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International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE
& Health
17(4): 1-8, 2016, Article no.IJTDH.27084
ISSN: 2278–1005, NLM ID: 101632866
SCIENCEDOMAIN international
Prevalence of Human Taeniasis in Odeda Area of
Ogun State, Nigeria
H. O. Mogaji
, A. A. Adeniran
, M. T. Fagbenro
, D. B. Olabinke
E. M. Abe
and U. F. Ekpo
Department of Pure and Applied Zoology, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria.
National Institute of Parasitic Disease and Control, China Centre for Disease Control, P.R. China.
Authors’ contributions
This work was carried out in collaboration between all authors. Authors HOM and UFE conceptualized
the study and wrote the protocol. Field works and laboratory analysis were carried out by authors
HOM, AAA, MTF and DBO. Authors MTF, HOM and EMA did the statistical analysis and literature
searches while author MTF wrote the first draft of the manuscript. All authors contributed to the final
draft and approved its submission.
Article Information
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/27084
Shankar Srinivasan, Department of Health Informatics, University of Medicine & Dentistry of New Jersey, USA.
Verônica Santos Barbosa, Centro de Pesquisas Aggeu Magalhães/ Fiocruz, Cidade Universitária,
50670-420 Recife, PE, Brazil.
Luis Enrique Jerez Puebla, "Pedro Kouri" Institute, Cuba.
Complete Peer review History:
Received 18
May 2016
Accepted 18
June 2016
Published 2
July 2016
This study investigated the prevalence of taeniasis among school-aged children in Odeda area of
Ogun state, Nigeria. Four hundred and twenty-eight school-aged children were recruited and
demographic information were obtained using a simple questionnaire. Faecal samples were also
collected, processed using ether concentration method and examined for ova/proglottids of Taenia
spp under a light microscope. Data obtained were analysed using IBM SPSS 20.0 statistical
software. Of the 428 (100%) children, 226 (52.8%) were females and 202 (47.2%) were males. By
age category, 238 (55.6%) of the children were within age category 11-15 years, while 190 (44.4%)
belonged to the younger age category (5-10 years). Children who were from a christian family 236
(55.1%) were more in numbers compared to children 192 (44.9%) from an islamic parental
background, and majority of the children recruited into the study had parents who can read and
write. An overall prevalence of 175 (40.9%) was recorded for taeniasis. Although significant
difference donot exist (P>0.05) between Taenia spp infection and demographic variables, the
Original Research Article
Mogaji et al.; IJTDH, 17(4): 1-8, 2016; Article no.IJTDH.27084
overall prevalence reported portrays a serious public health problem that requires urgent attention.
There is thus a need for more full-scale investigation of Taenia spp prevalence in Nigeria, in the
phase of planning for appropriate prevention and control strategy.
Keywords: Taeniasis; children; prevalence; Odeda; Nigeria.
Taeniasis is a neglected zoonotic disease
caused by segmented parasitic tapeworms
belonging to family Taeniidae, and subclass
Cestoda. Certain identified Taenia spp. includes
Taenia solium, Taenia saginata, Taenia
crassiceps, Taenia ovis, Taenia taeniaeformis,
Taenia hydatigena, Taenia multiceps, Taenia
serialis, Taenia asiatica, and Taenia brauni [1].
Taenia saginata (T. saginata) and Taenia solium
(T. solium) are the most common parasitic
tapeworm, with wide distribution in Latin
America, Southeast Asia and Africa [1,2,3].
T. saginata and T. solium have an indirect life
cycle, cycling between a definitive and an
intermediate host, and are prevalent in areas
where poverty, poor sanitation and intimate
contact between human and livestock, most
especially pigs is common [4,5,6]. Humans
acquires infection when they consume raw or
minimally cooked infected beef (in case of
T. saginata), or infected pork (in case of T.
solium), and they serve as the definitive host for
both and intermediate host for T. solium [7].
Although infection with adult T. saginata /
T. solium (a condition referred to as taeniasis)
are asymptomatic, infected children could
present mild symptoms such as abdominal pain,
diarrhea, constipation, nausea, decreased or
increased appetite, and weight loss [1]. However,
infection with the larva of T. solium (a condition
referred to as cysticercosis) is symptomatic, with
symptoms varying with the location and number
of larvae. Most symptoms are result of either
inflammation during larval degeneration or a
mass effect from the parasite. Common
symptoms include chronic headaches, seizures,
nausea, vomiting, vertigo, ataxia, confusion or
other changes in mental status, behavioral
abnormalities, progressive dementia, and focal
neurologic signs [1]. The most serious form of
cysticercosis is neurocysticercosis which occurs
as a result of events such as blockage of the
cerebrospinal fluid by a floating larva [8]. The
proportion of neurocysticercosis among people
with epilepsy has been found to be more than
29% in endemic countries [9].
In Nigeria, prevalence of human taeniasis have
been little investigated as compared to other
protozoan and helminths parasites such as
Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura,
hookworm, Entamoeba spp among others
[10,11]. Few epidemiological studies within the
country have reported the prevalence of
taeniasis among their subjects [12,13,14].
Nevertheless, taeniasis prevalence and intensity
data in human populations are needed as the
disease is becoming increasingly recognized as
a serious and emerging threat of public health
concern [2]. This study therefore investigated the
prevalence and intensity of taeniasis in some
rural communities in Odeda area of Ogun state,
2.1 Study Area
This study was carried out in Odeda local
government area (LGA) of Ogun State, South
Western Nigeria. Odeda LGA is one of the
twenty LGA in Ogun state. The area is located
within longitude 2°45¹00E and 3°55¹00 E and
latitude 01¹00 N and 18¹00N, with a
projected population of 137,377 in 2014.
2.2 Study Design and Target Population
This study was cross-sectional in design,
involving eight communities across the LGA. A
public primary school in each of the community
was randomly selected, and used as a sampling
point (Table 1). School-aged children resident in
the community and attending the school were
recruited as study participants.
2.3 Ethics Statement
Ethics clearance was received from Federal
University of Agriculture, Abeokuta ethics review
board and Department of Public Health and
Disease control, Ogun state Ministry of health.
Field permits were also obtained from Ogun state
Ministry of Education, Science and Technology
and Zonal Education Officer of Odeda local
government area (LGA). Informed consent was
given by parents and guardians of selected
Mogaji et al.; IJTDH, 17(4): 1-8, 2016; Article no.IJTDH.27084
Table 1. List of rural communities surveyed in Odeda area of Ogun State
Schools located at centre of
the community
school-aged children
1 Osiele St. Mary primary school Osiele 628 43
2 Aaya Community primary school Aaya
196 40
3 Obantoko OLG primary school Obantoko 915 51
4 Orile Ilugun St. James primary school Orile 492 61
5 Alabata OLG primary school Alabata 425 55
6 Ijemo Fadipe St. Anthony primary school
Ijemo 245 58
7 Obete Akanbi Baptist Day primary school
Obete 138 64
8 Olugbo St. Saviours primary school
Olugbo 444 56
Total 3483 428
children and children whose parents consented
were invited to participate in the study. Children
assents were obtained verbally and documented
through a child assent form. Also, since the
study was undertaken during class time at
participating schools, authorizations from
schools’ headmasters were also sought in
advance and only schools with such
authorizations were approached for enrolment.
2.4 Sample Size Determination
Using the method of [15], the total number of
children attending the public primary schools
selected in each study community was used to
determine the required sample size for the study.
Considering a 95% confidence interval, an
average of 45 school-aged children was required
for the study per community from a total of 3483
enrolled school-aged children (Table 1).
2.5 Data and Stool Sample Collection
Children's general demographics (name, date of
birth, sex of the child and literacy of parents)
were obtained using a well structured
questionnaire. A single faecal sample was
collected from each child and taken to the
Parasitology unit laboratory of the Department of
Pure and Applied Zoology, Federal University of
Agriculture Abeokuta within two hours of
collection for preparation and analysis using
Sodium acetate acetic acid formalin
concentration method (SAF-Ether). Two slides
each of one gram of stool was prepared
accordingly and examined for ova or proglottids
of taenia spp. Taenia eggs or proglottids were
counted and the mean number of egg per one
gram (EPG) of stool were recorded to determine
infection intensities.
2.6 Statistical Analysis
Data obtained were entered by a researcher into
Microsoft office Excel spreadsheet 2007 and
verified for accuracy (compared with data in
questionnaires) by a different researcher. Data
were cleaned by checking for errors and missing
values. Statistical analyses were done using
IBM, SPSS Statistics version 20 (IBM. Somers,
NY). Descriptive statistics for continuous
variables and frequency (proportions) for
categorical variables were used to describe the
characteristics of the study population.
Prevalence and intensity calculations of taeniasis
were also made. Mean Egg per gram (EPG) of
Taenia spp found was computed following
logarithmic transformation of the raw EPG data.
Prevalence and intensity estimates were cross
tabulated with demographic data, and
associations were determined using Pearson Chi
square test. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was
used for comparing intensity estimates among
surveyed communities. Significances was set at
P 0.05.
3.1 Demographic Information of
Surveyed Children across Selected
Table 2 shows the demographic information of
surveyed children across the selected
communities. Of the 428 children recruited into
the study, 226(52.8%) were females and
Mogaji et al.; IJTDH, 17(4): 1-8, 2016; Article no.IJTDH.27084
202(47.2%) were males. By age category, 238
(55.6%) of the recruited children belonged to age
category 11-15 years, while 190 (44.4%)
belonged to the younger age category (5-10
years). Children who were from a christian family
were more in numbers in the study 236(55.1%)
compared to children 192(44.9%) from an islamic
parental background. In addition, majority of the
children recruited into the study had parents who
can read and write.
3.2 Prevalence of Taeniasis among
Surveyed Children across Selected
An overall prevalence of 40.9% was recorded for
taeniasis among the 428 children examined.
Infection was highest among residents of Olugbo
community 39(69.6%), followed by Obantoko
community 31(60.8%), Aaya community
23(57.5%) and least prevalence was recorded at
Alabata 5(9.1%). There exist significant
differences (P<0.05) in the prevalence of
taeniasis across the eight communities surveyed.
3.3 Prevalence of Taeniasis by
Demographic Variables among
Surveyed Children across Selected
Table 4 shows the prevalence of taeniasis by
demographic variables among the surveyed
children across selected communities. Of the 175
infected children, 91(52.0%) and 84(48.0%) were
male and females respectively. However there
exist no significant difference (P>0.05) in
infection by sex. Also, majority of the infected
children 95(54.3%), belonged to the older age
category (11-15 years) compared to their
younger counterparts (5-10 years), with no
significant differences (P>0.05). Children of
literate mothers and fathers also had taenia
infections more than those of illiterate parents,
although with no significant differences (P>0.05).
By religion, taenia infections were recorded more
among children that are Christians 95(54.3%),
compared to Islamic children 80 (45.7%),
however there was no significant difference
between both (P>0.05).
3.4 Intensity of Taeniasis among
Surveyed Children across Selected
An overall mean intensity of 0.3012±0.02008epg
was recorded for taeniasis during the study.
Olugbo community had the highest intensity for
taenia infections with 0.5491epg, followed by
Obantoko with 0.4559epg, Obete Akanbi with
0.4172epg, Aaya with 0.3604epg, Ijemo Fadipe
with 0.2420epg, Orile Ilugun with 0.2164epg,
Osiele with 0.0723epg and the least was
recorded in Alabata community with 0.0624epg.
Significant differences (P0.05) exists between
mean intensities for taenia infections across the
surveyed communities.
In most developing countries, livestock including
pigs and cows are of great economic value as
they serve as good source of protein, vitamins,
minerals and fat [16]. However, the role of this
livestock as an intermediate host in the
transmission of Taenia infections cannot be
ignored. Taeniasis have serious adverse health
implications in humans and as well reduces the
market value of pigs and cows, thus becoming
an infection of both public health and agricultural
importance [9].
Studies on human taeniasis are very limited in
Ogun State, Nigeria. To the best of our
knowledge, this is the first survey estimating the
prevalence of human taeniasis in Odeda area
and presumably other areas of Ogun State. An
overall prevalence of 40.9% was recorded. This
is substantially higher, compared to 8.40%, 9.6%
and 14.3% reported by Eke et al. [17], Weka
et al. [18] and Edia-Asuke et al. [19] in Nigeria.
This prevalence is also higher than those
reported in the studies of Kumar et al. [20] in
Himalayas and Prasad et al. [21] in India, with
prevalence rates of 30.3% and 38.0%
respectively. Provision of improperly cooked beef
and pork on exposed trays outside school
premises after learning hours and also within
communities by food vendors at night is a
common characteristic of most rural communities
in Nigeria [14]. Infections therefore could have
been acquired from consumption of this locally-
made available beef and/or pork, especially
when roasted, grilled or fried with minimal heat
The desire to consume half grilled or roasted
beef and pork is usually more pronounced in
males and this might be a probable reason why
they were more infected than females in our
study. This is in agreement with the findings
other similar studies [12,19,23-25], but in
contrast with that of Usip et al. [26] where
females were more infected than male subjects.
Mogaji et al.; IJTDH, 17(4): 1-8, 2016; Article no.IJTDH.27084
Table 2. Demographic information of surveyed children across selected communities
Orile Ilugun
Ijemo Fadipe
Obete Akanbi
NE (%)
NE (%)
Male 9(20.9) 19(47.5) 24(47.1) 25(41.0) 31(56.4) 31(53.4) 36(56.2) 27(48.2) 202(47.2)
Female 34(79.1) 21(52.5) 27(52.9) 36(59.0) 24(43.6) 27(46.6) 28(43.8) 29(51.8) 226(52.8)
Total 43(100) 40(100) 51(100) 61(100) 55(100) 58(100) 64(100) 56(100) 428(100)
5-10 9(20.9) 21(52.5) 17(33.3) 43(70.5) 21(38.2) 29(50.0) 29(45.3) 21(37.5) 190(44.4)
11-15 34(79.1) 19(47.5) 34(66.7) 18(29.5) 34(61.8) 29(50.0) 35(54.7) 35(62.5) 238(55.6)
Total 43(100) 40(100) 51(100) 61(100) 55(100) 58(100) 64(100) 56(100) 428(100)
Christainity 27(62.8) 23(57.5) 29(56.9) 44(72.1) 25(45.5) 37(63.8) 18(28.1) 33(58.9) 236(55.1)
Islam 16(37.2) 17(42.5) 22(43.1) 17(27.1) 30(54.5) 21(36.2) 46(71.9) 23(41.1) 192(44.9)
Total 43(100) 40(100) 51(100) 61(100) 55(100) 58(100) 64(100) 56(100) 428(100)
Yes 37(83.7) 31(77.5) 44(86.3) 35(57.4) 22(40.0) 50(86.2) 1(1.6) 49(87.5) 268(62.6)
No 7(16.3) 9(22.5) 7(13.7) 26(42.6) 33(60.0) 8(13.8) 63(98.6) 7(12.5) 160(37.4)
Total 43(100) 40(100) 51(100) 61(100) 55(100) 58(100) 64(100) 56(100) 428(100)
Yes 39(90.7) 30(75.0) 48(94.1) 41(67.2) 27(49.1) 52(89.7) 6(9.4) 52(92.9) 295(68.9)
No 4(9.3) 10(25.0) 3(5.9) 20(32.8) 28(50.1) 6(10.3) 58(90.6) 4(7.1) 133(31.1)
Total 43(100) 40(100) 51(100) 61(100) 55(100) 58(100) 64(100) 56(100) 428(100)
NE: Number Examined
Table 3. Prevalence of Taeniasis among surveyed children across selected communities
Communities surveyed
Osiele 43 8(18.6)
Aaya 40 23(57.5)
Obantoko 51 31(60.8)
Orile Ilugun 61 23(37.7)
Alabata 55 5(9.1)
Ijemo Fadipe 58 20(34.5)
Obete Akanbi 64 26(40.6)
Olugbo 56 39(69.6)
Total 428 175(40.9)
P value = 0.000
Mogaji et al.; IJTDH, 17(4): 1-8, 2016; Article no.IJTDH.27084
Table 4. Prevalence of Taeniasis by demographic variables among surveyed children across selected communities
NI (%)
NI (%)
NI (%)
Orile Ilugun
NI (%)
NI (%)
Ijemo Fadipe
NI (%)
Obete Akanbi
NI (%)
NI (%)
NI (%)
Male 1(12.5) 13(56.5) 17(54.8) 9(39.1) 4(80.0) 12(60.0) 14(53.8) 21(53.8) 91(52.0)
Female 7(87.5) 10(43.5) 14(45.2) 14(60.9) 1(20.0) 8(40.0) 12(46.2) 18(46.2) 84(48.0)
Total 8(100) 23(100) 31(100) 23(100) 5(100) 20(100) 26(100) 39(100) 175(100)
P value 0.701 0.184 0.166 0.819 0.264 0.468 0.748 0.201 0.098
5-10 3(37.5) 10(43.5) 14(45.2) 14(60.9) 1(20.0) 9(45.0) 13(50.0) 16(41.0) 80(45.7)
11-15 5(62.5) 13(56.5) 17(54.8) 9(39.1) 4(80.0) 11(55.0) 13(50.0) 23(59.0) 95(54.3)
Total 8(100) 23(100) 31(100) 23(100) 5(100) 20(100) 26(100) 39(100) 175(100)
P value 0.202 0.184 0.026** 0.200 0.380 0.581 0.533 0.409 0.647
Christainity 2(25.0) 13(56.5) 18(58.1) 17(73.9) 2(40.0) 12(60.0) 6(23.1) 25(64.1) 95(54.3)
Islam 6(75.0) 10(43.5) 13(41.9) 6(26.1) 3(60.0) 8(40.0) 20(76.9) 14(35.9) 80(45.7)
Total 8(100) 23(100) 31(100) 23(100) 5(100) 20(100) 26(100) 39(100) 175(100)
P value 0.014** 0.884 0.829 0.809 0.797 0.663 0.457 0.233 0.768
Yes 7(87.5) 19(82.6) 24(77.4) 10(43.5) 4(80.0) 16(80.0) 0(0.0) 34(87.2) 114(65.1)
No 1(12.5) 4(17.4) 7(22.6) 13(56.5) 1(20.0) 4(20.0) 26(100) 5(12.8) 61(39.9)
Total 8(100) 23(100) 31(100) 23(100) 5(100) 20(100) 26(100) 39(100) 175(100)
P value 0.315 0.368 0.022** 0.088 0.05** 0.320 0.404 0.913 0.369
Yes 8(100) 17(73.9) 28(90.3) 12(52.2) 3(60.0) 18(90.0) 1(3.8) 36(92.3) 123(70.3)
No 0(0.0) 6(26.1) 3(9.7) 11(47.8) 2(40.0) 2(10.0) 25(96.2) 3(7.7) 52(29.7)
Total 8(100) 23(100) 31(100) 23(100) 5(100) 20(100) 26(100) 39(100) 175(100)
P value 0.748 0.853 0.152 0.05** 0.609 0.950 0.209 0.809 0.613
** Values were significantly different at P0.05
Mogaji et al.; IJTDH, 17(4): 1-8, 2016; Article no.IJTDH.27084
Table 5. Intensity of Taeniasis among
surveyed children across selected
Mean EPG ± SE
Osiele 43 0.0723±0.02546
Aaya 40 0.3604±0. 06042
Obantoko 51 0.4559±0.06112
Orile Ilugun 61 0.2164±0.04107
Alabata 55 0.0624±0.02833
Ijemo Fadipe 58 0.2420±0.04938
Obete Akanbi 64 0.4172±0.06814
Olugbo 56 0.5491±0.05781
Total 428 0.3012±0.02008
Mean values with same superscript across column are
not significantly different at P0.05
EPG: Egg per Gram; SE: Standard Error
Other factor such as increased mobility in
children have been reported as a risk factor in
the transmission and acquiring of helminths
infections [14], this is not uncommon for taenia
infections and could explain the reason why the
older children surveyed had more taenia
infections in our study. Older children have
increased affinity of moving around more than
younger children and this increased mobility
exposes them to vendors of improperly
processed roasted, grilled or fried beef/pork.
Findings of Eke et al
[19] also reported higher
prevalence in older children when compare to
younger ones.
Although antibody-detecting techniques are
considered as appropriate screening tool for the
presence of disease in a population because
they indicate prior exposure to the disease agent.
The prevalence recorded in our study using
microscopic methods remains very high when
compared to other studies that employed
antibody-detection techniques [18-21]. This huge
prevalence reflects the level of endemicity of the
disease in the study area and as well the need
for urgent pragmatic approach to curtail it.
The prevalence reported for taeniasis in this
study portrays a serious public health challenge
that requires urgent approach. There is a need to
develop effective and innovative tools for
behavioural changes in the control and
prevention of this disease. Furthermore, full-
scale investigations on taenia prevalence in
Nigeria is needed in the phase of planning for
appropriate prevention and control strategy.
Authors have declared that no competing
interests exist.
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... Five studies in the region were case report of cysticercosis [45,49,50,71] involving the ocular and breast cysticercosis. Human taeniasis was obtained from two studies by stool microscopy [25,46] with a prevalence ranging from 8.6 to 40% among a total of 1953 individuals in the region. Human cysticercosis in Senegal was obtained from one study performing antigen and antibody ELISA [42]. ...
... In another study carried out byWeka et al (2013),9.6% of pig rearers tested in Jos, Nigeria had positive antibodies to T. solium using IgG antibody ELISA technique[58]. A recent study carried out among school children in Southern Nigeria, revealed a very high prevalence rate of about 40.9% by faecal examination[59].Echinococcosis (hydatidosis): hydatidosis is a neglected parasitic disease of public health importance caused by the larval stage of cestode of the genus Echinococcus[60,61]. Echinococcus granulosus and E. multilocularis are species of major public health importance and are responsible for virtually all the human and animal burden of the disease causing human cystic echinococcosis (CE) and alveolar echinococcosis (AE), respectively[62,63]. The life cycle of the tapeworm (E. ...
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Zoonotic diseases accounts for about 75% of emerging infectious disease and can be devastating to both human and animal health globally. A subset of zoonotic diseases is referred to as "neglected zoonotic diseases - NZDs" as they mainly affect poor populations who live in close proximity to domestic or wild animals often in areas where access to health and adequate sanitary facilities are not available. Furthermore, underestimation of the burden of NZD has continually led to its further neglect in least developed countries such as Nigeria. Controlling zoonotic infections including NZDs in animals is crucial in reducing human infections. Veterinarians provides an understanding of the epidemiology of infectious diseases in animal population and are therefore integral for the overall reduction in global burden of NZDs worldwide. Due to the current lack of and in some cases weak involvement of Veterinarians in policy issues related to zoonotic diseases, there is need to elucidate their importance in NZDs control in Nigeria. This review therefore summarises the neglected zoonotic diseases so far documented in Nigeria and also highlight the important role of the Veterinarian in their prevention and control within both human and animal population. Important recommendations to strengthen the role of the public health Veterinarian for sustainable control of NZDs were made.
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Cysticercosis is caused by the larvae of the cestode Taenia solium. Few data are available on the prevalence of this disease in pigs and humans in West African countries. The aim of this study was to provide an overview of existing data concerning the spread of this parasitosis in the countries of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) on the basis of the literature published over the last five decades. Systematic searches for publications were carried out on PubMed and Google Scholar, as well as in certain regional and local journals. From a total of 501 articles initially retrieved concerning T. solium cysticercosis in West African countries, only 120 articles were relevant for this review and therefore finally retained. For pigs, only eight out of sixteen countries of the region have reported porcine cysticercosis. Post-mortem examination of carcasses at slaughterhouses, meat inspection at butcheries or tongue inspection in herds have been the main source of data, but may not entirely reflect actual parasite distribution. For humans, only five out of sixteen countries reported epidemiological data on neurocysticercosis. Most data referred to neurocysticercosis prevalence among epileptic patients or isolated clinical cases. Furthermore, existing data are often old. Overall, T. solium cysticercosis remains largely neglected in West Africa, and its prevalence appears not to be affected by any religion in particular. There is an urgent need to promote and implement health partnerships and programs on this disease in order to collect more data and identify sensitive populations in the countries of the ECOWAS area.
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A survey of the prevalence of human Taeniasis was conducted between the months of March to July, 2013 among school children in Bosso Local Government Area, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria. Samples were randomly selected from the school pupils and analysed by Formol-ether sedimentation techniques. A total of 21(8.40%) of the samples were positive for Taenia saginata out of 250 samples collected. Infection was higher in males 13(10.40%) than females 8(6.40%). There was no significant difference (P> 0.05) in the infection rate of Taeniasis based on sex. Children in age group, 10-14 years i.e. 13(10.40%) of the samples had a higher infection rate than those of 5-9 years old 8(6.40%). It was observed that poor sanitation, poverty, eating of raw or undercooked beef and presence of scavenging pigs or cattle were obvious predisposing factors to high prevalence of human Taeniasis in the area.
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This study assessed the geohelminth and nutritional status of preschoolers in a periurban community of Ogun state. Fresh stool specimens were collected for laboratory analysis, processed using ether concentration method, and examined under the microscope for geohelminth ova. Demographic characteristics and daily nutrient intake of children were subjectively assessed during an interview session with parents, following anthropometric data collection. Data obtained were analysed using a statistical software for Windows. Nutritional indicators such as underweight, stunting, and wasting were computed from anthropometric data. Results showed an overall prevalence of 39.2% and 12.4% for Ascariasis and Hookworm infection, respectively, with no significant difference ( P > 0.05 ) between the sexes. Prevalence of nutritional indicators was 52.6%, 35.1%, 34.0%, and 9.3% for underweight, stunting, wasting, and thinness conditions, respectively. A good proportion of the malnourished preschoolers were free of Ascaris infection but infected with Hookworm parasite. The adverse effect of geohelminth infection cannot still be ignored in impaired growth, reduced survival, poor development, and cognitive performance of preschoolers. Therefore promotion of adequate health education program on measures of preventing geohelminth infections is needed.
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Introduction: Taenia solium cysticercosis is considered an emerging parasitic zoonosis of global importance due to its impact on both agriculture and public health in developing countries. Epidemiological information on human cysticercosis is limited in Nigeria. This study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of human cysticercosis in areas of Kaduna metropolis, Nigeria, where small-holder pig farming is practiced. Methodology: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Kaduna South and Chikun Local Government Areas of Kaduna metropolis, which are widely involved in small-holder pig farming and pork consumption. A total of 300 human sera were collected and tested for the presence of IgG antibodies to T. solium using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. A structured questionnaire was used to identify risk factors in the population and was administered to the study population. Results: A total of 43 of 300 sera tested positive to IgG antibodies, indicating a cysticercosis prevalence of 14.3%. Method of pork preparation and history of epilepsy were found to be strongly associated with seropositivity. Epileptics in this study were two times more likely to be seropositive than non-epileptics. A large proportion (74.0%) of the population had very poor knowledge of cysticercosis, and knowledge of cysticercosis was strongly associated with method of pork preparation and respondents' occupations. Conclusions: A high seroprevalence of human cysticercosis was found in Kaduna South and Chikun Local Government Areas. The main risk and behavioral factors contributing to the high prevalence include poor knowledge of cysticercosis and lack of knowledge on proper pork preparation methods.
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Background: Taenia prevalence has remained high among certain ethnic groups and occupational diseases in Nepal. Taenia saginata and Taenia solium species are worldwide in distribution. Infection is found most often in rural areas of developing countries with poor hygiene and living in close contact with pigs and eating undercooked pork meats. This allows the tapeworm infection to be completed and its cycle to continue. Objectives: To measure the prevalence of taenia infestation and to identify risk factors associated with taenia infestation among the school children of Dharan. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted among 935 Government and private school going children of Grade VI, VII, and VIII of Dharan during 2007 to 2008. Stratified random sampling method was applied to choose the schools and the study subjects. The prevalence was calculated, Chi-square test was used to measure the association of risk factors and taenia infestation. Results: Taenia species was found to be high (5.5%) among the school children of Dharan. Infection rate of taenia among the male children (6.0%) was slightly higher than female (4.8%). There were no cases of taenia infestation found among children washing hands with soap. Regarding meat consumption in the non-vegetarian group, taenia infestation was found higher (6.5%) among pork eating than nonpork eating (4.7%). No significant relationship was traced among the factors in the causation of taenia infestation although slight indications present. Conclusion: Taenia species was found very high among the school children of Dharan. No such association was found with the risk factors.
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The prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis in live pigs and at post mortem was determined in the Zuru area of Kebbi State, Nigeria. Prevalence rates of 5.85% (n = 205) and 14.40% (n = 118), respectively, were obtained from live pigs examined by lingual palpation and post-mortem examination. There was a significant (p<0.05) association between sex and infectivity for meat inspection and a positive non-significant (p>0.05) relationship between age and infectivity. Human taeniosis was assessed by direct microscopy of stool samples from volunteers; a prevalence of 8% (n = 50) was obtained. Environmental (soil, water and water from washed vegetables) samples were analysed; one of the water samples and some soil samples were positive for taeniid ova. Of the pig-rearing households that responded to the questionnaire survey 93% (n = 100) allow their pigs to scavenge freely around residential areas and refuse dumps, 2% had epileptic patients and over 80% did not have knowledge on how T. solium infection is acquired and its public health significance. To obtain baseline data for effective control and possible eradication, there is the need for a serological and epidemiological survey of this significant parasitic zoonosis in the study area and other parts of Nigeria where pigs are reared and/or pork is consumed.
In order to evaluate the taeniosis-cysticercosis complex in a population of a peasants' settlement, located at Teodoro Sampaio, state of Sao Paulo, Brazil (longitude 52 degrees 36'12", latitude 22 degrees 17'12'') a series of laboratory markers were determined After signing an informed consent, participants answered a standardized questionnaire. To determine anti-Taenia solium cysticercus antibodies, the samples were tested by enzyme linked immunoabsorbent assay using 18-and 14-kDa antigen proteins from vesicular fluid of Taenia crassiceps (VF-Tcra). The reactive and mconclusive ELISA samples were tested by immunoblotting Total IgE levels were determined by chemmiluminescence's assay and hemogram by flow cytometer flux counter A total of 84 individuals, 59% presented anti-T. solium cysticercus antibodies in ELISA and 3.6% were strongly reactive in the 18/14 kDa immunoblotting confirmatory test. All of the individuals with positive antibodies showed elevated Total IgE levels. We conclude that the frequency of anti-T. solium cysticercus antibodies in this population is higher than other regions considered endemic in Sao Paulo. Thus, it is important to carry out surveys in Peasants' settlement areas with the objective of establishing public health measures for prevention and control of infectious diseases such as taemosis-cysticercosis.
A survey of intestinal parasite infections in a heavy metal (Pb) mining area of Abia State (Ishiagu) was carried out using both direct wet preparation and formal/ether concentration methods. A total512 individuals ranging from primary and secondary school children to adults were screened. Of the number sampled, 177 (34.67 %) had various intestinal parasites. The parasite prevalence were Ascaris lumbricoides (17.80 %), Hookworms (14.80%) Entamoeba histolyca (3.70 %) and Trichuris trichiura (2.3 %). Prevalence for maes (35.55 %) and females (33.47%) were not significantly different (P < 005). Age distribution of the infections showed a gradual increase from< 10 years (14.0%) to 11-20 years group (36.67%) and peaked at 21-30 years wh 57.00 % before decreasing to the least in the > 51 years (27.02 %). This gave a significant age related infection (P < 0.05). The findings were discussed in relation to the rural nature of the community and the activities at the head mining stes.
A survey was carried out in the abattoirs in Kano (Sudan zone), Kaduna and Zaria (Northern Guinea zone) and Jos (Bauchi plateau zone) to assess the actual prevalence of bovine and porcine cysticercosis, and of hydatid cyst infections in slaughtered food animals. Hydatid cysts were detected in all species of animals slaughtered at the abattoir in the Sudan zone where the prevalence was: camels (55.5%), cattle (14.70%), sheep (11.4%), goats (26.4%). In the Northern Guinea zone, the prevalence was: camels (50%), cattle (0%), pigs (0%), sheep (0.21%) and goats (0.79%). In the Bauchi plateau zone, sheep were found to harbour hydatid cysts, with a prevalence of 1.4%. In the various animal species, hydatid cysts were detected in the lungs, liver and spleen. Fertility rates of the hydatid cysts from various hosts were as follows: camels 94.5%, cattle 7.4%, goats 81.3%, and sheep 59.7%. Cysticercus bovis was detected in slaughtered cattle from the three zones surveyed. Northern Guinea zone had the highest prevalence (4%), followed by Bauchi plateau zone (2.1%) and Sudan (1.9%). C. bovis was detected in the tongue, masseter muscle, heart, diaphragm and the quarters of infected cattle. C. cellulosae was detected in 18.4% and 1.76% of slaughtered pigs examined in Northern Guinea and Bauchi plateau zones respectively. The cysts were found in the tongue, masseter muscle, heart, diaphragm, thigh and fore-limbs. No pigs were available for examination in the Sudan zone. The data obtained in this survey are believed to be a better indication of the rate of infection in the various animal species than data obtained from previous abattoir records.
This article has no abstract; the first 100 words appear below. It may come as a surprise that a lowly tapeworm is responsible for as many as 10 percent of cases in which a patient presents with seizures to an emergency room in a large urban hospital in New Mexico or California. In fact, cysticercosis, infection with the larval stage of the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium, is the most common parasitic disease of the central nervous system worldwide, and it is the leading cause of late-onset epilepsy in many developing countries. Most of the estimated 50 million cases of cysticercosis originate in poor communities of Latin America, Asia, and Africa, but . . . Source Information From the Parasitic Disease Epidemiology Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta.