hair. The representative ingredients are as follows: phenolics, polyphenolics, terpenoids, selenium,
polysaccharides, vitamins, and volatile organic compounds. These compounds show excellent
antioxidant, anti-aging, anti-wrinkle, skin whitening, and moisturizing effects, which make them
ideal candidates for cosmetics products. This review provides some perspectives of mushrooms
(and/or extracts) and their ingredients presently used, or patented to be used, in both cosmeceuticals
for topical administration and nutricosmetics for oral administration. With the small percentage of
mushrooms presently identified and utilized, more mushroom species will be discovered, verified,
and cultivated in the future, boosting the development of relevant industry. Combining with progress
in genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and systems pharmacology, mushrooms can find their way
into cosmetics with multiple approaches.
Keywords:
mushrooms; cosmetics; cosmeceuticals; nutricosmetics; anti-aging; antioxidant; skin
whitening; moisturizing; skin and hair
1. Introduction
Mushrooms are fungi belonging to the higher phyla Ascomycota and Basidiomycota that
have a stem (stipe), a cap (pileus), and gills (lamellae, sing. lamella) on the underside of the
cap [
1
,
2
]. In fact, the name mushroom refers to a fruiting body, formed by several hyphae that
grow upwards and produce spores (basidiospores). Mushrooms have long been appreciated for their
flavor, texture, and nutrition as culinary mushrooms, but also for pharmaceutical and tonic attributes
as medicinal mushrooms [
3
]. The number of mushroom species on Earth is currently estimated
at 150,000, yet perhaps only 10% (approximately 15,000 named species) have been identified [
4
,
5
].
Mushrooms are rich in protein, vitamins, minerals, and excellent sources of
β
-glucan, selenium,
thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, panthothenic acid, and folic acid, etc. [
6
,
7
]. It has reported that mushrooms
provide beneficial effects as invigorating vital energy, maintaining one’s optimal weight, favoring
longevity, and avoiding unnecessary aging [
8
,
9
]. Recently mushrooms have drawn worldwide
attention as the most interesting natural sources with diverse and unique bioactivities, including
immunomodulatory, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral,
antitumor, hepatoprotective, reducing glucose and lipidic levels [
10
,
11
]. They make up a vast, and yet
largely untapped, source of powerfully new pharmaceutical products.
Cosmetics are products that are used to cleanse and beautify the skin, also referred to as personal
care products [
12
]. Today, there is a growing consumer demand for cosmetics containing natural and/or
organic ingredients as the consumer demand for products that are perceived as healthier, organic,
Cosmetics 2016,3, 22; doi:10.3390/cosmetics3030022 www.mdpi.com/journal/cosmetics
Cosmetics 2016,3, 22 2 of 13
and ecological [
13
]. Thus, various substances extracted from macro fungi, particularly mushrooms,
are now paving their way into cosmetics, such as ceramides, lentinan, schizophyllan, omega 3, 6,
and 9 fatty acids, carotenoids, resveratrol, and others [
14
,
15
]. Many mushroom ingredients possess
potent antioxidant, as well as anti-inflammatory, properties, which are frequently used in an effort
to address cosmetic concerns, such as fine lines, wrinkles, uneven tone, and texture. As shown in
Figure 1, the nutritive, anti-inflammatory, regenerative, and antioxidant properties of mushrooms
make for their prospective usage in cosmeceuticals and nutricosmetics [16].
Cosmetics 2016, 3, 22 2 of 13
organic, and ecological [13]. Thus, various substances extracted from macro fungi, particularly
mushrooms, are now paving their way into cosmetics, such as ceramides, lentinan, schizophyllan,
omega 3, 6, and 9 fatty acids, carotenoids, resveratrol, and others [14,15]. Many mushroom
ingredients possess potent antioxidant, as well as anti-inflammatory, properties, which are frequently
used in an effort to address cosmetic concerns, such as fine lines, wrinkles, uneven tone, and texture.
As shown in Figure 1, the nutritive, anti-inflammatory, regenerative, and antioxidant properties of
mushrooms make for their prospective usage in cosmeceuticals and nutricosmetics [16].
Figure 1. Major applications of mushroom in pharmaceutical, cosmetics, and nutrition, and
their interactions.
In this review some major ingredients of mushrooms and important effects, such as moisturizing
and anti-aging (including the whitening and antioxidant activity), will be comprehensively
discussed, and it will be proposed that mushrooms and their extracts (and/or ingredients) are one of
the most ideal choices in the application of cosmetic products.
2. Mushrooms: Nutritional and Medicinal Facts
For centuries, people across the world have been using wild mushrooms for food, medicine, and
cosmetics, as well as for other economic and cultural purposes. Nowdays several types of mushrooms
are incorporated in topical creams, lotions, ointments, serums, and facial preparations as cosmetic
ingredients. These mushrooms include Shiitake (Lentinula edodes), Maitake (Grifola frondosa),
Reishi or Lingzhi (Ganoderma lucidum), Fu Ling (Wolfiporia extensa), Yartsa Gunbu (Cordyceps sinensis),
cauliflower mushroom (Sparassis latifolia, formerly Sparassis crispa), and jelly fungi (Tremella spp.),
which are traditionally used in Eastern Asian countries, such as China, Japan, and Korea [17–19].
Portobello mushroom (Agaricus bisporus), oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus), elm oyster
mushroom (Hypsizygus ulmarius), and tinder fungus (Fomes fomentarius), are more recognized in
Western countries [20–22]. Other popular mushrooms include Agaricus subrufescens, Coprinus
comatus, Hericium erinaceus, Mycoleptodonoides aitchisonii, Phellinus linteus, Schizophyllum commune, and
Volvareilla volvacea [23–26]. There are numerous potential mycochemicals from mushrooms that could
be used in cosmeceuticals or nutricosmetics. Some of the mycochemicals derived from various
mushrooms and their corresponding activities are listed in Table 1 [27–31]. There are still plenty other
mushroom species which might have significant potential for use in the cosmetic industry that are
currently undetermined, undescribed, or not yet cultivatable [14,32].
The topical extraction process of mushroom ingredients can also be used for cosmetics
preparation. Both fruiting bodies and mycelia of wild and cultivatable mushrooms represent ample
sources of active components. The compounds so obtained from mushrooms are relatively complex
mixtures of metabolites, in liquid or semisolid states, or in dry powder form, and are intended for
Figure 1.
Major applications of mushroom in pharmaceutical, cosmetics, and nutrition,
and their interactions.
In this review some major ingredients of mushrooms and important effects, such as moisturizing
and anti-aging (including the whitening and antioxidant activity), will be comprehensively discussed,
and it will be proposed that mushrooms and their extracts (and/or ingredients) are one of the most
ideal choices in the application of cosmetic products.
2. Mushrooms: Nutritional and Medicinal Facts
For centuries, people across the world have been using wild mushrooms for food, medicine,
and cosmetics, as well as for other economic and cultural purposes. Nowdays several types
of mushrooms are incorporated in topical creams, lotions, ointments, serums, and facial
preparations as cosmetic ingredients. These mushrooms include Shiitake (Lentinula edodes), Maitake
(Grifola frondosa), Reishi or Lingzhi (Ganoderma lucidum), Fu Ling (Wolfiporia extensa), Yartsa Gunbu
(Cordyceps sinensis), cauliflower mushroom (Sparassis latifolia, formerly Sparassis crispa), and jelly
fungi (Tremella spp.), which are traditionally used in Eastern Asian countries, such as China,
Japan, and Korea
[1719]
. Portobello mushroom (Agaricus bisporus), oyster mushroom (Pleurotus
ostreatus), elm oyster mushroom (Hypsizygus ulmarius), and tinder fungus (Fomes fomentarius), are more
recognized in Western countries [
20
22
]. Other popular mushrooms include Agaricus subrufescens,
Coprinus comatus,Hericium erinaceus,Mycoleptodonoides aitchisonii,Phellinus linteus,Schizophyllum
commune, and Volvareilla volvacea [
23
26
]. There are numerous potential mycochemicals from
mushrooms that could be used in cosmeceuticals or nutricosmetics. Some of the mycochemicals
derived from various mushrooms and their corresponding activities are listed in Table 1[
27
31
].
There are still plenty other mushroom species which might have significant potential for use in the
cosmetic industry that are currently undetermined, undescribed, or not yet cultivatable [14,32].
The topical extraction process of mushroom ingredients can also be used for cosmetics preparation.
Both fruiting bodies and mycelia of wild and cultivatable mushrooms represent ample sources of
active components. The compounds so obtained from mushrooms are relatively complex mixtures of
Cosmetics 2016,3, 22 3 of 13
metabolites, in liquid or semisolid states, or in dry powder form, and are intended for external or oral
use for cosmeceuticals or nutricosmetics. The mushroom extracts are often cited as potent antioxidants
and natural moisturizers because they can offer a slightly different set of absorbable nutrients than
other typical ingredients like vitamin C, vitamin E, and all of the other usual suspects [
33
]. They contain
antioxidants, as well as compounds that have anti-inflammatory properties, which help treat many
skin problems caused by inflammation and excessive free radical activity.
Table 1. Mycochemical analysis and activities from various mushrooms.
Mycochemicals Mushroom Species Activities References
Alkaloids Agaricus bisporus,Coprinus comatus,
Pleurotus ostreatus,Volvareilla volvacea
Antimicrobial,
Anti-inflammatory, Antioxidant [27]
Carbohydrate Agaricus bisporus,Lyophyllum shimeiji,Pleurotus
ostreatus,Termitomyces eurhizus,Volvareilla volvacea Antimicrobial [24]
Flavonoids Lactarius deliciosus,Lentinus edodes,
Macrolepiota mastoidea,Russula griseocarnosa
Antimicrobial,
Anti-inflammatory, Antioxidant [25]
Glycosides Flammulina velutipes,Grifola frondosa,
Hypsizigus mamoreus,Lentinus edodes,Pholiota nameko
Anti-inflammatory, Antioxidant [17,25]
Phenols and
Polyphenols
Agaricus bisporus,Lentinus edodes,Phellinus linteus,
Pleurotus ostreatus,Sparassis crispa,Tricholoma equestre
Antimicrobial,
Anti-inflammatory, Antioxidant [16,27]
Protein and
amino acids
Agaricus bisporus,Coprinus comatus,Lentinus edodes,
Pleurotus ostreatus,Sparassis crispa, Volvareilla volvacea
Antimicrobial,
Anti-inflammatory [19]
Saponins Agaricus bisporus,Ganoderma lucidum,Pleurotus
ostreatus,Termitomyces albuminosus,Wolfiporia cocos Anticancer, Antioxidant [26]
Steroids Agaricus subrufescens,Marasmius oreades,Panellus
serotinus,Pleurotus eryngii,Stropharia rugosoannulata Anti-inflammatory [32]
Tannins Agaricus bisporus,Lentinus edodes,
Lentinus sajor-caju,Volvareilla volvacea Antimicrobial, Antioxidant [25]
Triterpenoids
Ganoderma colossum,Lepista nuda,
Naematoloma sublateritium,Panellus serotinus,
Scleroderma citrinum,Tricholoma matsutake
Antibacterial,
Anti-inflammatory [16,31]
2.1. Beneficial Components of Mushrooms
Many studies have been done to find out more about the different components in mushrooms that
are beneficial to the skin. It was found that mushrooms contain many bioactive metabolites, such as
lectins, polysaccharides, phenolics and polyphenolics, terpenoids, ergosterols, and volatile organic
compounds [
11
]. Mushroom polysaccharides, including lentian, schizophyllan, polysaccharide Kerstin
(PSK), and polysaccharide peptide (PSP), are now available on the pharmaceutical market. A large
amount, if not all, higher Basidiomycetes mushrooms contain biologically-active polysaccharides in
fruiting bodies, cultured mycelia, and cultured broth [22,34].
Mushroom chitosan is also widely used in cosmetology as an emulgatory, gel-forming, protective,
and anti-bacterial agent [
33
]. Chitin-glucan is a copolymer found in the cell wall of several mushrooms
with good moisturizing properties, can help fight against some of the signs of skin aging, and has
potential for use in skin moisturizing and anti-aging formulations [
35
]. Tremella extracts make an exotic
addition to comprehensive skin care products which are applicable in treatment of neurodermatitis
and sclerodermatitis [
36
]. Some mushrooms are also used in biotransformation and the products
such as lactic acid and ceramides could potentially be used in cosmetics [
37
]. Lactic acid is an alpha
hydroxy acid used in cosmetic preparations in dermatology to hydrate and smooth dry, flaking skin.
Ceramides are also used in cosmetics as epidermal hydrating agents, but they are expensive due to
scarcity. Some mushroom extracts are even capable of accelerating the skin turnover rate and repairing
dermal molecular components that provide structure and elasticity to the skin [38].
2.1.1. Phenolic and Polyphenolic Compounds
Phenolic and polyphenolic compounds are aromatic hydroxylated compounds, possessing
one or more aromatic rings with one or more hydroxyl groups, being commonly found in many
Cosmetics 2016,3, 22 4 of 13
mushrooms [
39
]. These compounds exhibit a wide range of biological effects due to free radical
scavenging and antioxidant activity. Phenolic compounds can be classified as simple phenols and
phenolic acids, such as gallic acid, kojic acid, benzoic acid, syringic acid, chlorogenic acid, and other
associates, and polyphenols, which are further classified into many groups, such as flavonoids, tannins,
stilbenes, and so on [
40
]. Kojic acid is commonly found in several mushrooms which is useful as a
natural skin lightener and has been added to creams, lotions, and serums as a remedy for age spots
and discolorations [
41
]. Kojic acid is assumed to help inhibit melanin production on the surface of
treated skin, thereby lightening the new skin cells that form after the dead ones are exfoliated.
Flavonoids are the most common and widely distributed group of plant phenolics and have been
shown to be highly effective scavengers of most types of oxidizing molecules, including singlet oxygen
and various free radicals. The antioxidant activities are considered to be possibly involved in DNA
damage and tumor promotion [
42
,
43
]. Flavonoids can be classified into flavonols, flavones, flavanols,
flavanones, anthocyanins, and isoflavonoids. The health-promoting effects of flavonoids have been
identified as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-proliferative activities, inhibition of bioactivating
enzymes, or induction of detoxifying enzymes [44].
2.1.2. Terpenoids
Terpenoids are a large and diversified group of organic compounds similar to terpenes, derived
from five-carbon isoprene units. Most known terpenoids in mushrooms were found in Ganoderma spp.,
containing a wide range of terpenes and terpene derivatives, such as ganodermic and ganoderic acids,
ganoderals, ganoderols, ganodermanontriol, lanostane, lucidone, and ganodermanondiol, which show
immumomodulating and anti-infective activities [
45
,
46
]. Carotenoids are widely used in cosmetics,
especially in sun lotions, which are organic pigments found in many mushrooms and can be split into
two classes, xanthophylls and carotenes [47].
2.1.3. Selenium
Selenium (Se) is an ultra-trace essential element for mammals and essential in different
selenoproteins and/or selenoenzymes. Agaricus bisporus and Lentinus edodes are edible mushrooms
that accumulate Se in their bodies [
48
,
49
]. Selenium compounds in selenized garlic such as
γ
-glutamyl-Se-methylselenocysteine and Se-methylselenocysteine (MeSeCys) are potent anti-tumor
agents [
50
]. Selenium can benefit bone health and strengthen the teeth, hair, and nails, which is widely
applied in shampoo.
2.1.4. Polysaccharides
Most of mushroom polysaccharides are homoglycans or heteroglycans (depending on types of
monosaccharide molecules in polysaccharides) and are able to combine with other proteins to make
peptidoglycan or polysaccharide–protein complexes. Polysaccharides, especially
β
-(1-3)-D-glucan,
which have anti-cancer properties have been found in numerous fungi and are used in cosmetics,
e.g., in Pleurotus spp. [
51
].
β
-(1-3)-D-Glucan with triple helical structure was first isolated from
the fruiting body of Lentinus edodes in the late 1960s in Japan [
52
]. Since then schizophyllan from
Schizophyllum commune, lentinan from Lentinus edodes, protein-bound PSK from Coriolus versicolor,
and
β
-(1-6)-D-glucan from Agaricus subrufescens have been isolated by different groups [
53
55
].
Lentinan is an active compound incorporated in cream which can stimulate the immune system,
strengthening its ability to fight infection and disease [
56
]. All these polysaccharides showed
immune-modulation activity and some have been incorporated into cosmetics products.
3. Cosmetics: Category and Progress
Cosmetics can be classified into two categories of cosmeceuticals for topical application and
nutricosmetics for oral one. Cosmeceuticals applies only to products applied topically, such as creams,
lotions, and ointments, while nutricosmetics are known with similar perceived benefits but that are
ingested orally (so-called inner beauty). There are many requirements for cosmetics products, but most
Cosmetics 2016,3, 22 5 of 13
importantly they should be safe to use, with no side effects, and have positive effects on the skin.
In recent years, natural products have attracted extensive attention in cosmetics. There are numerous
products from fungi that are being exploited in cosmeceuticals or nutricosmetics, and many potential
products are yet to be used [
14
]. Shiitake mushroom, alone, has several applications in cosmetics,
ranging from an exfoliant to an anti-inflammatory, encourages faster skin renewal, and increases skin
elasticity as a skin brightener. Reishi mushrooms have been used in anti-aging skincare products since
the 1980s, starting with Japanese brand Menard. In the early 2000s, mushrooms hit the Western market
for skincare applications. Mushroom extracts, capsules, and oils are also used for topical applications
as they offer their own anti-aging skin care benefits. Some of cosmetic products containing mushroom
extracts or ingredients are summarized in Table 2. In the following section, we will focus on the effects
of moisturizing, anti-aging, and skin whitening of mushrooms and their ingredients afterwards.
Table 2. Cosmetic products containing mushrooms and their ingredients.
Product Name Mushroom/Extract Included Function
Aveeno Positively Ageless Daily Exfoliating
Cleanser, U.S. Lentinula edodes Lift away dirt, oil and makeup and fight
signs of aging
One Love Organics Vitamin D Moisture
Mist, U.K. Lentinula edodes
Part lightweight moisturizer and part toner
Osmia Organics Luz Facial Brightening
Serum, U.S. Lentinula edodes extract Skin looking bright and luminous
CV Skinlabs Body Repair Lotion, U.S. Ganoderma lucidum Wound-healing and anti-inflammatory
Dr. Andrew Weil for Origins Mega-Mushroom
Skin Relief Face Mask, U.S. Ganoderma lucidum Anti-inflammatory properties
Four Sigma Foods Instant Reishi Herbal
Mushroom Tea, U.K. Ganoderma lucidum Immunity boost
Kat Burki Form Control Marine Collagen
Gel, U.K. Ganoderma lucidum Boost collagen, improve elasticity and
provide hydration
Menard Embellir Refresh Massage, France Ganoderma lucidum Skin anti-aging
Moon Juice Spirit Dust, U.S. Ganoderma lucidum Immune system
Tela Beauty Organics Encore Styling
Cream, U.K. Ganoderma lucidum Provide hair with sun protection and
prevent color fading
Yves Saint Laurent Temps Majeur Elixir De
Nuit, France Ganoderma lucidum Anti-aging
Vitamega Facial Moisturizing Mask, Brazil Agaricus subrufescens (also
known as A. brasiliensis)Renew and revitalize skin
Kose Sekkisei Cream, Japan Cordyceps sinensis Moisturizer and suppress
melanin production
Root Science RS Reborn Organic Face
Mask, U.S. Inonotus obliquus Anti-inflammatory to help soothe
irritated skin
Alqvimia Eternal Youth Cream Facial Máxima
Regeneración, Spain Schizophyllum commune Anti-aging and lifting
Sulwhasoo Hydroaid, Korea Schizophyllum commune extract Hydrating cream promoting clear,
radiant skin
La Prairie Advanced Marine Biology Night
Solution, Switzerland Tremella fuciformis Moisturizer which nourishes, revitalizes
and hydrates skin
BeautyDiy Aqua Circulation Hydrating
Gel, Taiwan Tremella polysaccharide Moisturizing gel
Surkran Grape Seed Lift Eye Mask, U.S. Tremella polysaccharide Improve skin around eyes
Hankook Sansim Firming Cream (Tan Ryuk
SANG), Korea
Ganoderma lucidum and
Pleurotus ostreatus Make skin tight and vitalized
La Bella Figura Gentle Enzyme Cleanser, Italia Ganoderma lucidum and
Lentinula edodes extracts Antioxidants and vitamin D
Pureology NanoWorks Shineluxe, France Ganoderma lucidum,Lentinula
edodes, and Mucor miehei Anti-age and anti-fade
Snowberry Bright Defense Day Cream No. 1,
New Zealand Mushroom extract
Hydrate and illuminate dull skin, along
with anti-bacterial properties to help
prevent acne
Murad Invisiblur Perfecting Shield, U.S. Mushroom peptides Diminish fine lines and wrinkles by aiding
regulation of collagen and elastin
Cosmetics 2016,3, 22 6 of 13
3.1. Cosmeceuticals
Cosmeceuticals are cosmetic-pharmaceutical hybrids intended to enhance beauty through
ingredients that provide additional health-related function or benefit [
57
]. Topically, they are applied
as cosmetics, but contain ingredients that influence the skin’s biological function [
58
]. The lines of
cosmeceutical products consist of both veterinary and human therapy. The main product lines of
veterinary cosmeceuticals are shampoos and anti-ectoparasites, among which Mera-pet (Merapet Inc.,
Ahmedabad, India) is probably the most popular brand in Western markets. The main product lines of
human cosmeceuticals are anti-aging, with a few anti-acne or moisturizing products. Common brands
include Bliss (Hut.com Ltd, Cheshire, UK), La Roche (F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd, Basel, Switzerland),
Nu-Derm (Obagi Medical Products Inc., Irvine, CA, USA), and SensiClear (Mission Scientific Skincare
Inc., Gold River, CA, USA). Almost all now include products related with mushrooms and mushroom
extracts [59].
3.2. Nutricosmetics
Nutricosmetics are nutritional supplements whose purpose is to support the function and the
structure of the skin. Characterized by oral supplementation of nutrients, nutricosmetics are also
known as “beauty pills”, “beauty from within”, and even “oral cosmetics”. The major claim is
the anti-aging effect, reducing wrinkles by fighting free radicals generated by solar radiation [
60
].
Nutricosmetics are usually based on combinations of the following ingredients: carotenoids,
polyphenols, several vitamins, mushroom extracts (e.g., polyphenolic isoflavones), micronutrients,
glycopolyglycans, amino acids, other mushroom-based elements, and polyunsaturated fatty acids [
61
].
Some nutricosmetics examples are Grifola frondosa fruit body extracts with beneficial influences on skin
quality and body exterior appearance, and Sparassis crispa oral supplements with healing effects on
diabetic wounds and synthesis of type I collagen and epithelization.
4. Moisturizing Effect
The water content of the stratum corneum and skin surface lipids are important factors in the
appearance and function of skin [
62
]. Moisturizers decelerate the loss of skin humidity and minimize
fine wrinkles. They also increase hydration of the stratum corneum and improve physical and chemical
properties of skin surface, making it moist, smooth, and soft [
63
]. Traditional moisturizing ingredients,
such as pantothenic acid, 6-palmitoyl-L-ascorbic acid and hyaluronic acid, are known as an effective
moisturizing activity in cosmetic formulations.
The polysaccharide isolated from a hot water extract of a Tremella mushroom without adding a
chemical reagent was found to have a novel effect of inhibiting melanin formation effects and lightening
the spots on the skin when applied to the skin [
64
,
65
]. In addition, the Tremella polysaccharide showed
excellent moisturizing effects. Another study revealed that cosmetics added with 0.05% Tremella
polysaccharides had better moisture retention capacity than that added with 0.02% hyaluronic acid [
66
].
A carboxymethylated polysaccharide (CATP) derived from water-insoluble crude Tremella fuciformis
polysaccharide obtained a moisture retention rate of 65.7% after 96 h, which were slightly lower
than chitosan (70.3%). These results indicated the significant moisture retention capacity of CATP
comparing to chitosan [
67
]. The moisture retention capacity of water extracts of Auricularia fuscosuccinea
(Montagne) Farlow was found as potent as that of sodium hyaluronate, but less than that of
Tremella fuciformis sporocarp extracts [
68
]. The mushroom powder of Fomes officinalis (also known
as Laricifomes officinalis) was applied to an anhydrous cosmetic composition for reducing the shiny
appearance of skin and improving the appearance of skin imperfections [
69
]. All of these showed
potential application of mushroom polysaccharides as effective moisturizing agents in cosmetics.
Cosmetics 2016,3, 22 7 of 13
5. Anti-Aging Effect (Lifting and Firming)
Aging is a gradual process that results in a dysfunction and reduced reserve capacity of all body
organs [
63
]. Anti-aging research refers exclusively to slowing, preventing, or reversing the aging
process. Aging may be intrinsic or extrinsic [
70
]. Restated, the score of the aging process at any time
depends on the outcome of dynamic interactions between biological (intrinsic), psychological (intrinsic
and extrinsic), and environmental factors. The final pathway to all of the mechanisms of aging is
apparently the same and involves disruption of the network of collagen and elastin [
71
]. Anti-aging
cosmeceuticals are, therefore, designed to repair and/or maintain the body’s maintenance and repair
systems (MRSs) [
72
]. Antioxidants play a large role in the MRSs. Several types of mushrooms are used
in topical creams, serums, and facial preparations as anti-aging ingredients.
5.1. Antioxidant Activity
There have been numerous studies of antioxidant activity of mushroom with various application
in cosmetics. Lentinula edodes and Volvariella volvacea extracts demonstrate antioxidant activities
and free radical scavenging abilities [
73
,
74
]. This pharmacological effect is correlated with phenolic
compounds content in mushrooms as already known for grape fruits and wine [
75
]. Lentinula edodes
is also an inducer of superoxidase dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), two
antioxidant enzymes which are known for protecting skin from oxidative damage and reversing
fibrosis through reversion of myofibroblasts back to fibroblasts [
76
]. L-ergothioneine, a thiourea
derivative of histidine which could reduce the oxidation to mitochondrial membrane, was discovered
in high concentrations in Lentinus edodes,Pleurotus ostreatus,Pleurotus eryngii,Grifola frondosa,
and portabellas (brown Agaricus bisporus) [
77
]. The antioxidant and immune activity of glucan
from Phellinus ribis was evaluated in mice using lymphocyte proliferation assay [
78
]. The glucan
isolated from an alkaline extract from a somatic hybrid mushroom of Calocybe indica var. APK2 and
Pleurotus florida showed antioxidant properties with immune activation of macrophage, splenocyte,
and thymocyte [
79
]. Therefore it is not surprising that intrinsic antioxidant properties demonstrated
in vitro
, with Ganoderma lucidum or Phellinus linteus can be transferred
in vivo
after mushroom
consumption as food or nutriceutical food [7,80].
5.2. Anti-Wrinkle Activity
Wrinkle formation is one of the primary characteristics of skin aging; the major cause of fine
wrinkles is the loss of structural protein (type I collagen) in the dermal layer of skin [
72
]. Elastase is a
metalloproteinase involved in the degradation of elastin in skin aging and the inhibition or the repair
of wrinkle formation while matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are induced by collagen and elastin
degradation. Extract of the mycelium of Tricholoma matsutake (pine mushroom) significantly decreased
elastase activity in a dose-dependent manner and reduced the levels of MMPs [
81
]. These extracts might
prove to be an effective biomaterial for anti-wrinkle treatment in cosmetics products. The methanol
extract from the fruiting body of Dictyophora indusiata (veiled lady mushroom) was evaluated for its
anti-cholinesterase, skin anti-wrinkle and melanogenesis inhibitory activity [
82
]. The collagenase and
elastase inhibitory activities of the extract were comparable with the positive control epigallocatechin
gallate (EGCG), which suggested a good candidate natural anti-cholinesterase and skin care agents.
The pro-inflammatory catalytic activity of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) also plays a key role in the
aging process. COX-2 is a rate-limiting factor in the production of prostaglandins (PGs), including
prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), which causes vasodilatation and induction of other inflammatory mediators
in the skin [
83
]. Thus, COX-2 inhibitory compounds could potentially be very useful in a variety
of therapeutic and cosmetic applications. The hexane extracts of Grifola frondosa mycelia, consisting
of three ergosterol compounds, were reported with COX-2 inhibitory and antioxidant activities [
18
].
The ethanol extract of fruiting bodies of Elaphomyces granulatus (deer truffle) was evaluated for their
COX-2 inhibitory activity in mouse macrophages RAW 264.7 revealing two active compounds of
Cosmetics 2016,3, 22 8 of 13
syringaldehyde and syringic acid [
84
]. All of these could be incorporated as beneficial compositions
against skin aging.
6. Skin Whitening Effect
White skin is an aspiration of every woman because it signifies wealth and beauty, especially in
Asia. Melanin synthesis was the major source of skin color and played an important role in protection
of UV-induced dermal irritation [
85
,
86
]. The biosynthetic pathway for melanin formation in various
bioforms is mainly regulated by tyrosinase in two distinct oxidation reactions [
87
]. Basically, tyrosinase
catalyses the hehydroxylation of tyrosine to dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) and the oxidation
of DOPA to DOPAquinone, which is further converted to eumelanin (brown-black pigment) or
pheomelanin (yellow-red pigment), depending on different physiological conditions. Thus, tyrosinase
inhibition is the most common approach to achieve skin whitening [88].
Many mushrooms have presented tyrosinase inhibition activity including Agaricus bisporus,
Agaricus hortensis,Ganoderma spp., and Phellinus baumii. The methanol extract from fruiting bodies of
Phellinus baumii showed inhibitory activities of tyrosinase and melanin synthesis by dose dependent
manner in B16/F10 melanoma cells [
89
,
90
]. Flammulina velutipes extracts were also demonstrated to
suppress melanin synthesis and tyrosinase activity in B16 murine melanoma cells [
91
]. Compared
to other basidiomycetes, Ganoderma lucidum exhibited the highest inhibition against tyrosinase
activity [92]. Currently many of the facial mask cosmetics in the market contain Ganoderma extracts.
7. Hair Cosmetics
Hair cosmetics are designed to both maintain the hygiene of the scalp and manipulate the
structural properties of hair [
93
]. The formulations of hair cosmetics include shampoos, conditioners,
serums, hair styling products (sprays, waxes, gels, and mousses), straightening products, bleaching
agents, perming agents, and hair dyes [
94
]. Prescription medications, such as minoxidil and finasteride,
are often focused on improving scalp hair density [
95
]. Many postmenopausal women may achieve
a better cosmetic look if the medical prescription is combined with cosmetic hair care products,
which may increase hair fiber diameter in a nonpermanent way.
Shampoos are formulated for cleansing the hair and scalp and have been adapted to the
variations associated with hair quality, hair care habit, and specific problems, such as treatment
of oily hairs, dandruff, and for androgenic alopecia [
96
]. Tremella mushrooms contain a hydrophilic
agent—polysaccharide glucuronoxylomannan (GXM) with anti-inflammatory and wound-healing
properties largely used in cosmetology [
36
]. A small silk film shiitake mushroom extract has been
included and patented as a haircare cosmetic composition. Another composition for promoting hair
growth in humans was issued with Ganoderma lucidum combined with three other plants and zinc
which could stimulate hair growth in a human male by diminishing dihydrotestosterone or prostatic
hyperplasia levels [97].
Like the rest of the body, healthy hair requires the delivery of vital nutrients to the hair follicles.
Deficiency of these nutrients, as well as external factors like harsh chemical treatments, unhealthy
lifestyle, and prolonged illness can cause hair problems. Mushrooms are a good source of vitamin D,
antioxidants and minerals like iron, selenium, and copper, which are all useful in both promoting
healthy and strong hair and preventing hair loss and dandruff. The inclusion of mushrooms and/or
extracts into haircare cosmetics is of great potential in the cosmetic industry.
8. Conclusions
As a traditional source of natural bioactive compounds, mushrooms are now being exploited
for potential ingredients in the cosmetics industry. Several mushrooms and their extracts are
either presently used or patented to be used as cosmetics products for their antioxidant, anti-aging,
anti-wrinkle, skin whitening, and moisturizing effects.
Cosmetics 2016,3, 22 9 of 13
As aforementioned, the mushroom species presently identified and utilized only account for
a small percentage of total amount, and more species will be discovered, verified, and cultivated.
All of these indicate further exploitation and boosting of the development of the cosmetic industry.
With interdisciplinary studies combined with genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and systems
pharmacology, the molecular mechanisms of medicinal effects of mushrooms (so-called the research
area of molecular cosmetology) will be revealed and more mushrooms can find their way into cosmetics
with multiple approaches.
Acknowledgments:
This study was supported with the support of Forest Science & Technology Projects (Project
No. S121314L080100, 2015) by Korea Forest Service. Yuanzheng Wu wishes to express his gratitude to the China
Scholarship Council (CSC) and the Young Scientist Exchange Program between the Republic of Korea and the
People’s Republic of China.
Author Contributions:
Yuanzheng Wu and Moon-Hee Choi wrote the paper; Jishun Li, Hetong Yang and
Hyun-Jae Shin revised the paper.
Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.
Abbreviations
The following abbreviations are used in this manuscript:
CATP Carboxymethylated Polysaccharide
COX-2 Cyclooxygenase-2
DOPA Dihydroxyphenylalanine
EGCG Epigallocatechin Gallate
GPx Glutathione Peroxidase
GXM Glucuronoxylomannan
MMPs Matrix Metalloproteinases
MRSs Maintenance and Repair Systems
PGE2 Prostaglandin E2
PGs Prostaglandins
PSK Polysaccharide Krestin
PSP Polysaccharide Peptide
Se Selenium
SOD Superoxidase Dismutase
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2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access
article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution
(CC-BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
... Given the growing demand for mushroom nutraceuticals, today many companies deal with the development and marketing of these substances [16,49]. It should also be noted that the ingredients of mushrooms are finding their application in the nutricosmetic/ mycocosmetic industry, and many potential products are likely to be formulated [50]. G. lucidum has been used in anti-aging skin care products since the 1980 s, starting with the Japanese brand Menard. ...
... G. lucidum has been used in anti-aging skin care products since the 1980 s, starting with the Japanese brand Menard. In the early 2000 s, mushrooms hit the Western market for skincare A. blazei Capsules or extract (Royal Sun Agaricus or ABM) Nutraceutical Support blood sugar regulation, digestion, and immunity Aloha Medicinal Inc., USA [46] applications [50]. Advances in fields such as nanotechnology are also driving innovations in mushroom nutraceutical science and products [51]. ...
... Mushroom formulations rich in polyphenols are commercially available as extracts in capsule, pill or powder form. In the last few years, they have become more and more available in cosmetic formulations in the form of lotions and creams [50,112,113]. Mushroom polyphenols are non-energy secondary metabolites, meaning they are not required for growth and reproduction [114][115][116][117][118][119][120][121][122]. Mushrooms synthesize these compounds for protection against radiation, mechanical damage and microbial infection [18,123]. ...
Article
Mushrooms are experiencing a kind of renaissance as a part of the contemporary human diet. These valuable organisms are more than food, they fit in perfectly as a novel market group known as nutra-mycoceuticals. Immune-balancing mushroom dietary fibers and secondary metabolites such as polyphenols are the main focus of the healthcare industry. Wellness and cosmetic companies are increasingly using mushroom extracts rich in these ingredients. This review considers the basic molecular immunomodulatory mechanisms of action of the most commonly used mushroom dietary fibers, β-glucans. The literature data on their bioavailability, metabolic transformations, preclinical and human clinical research, and safety are discussed. Immunomodulatory mechanisms of polyphenol ingredients are also considered. These molecules present great potential in the design of the new immunity balancer formulations according to their widespread structural diversity. Finally, we draw attention to the perspectives of modern trends in mushroom nutraceutical and cosmeceutical formulations to strengthen and balance immunity.
... Currently, mushrooms are part of most beauty products. Several mushroom-based lotions, serums, ointments, creams, and facial packs are used as moisturizers, whitening agents, or antiaging products (Mohorčič et al. 2007;Stanikunaite et al. 2009;Wu et al. 2016a). Mycelium-based leather is also a good substitute for bovine leather having similar features to bovine leather in terms of stiffness, strength, and moisture resistance (Meyer et al. 2021). ...
... Considering this point, many fungal species have been explored and valued as the natural sources of various bioactive materials for a long period (Hyde et al. 2010). Explicitly, mushrooms extracts contain several compounds such as phenols, polyphenols, omega 3, 6, and 9 fatty acids, vitamins, ceramides, terpenoids, lentinan, etc., which are beneficial for skin and hair (Poucheret et al. 2006;Ahmad et al. 2013;Camassola 2013;Wu et al. 2016a). Such chemical compounds possess antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-aging, anti-wrinkle, and skin whitening effects (El Enshasy and Hatti-Kaul 2013; Kalač 2013). ...
... Cosmetic products containing mushrooms and their ingredients. Table adopted from(Wu et al. 2016a) under the Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) license ...
Chapter
The utilization of biological systems has been receiving considerable attention in the past couple of decades in the development of bio-based functional materials. This has been largely inspired by the use of green, biodegradable, and environmentally sustainable materials for the development of new functional biomaterials. The utilization of renewable resources for the production of materials introduces fast-growing and biodegradable fungal mycelium-derived materials for various applications. Mycelium secretes enzymes and decomposes the substrate to take nutrients for growth and make an interwoven three-dimensional network. The elastic, porous, stiff, and dense mycelia are rich in antioxidants, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory compounds. The properties of mycelium-derived materials are greatly dependent upon the feeding substrate, fungus type, and processing conditions. Both pure mycelial materials and their composites secure an important position in the race of utilization of renewable resources for material synthesis. This chapter summarizes the utilization of mycelium-based materials for numerous applications like cosmetics, medicine, textile, construction, packaging, and the food industry. It also describes the potential of mycelial-derived materials as an alternative to the traditional insulators, packaging materials, and bovine leather. It further explains the importance of mycelium-based functional foods, cosmetics, and medicines.
... Wide-scale applications of mushrooms including Ganoderma lucidum; i.e., pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, and cosmetics. Source: Reprinted from Wu et al. [31]. Licensed under CC BY 4.0. ...
... i.e., pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, and cosmetics. Source: Reprinted from Wu et al. [31]. Licensed under CC BY 4.0. ...
... Figure 3 illustrates the increasing interest in multidisciplinary utilization of G. lucidum based on the number of research articles in the past 10 years. Menard Embellir Night Cream, Japan Eliminating toxins and helping repair skin damage associated with overexposure to UV radiation and free radicals MAVEX Rejuvenating Treatment, Hong Kong Antioxidant action and deep cellular renewal; fight degenerative processes and the negative action of free radicals * Sources: Wu et al. [31], Taofiq et al. [34], Hapuarachchi et al. [35], www.vegamebeljepara.com, www.dazzlinggroup.com, ...
Article
Full-text available
Ganoderma lucidum has a long history of medicinal uses in the Far East countries of more than 2000 years due to its healing properties. Recently, G. lucidum has come under scientific scrutiny to evaluate its content of bioactive components that affect human physiology, and has been exploited for potent components in the pharmacology, nutraceuticals, and cosmetics industries. For instance, evidence is accumulating on the potential of this mushroom species as a promising antiviral medicine for treating many viral diseases, such as dengue virus, enterovirus 71, and recently coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19). Still, more research studies on the biotherapeutic components of G. lucidum are needed to ensure the safety and efficiency of G. lucidum and promote the development of commercial functional foods. This paper provides an extensive overview of the nutraceutical value of Ganoderma lucidum and the development of commercial functional food. Moreover, the geo-origin tracing strategies of this mushroom and its products are discussed, a highly important parameter to ensure product quality and safety. The discussed features will open new avenues and reveal more secrets to widely utilizing this mushroom in many industrial fields; i.e., pharmaceutical and nutritional ones, which will positively reflect the global economy.
... The use of oyster mushrooms in cosmetology and dermatology is due to the presence of AO, anti-aging, anti-wrinkle, whitening, and moisturizing components from its extracts (Golak-Siwulska et al. 2018). Application of a pleuran-based cream as an adjunctive therapeutic to patients with atopic dermatitis has produced good results (Taofiq et al. 2016;Wu et al. 2016). ...
... Numerous mushrooms have recently been exploited as potential components in the cosmetic industry (Wu et al. 2016) while some of important compounds are: PCs (phenolic acids and flavonoids) Karaman et al. (2014), terpenoids (monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes), selenium, PSH (β-glucans, lentinan, schizophyllan), vitamins (carotenoids), sterols (ergosterol), Fas, and volatile organic compounds (Wu et al. 2016). They have multifunctional benefits on skin such as AO, anti-aging, antibacterial, anti-wrinkle, anti-tyrosinase, skin whitening, and moisturizing effects, which make them ideal candidates for cosmetic products (Taofiq et al. 2016;Wu et al. 2016). ...
... Numerous mushrooms have recently been exploited as potential components in the cosmetic industry (Wu et al. 2016) while some of important compounds are: PCs (phenolic acids and flavonoids) Karaman et al. (2014), terpenoids (monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes), selenium, PSH (β-glucans, lentinan, schizophyllan), vitamins (carotenoids), sterols (ergosterol), Fas, and volatile organic compounds (Wu et al. 2016). They have multifunctional benefits on skin such as AO, anti-aging, antibacterial, anti-wrinkle, anti-tyrosinase, skin whitening, and moisturizing effects, which make them ideal candidates for cosmetic products (Taofiq et al. 2016;Wu et al. 2016). ...
Chapter
The aim of this chapter is to introduce the main problems in the study of wild growing medicinal mushroomMedicinal mushrooms species by presenting the research from the period 2005–2020, with special emphasis on autochthonous species of Serbia and the Balkan region. Four major problems have been discussed regarding identification of the species, their biodiversity, chemical characterization, and environmental contamination, since they represent a great source of bioactive compoundsBioactive compounds with various activities: antioxidative, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, and anti-AChE inhibition. The aim of this chapter is to introduce the main problems in the study of wild growing medicinal mushroomMedicinal mushrooms species by presenting the research from the period 2005–2020, with special emphasis on autochthonous species of Serbia and the Balkan region. Four major problems have been discussed regarding identification of the species, their biodiversity, chemical characterization, and environmental contamination, since they represent a great source of bioactive compoundsBioactive compounds with various activities: antioxidative, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, and anti-AChE inhibition. A proper taxonomic identification is the first step in the further research. The identification is difficult due to similarity of morphological characteristics, especially within species complexes such as PleurotusPleurotus and GanodermaGanoderma. Molecular identificationMolecular identification through multi-gene phylogenetic analysis helped to resolve some of these issues while full genome sequencing enabled annotation of genes, as it was done with Schizophyllum communeSchizophyllum commune (S. commune) and Hericium erinaceusHericium erinaceus (H. erinaceus). Chemical characterization of the secondary bioactive compoundsBioactive compounds mostly confirmed the existence of terpenoids, phenols, and sterols, while polysaccharidesPolysaccharides and immunomodulatory proteins including polysaccharide-peptide complexes have been identified recently. Although wild fungal strains represent powerful sources of medicinal substances, they can also pose a potential risk to human health through (hyper) accumulation of toxic elementsToxic elements (e.g. Hg, Pb, Cd, Ni, 238U, and 137Cs) from different substrates, not only in the polluted urban environments, but also in protected natural areas. Their use should be well reasoned and controlled along with their conservation and protection.
... Moreover, β-glucan was applied in the cosmetics field due to its anti-wrinkle, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and moisturizing effects [39]. Wu et al. [40] reported the applications in cosmetics of β-glucan as increasing skin moisturization, increasing collagen production, and reducing wrinkles. ...
... Hence, a gel cream containing VVP can be considered as a multi-functional cosmetic for moisturizing, anti-aging, and whitening. This agrees with a previous review that revealed the uses of mushroom polysaccharides as active ingredients in commercial cosmetic preparations for many purposes, such as moisturizing, anti-aging, and skin whitening [40]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Polysaccharides from Volvariella volvacea (VVP) were investigated for their cosmetic-related activities and in vivo efficacy for use as a multifunctional active cosmetic ingredient. Three different polysaccharide extraction methods, including hot water shaking (HS), microwave-assisted (MA) and ultrasonic-assisted (UA), were used. Extractable yield, polysaccharide contents and biological activities, including antioxidant, anti-tyrosinase and anti-elastase activities, were compared. The polysaccharides from HS provided the highest extraction yield (15.58 ± 0.96% w/w) and the highest beta-glucan content (18.80 ± 0.81% w/w). The HS polysaccharides also possessed the highest inhibitory effects toward lipid peroxidation (IC50 of 0.0378 mg/mL), tyrosinase (51.46 mg KAE/g), and elastase (604.21 ± 73.66 mg EGCG/g). The cytotoxicity of the VVP was determined for safe use. A cosmetic gel cream containing VVP was developed and 0.2% VVP formulation was observed to be the most stable in color. UV protection factors, skin irritation by single patch test, and in vivo efficacy, including skin moisturization, anti-wrinkle and whitening, were measured. The VVP showed no cytotoxicity against human dermal skin fibroblast. The gel cream containing VVP provided less sun protection factor; however, it significantly exhibited the skin benefits of increasing moisture, gross elasticity, net elasticity, and skin firmness. Improvements to skin roughness, scaliness, wrinkles and in melanin content were also depicted gradually along 8 weeks. V. volvacea, therefore, could be a good source for polysaccharides being used as a moisturizing, anti-wrinkle, and whitening agent in cosmetic preparations.
... 3 Macrofungi are also considered a valuable source of multifunctional cosmetic ingredients to be exploited as cosmeceuticals. [4][5][6] They are mainly used in skin and hair care products, and the trend for their industrial use is expected to increase over the years. 7 Wild or cultivable, edible or inedible, and medicinal or poisonous macrofungi are incorporated in many cosmetic products as producers of bioactive compounds (phenolics, glucans, and other polysaccharides and terpenoids) with antiaging, antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, hypocholesterolemic, hypoglycemic, immune-modulating as well as anticollagenase, antielastase, antihyaluronidase, antityrosinase, wound-healing, and other activities. ...
... Scientific data show that medicinal, edible and inedible mushrooms are resources of raw extracts, fractions of extracts, and bioactive molecules (e.g., fatty acids, phenolics, peptides, polysaccharides, terpenoids, vitamins and volatile organic compounds), with some also being enzyme-inhibitory compounds. [3][4][5]8,10,12 In addition, a large spectrum of bioactive natural sources possess significant antiaging, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antipigmentation, antimicrobial, antiwrinkle, moisturizing, and skin-whitening effects, and they may act as inhibitors of collagenase, elastase, and hyaluronidase and may be used to regulate tyrosinase activity (Table 1). Consequently, they may be potentially used as natural cosmeceuticals or nutracosmetics. ...
Article
Badalyan S.M., Barkhudaryan A. et Rapior S. Medicinal macrofungi as cosmeceuticals: A review. International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms, 24 (4), 1-13 (2022). doi:10.1615/IntJMedMushrooms.2022043124. hal-03633501 _____Macrofungi (mushrooms) have been studied for their nutritional value and medicinal properties. However, progress in the biotechnological application of macrofungi in the cosmetic industry as cosmeceuticals and nutricosmetics remains slow. Currently, the cosmetic industry is in a constant search for valuable natural ingredients or extracts with relevant bioactive properties (e.g., antiaging, anticollagenase, antielastase, antihyaluronidase, antipigmentation, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antityrosinase) to design formulations. Edible medicinal mushrooms are an unlimited source of nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. They can be used as a source of ingredients to develop organic cosmeceuticals, nutriceuticals, and nutracosmetics for topical and oral administration.
... The presence of excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) is the primary cause of oxidative stress (Silva et al., 2017) and leads to the two immediate signs of skin aging, which are wrinkles and sagging. Antiaging products currently in the market have been developed with claims of antiwrinkle and firming, moisturizing, and whitening effects (Wu et al., 2016). ...
Chapter
The innovations in the production of nanomaterials and their diverse biomedical applications have brought skincare products to an unprecedented era. Due to the protective function of the skin, it suffers many conversions through life as UV radiations, season cycles, aging, and accidents induce significant changes in skin components and integrity. As nanoparticles offer better atomic interaction, accurate and efficient ingredients delivery, they are being utilized in the cosmetic industry as antiaging products, skin whitening creams, and sunscreen products. Besides skincare products, nanocosmeceuticals are massively used in hair repair and conditioning, nail polishes, and perfumes. This book chapter offers a deeper understanding of nanocosmeceutical applications, skin products penetration, and antiaging mechanism of action. Furthermore, nanocosmeceutical toxicity, environmental concerns, emerging scenarios, and future perspective are duly highlighted.
Chapter
The genus Ganoderma includes intrinsic wood rotting fungi of economic importance, which are spotted widely across the globe. The various species of Ganoderma possess pathogenicity as well as therapeutic and aesthetic qualities. It is commonly referred as ‘medicinal mushroom’ across the Asia due to the presence of many chemical compounds with significant dietary and curative values. Besides the forementioned utilities, Ganoderma is an important phytopathogen that causes basal stem rot in oil palm, coconut, and areca nut trees, as well as many other trees in the forest environment, such as oak and maple. The fungus is a soil-borne facultative parasite that produces chlamydospores and basidiospores while living saprophytically on decaying roots and stumps. This chapter focuses on the Ganoderma covering biodiversity, molecular characterisation, detection, pathology including aetiology, epidemiology, mode of dissemination, and management, and economic and ecological implications. Despite the fact that in the diseases caused by Ganoderma spp., the primary cause of disease has been well researched, but early detection and management approaches are still in their immature stage. Future research priorities should include gaining a comprehensive understanding of the aetiology and epidemiology of diseases on diverse hosts, as well as addressing existing ambiguity in species nomenclature.
Chapter
Most mushroom farming has been carried out using classical farming practices, giving one of the main reasons for low mushroom yield; in traditional mushroom farms routine practices are more labor intensive. Moreover, controlling insects, pests, and diseases is much more challenging and needs more vigilance. However, adapting innovative agricultural techniques can improve overall efficiency and productivity at a mushroom farm. One of the most advanced technologies is the application of the Internet of Things (IoT), which provides remote access to daily farm operations, and insect and pest control to the farmers. This sensor-based technique can be used to monitor crucial environmental factors including humidity, light, moisture, and temperature at a mushroom farm. The long-term benefits of semi- or fully automated farms result in high productivity, less labor, and reduced cost of production. Aside from the surrounding environmental conditions, controlling biotic stresses is also a challenging task at a mushroom farm. These may include insect pests, fungi, bacteria, nematodes, and some viral diseases. The use of synthetic chemical products at a mushroom farm can be hazardous to mushroom cultivation; thus, integrated pest management (IPM) and use of modern molecular approaches to confer natural resistance to biotic stresses can be effective control measures.
Article
Full-text available
Thee global consumption of plant-based cosmetics has shown spectacular growth in recent years because of rising consumer awareness regarding the long-term health benefits of natural ingredients. As the global demand for herbal cosmetics increases, there are ample opportunities for Sri Lanka as a tropical Asian country to expand its productions and global exports along with its unique biodiversity and inherited traditional knowledge. erefore, the present review attempts to give an overview of the widely used medicinal plants in the global herbal cosmetic industry and strengths, challenges, and possible solutions for the development of the herbal cosmetic industry of Sri Lanka. Information was collected using electronic search (using Pub Med, Science Direct, Web of Science, Google Scholar, TEEAL, and Scopus) for articles published in peer-reviewed journals, industrial reports, market surveys, and library search for local books on ethnobotany. Important plant-derived ingredients used in the global herbal cosmetic industry are essential oils, colorants, oils, fats, and waxes. e traditional usage of 108 medicinal plant species (belonging to 58 families) in cosmetic treatments was identified from the local books of Sri Lanka. Of these, 49 plant species were reported as new ingredients for the herbal cosmetic industry. However, the lack of ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacological surveys to identify the cosmetic potential plants, insufficient or absence of continuous supply of raw materials for production in line with the existing demand, the lack of quality control of raw materials and finished cosmetic products, improper systematic cultivation systems for medicinal plants, poor postharvest practices, and the lack of innovations are major challenges encountered in Sri Lanka for the development of the herbal cosmetic industry. In conclusion, addressing these vital knowledge gaps is a timely requirement of the country for the sustainable development of the herbal cosmetic industry in Sri Lanka. Furthermore, assembling of the multidisciplinary cooperation of botanists, chemists, toxicologists, researchers, and biologists is crucial to analyze the interesting functional properties, efficacy, and effectiveness of documented medicinal plants with cosmetic potential.
Book
Since the publication of the first edition, important developments have emerged in modern mushroom biology and world mushroom production and products. The relationship of mushrooms with human welfare and the environment, medicinal properties of mushrooms, and the global marketing value of mushrooms and their products have all garnered great attention, identifying the need for an updated, authoritative reference. Mushrooms: Cultivation, Nutritional Value, Medicinal Effect, and Environmental Impact, Second Edition presents the latest cultivation and biotechnological advances that contribute to the modernization of mushroom farming and the mushroom industry. It describes the individual steps of the complex mushroom cultivation process, along with comprehensive coverage of mushroom breeding, efficient cultivation practices, nutritional value, medicinal utility, and environmental impact. Maintaining the format, organization, and focus of the previous edition, this thoroughly revised edition includes the most recent research findings and many new references. It features new chapters on medicinal mushrooms and the effects of pests and diseases on mushroom cultivation. There are also updated chapters on specific edible mushrooms, and an expanded chapter on technology and mushrooms. Rather than providing an encyclopedic review, this book emphasizes worldwide trends and developments in mushroom biology from an international perspective. It takes an interdisciplinary approach that will appeal to industrial and medical mycologists, mushroom growers, botanists, plant pathologists, and professionals and scientists in related fields. This book illustrates that mushroom cultivation has and will continue to have a positive global impact on long-term food nutrition, health care, environmental conservation and regeneration, and economic and social change.
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Mushrooms are fungi belonging to the higher phyla Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. In fact the name mushroom refers to a fruiting body, formed by several hyphae that grow upwards and produces spores (basidiospores). These spores are invisible to the naked eye and spread with the wind, with water or even attached to the body of animals. The fruiting fungus is the structure of sexual reproduction and has different shapes and colors.
Conference Paper
Epidemiological studies have consistently shown that regular consumption of fruits and vegetables is strongly associated with reduced risk of developing chronic diseases, such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. It is now widely believed that the actions of the antioxidant nutrients alone do not explain the observed health benefits of diets rich in fruits and vegetables, because taken alone, the individual antioxidants studied in clinical trials do not appear to have consistent preventive effects. Work performed by our group and others has shown that fruits and vegetable phytochemical extracts exhibit strong antioxidant and anti proliferative activities and that the major part of total antioxidant activity is from the combination of phytochemicals. We proposed that the additive and synergistic effects of phytochemicals in fruits and vegetables are responsible for these potent antioxidant and anticancer activities and that the benefit of a diet rich in fruits and vegetables is attributed to the complex mixture of phytochemicals present in whole foods. This explains why no single antioxidant can replace the combination of natural phytochemicals in fruits and vegetables to achieve the health benefits. The evidence suggests that antioxidants or bioactive compounds are best acquired through whole-food consumption, not from expensive dietary supplements. We believe that a recommendation that consumers eat 5 to 10 servings of a wide variety of fruits and vegetables daily is an appropriate strategy for significantly reducing the risk of chronic diseases and to meet their nutrient requirements for optimum health.
Chapter
Food scientists will dig into this robust reference on mushrooms. Mushrooms as Functional Foods is a compendium of current research on the chemistry and biology, nutritional and medicinal value, and the use of mushrooms in the modern functional foods industry. Topics covered range from the agricultural production of mushrooms to the use of molecular biological techniques like functional genomics; from nutritional values of newly cultivated mushroom species to the multifunctional effects of the unconventional form of mushroom (sclerotium); from the physiological benefits and pharmacological properties of bioactive components in mushrooms to the regulation of their use as functional foods and dietary supplements in different parts of the world. With contributions from leading experts worldwide, this comprehensive reference: Reviews trends in mushroom use and research, with extensive information on emerging species. Includes coverage of cultivation, physiology, and genetics. Highlights applications in functional foods and medicinal use. Covers worldwide regulations and safety issues of mushrooms in functional foods and dietary supplements. Discusses the classification, identification, and commercial collection of newly cultivated mushroom species. Features a color insert with photographs of different types of mushrooms. This is an integrated, single-source reference for undergraduates majoring in food science and nutrition, postgraduates, and professional food scientists and technologists working in the functional food area, and medical and health science professionals interested in alternative medicines and natural food therapies.
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In the Western world, the mushroom industry suffers from overproduction. Expectations are stronger than reality, and as a result, production is too high and prices are too low. Because bulk production has taken the lead, which not only happens in the West, overproduction occurs regularly. Low pricing influences the quality concept of consumers and hence their appreciation of mushrooms. This cannot continue without doing great harm to the socioeconomic structure of the industry. Therefore, measures have to be taken to introduce mushrooms as a true health food in the Western world. This may form a first step in the acceptance of mushroom extracts and mushroom-derived compounds as medicine in the prevention and cure of disease. The present review discusses the acceptance of mushrooms as health food and medicine and suggests pathways for necessary action.
Article
Cosmeceuticals are the latest addition to the health industry and are described as cosmetic products with drug-like activities. Cosmetics are products that are used to cleanse and beautify the skin (Millikan, 2001). Pharmaceuticals are essentially drug products and are defined as products that prevent, mitigate, treat or cure disease and/or affect the structure or function of the body (Vermeer and Gilchrest, 1996). Cosmeceuticals is a deliberate portmanteau of these two terms and is intended to connote drug-like benefits from an otherwise cosmetic product. While the food, drug, and cosmetic act does not recognize the term “cosmeceutical,” the cosmetic industry has begun to use this word to refer to cosmetic products that have drug-like benefits. The term cosmeceutical was coined by Kilgman, but these lines of product became popular in 1996 and have an expanding market that has rapidly reached Africa. Many scientists and health consumers in Africa may not be conversant with this line of products. They may, therefore, be underresearched or over-utilized. In the cosmetic arena, many materials are used commercially. Cosmetic ingredients previously considered “inert” have the potential to provide a biologic effect to the skin. In a cosmeceutical formulation, the boundary between an “active” and “inert” ingredient may be obscured. There is most common names of the different ingredients used in cosmeceutical products such as antioxidants, the binding agent, emollients, emulsions, humectants, lubricants, preservatives, solvents, surfactants, vehicle, etc. “Potential for cosmeceutical ingredients in the United States alone is SI00 million and includes such products as skin peelers, wrinkle creams, emollients, hair growth stimulants, skin lighteners and darkeners, and botanicals. The 75 million baby boomers are the major market for cosmeceuticals. Cosmeceuticals claims are largely unsubstantiated and the term, though misleading, has probably come to stay. The term and the target consumers appear flamboyant enough to with stand Government regulations. In a free trade world, the benefits and adverse effects of cosmeceuticals are probably optimized by frequent review to inform the clinical and public stake-holders of their uses and limitations. This comprehensive review attempts to briefly, expand the recent knowledge about cosmeceuticals. © 2015 Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research. All rights reserved.