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*Corresponding author: Email: mogajihammed@gmail.com;
International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE
& Health
17(4): 1-8, 2016, Article no.IJTDH.27084
ISSN: 2278–1005, NLM ID: 101632866
SCIENCEDOMAIN international
www.sciencedomain.org
Prevalence of Human Taeniasis in Odeda Area of
Ogun State, Nigeria
H. O. Mogaji
1*
, A. A. Adeniran
1
, M. T. Fagbenro
1
, D. B. Olabinke
1
,
E. M. Abe
2
and U. F. Ekpo
1
1
Department of Pure and Applied Zoology, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria.
2
National Institute of Parasitic Disease and Control, China Centre for Disease Control, P.R. China.
Authors’ contributions
This work was carried out in collaboration between all authors. Authors HOM and UFE conceptualized
the study and wrote the protocol. Field works and laboratory analysis were carried out by authors
HOM, AAA, MTF and DBO. Authors MTF, HOM and EMA did the statistical analysis and literature
searches while author MTF wrote the first draft of the manuscript. All authors contributed to the final
draft and approved its submission.
Article Information
DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/27084
Editor(s):
(1)
Shankar Srinivasan, Department of Health Informatics, University of Medicine & Dentistry of New Jersey, USA.
Reviewers:
(1)
Verônica Santos Barbosa, Centro de Pesquisas Aggeu Magalhães/ Fiocruz, Cidade Universitária,
50670-420 Recife, PE, Brazil.
(2)
Luis Enrique Jerez Puebla, "Pedro Kouri" Institute, Cuba.
Complete Peer review History:
http://sciencedomain.org/review-history/15268
Received 18
th
May 2016
Accepted 18
th
June 2016
Published 2
nd
July 2016
ABSTRACT
This study investigated the prevalence of taeniasis among school-aged children in Odeda area of
Ogun state, Nigeria. Four hundred and twenty-eight school-aged children were recruited and
demographic information were obtained using a simple questionnaire. Faecal samples were also
collected, processed using ether concentration method and examined for ova/proglottids of Taenia
spp under a light microscope. Data obtained were analysed using IBM SPSS 20.0 statistical
software. Of the 428 (100%) children, 226 (52.8%) were females and 202 (47.2%) were males. By
age category, 238 (55.6%) of the children were within age category 11-15 years, while 190 (44.4%)
belonged to the younger age category (5-10 years). Children who were from a christian family 236
(55.1%) were more in numbers compared to children 192 (44.9%) from an islamic parental
background, and majority of the children recruited into the study had parents who can read and
write. An overall prevalence of 175 (40.9%) was recorded for taeniasis. Although significant
difference donot exist (P>0.05) between Taenia spp infection and demographic variables, the
Original Research Article
Mogaji et al.; IJTDH, 17(4): 1-8, 2016; Article no.IJTDH.27084
2
overall prevalence reported portrays a serious public health problem that requires urgent attention.
There is thus a need for more full-scale investigation of Taenia spp prevalence in Nigeria, in the
phase of planning for appropriate prevention and control strategy.
Keywords: Taeniasis; children; prevalence; Odeda; Nigeria.
1. INTRODUCTION
Taeniasis is a neglected zoonotic disease
caused by segmented parasitic tapeworms
belonging to family Taeniidae, and subclass
Cestoda. Certain identified Taenia spp. includes
Taenia solium, Taenia saginata, Taenia
crassiceps, Taenia ovis, Taenia taeniaeformis,
Taenia hydatigena, Taenia multiceps, Taenia
serialis, Taenia asiatica, and Taenia brauni [1].
Taenia saginata (T. saginata) and Taenia solium
(T. solium) are the most common parasitic
tapeworm, with wide distribution in Latin
America, Southeast Asia and Africa [1,2,3].
T. saginata and T. solium have an indirect life
cycle, cycling between a definitive and an
intermediate host, and are prevalent in areas
where poverty, poor sanitation and intimate
contact between human and livestock, most
especially pigs is common [4,5,6]. Humans
acquires infection when they consume raw or
minimally cooked infected beef (in case of
T. saginata), or infected pork (in case of T.
solium), and they serve as the definitive host for
both and intermediate host for T. solium [7].
Although infection with adult T. saginata /
T. solium (a condition referred to as taeniasis)
are asymptomatic, infected children could
present mild symptoms such as abdominal pain,
diarrhea, constipation, nausea, decreased or
increased appetite, and weight loss [1]. However,
infection with the larva of T. solium (a condition
referred to as cysticercosis) is symptomatic, with
symptoms varying with the location and number
of larvae. Most symptoms are result of either
inflammation during larval degeneration or a
mass effect from the parasite. Common
symptoms include chronic headaches, seizures,
nausea, vomiting, vertigo, ataxia, confusion or
other changes in mental status, behavioral
abnormalities, progressive dementia, and focal
neurologic signs [1]. The most serious form of
cysticercosis is neurocysticercosis which occurs
as a result of events such as blockage of the
cerebrospinal fluid by a floating larva [8]. The
proportion of neurocysticercosis among people
with epilepsy has been found to be more than
29% in endemic countries [9].
In Nigeria, prevalence of human taeniasis have
been little investigated as compared to other
protozoan and helminths parasites such as
Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura,
hookworm, Entamoeba spp among others
[10,11]. Few epidemiological studies within the
country have reported the prevalence of
taeniasis among their subjects [12,13,14].
Nevertheless, taeniasis prevalence and intensity
data in human populations are needed as the
disease is becoming increasingly recognized as
a serious and emerging threat of public health
concern [2]. This study therefore investigated the
prevalence and intensity of taeniasis in some
rural communities in Odeda area of Ogun state,
Nigeria.
2. MATERIALS AND METHODS
2.1 Study Area
This study was carried out in Odeda local
government area (LGA) of Ogun State, South
Western Nigeria. Odeda LGA is one of the
twenty LGA in Ogun state. The area is located
within longitude 2°45¹00E and 3°55¹00 E and
latitude 01¹00 N and 18¹00N, with a
projected population of 137,377 in 2014.
2.2 Study Design and Target Population
This study was cross-sectional in design,
involving eight communities across the LGA. A
public primary school in each of the community
was randomly selected, and used as a sampling
point (Table 1). School-aged children resident in
the community and attending the school were
recruited as study participants.
2.3 Ethics Statement
Ethics clearance was received from Federal
University of Agriculture, Abeokuta ethics review
board and Department of Public Health and
Disease control, Ogun state Ministry of health.
Field permits were also obtained from Ogun state
Ministry of Education, Science and Technology
and Zonal Education Officer of Odeda local
government area (LGA). Informed consent was
given by parents and guardians of selected
Mogaji et al.; IJTDH, 17(4): 1-8, 2016; Article no.IJTDH.27084
3
Table 1. List of rural communities surveyed in Odeda area of Ogun State
SN
Communities
surveyed
Schools located at centre of
the community
School
enrolment
school-aged children
sampled
1 Osiele St. Mary primary school Osiele 628 43
2 Aaya Community primary school Aaya
196 40
3 Obantoko OLG primary school Obantoko 915 51
4 Orile Ilugun St. James primary school Orile 492 61
5 Alabata OLG primary school Alabata 425 55
6 Ijemo Fadipe St. Anthony primary school
Ijemo 245 58
7 Obete Akanbi Baptist Day primary school
Obete 138 64
8 Olugbo St. Saviours primary school
Olugbo 444 56
Total 3483 428
children and children whose parents consented
were invited to participate in the study. Children
assents were obtained verbally and documented
through a child assent form. Also, since the
study was undertaken during class time at
participating schools, authorizations from
schools’ headmasters were also sought in
advance and only schools with such
authorizations were approached for enrolment.
2.4 Sample Size Determination
Using the method of [15], the total number of
children attending the public primary schools
selected in each study community was used to
determine the required sample size for the study.
Considering a 95% confidence interval, an
average of 45 school-aged children was required
for the study per community from a total of 3483
enrolled school-aged children (Table 1).
2.5 Data and Stool Sample Collection
Children's general demographics (name, date of
birth, sex of the child and literacy of parents)
were obtained using a well structured
questionnaire. A single faecal sample was
collected from each child and taken to the
Parasitology unit laboratory of the Department of
Pure and Applied Zoology, Federal University of
Agriculture Abeokuta within two hours of
collection for preparation and analysis using
Sodium acetate acetic acid formalin
concentration method (SAF-Ether). Two slides
each of one gram of stool was prepared
accordingly and examined for ova or proglottids
of taenia spp. Taenia eggs or proglottids were
counted and the mean number of egg per one
gram (EPG) of stool were recorded to determine
infection intensities.
2.6 Statistical Analysis
Data obtained were entered by a researcher into
Microsoft office Excel spreadsheet 2007 and
verified for accuracy (compared with data in
questionnaires) by a different researcher. Data
were cleaned by checking for errors and missing
values. Statistical analyses were done using
IBM, SPSS Statistics version 20 (IBM. Somers,
NY). Descriptive statistics for continuous
variables and frequency (proportions) for
categorical variables were used to describe the
characteristics of the study population.
Prevalence and intensity calculations of taeniasis
were also made. Mean Egg per gram (EPG) of
Taenia spp found was computed following
logarithmic transformation of the raw EPG data.
Prevalence and intensity estimates were cross
tabulated with demographic data, and
associations were determined using Pearson Chi
square test. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was
used for comparing intensity estimates among
surveyed communities. Significances was set at
P 0.05.
3. RESULTS
3.1 Demographic Information of
Surveyed Children across Selected
Communities
Table 2 shows the demographic information of
surveyed children across the selected
communities. Of the 428 children recruited into
the study, 226(52.8%) were females and
Mogaji et al.; IJTDH, 17(4): 1-8, 2016; Article no.IJTDH.27084
4
202(47.2%) were males. By age category, 238
(55.6%) of the recruited children belonged to age
category 11-15 years, while 190 (44.4%)
belonged to the younger age category (5-10
years). Children who were from a christian family
were more in numbers in the study 236(55.1%)
compared to children 192(44.9%) from an islamic
parental background. In addition, majority of the
children recruited into the study had parents who
can read and write.
3.2 Prevalence of Taeniasis among
Surveyed Children across Selected
Communities
An overall prevalence of 40.9% was recorded for
taeniasis among the 428 children examined.
Infection was highest among residents of Olugbo
community 39(69.6%), followed by Obantoko
community 31(60.8%), Aaya community
23(57.5%) and least prevalence was recorded at
Alabata 5(9.1%). There exist significant
differences (P<0.05) in the prevalence of
taeniasis across the eight communities surveyed.
3.3 Prevalence of Taeniasis by
Demographic Variables among
Surveyed Children across Selected
Communities
Table 4 shows the prevalence of taeniasis by
demographic variables among the surveyed
children across selected communities. Of the 175
infected children, 91(52.0%) and 84(48.0%) were
male and females respectively. However there
exist no significant difference (P>0.05) in
infection by sex. Also, majority of the infected
children 95(54.3%), belonged to the older age
category (11-15 years) compared to their
younger counterparts (5-10 years), with no
significant differences (P>0.05). Children of
literate mothers and fathers also had taenia
infections more than those of illiterate parents,
although with no significant differences (P>0.05).
By religion, taenia infections were recorded more
among children that are Christians 95(54.3%),
compared to Islamic children 80 (45.7%),
however there was no significant difference
between both (P>0.05).
3.4 Intensity of Taeniasis among
Surveyed Children across Selected
Communities
An overall mean intensity of 0.3012±0.02008epg
was recorded for taeniasis during the study.
Olugbo community had the highest intensity for
taenia infections with 0.5491epg, followed by
Obantoko with 0.4559epg, Obete Akanbi with
0.4172epg, Aaya with 0.3604epg, Ijemo Fadipe
with 0.2420epg, Orile Ilugun with 0.2164epg,
Osiele with 0.0723epg and the least was
recorded in Alabata community with 0.0624epg.
Significant differences (P0.05) exists between
mean intensities for taenia infections across the
surveyed communities.
4. DISCUSSION
In most developing countries, livestock including
pigs and cows are of great economic value as
they serve as good source of protein, vitamins,
minerals and fat [16]. However, the role of this
livestock as an intermediate host in the
transmission of Taenia infections cannot be
ignored. Taeniasis have serious adverse health
implications in humans and as well reduces the
market value of pigs and cows, thus becoming
an infection of both public health and agricultural
importance [9].
Studies on human taeniasis are very limited in
Ogun State, Nigeria. To the best of our
knowledge, this is the first survey estimating the
prevalence of human taeniasis in Odeda area
and presumably other areas of Ogun State. An
overall prevalence of 40.9% was recorded. This
is substantially higher, compared to 8.40%, 9.6%
and 14.3% reported by Eke et al. [17], Weka
et al. [18] and Edia-Asuke et al. [19] in Nigeria.
This prevalence is also higher than those
reported in the studies of Kumar et al. [20] in
Himalayas and Prasad et al. [21] in India, with
prevalence rates of 30.3% and 38.0%
respectively. Provision of improperly cooked beef
and pork on exposed trays outside school
premises after learning hours and also within
communities by food vendors at night is a
common characteristic of most rural communities
in Nigeria [14]. Infections therefore could have
been acquired from consumption of this locally-
made available beef and/or pork, especially
when roasted, grilled or fried with minimal heat
[22].
The desire to consume half grilled or roasted
beef and pork is usually more pronounced in
males and this might be a probable reason why
they were more infected than females in our
study. This is in agreement with the findings
other similar studies [12,19,23-25], but in
contrast with that of Usip et al. [26] where
females were more infected than male subjects.
Mogaji et al.; IJTDH, 17(4): 1-8, 2016; Article no.IJTDH.27084
5
Table 2. Demographic information of surveyed children across selected communities
Comunities
Osiele
NE
(%)
Aaya
NE
(%)
Obantoko
NE
(%)
Orile Ilugun
NE
(%)
Alabata
NE
(%)
Ijemo Fadipe
NE
(%)
Obete Akanbi
NE (%)
Olugbo
NE (%)
Total
NE
(%)
Sex
Male 9(20.9) 19(47.5) 24(47.1) 25(41.0) 31(56.4) 31(53.4) 36(56.2) 27(48.2) 202(47.2)
Female 34(79.1) 21(52.5) 27(52.9) 36(59.0) 24(43.6) 27(46.6) 28(43.8) 29(51.8) 226(52.8)
Total 43(100) 40(100) 51(100) 61(100) 55(100) 58(100) 64(100) 56(100) 428(100)
Age
5-10 9(20.9) 21(52.5) 17(33.3) 43(70.5) 21(38.2) 29(50.0) 29(45.3) 21(37.5) 190(44.4)
11-15 34(79.1) 19(47.5) 34(66.7) 18(29.5) 34(61.8) 29(50.0) 35(54.7) 35(62.5) 238(55.6)
Total 43(100) 40(100) 51(100) 61(100) 55(100) 58(100) 64(100) 56(100) 428(100)
Religion
Christainity 27(62.8) 23(57.5) 29(56.9) 44(72.1) 25(45.5) 37(63.8) 18(28.1) 33(58.9) 236(55.1)
Islam 16(37.2) 17(42.5) 22(43.1) 17(27.1) 30(54.5) 21(36.2) 46(71.9) 23(41.1) 192(44.9)
Total 43(100) 40(100) 51(100) 61(100) 55(100) 58(100) 64(100) 56(100) 428(100)
Mother
literacy
Yes 37(83.7) 31(77.5) 44(86.3) 35(57.4) 22(40.0) 50(86.2) 1(1.6) 49(87.5) 268(62.6)
No 7(16.3) 9(22.5) 7(13.7) 26(42.6) 33(60.0) 8(13.8) 63(98.6) 7(12.5) 160(37.4)
Total 43(100) 40(100) 51(100) 61(100) 55(100) 58(100) 64(100) 56(100) 428(100)
Father
literacy
Yes 39(90.7) 30(75.0) 48(94.1) 41(67.2) 27(49.1) 52(89.7) 6(9.4) 52(92.9) 295(68.9)
No 4(9.3) 10(25.0) 3(5.9) 20(32.8) 28(50.1) 6(10.3) 58(90.6) 4(7.1) 133(31.1)
Total 43(100) 40(100) 51(100) 61(100) 55(100) 58(100) 64(100) 56(100) 428(100)
NE: Number Examined
Table 3. Prevalence of Taeniasis among surveyed children across selected communities
Communities surveyed
Number
examined
Number
infected
(%)
Osiele 43 8(18.6)
Aaya 40 23(57.5)
Obantoko 51 31(60.8)
Orile Ilugun 61 23(37.7)
Alabata 55 5(9.1)
Ijemo Fadipe 58 20(34.5)
Obete Akanbi 64 26(40.6)
Olugbo 56 39(69.6)
Total 428 175(40.9)
P value = 0.000
Mogaji et al.; IJTDH, 17(4): 1-8, 2016; Article no.IJTDH.27084
6
Table 4. Prevalence of Taeniasis by demographic variables among surveyed children across selected communities
Comunities
surveyed
Osiele
NI (%)
Aaya
NI (%)
Obantoko
NI (%)
Orile Ilugun
NI (%)
Alabata
NI (%)
Ijemo Fadipe
NI (%)
Obete Akanbi
NI (%)
Olugbo
NI (%)
Total
NI (%)
Sex
Male 1(12.5) 13(56.5) 17(54.8) 9(39.1) 4(80.0) 12(60.0) 14(53.8) 21(53.8) 91(52.0)
Female 7(87.5) 10(43.5) 14(45.2) 14(60.9) 1(20.0) 8(40.0) 12(46.2) 18(46.2) 84(48.0)
Total 8(100) 23(100) 31(100) 23(100) 5(100) 20(100) 26(100) 39(100) 175(100)
P value 0.701 0.184 0.166 0.819 0.264 0.468 0.748 0.201 0.098
Age
5-10 3(37.5) 10(43.5) 14(45.2) 14(60.9) 1(20.0) 9(45.0) 13(50.0) 16(41.0) 80(45.7)
11-15 5(62.5) 13(56.5) 17(54.8) 9(39.1) 4(80.0) 11(55.0) 13(50.0) 23(59.0) 95(54.3)
Total 8(100) 23(100) 31(100) 23(100) 5(100) 20(100) 26(100) 39(100) 175(100)
P value 0.202 0.184 0.026** 0.200 0.380 0.581 0.533 0.409 0.647
Religion
Christainity 2(25.0) 13(56.5) 18(58.1) 17(73.9) 2(40.0) 12(60.0) 6(23.1) 25(64.1) 95(54.3)
Islam 6(75.0) 10(43.5) 13(41.9) 6(26.1) 3(60.0) 8(40.0) 20(76.9) 14(35.9) 80(45.7)
Total 8(100) 23(100) 31(100) 23(100) 5(100) 20(100) 26(100) 39(100) 175(100)
P value 0.014** 0.884 0.829 0.809 0.797 0.663 0.457 0.233 0.768
Mother
literacy
Yes 7(87.5) 19(82.6) 24(77.4) 10(43.5) 4(80.0) 16(80.0) 0(0.0) 34(87.2) 114(65.1)
No 1(12.5) 4(17.4) 7(22.6) 13(56.5) 1(20.0) 4(20.0) 26(100) 5(12.8) 61(39.9)
Total 8(100) 23(100) 31(100) 23(100) 5(100) 20(100) 26(100) 39(100) 175(100)
P value 0.315 0.368 0.022** 0.088 0.05** 0.320 0.404 0.913 0.369
Father
literacy
Yes 8(100) 17(73.9) 28(90.3) 12(52.2) 3(60.0) 18(90.0) 1(3.8) 36(92.3) 123(70.3)
No 0(0.0) 6(26.1) 3(9.7) 11(47.8) 2(40.0) 2(10.0) 25(96.2) 3(7.7) 52(29.7)
Total 8(100) 23(100) 31(100) 23(100) 5(100) 20(100) 26(100) 39(100) 175(100)
P value 0.748 0.853 0.152 0.05** 0.609 0.950 0.209 0.809 0.613
** Values were significantly different at P0.05
Mogaji et al.; IJTDH, 17(4): 1-8, 2016; Article no.IJTDH.27084
7
Table 5. Intensity of Taeniasis among
surveyed children across selected
communities
Communities
Number
examined
Mean EPG ± SE
Osiele 43 0.0723±0.02546
a
Aaya 40 0.3604±0. 06042
bc
Obantoko 51 0.4559±0.06112
cd
Orile Ilugun 61 0.2164±0.04107
ab
Alabata 55 0.0624±0.02833
a
Ijemo Fadipe 58 0.2420±0.04938
b
Obete Akanbi 64 0.4172±0.06814
cd
Olugbo 56 0.5491±0.05781
d
Total 428 0.3012±0.02008
Mean values with same superscript across column are
not significantly different at P0.05
EPG: Egg per Gram; SE: Standard Error
Other factor such as increased mobility in
children have been reported as a risk factor in
the transmission and acquiring of helminths
infections [14], this is not uncommon for taenia
infections and could explain the reason why the
older children surveyed had more taenia
infections in our study. Older children have
increased affinity of moving around more than
younger children and this increased mobility
exposes them to vendors of improperly
processed roasted, grilled or fried beef/pork.
Findings of Eke et al
.
[19] also reported higher
prevalence in older children when compare to
younger ones.
Although antibody-detecting techniques are
considered as appropriate screening tool for the
presence of disease in a population because
they indicate prior exposure to the disease agent.
The prevalence recorded in our study using
microscopic methods remains very high when
compared to other studies that employed
antibody-detection techniques [18-21]. This huge
prevalence reflects the level of endemicity of the
disease in the study area and as well the need
for urgent pragmatic approach to curtail it.
5. CONCLUSION
The prevalence reported for taeniasis in this
study portrays a serious public health challenge
that requires urgent approach. There is a need to
develop effective and innovative tools for
behavioural changes in the control and
prevention of this disease. Furthermore, full-
scale investigations on taenia prevalence in
Nigeria is needed in the phase of planning for
appropriate prevention and control strategy.
COMPETING INTERESTS
Authors have declared that no competing
interests exist.
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... Five studies in the region were case report of cysticercosis [45,49,50,71] involving the ocular and breast cysticercosis. Human taeniasis was obtained from two studies by stool microscopy [25,46] with a prevalence ranging from 8.6 to 40% among a total of 1953 individuals in the region. Human cysticercosis in Senegal was obtained from one study performing antigen and antibody ELISA [42]. ...
... In another study carried out byWeka et al (2013),9.6% of pig rearers tested in Jos, Nigeria had positive antibodies to T. solium using IgG antibody ELISA technique[58]. A recent study carried out among school children in Southern Nigeria, revealed a very high prevalence rate of about 40.9% by faecal examination[59].Echinococcosis (hydatidosis): hydatidosis is a neglected parasitic disease of public health importance caused by the larval stage of cestode of the genus Echinococcus[60,61]. Echinococcus granulosus and E. multilocularis are species of major public health importance and are responsible for virtually all the human and animal burden of the disease causing human cystic echinococcosis (CE) and alveolar echinococcosis (AE), respectively[62,63]. The life cycle of the tapeworm (E. ...
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