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Blended learning: An institutional approach for enhancing students' learning experiences

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... [21,23] The literature has reported associated psychological problems with BL implementation, which hinders a student's success. [18,24,25] Students reported feeling less valued when communicating with their educators and colleagues has to be done online. [25] Thus, it is imperative to offer support to students when the BL model is first introduced. ...
... [18,24,25] Students reported feeling less valued when communicating with their educators and colleagues has to be done online. [25] Thus, it is imperative to offer support to students when the BL model is first introduced. ...
... The literature demonstrates that BL is not a new method in the context of high-income countries. [25,43] However, participants in this study perceive BL as a new approach to teaching, and its use has increasingly been more reinforced during the COVID-19 pandemic in some HLICs to allow continuity of teaching during the pandemic. Likewise, a study conducted in Egypt to assess obstacles faced by nursing students while applying the BL method indicated that the nursing students considered BL as new and started with the COVID-19 pandemic. ...
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Background Although blended learning (BL) is being adopted in public and private higher learning institutions (HLIs) in Rwanda, little is known about students’ use of BL in their learning activities. This article describes a qualitative descriptive study of students’ perceptions and experiences of BL in Rwanda’s post-secondary nursing and midwifery programs in public and private HLIs.Methods Thirty-three nursing and midwifery students from all public and private HLIs in Rwanda exposed to BL were invited to participate in three online focus group discussions (FGDs) conducted using a developed FGD guide with open-ended questions. Inductive content analysis was used to analyze the transcripts.ResultsThree main themes emerged from the data analysis:(1) BL perceived as a new and effective teaching and learning approach, (2) Contextual challenges to the BL method, and (3) Recommendations to improve the BL method. From students’ experiences, the benefits included but were not limited to the flexibility of the approach, time, and cost-saving. However, several challenges were identified, including technological issues such as lack of ICT skills and poor internet connectivity.Conclusion This study provides insights into the usefulness of BL in HLIs and offers recommendations on how BL teaching and learning can be improved to strengthen nursing and midwifery pre-service education quality.Rwanda J Med Health Sci 2022;5(2):203-215
... E-learning technologies allow for straightforward teaching, learning, communication, and resource-sharing [58]- [60]. For example, an LMS allows teachers to oversee materials and tasks while planning exams and keeping track of the learners' progress [61]. ...
... However, critically, an LMS cannot entirely replace the traditional/conventional classroom environment in a short period of time [66]. The major purpose of a learning management system is to enhance the existing system by offering course information in a format that is easily accessible outside of traditional educational facilities and classrooms [60], [67]. The learning and teaching paradigm has been completely disrupted by new digital technologies, which had remained unchanged since the late 1990s due to continuous but insufficient development. ...
... Furthermore, unlike some earlier worldwide socioeconomic and political difficulties, the COVID-19 pandemic prompted educational institutions to speed up their shift toward LMS systems by integrating long-term virtual technologies for teaching and learning, especially in the English language [66], [68], [69]. The main goal of using a learning management system is to improve an existing system by providing course information in a format that can be accessed outside of traditional educational settings and classrooms [60], [67]. Furthermore, unlike previous global socioeconomic and political challenges, the COVID-19 pandemic spurred educational institutions to improve their LMSs by including long-term virtual technologies for teaching and learning, particularly in the English language [66], [68], [69]. ...
... It is timeflexible (King & Arnold, 2012) and increases students' motivation (Oweis, 2018). Moreover, blended learning improves students' learning outcomes (Kazu & Demirkol, 2014;Poon, 2013). ...
... This result indicates that blended learning design effectively enhances student learning outcomes. This finding aligns with previous works, where blended learning is more effective in improving students' learning outcomes (Kazu & Demirkol, 2014;Poon, 2013). Furthermore, as seen in Table 3, students' perceptions of the attractiveness, ease of use, and benefits of the learning design are all categorized as 'good' since they are between 3.41 and 4.20 (Suana et al., 2017). ...
... From the test results, it is obtained that there is a significant increase in students' ability on all four levels of cognitive ability, namely remembering, understanding, applying, and analyzing (see Table 2). This finding is similar to the previous research, which opines that blended learning is more effective in improving students' learning outcomes (Kazu & Demirkol, 2014;Poon, 2013;Suana et al., 2019). ...
Article
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This paper describes the effects of implementing inquiry-based blended learning (IBBL) design on students' learning achievement and satisfaction in an undergraduate physics course. This study employed the one group pre-test – post-test experiment design with a sample of 32 students who took an undergraduate level basic physics course. Learning design and devices applied in this research have been validated by three experts in physics education. 'Schoology', a virtual learning management system, was used as the online learning platform. One cycle of inquiry phases was conducted in the blended learning format of ‘pre-online–face to face–post-online learning’. The data were collected through tests, a scale, and a questionnaire. The test consisted of 35 multiple-choice questions with five alternative answers. It was designed to measure students’ abilities in remembering, understanding, applying, and analyzing. The satisfaction scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree) consisted of 21 items and covered the attractiveness, ease of use, and benefits of learning using the learning products. Furthermore, the questionnaire consisted of six open-ended questions asking about the obstacles and benefits students faced during the learning activities. The results showed that the students’ learning outcomes increased sufficiently. Besides, students’ satisfaction with the learning design and materials was also positive. These initial findings imply that inquiry-based learning (IBL) may be implemented in physics teaching using a blended learning format that can be more effective and efficient.
... Given these challenges, educational in- stitutions worldwide are increasingly embracing blended learning strategies to deliver course content to a diverse and dispersed cohort. Blended courses, which incorporate online and conventional instruction delivery, may be more conducive to classroom participation than purely online or face-to-face lessons (Bohlscheid & Davis, 2012), and they can also be used effectively in larger classes to improve learning (Meyer et al., 2014;Okaz, 2015;Poon, 2013). Understanding how students feel about blended learning can help inform future implementation of blended activities in food science and technology, tailoring educational activities to suit student preferences likely to increase student engagement. ...
... Interestingly, 60% of the respondents preferred a combination of both -a blended learning approach. The blended learning approach allows students to access online components whenever and wherever they prefer while also having personal contact with peers and instructors (Poon, 2013). The second MCQ focused on the respondents preferred course format (Fig. 6). ...
Article
Blended learning refers to the use of conventional face-to-face learning experiences in combination with online education resources and practices. An increase in enrolments and a more diverse student body has intensified the demand to develop first-year teaching and learning pedagogies. Food science and technology lecturers must facilitate constructive learning in order to develop student skills, including critical thinking, teamwork, and self-directed learning. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate student perceptions of collaborative and blended learning. Students were exposed to various technology-enhanced pedagogical tools and face-to-face teaching strategies such as online academic journal reflections, video screencasts, group assignments, food processing practicals, and group crossword puzzles. A mixed-method survey consisting of multiple-choice, a 5-point Likert scale, and open-ended qualitative questions was administered via Blackboard. A total of 133 students were registered for the module, and 72.1% (n = 96) completed the survey. In this study, respondents felt they were prepared to complete the online group assignments (82%), which illustrates that they could learn the course material through collaboration. Moreover, 87% of the students agreed that they could keep up with the coursework in the blended format. Students recommended that there should be more lecture designed video screencasts, and they should be offered more opportunities to do oral presentations in this module. The respondents positively received collaborative and blended learning. The findings of this study, in general, affirm the merits of incorporating blended and collaborative learning in food science and technology curricula.
... Pre-COVID, several studies discussed the challenges teachers faced when implementing BL: technology issues; academic workload; institutional support (PD, infrastructure, communication of purpose, incentives); operational (student communications, access issues); providing learner support (for technical and OL skills); teachers beliefs, attitudes, and technology skills (Ocak, 2011, Poon, 2013, Brown, 2016Graham, 2019). Increased BL adoption and the inevitable changes will have an impact on teachers and their already heavy workloads (Houlden & Veletsianos, 2020). ...
... The prototyping focused compulsory PD, access to mentors and school-based implementation committee representatives, collaborative team development approaches for pilot courses and regular sharing forums, had a strong influence on participants' BL designs. These efforts were in line with existing literature on strategies to address barriers (Medina, 2018;Poon, 2013;Garrison & Vaughan, 2008). This present study draws attention to additional factors: the promotion of iterative designs through PD, data informed design decisions and the implementation of an experimentation period where formal quality monitoring processes were suspended. ...
Preprint
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This qualitative collective case study presents perspectives of experienced lecturers at one Singapore polytechnic, adopting and adapting pre-COVID institution-wide blended learning (BL) initiatives to online (OL) Emergency Response Teaching (ERT). Grounded theory techniques applied to pre and post-COVID interview data and verification, curricular materials and innovations from twenty three participants across thirteen national skills domain areas produced five distinct BL models and a range of strategies. Findings reflect the new normal in post-pandemic education, identifying implications for policy and practice on reculturing institutions, transforming curricula, reshaping pedagogical practices, redefining "work", industry partnerships and reviewing provisions for technology and professional development.
... On the other hand, partial EMI refers to a bilingual program in which less than 50% of the curriculum is taught in English. Considering the use of English as the partial medium of instruction in specific academic disciplines, it has been suggested that bilingual communication such as English and Thai should be adopted (Poon, 2013). Unlike the textbooks, materials, and examinations in English, translating concepts in lectures into Thai is allowed (Poon, 2013). ...
... Considering the use of English as the partial medium of instruction in specific academic disciplines, it has been suggested that bilingual communication such as English and Thai should be adopted (Poon, 2013). Unlike the textbooks, materials, and examinations in English, translating concepts in lectures into Thai is allowed (Poon, 2013). Having both full and partial models, EMI in Thailand's context aims to enhance their international outlook and generate a workforce with high English proficiency for the nation (Thitthongkam & Walsh, 2011). ...
Article
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The internationalization of higher education has led to the increasing number of English as a Medium of Instruction (EMI) programs in contexts where English is not the first language nor the medium of communication, including Thailand. The introduction of EMI programs, however, is not without challenges. Therefore, a survey questionnaire was used to investigate the attitudes of engineering and nursing students toward EMI. Differences of attitudes based on the program of study, gender, nationality, year level, number of years studying English, the language of instruction in high school, Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR) level, and perceived proficiencies in speaking, reading, writing, and listening were explored. In addition, factors affecting the students' EMI attitudes were known using exploratory factor analysis. Findings have shown significant differences in various aspects of EMI based on the program of study, CEFR level, and perceived proficiencies of the four macro language skills. Also, eight factors were elicited, including difficulties of the English language, availability of resources and opportunities, personal goals in life, limitations of time when studying content courses in English, providing activities to improve English language proficiency, enhancement of career goals, supports needed, and motivation and intercultural ability. Finally, implications were outlined to support the implementation of EMI, dubbed as an "unstoppable train", in similar contexts like Thailand. Index Terms-attitudes, English as a medium of instruction, engineering, nursing
... Poon [1] maintains some of the benefits associated with blended learning: Blended learning has an ability to foster independence in learning and improves independent research skills significantly among the learners. It also improves the autonomy of learners and provides a time for reflective learning. ...
... It also improves the autonomy of learners and provides a time for reflective learning. The author also witnessed that the blended learning forsters a professional learning environment with better achievement of learning outcomes by students, and also offers flexibility for students and teachers to carry out their individual responsibilities [1]. ...
Research
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Aims: The study was conducted to explore the factors that influence the acceptance of Moodle (VLE) among students and to study the behavioral intention of students to use VLE in Royal University of Bhutan (RUB) based on modified technology acceptance model (TAM). Study Design: This exploratory research incorporated a quantitative approach. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in nine constituent colleges under Royal University of Bhutan (RUB) in the period of one year (2019-2020). Sample: A total of 384 samples were drawn from population size of 9590 students under RUB colleges proportionately by using Yamane (1967) formula of sample determination. Methodology: The research used the modified TAM model to study the factors that influence the acceptance of virtual learning environment (VLE) and the behavioral intention of students to use VLE. This study mainly used primary data collected through a self-report online questionnaire adopted from context-based literature. Results: The study observed that while the facilitating condition (FC) has a weak positive effect on perceived usefulness (PU) of VLE, the users' experience (E) has a very strong positive influence over it. However, self-efficacy (SE) and subjective norms (SN) do not affect PU. Similarly, SE, E Original Research Article
... (p. 228) There appears to be no universally agreed-upon definition of this mode of learning, but for the needs of this study, we use one that Poon (2013) has suggested that seems to us to be flexible enough to contain the variability of structure of the many incarnations of hybrid or blended learning: some combination of virtual and physical environments. For the sake of simplicity and consistency, we will use the term "hybrid instruction" to cover the idea of blended instruction as well in the rest of this article. ...
... Another benefit of hybrid instruction is flexibility for students. Poon (2013) noted in the results of a survey administered to students enrolled in hybrid courses that "respondents perceived blended learning as a method that allowed them to study at their own pace and time and encouraged them to become more independent in regard to their own learning" (p. 11). ...
Article
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Hybrid or blended learning has gained enormous popularity in higher education because of its demonstrated ability to increase student learning, reduce undergraduate attrition rates, and maintain costs in an era of relentlessly increasing tuition. This study reviews the literature on hybrid or blended learning, enumerating both the benefits and liabilities of this type of instruction and the controversies surrounding it. The researchers then describe the two forms of a mixed-methodology survey instrument used to determine the satisfaction of primarily undergraduate students who are enrolled in separate sections of an introduction to education course, one taught in a traditional face-to-face mode and one in a blended configuration during two academic terms at a public regional comprehensive university in the Northwest portion of the United States. They then analyze the findings of the qualitative and quantitative data with recommendations for further research.
... This approach points to the blended learning model, which was defined by [14] as a combination of pedagogical strategies that blend the effectiveness and socialization opportunities of the classroom with the technological advancements of online learning. Furthermore, [15] asserts that blended learning promotes student-led learning and enables independent learning. Students have more freedom in their studies, which enhances their academic performance. ...
Article
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The study assessed the challenges of the students in the implementation of flexible learning in the new normal. Specifically, it evaluated students' socio-demographic profile, understanding of flexible learning, students' feedback on modules and activities, online platforms teachers used, the usual things students do during the online classes, the frequency of virtual classes, the teaching strategy of instructors, and suggestions to improve the delivery of instruction. The study used qualitative research design, utilizing an interview guide questionnaire through a personal interview. Purposive sampling was used to select 30 students from the Bachelor of Science in Business Administration majoring in Financial Management and the Bachelor of Public Administration. Using a phenomenological design, the researchers conducted an interview to identify the experiences and challenges of students in the implementation of flexible learning at North Eastern Mindanao State University (NEMSU) Marihatag Offsite class. Deductive thematic analysis was used in the interpretation and coding of data. Based on the findings of the study, the major challenges encountered by the students are technological limitations caused by financial constraints, particularly the lack of an internet connection and learning devices. A student support system, particularly on the aspect of technology, is recommended to address the identified gaps as defined in the study. Furthermore, while flexible learning gives students more flexibility, the institution should also adopt a policy to deliver limited face-to-face classes in collaboration with higher authorities to safeguard the students' health and safety during the pandemic.
... Concerning the benefits of BLI on school managers' perspectives, Graham (2006) concluded that BL helps improve pedagogy, increase access or flexibility, and minimize cost-related issues. Similarly, Poon ( 2013) claimed that BL can strengthen flexibility, high autonomy, and develop skills required for research while reducing the costs relating to learning materials. It also provides effective pedagogical practices (Caner, 2012), flexibility in time and space of learning (Harvey, 2003), and easy access to learning resources (Ellaway & Masters, 2008). ...
Article
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This qualitative study was conducted to examine students’ self-reports about Blended Learning implementation at FPT University in Can Tho, Vietnam. It also conveyed learners’ attitudes toward the massive application of Blended Learning in other academic subjects. Relying on phenomenography theory, 324 students, who experienced Blended learning in the form of learning on Coursera, combining with lecturers’ offline mentoring, took part in the research by answering open-ended questions in an online survey. Data collection was analyzed based on Nguyen (2018). The results show that FPT University students have positive attitudes about their current Blended Learning courses, with most compliments for Blended Learing and its prominent features, including satisfyingstudents’ curiosity about online learning, bringing students’ flexibility, and safety, especially in the time of the Covid-19 pandemic. Other negative responses related to online learning barriers, and students’ inclinations for traditional education.
... Blended learning is a learning solution in the 4.0 revolution era (Risdianto et al., 2019). Blended learning is considered a combination of face-to-face and online learning (Poon, 2013). In this model, a teacher can teach several classes. ...
Article
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This study aims to conduct a conditions analysis on developing a composite knowledge model in early childhood education programs in the Rejang Lebong area to grow character values and pupil literacy provocation. This disquisition is part of the RD (Research and Development) disquisition with the ADDIE model (analysis, design, development, performance, and evaluation). However, this research is only limited to the analysis stage, which is to analyze the need for the development of blended learning models in early childhood education programs education to grow character values and student learning motivation. The population in this study were all early childhood education programs teachers in the Rejang Lebong area. The samples taken were 75 people with the probability sampling technique. The study was conducted in October 2021. The instrument used in this study was a needs questionnaire made using a modified Likert scale with 4 answer choices, namely strongly agree, agree, disagree, and strongly disagree. The results of this study are the blended learning model is a learning model needed by early childhood education programs teachers in the Rejang Lebong Regency area, especially during the covid-19 pandemic. This is evidenced by the percentage obtained from the teacher needs questionnaire analysis process, which reached 89.78%, which was categorized as strongly agree. For this reason, further research is needed to develop a blended learning model in early childhood education programs education in the Rejang Lebong area to grow character values and student learning motivation.
... According to Wallace (2014), blended learning delivery improves learners' performance and frequently results in higher academic results, more understanding, and a good knowledge of concepts and theories. Poon (2013) believed that blended learning promotes student success and progress by focusing on the social context of learning rather than personal needs. Blended learning is a teaching and learning method that combines the social, psychological, and teaching opportunities of the face-to-face classroom with the online environment rather than focusing solely on one mode of delivery. ...
Article
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This study examines the knowledge of blended learning in supporting teacher-teaching efforts in secondary schools in Ekiti state. This study explores how teacher teaching endeavours can support blended learning adoption. Teachers' time preparing for their classes is included in their teaching effort. The paper thoroughly analyses the fascinating literature from the standpoint of view. The study's findings recommend that teachers' perceptions of the attraction of Blended Learning are significant and that such internet-based learning should be introduced alongside traditional learning methods. Incorporating suitable blended learning tools can aid in fostering and supporting collaborative teaching and learning environments for students. Teachers should be ready to put in the time and work needed to learn more about blended learning and figure out the best ways to do things.
... Distance learning has becoming more popular in higher education institutions across the world [67]. Students and instructors use technology to aid the learning process in distant learning. ...
Article
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This study examines the online teaching abilities and competencies needed to teach online courses in Saudi Arabia’s higher education system. As a result, the goal of this study was to examine and expand the technology acceptance model (TAM) to assess online teaching abilities and competences utilizing digital technologies in higher education during the COVID-19 epidemic. Therefore, it aimed to develop a new model to measure and explore critical factors that influence online teaching skills, competencies, and actual use of digital tools in higher education. The participants in the study were 350 lecturers at King Faisal University. The research data were analyzed using structural equation modeling (AMOS-SEM). The findings revealed that: (a) perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness on using digital tools during the COVID-19 pandemic has a direct positive impact on perceived teaching self-efficacy, perceived enjoyment, online teaching skills, and digital tools access; (b) perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness of using digital tools have a direct positive impact on lecturers’ attitude toward use and lecturers’ behavioral intention to use digital tools during the COVID-19 pandemic; and (c) perceived ease of use. As a consequence of the findings, a validated instrument was designed to assess and investigate crucial elements that impact lecturers’ real usage of digital technologies for teaching and learning in Saudi Arabia’s higher education.
... Certain studies reported contrasting findings. In a study based on the assumption that hybrid learning models improve the learning experiences of the students, Poon (2013) claimed that the educational and instructional approaches directly affected and significantly improved the learning experiences of the students in higher education. It was argued that the employment of hybrid methods that include face-to-face and online learning could improve the student perceptions of the learning environment, leading to better study experiences, learning outcomes, and academic achievements. ...
Article
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This study aimed to compare the achievements of the students who attended the Environmental Design Project course at Karadeniz Technical University (KTU) in various years with the face-to-face (FE) and distance (OE) education methods. The study was conducted with 130 students. In the initial stage, ANOVA was conducted to determine whether there was a difference between student attitudes towards FE and OE methods in the Environmental Design Project studio. In the second stage, the research problem, namely “Does the implementation of landscape architecture environmental design project instruction with FE and OE methods affect the academic achievements of the students? was investigated and a quasi-experimental study with a control group was conducted on the achievement test (50 questions) results. The achievement test was applied to the students who took environmental design lessons for one semester (14 weeks) with both methods before the 14-week semester (pre-test) and after the semester (post-test). There was no statistical difference between the pre-test scores of both groups (p > 0.05), while there was a difference (p < 0.05) between the post-test scores. This finding demonstrated that there was a significant difference between the effects of these two methods on the academic success of the students.
... In the advent of the COVID-19 pandemic, the institution had to find a strategy that fitted closely with its already existing resources, facilities and a ready workforce. It was out of this analysis that the institution settled on a model that had originally suggested by Bhaskar [41] It compares well with other models [42][43][44][45]. This model fits the practice at the university as it already has a digitally literate workforce; an operational and robust learning management system; already trained pool of lecturers able to develop and facilitate online courses and able to act as mentors to the rest; organizational objectives supportive of blended learning; a student pool that already has common IT skills because all their courses is taught with IT; and it has an existing library of printed instructional materials already in use in the traditional classroom. ...
Chapter
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This chapter describes how Maseno University reacted in the height of the pandemic to move its students and lecturers onto the online learning platform. Thus due to the COVID-19 pandemic, Maseno University (MU) began to consider institutional shift from traditional face-to-face (F2F) instructions to online and blended modes of teaching and learning. The university was able to draw from its experience with adapted flexible and blended learning (FBL) approaches for high enrollment common courses already offered to students on the Learning Management System (LMS). It is hoped that other institutions of Higher Learning can benefit from the Maseno University experience.
... (Sumber: https://www.learncube.com/teach-english-online-using-blended-learning.html) Beberapa literatur yang ada memberikan kelebihan dan keuntungan dari pembelajaran berbasis BL bagi peserta didik, di antaranya: meningkatkan aksesbilitas seperti kemudahan peserta didik dalam mengakses materi pembelajaran (Fandianta, Sanjaya, dan Widyandana, 2013), meningkatkan kualitas dan pengalaman belajar (Harahap et al., 2019;Isti'anah, 2017;Poon, 2013), khususnya bagi peserta didik berupa fleksibilitas, pembelajaran aktif, motivasi, akuntabilitas serta minat (Kaur, 2013). ...
Article
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Abstrak Perkembangan teknologi informasi saat ini telah menggeser efektivitas model pembelajaran konvensional menuju model pembelajaran baru berdasarkan penggunaan media teknologi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan tingkat partisipasi mahasiswa pada perkuliahan MKWU Islam Ulil Albab di Universitas Islam Indonesia (UII) dalam proses pembelajaran di kelas selama pandemi Covid-19 melalui model pembelajaran campuran berbasis flipped dan blended learning. Penelitian ini menggunakan Classroom Action Research (CAR), dengan subyek 82 mahasiswa yang sekaligus mengikuti program studi mandiri, mahasiswa dari program studi. Penelitian ini dilakukan selama kurang lebih empat bulan dalam perkuliahan aktif pada semester ganjil tahun ajaran 2020-2021, dengan total 14 pertemuan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa model pembelajaran campuran berdasarkan flipped dan blended learning memiliki peningkatan partisipasi siswa dalam setiap pertemuan dan hasil CPMK tercapai dengan baik. Abstract The development of information technology at this time has shifted the effectiveness of conventional learning models towards new learning models based on the use of technology media. This study aims to determine the level of student participation at the lecture of MKWU Islam Ulil Albab at Universitas Islam Indonesia (UII) in the learning process in the classroom during the Covid-19 pandemic through flipped and blended learning based mixed learning models. This study used a Classroom Action Research (CAR), with the subject of 82 students who at the same time were participating in an independent study program, students from the study program. This research was conducted for approximately four months to be precise in active lectures in the odd semester of the 2020-2021 school year, with a total of 14 meetings. The results showed that the mixed learning model based on flipped and blended learning had an increase in student participation in each meeting and the results of the CPMK were achieved well.
... There are challenges but according to Hirsh (2019), homeschool families can curate and blend varied education and social learning opportunities that have interesting significances to make education more agile and custom-made for students' and families' needs. It was also stated that there is a need to promote a "co-learning" space, where everyone can access a vast repository of online and homeschool resources are provided for students' good learning experiences, better learning outcomes and academic achievement (Poon, 2013) hence, identifying the students' learning styles should be done to better motivate them (Yusoff, Yusoff, & Md Noh, 2017). As Means, Toyama, Murphy, & Baki (2013), blended learning involves more learning time and instructional resources that can motivate and encourage learner interactions if done well, hence, parents' participation and cooperation is highly needed. ...
Article
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This study was undertaken to explore the challenges faced by parents in teaching-learning situations with their children during this COVID-19 pandemic year. It employed a qualitative method through virtual focus group discussion/ interview via Google Meet with 11 parent-respondents whose children were enrolled under the blended online modality from across all grade levels in a public elementary school in Quezon City, Philippines to constructively assess and improve the strategies used by both teachers and parents to teacher the students during the health crisis. The findings suggested that parents described their experience regarding distance and blended learning as difficult and tiring because of the following reasons: time management, child discipline and supervision, knowledge on lessons, students’ distraction from mobile games and YouTube videos available online and others (internet connection/gadget sharing). The parent-participants stated that the school and teachers were very responsive and supportive of their needs and queries and that they constantly communicate through a group chat messaging function in Facebook messenger. The parents observed there was an increased level of independence among their children but lower levels of their socialization skills. The researcher recommends the conduct of virtual or live (in person) parenting and values formation seminars and parent-help-parent program (PHPP) to enhance parental involvement and sharing of best practices among them to help other parents which may be done with the help of the Teachers’ Club (TC), General Parent Teacher Association (GPTA), Homeroom Parent Teachers Association (HRPTA) and the local community council. The research suggested further studies on teachers and students’ experiences to improve the school’s planning, strategies and streamlining of policies for the implementation of learning modality during this time of pandemic and in the coming years.
... Teachers are no longer classroom controllers but mere facilitators or organizers while students become more independent as they can learn at any time and from anywhere without having to commute to physical classroom (Hewitt-Taylor, 2003;Wheeler, 2001). These shifting paradigms were triggered by the fact that technology, when properly used, could ease the burden and improve performances (Poon, 2013). But yet, adopting technology has also brought about changes. ...
Conference Paper
A conceptualization of change management framework informed that positive change is managed with considerations of type, elements and process. This framework was confirmed by recent situational analyses made at two Cambodia’s public higher education institutions where adoption of Blended Learning (the change) was found to be promising with increased students’ satisfaction, increased lecturers’ involvement and continued program expansion. Employing case study design, this study aims to reconfirm the constructs, suggesting, where possible, for readjustment to make it really works. To that end, in-depth interviews with institutional leadership and key informants and focus group discussion with involved faculties were conducted. Results from the study suggested that although the framework do explain the real management practices on the ground, it had been deformed in a way that allowed the above top management much bigger control on type and elements of change. Middle managements (the Center’s head) whose roles were supposed to have the above controls were left otherwise to manage the whole process of change. While this strategic error, on the one hand, made the above successes far from being institutionalized, it, on the other hand, confirmed the validity of the above framework. For this framework to be most practical, this study recommends that more strategic supports and policies, together with a reliable monitoring and evaluation platform, be developed while internal source of funding should also be secured.
... In another study, support staff, faculty and the learners themselves are considered as the most critical factors with technology as a secondary issue (Mitchell & Honore, 2007). Also, appropriate resources, the suitability of the course, and support from the senior management are deemed to be the essential factors for blended learning to be successful (Poon, 2013). From these studies it can be gleaned that institutional factor is indeed vital as resources both material and human are managed and allocated at this level. ...
Article
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Blended learning offers immense advantages to students –they stand to benefit from the structured practices of the classroom while learning at their own pace, owing to the adaptive and personalized nature of online learning (Ferrante, 2017). However, managing a school in a flexible learning environment brings a unique set of challenges. Building an effective blended learning environment requires careful planning and preparation. This paper aimed to provide adequate insights into the experiences in transforming a school into a blended learning school and the challenges encountered during the transition phase. It specifically contributed vision and wisdom into the management of a blended learning environment transitioning from the traditional. Qualitative case study research methodology was used in this study to determine how the school environment was transformed from traditional learning to blended learning. There can be no denying the fact that online learning is here to stay. Thus, the transformation of the school into a blended learning environment is noteworthy and worth emulating for other basic education schools in the country. It is a collaborative work of the people behind the meticulous process spearheaded by the principal to successfully transform the school into a blended learning environment preparing new generations to be well-rounded and globally competitive individuals.
... Early findings on adaptive gamification give promising results but there seems to be a little to almost no mention about the insights, concerns and readiness of pre-service and in-service teachers (Papadakis et al., 2018a(Papadakis et al., , 2018b. Also, their preparation and education on implementing adaptive gamified environments and utilising their potential is of critical concern, considering the key role a teacher has (Poon, 2013;Licorish et al., 2018). This research is an exploratory proposal designed to highlight the current state of preservice and in-service teachers, the learning pathway they need to follow, and the knowledge they need to be able to use and integrate adaptive gamified environments into the educational process. ...
Article
The use of games regarding education is not something new. Their use, especially in the early stages of the education system, is notably widespread in helping students learn and develop various skills. Although students are considered the centre of teaching, the teacher plays a central key role. He/she is called upon to care and understand the needs of each individual student, provide the proper learning material and evaluate the whole learning process. We propose exploring how active and pre-service teachers design and integrate adaptive gamified environments into teaching science education.
... CUBIDES SALAZAR;MARTÍN-GARCÍA, 2014;GEORGE-PALILONIS;FILAK, 2009;LING et al., 2010;POON, 2013;TURPO;HERNÁNDEZ, 2014) verificam o valor da presencialidade como uma instância superior de encontro, como uma plenária e, por sua vez, os espaços virtuais são, assim, compreendidos também, como um lugar e tempo de interação, colaboração e preparação para o encontro presencial com o professor e os demais alunos. Universidades em todo o país estão projetando o desafio de renovar os espaços físicos de aprendizagem, redesenhar a sala de aula para uma aprendizagem ativa, e construir novos prédios e campis desenvolvidos especificamente para facilitar o BL (OLSEN;GUFFEY, 2016;FERRELL et al., 2018; UNIVERSITY OF NORTHAMPTON, 2020). ...
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Este estudo explora o uso do conceito BL na literatura científica e revisa oito modelos pedagógicos BL. Um único modelo 'prescrito' não atende a todos os cenários de aprendizado sendo importante ter conhecimento das diversas possibilidades que os modelos já implementados podem nos oferecer. Os modelos apresentados ao longo do texto foram: Modelo BL 3-C de Kerres e Witt, Modelo BL de três fases da aprendizagem de Roberts, Modelo BL flexível e cíclico de andaimes de Wenger e Ferguson, Modelo BL comunidade de inquirição de Garrison e Vaughan, Modelo BL de comunicação estratégica de Peñalosa, Modelos BL de Staker e Horn, Modelo de BL MoSal-b de Vásquez, Active Blended Learning (ABL), Universidade de Northampton. Destaca-se que ainda precisamos avançar no aporte pedagógico para garantir a interação e intencionalidade das atividades pedagógicas desenvolvidas pelas instituições. O BL é uma alternativa do tempo presente que cresce a cada dia, e nesse novo cenário de isolamento social torna-se uma alterativa efetiva para atender os novos modos de ensinar e aprender.
... Sayangnya, sebagian besar pendidik belum melakukan pembaruan terkait media pembelajaran dan masih menggunakan metode pengajaran 20 tahun yang lalu (Montiel, Delgado-Ceballos, Ortiz-de-Mandojana, & Antolin-Lopez, 2020 Salah satu bentuk model pembelajaran yang dapat memaksimalkan hasil belajar peserta didik yaitu blended learning. Model pembelajaran dengan mengabungkan dua lingkungan belajar yang berbeda dapat meningkatkan fleksibilitas dan menumbuhkan kemandirian siswa dalam proses pembelajaran (Parkes, Zaka, & Davis, 2011;Poon, 2013). Pengunaan blended learning juga dapat mendorong mahasiswa untuk lebih aktif dan kreatif dalam mencari informasi yang dibutuhkan selama proses pembelajaran dan dinilai lebih efektif dibandingkan dengan metode tradisional (Suana, Maharta, I, & Wahyuni, 2017). ...
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We must overcome students' low understanding of cost accounting courses with learning models that follow learning needs. Blended learning answers these problems, namely, using learning kits in modules, handouts, videos, and questions. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of the use of the blended learning model on student learning outcomes in cost accounting courses at the State University of Malang. Based on the results of the tests carried out, it was found that there were differences in student learning outcomes that were equipped with a learning kit and students who did not equip. This indicates that students get a better understanding conceptually or in solving real problems. Learning models equipped with learning kits will improve student competence as reflected in learning outcomes.
... Last but not least, it has the potential to save monev and resources. (Poon, 2013 Figure 2: Challenges to the hybrid or blended learning from a learners perspeclive **********'****°********s*stpmmu *********s ***********''**"****"**"** **"****"**********"'**************************** Traditional Learning ****************** ********************************** ****** *********************** ...
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BLENDED learning is a perfect blend of a modern and traditional way of teaching. The COVID-19 indeed framed a situation to lock everyone in their houses and do all kinds of activities from their home including learning, which gave a major turn to the teaching-learning pedagogy. Now, teaching has adopted an approach that is more hybrid, more technical, and more complex. The study aims to understand the challenges encountered to blended learning including technological issues, content adaptability for blended learning and many more. In this paper, the focus is on the challenges faced by the teachers as well as by the students virtually. The New Education Policy also has a great impact on changing the way of imparting education. As. it is a way ahead as far as blended learning is concerned, therefore, understanding the prospects of blended learning and the NEP is also required.
... It also agrees with that of Giannousi, Vernadakis, Derri, Antoniou, and Kioumourtzoglou (2014), as cited by Gambari, Shittu, Ogunlade, and Osunlade (2017), who maintained that students in the blended learning group had greater success than those in the traditional approach group. Similarly, Boyle, Bradley, Chalk, Jones & Pickard (2003), Hiralaal (2012 and Poon (2013) found that blended learning is advantageous for both students and institutions. It makes it possible for better learning results, flexible access, a feeling of community, efficient resource use, and students' happiness. ...
Conference Paper
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Without mincing words, insecurity is tearing Nigeria apart gradually, destroying every sector including the education and retarding growth and development. Without quality education which must be established on the foundations of peace, safe and secured environment, not much can be achieved positively. An important level of education is the secondary which guarantees literacy and training of manpower for employment while acting as a bridge between the primary and tertiary levels of education. This level is seriously being bastardised through insecurity: students and teachers killed, kidnapped, girls married out and raped, facilities destroyed among others. the paper is worried about this situation. Without losing focus of what the government can do at themacro level, the paper highlights some tips which secondary schools initiate at the micro level to reduce the spate of insecurity in schools with recommendations following similar trends. Some of these include the establishment of safety practices, effective surveillance, installation of CCTV cameras in schools, display of good attitude by teachers to guard against bullying by students,among others
... It also agrees with that of Giannousi, Vernadakis, Derri, Antoniou, and Kioumourtzoglou (2014), as cited by Gambari, Shittu, Ogunlade, and Osunlade (2017), who maintained that students in the blended learning group had greater success than those in the traditional approach group. Similarly, Boyle, Bradley, Chalk, Jones & Pickard (2003), Hiralaal (2012 and Poon (2013) found that blended learning is advantageous for both students and institutions. It makes it possible for better learning results, flexible access, a feeling of community, efficient resource use, and students' happiness. ...
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The heightened ignominious security challenges that characterize the Nigeria as a nation at present, namely terrorism, kidnapping and the activities of the herdsmen have almost put the country on the world map of terrorism. This is unimaginable in the most populous black nation of the world blessed with abundant human and material resources. Concerned by this ugly situation, the paper assessed the security challenges and the consequences of this pathetic situation on the educational system bringing out the unfortunate destruction of schools and educational materials and infrastructure. More worrisome to the paper was the killing and kidnapping of the manpower and students that would be future leaders. The paper was able to discover the sources of the security challenges which formed the core of the implications for educational planning. Some of the topics for inclusion in the curricula are religious and civic education (which must be built around the major religions in the country and made compulsory), peace and security education, love and unity among others. Some of the recommendations include equipping all security agencies with necessary apparatuses to guarantee peace, formulation of appropriate laws by the National Assembly to curb the activities of the herdsmen, the introduction of peace, security and entrepreneurship education into school curricula and useful economic policies to reduce unemployment in the long-run as well as the re-invigoration of the National Youth Service Corp Scheme
... While enhancing learning outcomes and access lexibility, BL makes students feel more ful illed. Additionally, it promotes a sense of belonging and provides him the assurance to use resources prudently (Poon, 2013). Similar to this, by pushing students to develop their learning and put it into practice, BL can provide pupils with a decent degree of challenge (Smyth, Houghton, Cooney, & Casey, 2011). ...
... In addition, the exact threshold level of the HTMT is debatable, and some of them suggest 0.85 while the others propose a value of 0.9 [57][58][59][60][61][62][63]. On the other hand, the saturated model in the model fit refers to all constructs that correlate freely in the structural model, in which the standardized root mean square residual (SRMS) does not exceed a value of 0.08 or 0.10 [64][65][66][67][68] and NFI has a value more than 0.90, while the estimated model is based on a total effect scheme and it takes the model structure into account [60], as can be seen in Table 5. ...
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Effective incorporation of new technologies into the education system has become a basic need in today’s globalized world, especially in adapting life to the new normal, which is seen by an increase in online learning. Thus, a blended learning system (BLS) becomes the alternative solution to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of the online learning system by adding certain characteristics from the traditional approach to the online learning system. Therefore, the educational institution still has reluctance to adopt this kind of system as a means to deliver knowledge to the student due to several reasons, such as remote effects, learning progress assessment, alignment of the course roadmap to learning strategy, self-paced environment support, retaining lecturer authenticity, quantifying informal learning, and engagement of the student community. Thus, this study wants to investigate factors that influence the satisfaction of students in terms of using mediated communication consisting of the modules, the channels, and the lecturers as the component to evaluate the understanding of literacy within offline and online classes. In fact, satisfaction is a threshold target for the BLS contribution in bringing the discourses aligned with the demands as well as delivering necessary value for the related users. Interestingly, the results showed Computer Self-Efficacy and Expectation of Quality have valid and reliable value as well significancy within the proposed model.
... With the later item, we refer to combining online learning with face-to-face class time as supplementary, which is used to build upon the content discussed in the classroom. Other studies provided evidence that this learning modality can benefit students as they can independently review the course and interact with the online material at their own pace, which may result in better performance, higher motivation and lower anxiety [30]. The reliability of the factor representing teachers' attitudes towards applying the distance learning model in K-12 conventional education was measured using the Spearman's Rho coefficient and estimated at .408 (p > .01), ...
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The reopening of schools and the returning to normal after the emergency experience of online teaching brought to the line new realities in educational practice for both teachers and students. It is now crucial to reflect on the consequences of this experience and rethink the prospects of using digital tools and online learning. The previous remote learning experience could be conceived as an opportunity for the educational community to take advantage of the benefits online teaching offers and adopt those practices that could further develop the teaching experience. This paper examines the reality in K-12 schools after the pandemic investigating the incorporation of seven digital teaching strategies into teachers’ daily routines. The study adopts a mixed methodology approach analysing quantitative data from an online survey of 392 in-service teachers and qualitative data from two focus groups. The results show that an essential percentage of teachers continue to use some practices of the distance learning model to enhance learning and communication in the classroom. The use of these strategies was directly and indirectly affected by teachers’ attitudes towards the distance learning model and their perceptions of the challenges faced during the pandemic. Implications for policy and practice are drawn.KeywordsDigital teaching strategiesDistance learning modelPost COVID-19 eraOnline teachingK-12 educationTeachers
... The flipped classroom may be associated with more active learning and may promote higher-order thinking (Chen et al., 2017). Despite having some challenges (Persky & McLaughlin, 2018;Gillette et al., 2018), the flipped classroom approach may lead to improved learning and improved student perceptions of learning (Poon, 2013;McLaughlin et al., 2014;Hurtubise et al., 2015;Kraut et al., 2019;Hew & Lo, 2018;Graham et al., 2019). ...
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Employing a flipped classroom is an excellent way to increase student engagement, integrate material, and elevate learning from memorization to application. This case highlights the design, development, implementation and evaluation of a flipped classroom approach for a large group of medical students at a US military medical school. We discuss the specific learning problems and challenges that formed the team and rationale for the design. We then describe the thought process used to develop the flipped classroom application, including format, content and implementation of digital learning tools. Finally, we reflect on findings from implementation of the design in an 8-week Neuroscience module, including improvements in student-faculty interaction, student engagement, learning climate and unexpected benefits.
... Research has shown that a majority of learners in different contexts hold positive perceptions toward blended learning (Moodle) which was implemented in teaching and learning English as a foreign language as it helps enhance learner independent learning, learner interest/enjoyment, learning outcomes, and flexibility (Abbas, 2015;Choosri, 2016;Emerita, 2006;Gimeno, 2010;Graham, 2006;Lee, 2000;Masie, 2002;Mohammed, 2015;Perkins & Pfaffman, 2006;Poon, 2013;Soliman, 2014;Tanveer, 2011;Taylor & Gitsaki, 2003;Tubaishat & El-qawasmeh, 2006). Vaughan (2007) emphasized the benefits produced by blended learning for students, faculty members, and administrators. ...
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Researchers have pointed out that Moodle usage, a type of software supporting blended learning enhances learning beyond the classroom. It is proven that blended learning takes place when Moodle is employed. The aim of this study was to investigate what perceptions the EFL university students had toward the Moodle Quiz-supported listening practice. This was a descriptive research. The instrument of this study was a questionnaire developed by generating a list of factors derived from the literature to find out what perceptions EFL students at Tay Do University had toward the Moodle Quiz-supported listening practice. The questionnaire was based on close-ended five-point Likert scale statements. The findings showed that the participants held a positive perception toward the Moodle Quiz-supported listening practice as it enhanced learning outcomes, enhanced their interest/enjoyment in listening to English, promoted their independent learning, fostered a flexible learning environment, and provided authentic materials. Article visualizations: </p
... Some studies indicated that education institutions must strengthen blended teaching support to instructors from the perspectives of policies, resources, and curriculum planning [8]. Poon [9] pointed out that institutions should give support to instructors with consideration given to the key aspects of blended teaching, including information technology, qualifications of teachers, continuous input, high-level managers, and faculty training. Grion and Varisco [10] summarized another method that sought to build an online professional development community of teachers, thus helping teachers to improve their blended teaching ability through peer communication, sharing, and mutual assistance. ...
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During the implementation of China’s Vocational Skill Level Certificate, the Vocational Skill Curriculum Development Organization built an online teaching community of practice (COP) by inviting instructors from several schools to participate. Through this community, instructors constructed a blended teaching system together through multiparty collaboration modes like cooperation, communication, sharing, and mutual assistance. As demonstrated by the research team, when teachers participate in a community of practice, the curriculum development model implemented within that community can strengthen the blended teaching intentions and ability of instructors, thus exerting positive effects on their blended teaching behaviors. Based on an extended Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT), a theoretical model concerning the influencing factors of online teaching communities of practice on the blended teaching behaviors of instructors was constructed. Through a questionnaire survey and field interviews of 204 instructors, data were analyzed by SPSS and AMOS software and an empirical test of the constructed conceptual model was carried out. The research results demonstrate that performance expectancy influences the blended teaching intentions of instructors only slightly, while effort expectancy and facilitating conditions have significantly positive influences on the blended teaching intentions of instructors. Interactions between the instructors themselves and interactions between instructors and the organization in the online community of practice have significantly positive influences on the blended teaching ability of instructors. The blended teaching intentions and blended teaching ability of instructors both have significantly positive influences on their blended teaching behaviors. In this research conclusion, various methods for online COPs to improve the blended teaching behaviors of instructors were summarized.
... Today's students enrolled in higher education are not just secondary school graduates, it is more likely that they are mature students who have to work, those who have children to take care of, or those who are married or in a domestic partnership (Mitchell, 2019). So blended learning emerges as a trend in higher education to better meet individualized needs of diverse student populations (Poon, 2013). In addition, extensive research has shown that blended learning can improve teaching quality and learning outcomes in the field of higher education (Palmer & Holt, 2009;Watson & Watson, 2007;Weng et al., 2018). ...
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The purpose of this research project was to measure the effects of the perceptions that students hold of the functionality of LMS and students’ self-efficacy specific to using LMS in their studies on student LMS acceptance and use. The theoretical framework of the study is based on the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), into which perceived functionality and LMS self-efficacy were incorporated as external variables. A web-based questionnaire was administered to students in a private higher education institution in Auckland, New Zealand. These responses were analyzed using Pearson’s correlation and linear regression. The results indicated that perceived functionality significantly influenced perceived usefulness. Similarly, it was found that LMS self-efficacy significantly influenced perceived ease of use. However, no evidence was found that attitudes towards using LMS predicted behavioural intention to use.
... In education filed, blended learning is known as a mixture of face-to-face and online learning methods and technologies (Motteram & Sharma, 2009;Poon, 2013;Singh, 2003). According to Koh, Herring, and Hew (2010), blended learning is described as a type of learning which removes physical and time limitations while providing high quality interaction between teachers and students. ...
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Learning is one of the most human characteristics and with the increase in human knowledge; the need for more studies in learning becomes more prominent. Blended learning is a mixture of face-to-face and non-face to face (electronic) instruction. This approach aims to use various resources and tools such as multimedia software, simulation, conferences, DVDs, books, homework, virtual classrooms, internet labs, groups and forums to help students in better learning. Today, electronic learning is starting to replace the traditional learning methods. On the other hand, many studies show that electronic learning has several disadvantages and can't replace to the traditional learning methods. Therefore despite of the advantages and limitations of both methods, educational experts have attempted to combine these two methods; believing that blended instruction can be an effective solution. This novel educational approach attempts to use various tools and resources for better learning. In order to support the necessary infrastructures for blended electronic learning approach, it is necessary to use information and communication technology tools. This requires policy-making, legislation and regulations in order to facilitate the participation of faculty members in educational planning and improving the physical environment of universities.
... In his study, he inferred that teachers and learners recognize e-learning as autonomous, providing more insight and personal responsibility. E-learning, additionally, accommodates teachers to develop student-oriented learning (Poon 2013). Soliman (2014) did e-learning research in English as a Foreign Language (EFL) for the advancement of language skills and self-learning for EFL students, pointing that e-learning is an effective way to correlate to classroom teachings in the EFL. ...
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To accommodate wider participants, the first International Conference on Languages and Arts across Cultures (ICLAAC) is launched to invite participants whose research interests range from language teaching, linguistics, design, and arts. ICLAAC is the sequel of ICEAC (International Conference of English across Cultures). As the research interest grew broader, this ICEAC was considered unable to accommodate participants beyond linguistics and language teaching within the field of humanity. The Faculty of Languages and Arts, Universitas Pendidikan Ganesha, as the host, therefore decided to widen the ICEAC mission on research dissemination by rebranding the conference name, ICLAAC.
... Last but not least, it has the potential to save money and resources. (Poon, 2013). ...
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Asian Journal of Organic & Medicinal Chemistry
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From the online learning experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic, the higher educational institutions of Bangladesh are considering integrating online education into traditional face-to-face learning. Research showed several challenges in implementing blended learning strategies, including having limited resources. This chapter explores how the administrators and teachers at the higher education institutes of Bangladesh could start blended learning with limited resources. The administrators and teachers of two universities in Bangladesh, who were directly involved in the decision-making process, were interviewed. The findings showed that while the administrators and teachers were willing to start blended learning, there were several challenges due to the limited resources aligned with the problems of online education. Administrators and teachers considered blended education as a way to respond to an education disruption caused by emergencies such as natural disasters, political unrest, and pandemics. This chapter provides some recommendations.
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The paper presents initiative of making a diagnosis of the situation in education during pandemic time and the fruits of if which are the diagnostic picture of the environmental needs and projects of changes in education in a local environment – one of the parishes in the Silesia district. The paper describes the process of the realization of social engaged scientific research in a local environment, which is based on the influence of specific trauma for the readiness to undertake scientific reflection on the situation in education and the needs in this area but also based on the willingness of making changes in the reality of the local education. So, the article is an attempt to present possibilities to use difficult experiences of the online education forced by the pandemic reality for making constructive changes in a local context. It presents tendencies and phenomena of changes that can be observed in many local environments and educational institutions as positive consequences of the difficult situation of the pandemic education. Moreover, it is an attempt of presenting a good example of the partner collabora- tion social-local and scientific environments, directed for changing the environment and the reality of the education into the ones that are the better contexts of individual and over individual development. So it may be said that the paper is a narration about the possibility of social influence of researchers, about socially engaged research. The paper presents the both the beginnings, the process and some results of the diagnosis but also worked out in a dialog with local authorities recommendations and proposals of changes.
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In the construction and validation of the social media addiction scale, adequate care was taken to ensure its construction purpose. While this scale is built from the responses of B.Ed. students, due to its general nature, the investigator strongly believes that it can be used for other college students and higher secondary students. This instrument will be of great benefit not only to researchers, but also to teachers, professors, counsellors, and parents to understand their children’s level of social media addiction. Although the scale is constructed and validated properly, it also has some limitations. The scale is validated on Indian students especially from the southern part of India. Therefore, the scale needs to be validated in other parts of the country and also in other cultural contexts. In future research, it will add more contributions to the literature to apply this scale to other demographics and to carry out a correlation study of this social media addiction scale with other social network addiction scales.
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In recent years, an unprecedented educational trend rose to popularity, which was a mainly the consequence of the pandemic and its effects throughout every aspect of human life. The upsurge in Covid-19 cases was marked as the greatest malady of the educational sector, which forced the academic institutions across the globe to veer away from the traditional, face-to-face classroom instruction and shift towards the internet-based distance education, regardless of the readiness of both the learners and the instructors alike to adapt to the new learning modality. More than a year has elapsed since the emergence of the pandemic, yet the online learning experiences of Filipino pre-service teachers remains largely a mystery. This study attempts to investigate and understand the learning experiences of 91 Filipino pre-service teachers, particularly those who majored in the English language, with the use of the College Student Learning Experience Survey (CSLES), which is an online survey developed by Zhang and Zhou (2021). The results revealed that the pre-service teachers were able to have positive learning experiences in their online classes. This is evident in the high level of learning satisfaction of the respondents, as well as their positive view of their learning communities and perceived student support. Despite these, it was also reported that majority of the prospective teachers experienced symptoms of anxiety and depression in their online classes. Moreover, internet connectivity issues, power outages and poor learning environment were listed as major concerns or challenges that the prospective teachers endured in their virtual class sessions. Finally, a relationship between the universities in which the respondents were enrolled in and their perceived student support and learning satisfaction was also found. The year level of the respondents was also found to have a significant effect on their overall learning process and perception of learning community.
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This study examined various teaching strategies using Blended Learning in teaching 21st Century Literature of the Philippines and the World (21st CLPW) in the university, assessed various challenges that teachers encountered using Blended Learning in teaching the subject, identified the significant difference in the extent of the use of Blended Learning in teaching 21st CLPW according to their profile, and recognized the significant relationship between the strategies and the profile of the teacher-respondents. The study employed a mix method of quantitative and qualitative research approaches. The researcher utilized a researcher-made questionnaire to identify teachers using Blended Learning to teach 21st CLPW among Grade 12 students in a university. Data gathering was administered via Google form, and interpretated using mean, standard deviation, Kruskal-Wallis H Test, and Chi-square Test of Independence. Results revealed that most of the teacher-respondents are young adults who are Bachelor's Degree holders, have been teaching for five years or less, and the most common seminars and pieces of training they have attended were school-based. Challenges Encountered obtained an overall mean of 3.12 and a standard deviation of 0.47, which is interpreted as Agree. This means that challenges in using Blended Learning in teaching 21st CLPW is inevitable.
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This paper introduces work on a major ongoing research project being carried out collaboratively between Edinburgh, Durham and Coventry Universities in Britain. The main concepts and conceptual frameworks being used in the project are introduced, along with a brief summary of a literature review used to define the most salient aspects of teachinglearning environments in higher education. The remainder of the paper describes the development and initial analyses of two questionnaires completed by students. The first of these – the Learning and Studying Questionnaire – given towards the beginning of a course unit, covers students’ learning orientations and their reasons for studying that unit, and also contains an inventory assessing typical approaches to learning and studying. The second questionnaire, the Experiences of Teaching and Learning Questionnaire, completed towards the end of the unit, contains a short version of the inventory but focused specifically on the unit being studied. The main section of this questionnaire concerns students’ perceptions of the teachinglearning environment. It also asks about the demands made by the unit, and what students believe they have learned from it. Finally, students are asked to rate their academic progress; assessment grades are being subsequently collected from the institutions involved. Analyses of the initial data sets obtained have identified the main factors within the items concerned with students’ perceptions of teaching-learning environments and indicate the relationships that exist between these and their reported approaches to studying.
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Among the many studies focusing on the effect of learner and instructional variables on learning outcomes, few studies have investigated the effect of these variables and their mediating mechanisms influencing students' learning within a blended learning environment. This study examined the influence of instructional and learner variables on learning outcomes for a blended instruction course offered for undergraduate students. Data analysis indicated that age, prior experiences with distance learning opportunities, preference in delivery format, and average study time are those learner antecedents differentiating learning outcomes among groups of college students. From a regression analysis, the influence of learner, instructional, and motivational variables on learning outcomes found to be consolidated around one variable in learning application. © International Forum of Educational Technology & Society (IFETS).
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This paper summarises the findings from an e-learning scoping survey carried out between October 2007 and spring 2008. The survey was funded as part of the Higher Education Academy/JISC Distributed e-Learning Programme and was co-ordinated by C-SAP. This paper describes in brief the methodology used and principal findings from the research. Notably, use of e-learning was predicated on the VLE (virtual learning environment) or other institutional system, and in most cases this was supported locally within institutions. There was an awareness of other web tools that could be employed for pedagogical use, but only modest interest in using such tools. Factors influencing the creation and sharing of digital learning materials were centred on copyright, incentive and reward. In general, academic staff were keen to make resources available for re-use; however, concerns were expressed about the level of quality needed in order to offer materials openly, and the difficulties of repurposing bespoke work. Attitudes to curriculum development and pedagogy suggested that the use of e-learning could offer significant advantages when working with groups of students. The survey also elicited views on the nature of personalisation and assumptions about the expectations of students as learners.
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Although the term ‘blended learning’ is widely used, this article argues against it. Two arguments are advanced. The first is primarily philosophical, although it has several pragmatic implications. It proposes that ‘blending’ either relies on the idea of dichotomies which are suspect within the context of learning with technology or else becomes ineffective as a discriminating concept and is thus without purpose. The implication of this is that the term ‘blended’ should either be abandoned or, at the least, radically reconceived. The second argument proposes that learning, from the perspective of the learner, is rarely, if ever, the subject of blended learning. What is actually being addressed are forms of instruction, teaching, or at best, pedagogies. The implication of this is that the term ‘learning’ should be abandoned. The second half of the article attempts to redeem the concept of blended learning by arguing that learning gains attributed to blended learning may have their explanation in variation theory. It offers a new way to conceptualise what is being ‘blended’ that is theoretically coherent, philosophically defensible and pragmatically informative. The article concludes by setting an agenda for further work in this area.
Technical Report
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The review report addresses the current meanings of 'blended learning' across the sector. A team of researchers from the Oxford Centre for Staff and Learning Development (OCSLD) has completed a review of the UK literature and practice relating to the undergraduate experience of blended learning. The study aimed to review existing research and practice on blended e-learning, identify key studies and issues, and make recommendations to guide future policy and practice. The review team combined traditional desk research, with institutional visits and interviews with key personnel. The review report addresses the current meanings of 'blended learning' across the sector, the underlying institutional rationales for blended learning, the monitoring and evaluation strategies being adopted for ensuring and enhancing the quality of blended e-learning. The review has found that the student response to the provision of online information to supplement traditional teaching is overwhelmingly positive. It is clear from the uptake of this area of technology by institutions, the rise of the use of the term 'blended learning' and the number of evaluative studies identified in the review, that institutions and practitioners are attempting to engage with blended learning and are doing so successfully.
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The seven principles of good practice in undergraduate education (Chickering and Gamson, 1987) summarize what research has shown about how to improve student learning (e.g., more intensive faculty-student contact, active learning, high standards, frequent assessment). This article describes how widely available technologies can be used to use (and enhance) each of those seven principles.
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Purpose This paper seeks to propose a framework for higher education institutions facing the challenge of developing and deploying continuing professional development in the construction industry using a blended learning approach. The focus in on institutions that have not previously engaged in delivery of programmes using a combination of both traditional and distance learning formats. Design/methodology/approach Drawing on literature on the use of technology in the delivery of lifelong learning, a case analysis of a newly deployed blended learning programme is presented. Findings This paper illustrates that construction professionals undertaking blended learning programmes can engage with a range of ICT technologies and the integration of these technologies can make for an effective programme. Research limitations/implications The case study is limited by its small and potentially non‐representative sample and should be viewed as a first step in the formulation of a framework for deploying continuing professional development. Originality/value Professionals in the construction industry who wish to access lifelong learning opportunities face many challenges in trying to access programmes while continuing to meet work and personal commitments. A framework for educational providers to deliver blended lifelong learning in the construction industry based on the analysis of this initiative is put forward.
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Blended learning is a diverse and expanding area of design and inquiry that combines face-to-face and online modalities. As blended learning research matures, numerous voices enter the conversation. This study begins the search for the center of this emerging area of study by finding the most cited scholarship on blended learning. Using Harzing’s Publish or Perish software (http://www.harzing.com/pop.htm), we determined the most frequently cited books, book chapters, and articles on the subject of blended learning, as well as the journals in which these highly cited articles appeared. Through these findings we offer some conclusions about where the conversations about blended learning are happening, which scholars are at the forefront of these conversations, and other emerging trends in blended learning scholarship.
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to identify key themes within the blended learning literature and to develop a series of practical recommendations to facilitate the successful adaptation and implementation of a “blended approach to learning delivery”. Design/methodology/approach The literature was reviewed and informed a series of recommendations for organisations considering adopting or implementing blended approaches to teaching and training. Findings Several key themes centering on the importance of evaluation, skills training, pedagogy, human factors, technology and implementation were identified. The emerging themes informed a series of practical recommendations to assist organisations considering blended learning approaches. Findings highlight the current limitations in the evidence base. Practical implications The identified key themes and practical recommendations provide a useful assist to organisations considering adopting and implementing blended approaches to teaching and training. Originality/value The paper highlights key areas for development in the blended learning literature and at the organisational level.
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Purpose The purpose of this article is to highlight the factors that need to be considered when implementing a blended learning solution in a group environment. Design/methodology/approach The insights are based on the authors experience of delivering a blended learning module to successive cohorts of international Executive MBA candidates over a three year period. A range of post‐module evaluation mechanisms were utilized to collect quantitative and qualitative data and this was supported by face‐to‐face and online discussion with participants. In addition, the authors own reflections on the experience as faculty and e‐learning consultants has been taken account of in the interpretation of the results. Findings The importance of human behavioral factors over content and tool selection when implementing a blended learning solution cannot be ignored. The role of group dynamics in achieving the learning outcomes also needs to be considered, as does the perceived value of the approach to be taken by the participants. Findings relate to both the e‐learning experience and other learning methods experienced on the course, influenced partly by the students' expectations and preferences. Practical implications Key learning is shared with readers so that they can learn from the author's experiences such that anyone considering a blended learning approach in the future considers the three‐way partnership of the organization, the learner and the supplier. Originality/value This article will be of special interest to e‐learning developers or development specialists considering blended learning approaches as it draws their attention to the factors beyond the technological application itself which is where attention can become overly focused.
Book
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The purpose of the research program described here was to investigate college students' approaches to learning, and to determine the extent to which these reflected the effects of teaching and assessment demands rather than representing relatively stable characteristics of the individual learners. There were six main areas within the program: (1) the measurement of approaches to and styles of studying; (2) the exploration of the cognitive skills, cognitive styles, and personality characteristics underlying different approaches to studying; (3) the extension of Marton's work on reading academic articles; (4) the identification of students' perceptions of the academic 'climate' of departments; (5) the use of interviews to investigate students' strategies in carrying out particular types of academic task; and (6) an investigation of how contrasting academic contexts appear to affect the approaches to studying adopted by students in those departments. Details of each of these areas of research are presented. (BW)
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Any survey of research about Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in learning reveals a contested field. There is recognition of the enabling role of technology amidst enthusiastic calls for its widespread adoption, and there are sceptical responses to its implementation. However, little research exists regarding the impact of ICT on the achievement of student outcomes in specific undergraduate courses, particularly how student utilisation of varying modes within blended provision relates to their achievement of course outcomes.It was the purpose of this comprehensive study involving 72 final-year undergraduate teacher education students to understand the relationship of access mode within blended provision to student attitude and outcome in a specific situation. Findings reveal that ICT access formats by themselves are of limited benefit in achieving course outcomes. Indeed, in some instances, ICT modes can be seen to negatively affect student performance due to some misplaced confidence in the media that provides the material. The challenge then becomes one of designating the inter-acting roles of varying access modes in order to try to maximise outcomes, and this paper offers several possible strategies.The implications of this study are significant because of the failure of designated modes of access to achieve the expected outcomes in a senior undergraduate course. The study also provides some insight into the complexities of the blending process in attempting to incorporate new technology into current teaching situations, and in trying to identify practical directions to take in advancing the process of technological teaching.
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Many advocates of computer-mediated distance education emphasize its positive aspects and understate the kinds of communicative and technical capabilities and work required by students and faculty. There are few systematic analytical studies of students who have experienced new technologies in higher education. This article presents a qualitative case study of a small graduate-level web-based distance education course at a major US university.This paper examines students' distressing experiences due to communication breakdowns and technical difficulties. This topic is glossed over in much of the distance education literature written for administrators, instructors and prospective students. The intent is that this study will enhance understanding of the instructional design issues, instructor and student preparation, and communication practices that are needed to improve web-based distance education courses.
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The aim of the project was to improve student success rates in learning to program. The project team introduced a number of changes in module organization, tutorial support and online resources. The blend represents a mixture of traditional and novel elements, with the novel elements more marked in the online developments. More than 600 students in two higher education institutions used the new blended learning environment. The results showed marked improvements in pass rates in both institutions. Detailed evaluation was conducted on students' use of the new environment. The results indicate a generally positive evaluation of the main elements of the blend, and widespread use of the new online features.
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In this article, the implications of constructivism for instructional systems design (ISD) are summarized as five principles that integrate the affective and cognitive domains of learning. In contrast to current views, it is suggested that constructivist philosophy offers instructional designers an alternative set of values that may significantly influence the emphasis of ISD methods without undermining the coherence and consistency of the ISD model. Distinguishing characteristics of the two approaches are described, based on a review of recent literature. The article concludes with the assertion that the influence of constructivist philosophy on ISD should be to focus attention on critical enabling objectives traditionally overlooked by instructional designers.
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The relationship between university students' perceptions of their academic environment, their approaches to study, and academic outcomes was investigated at both university and faculty levels. The responses of a large, cross-disciplinary sample of undergraduate students were analysed using higher order path and regression analyses, and the results confirmed students' perceptions as influencing both 'hard' (academic achievement) and 'soft' (satisfaction, development of key skills) learning outcomes, both directly and mediated through their approaches to study. Perceptions of heavy workload and inappropriate assessment influenced students towards surface, and perceptions of good teaching towards deep, approaches to study. Students' perceptions of their current learning environment were a stronger predictor of learning outcomes at university than prior achievement at school. Protocols are proposed to guide more fine-grained analysis of students' perceptions.
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The purpose of this paper is to provide a discussion of the transformative potential of blended learning in the context of the challenges facing higher education. Based upon a description of blended learning, its potential to support deep and meaningful learning is discussed. From here, a shift to the need to rethink and restructure the learning experience occurs and its transformative potential is analyzed. Finally, administrative and leadership issues are addressed and the outline of an action plan to implement blended learning approaches is presented. The conclusion is that blended learning is consistent with the values of traditional higher education institutions and has the proven potential to enhance both the effectiveness and efficiency of meaningful learning experiences.
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The paper reviews representative research into blended learning in universities, taking into account the methodology used, the focus of the research and the relationship between the two. In terms of methodology, most research was classifiable as case-studies, survey-based studies or comparative studies. A small number of studies take a comparatively more holistic approach and one of the outcomes from this review is a recommendation for more holistic studies to be undertaken. In the studies reviewed, the focus of the research is often related to the degree of methodological complexity. That is, less methodologically elaborated studies tend to have a more specific focus, while the studies employing a more complex methodology tend to report more varied aspects of the students' learning experience. It is argued that educationally useful research on blended learning needs to focus on the relationships between different modes of learning (for example, face-to-face and on-line) and especially on the nature of their integration. In particular, such research needs to generate usable evidence about the quality of the students' learning experiences and learning outcomes. In turn, this demands appropriately powerful methodologies, rooted in a firm theoretical foundation.
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This project draws on a large body of seminal research showing that the approaches students take to learning, and the subsequent quality of their learning, is closely related to their perceptions of their learning experience. Recent research has demonstrated these findings also hold for non-standard modes of delivery such as distance education using on-line strategies. However, there is currently little research about how predominately campus-based students' experiences of the on-line part of their course are associated with their experience of the course as a whole. The present study extends previous research into the domain of blended learning, by exploring the relations between student perceptions of the e-Learning environment, approaches to study, and student grades.
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The approaches used for teaching and learning have been shown to play a significant role in students' learning and engagement. Lizzio et. al. (2002) stated that 'positive perceptions of the teaching environment not only directly influence academic achievement but also, importantly, qualitative learning outcome' (p.43). Blended learning is a widely used teaching and learning approach in built environment courses, e.g. the MSc in Real Estate Investment and Management offered jointly by Nottingham Trent University and Sheffield Hallam University, and offered at locations in Central and Eastern Europe. Banks (2001) has conducted an academic study evaluating the use of Blackboard to deliver a MSc module, 'Rural Sustainability', at Cardiff University. The aim of this paper is to identify the critical factors involved in the development of a successful blended learning teaching method for built environment courses, particularly Royal Institution Chartered Surveyors (RICS) and Chartered Institute of Building (CIOB) accredited courses. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews, comprising eight academics from four UK universities which have a good reputation for the use of blended learning. Their views on the key factors for the use of blended learning were gathered. The critical factors that are needed to ensure the successful implementation of blended learning are design for blended learning, resources of blended learning and suitability of blended learning for the course. The interviewees also discussed the challenges for blended learning development and made recommendations for colleagues who are interested in the development of blended learning.
Book
This groundbreaking book offers a down-to-earth resource for the practical application of blended learning in higher education as well as a comprehensive examination of the topic. Well-grounded in research, Blended Learning in Higher Education clearly demonstrates how the blended learning approach embraces the traditional values of face-to-face teaching and integrates the best practices of online learning. This approach has proven to both enhance and expand the effectiveness and efficiency of teaching and learning in higher education across disciplines. In this much-needed book, authors D. Randy Garrison and Norman D. Vaughan present the foundational research, theoretical framework, scenarios, principles, and practical guidelines for the redesign and transformation of the higher education curriculum. Blended Learning in Higher Education. Outlines seven blended learning redesign principles. Explains the professional development issues essential to the implementation of blended learning designs. Presents six illustrative scenarios of blended learning design. Contains practical guidelines to blended learning redesign. Describes techniques and tools for engaging students.
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Introduction The first generation of e-learning or Web-based learning programs focused on presenting physical classroom-based instructional content over the Internet. Furthermore, first-generation e-learning (digitally delivered learning) programs tended to be a repetition or compilation of online versions of classroom-based courses. The experience gained from the first-generation of e-learning, often riddled with long sequences of 'page-turner' content and point-and-click quizzes, is giving rise to the realization that a single mode of instructional delivery may not provide sufficient choices, engagement, social contact, relevance, and context needed to facilitate successful learning and performance. In the second wave of e-learning, increasing numbers of learning designers are experimenting with blended learning models that combine various delivery modes. Anecdotal evidence indicates that blended learning not only offers more choices but also is more effective. November -December 2003 Issue of Educational Technology, Volume 43, Number 6, Pages 51-54. This article has two objectives: 1. To provide a comprehensive view of blended learning and discuss possible dimensions and ingredients (learning delivery methods) of blended learning programs. 2. To provide a model to create the appropriate blend by ensuring that each ingredient, individually and collectively, adds to a meaningful learning experience. Badrul Khan's blended e-learning framework, referred to here as Khan's Octagonal Framework (see Figure 1) enables one to select appropriate ingredients (http://BooksToRead.com/framework). Khan's framework serves as a guide to plan, develop, deliver, manage, and evaluate blended learning programs. Organizations exploring strategies for effective learning and performance have to consider a variety of issues to ensure effective delivery of learning and thus a high return on investment. Figure 1. Khan's Octagonal Framework.
Book
Part 1: Learning and Teaching in Higher Education 1.Introduction 2.Ways if Understanding Teaching 3.What Students Learn 4.Approaches to Learning 5.Learning form the Student's Perspective 6.The Nature of Good Teaching in Higher Education 7.Theories of Teaching in Higher Education Part 2: Design for Learning 8.The Goals and Structure of a Course 9.Tecahing Strategies for Effective Learning 10.Assessing for Understanding Part 3: Evaluating and Improving the Quality of Teaching and Learning 11.Evaluating the Quality of Higher Education 12.What Does it Take to Improve Teaching?
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This article explores the benefits and challenges of blended learning in higher education from the perspective of students, faculty, and administration that have had direct experience with this form of course delivery. Students indicate that a blended learning model provides them with greater time flexibility and improved learning outcomes but that initially they encounter issues around time management, taking greater responsibility for their own learning, and using sophisticated technologies. Faculty suggest that blended courses create enhanced opportunities for teacher-student interaction, increased student engagement in learning, added flexibility in the teaching and learning environment, and opportunities for continuous improvement. They state that the challenges faced in developing such a course include a lack of time, support and resources for course redesign, acquiring new teaching and technology skills, plus the risks associated with delivering a course in a blended format. From an administrative perspective, blended learning presents the opportunity to enhance an institution's reputation, expand access to an institution's educational offerings, and reduce operating costs. The challenges consist of aligning blended learning with institutional goals and priorities, resistance to organizational change and lack of organizational structure and experience with collaboration and partnerships.
Article
Abstract Chinese classrooms, whether on school grounds or online, have long suffered from a lack of interactivity. Many online classes simply provide recorded instructor lectures, which only reinforces the negative effects of passive nonparticipatory learning. At Shanghai Jiaotong University, researchers and developers actively seek technologic interventions that can greatly increase interactivity in large blended classes. They developed a cutting-edge mobile learning system that can deliver live broadcasts of real-time classroom teaching to students with mobile devices. Their system allows students to customise means of content-reception based on when and where they tune into the broadcast. The system also supports short text messaging and instant polls. Through these venues, students can ask questions and make suggestions in real time, and the instructor can address them immediately. This article describes this system in detail, and also reports results from a formal implementation of the system in a blended English classroom of 1000 students (with about 800 being online). As the data reveal, m-learning activities can much better engage students in the learning process. Students in this class changed from passive learners to truly engaged learners who are behaviourally, intellectually and emotionally involved in their learning tasks.
Article
Blended learning is any combined use of electronic learning tools that supplement but do not replace face-to-face learning. This article is about how two researchers are trying to comfortably and logically place blended learning somewhere in the middle of two extremes—traditional classroom at one end and fully online distance learning at the other end. Twenty-two faculty and 38 students at the State University of New York Institute of Technology (SUNYIT) responded to a survey on perceptions held about blended learning. Responses from faculty revealed enrollment as a major factor in the increased use of this course design; quality of assignments and course grades that are as good or better; and courses that are producing improved writing and discussions. While the design is easy to use, faculty reported more work on their part and some loss of traditional classroom dynamics. Students reported flexibility, convenience, and independence as advantages, along with confusion, reduced social interaction, and more work as disadvantages. However, there appears to be a net economic gain for students as tuition and financial aid remain unchanged while expenditure in time and travel are reduced. Course management technology and course design recommendations are provided for faculty consideration. The boundaries between traditional classroom instruction and fully online distance learning are blurring. As course design moves more toward a fully online look-alike, expectations for a smoothly operating course will be higher for both faculty and students.
Article
As employees become more globally and technically savvy, it is inevitable that e-learning finds its way into the practice of intercultural training. After a decade of providing customized face-to-face intercultural training, Cendant Mobility’s intercultural experts are responding to the changing profile of the global workforce. Together with their e-learning partner, Mentergy, they embarked upon a journey toward developing a blended learning solution that is designed to unlock the potential of e-learning, while maintaining their commitment to genuinely impactful skill-based intercultural training. The focus of this article is on challenges and lessons learned which include: maintaining cultural appropriateness; technological accessibility; training trainers for this new modality; and attaining user acceptance for a global rollout of a blended e-learning intercultural training program.
Article
Flexibility, variety and adaptability is the name of the game in terms of attracting, retaining and motivating learners. Faced with a mind-boggling choice of multi-media solutions, training and human resources specialists are realising it is all down to finding the right blend and making sure it is well prepared. As the over-riding aim of a blended learning training programme is to meet the training requirements of both individual learner and company, it is vital to ensure that the different learning media are employed appropriately and in the right mix. In order to benefit from a learning programme that will act as a strategic business resource, companies must invest in a blend created specially for them, their culture, their business objectives and their workforce.
Article
Purpose This paper proposes to illustrate how organisations can successfully establish a blended learning environment. Design/methodology/approach Provides a structure for combining formal and informal learning resources within a blended learning model and outlines the eight key steps followed by organisations already implementing a successful integrated learning strategy. Draws on pedagogical information provided by Dorman Woodall, director of SkillSoft Learning, and includes data gathered from a variety of SkillSoft's Fortune 500 customers. Findings Many organisations now recognise that on‐demand solution finding is a primary source of employees' daily learning and are searching for ways to support this informal learning in tandem with their more formalised training programmes. Since both methods are essential to increasing workplace skills, tremendous strategic and tactical performance gains are available from this blending of formal training with informal learning. The ideal blended learning model is one that integrates a wide range of functions that empower learners with more control to participate in several formal and informal learning activities. The highest level of blended learning is an easily‐accessible and searchable combination of formal and informal learning with a learner‐centric focus. Practical implications Outlines an overall structure for implementing sequential formal training events and random informal blended learning activities. Originality/value Provides a blueprint for anyone seeking to introduce a blended learning strategy.
Article
This discussion of blended learning environments covers: (1) background; (2) why the term "blended" is used, and what can be blended; (3) goals of blended learning environments, including pedagogical richness, access to knowledge, social interaction, personal agency, cost effectiveness, and ease of revision; and (4) characteristics of five case studies. (MES)
Article
Describes an attempt to identify different levels of processing of information among groups of Swedish university students who were asked to read substantial passages of prose. Ss were asked questions about the meaning of the passages and also about how they set about reading the passages, thus allowing for the examination of processes and strategies of learning and the outcomes in terms of what is understood and remembered. It was posited that learning has to be described in terms of its content. From this point differences in what is learned, rather than differences in how much is learned, are described. It was found that in each study a number of categories (levels of outcome) containing basically different conceptions of the content of the learning task could be identified. The corresponding differences in level of processing are described in terms of whether the learner is engaged in surface-level or deep-level processing. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Two groups of 20 first-year students were asked to read three sections of a textbook. After the first two sections the groups received different types of question. One group received questions which demanded a thorough understanding of the meaning of the passage. The other group was given detailed factual questions. After the final section of reading a common set of questions of both types was asked. Besides providing further evidence of qualitative differences in learning, the experiment showed that students did adapt their way of learning to their conception of what was required of them.
Article
This paper discusses the harmonizing role of technology and interaction in a qualitative study on blended problem-based learning within the context of academic development in higher education. Within this setting, and as both designers and tutors in blended PBL, it is important to seek best practices for how to combine instructional strategies in face-to-face and computer-mediated environments that take advantage of the strengths of each and avoid their weaknesses. A qualitative study of the lived experiences of 17 academic staff participants in a blended problem-based learning module was considered likely to provide a much-needed analysis of current thinking and practice on the potential of interaction in this form of professional academic development in higher education. Specific aspects of interaction (technical, peer, content and the learning experience) within blended problem-based learning tutorials are analysed to provides research-based information about the realities of delivering a PBL programme using technology. The study argues that the intersection of PBL and learning technologies can offer different ways of teaching and learning that require exploration and reflection of pedagogy and technology as in integrated approach that must work effectively together. The synergy from the collaborative blended PBL approach in this module could result in the coherent and comprehensive provision of training, support and research work throughout higher education institutions.
Article
This study synthesized the findings of three program evaluations of teacher blended professional development programs from the perspective of situated design and implementation, development of community, changes in teacher practice, and impact on students. We found that the blended programs were effective in providing teachers with an opportunity for learning on the job and collaborating with other teachers, and they influenced teacher classroom practice moderately and affected student learning to a limited extent. Our study supports the contention that blended learning is a viable model for teacher professional development.
Article
The rapid pace of technological innovation, along with the global fascination with the Internet, continue to result in a dominating call to integrate Internet technologies into higher education. As this practice has evolved in recent years, the field has learned much. However, pressing questions remain as to how online and hybrid (online and face-to-face) classes may support quality and success in professional development, teacher education, and professional schools' programs. This paper presents case study research that explores the dynamics and experience offered for a professor and learners participating in a hybrid-modeled classroom in teacher education. The conceptual discussion includes potentials and limitations to be considered in further dialogue, development, and research in this area.