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Measuring individual differences in empathy: Evidence for multidimensional approach.

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Abstract

To facilitate a multidimensional approach to empathy the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) includes 4 subscales: Perspective-Taking (PT) Fantasy (FS) Empathic Concern (EC) and Personal Distress (PD). The aim of the present study was to establish the convergent and discriminant validity of these 4 subscales. Hypothesized relationships among the IRI subscales between the subscales and measures of other psychological constructs (social functioning self-esteem emotionality and sensitivity to others) and between the subscales and extant empathy measures were examined. Study subjects included 677 male and 667 female students enrolled in undergraduate psychology classes at the University of Texas. The IRI scales not only exhibited the predicted relationships among themselves but also were related in the expected manner to other measures. Higher PT scores were consistently associated with better social functioning and higher self-esteem; in contrast Fantasy scores were unrelated to these 2 characteristics. High EC scores were positively associated with shyness and anxiety but negatively linked to egotism. The most substantial relationships in the study involved the PD scale. PD scores were strongly linked with low self-esteem and poor interpersonal functioning as well as a constellation of vulnerability uncertainty and fearfulness. These findings support a multidimensional approach to empathy by providing evidence that the 4 qualities tapped by the IRI are indeed separate constructs each related in specific ways to other psychological measures.

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... Eisenberg and Lennon (1983) suggest investigators historically theorized that empathy is defined as Affective (emotional) -the ability to feel the emotions of others, or Cognitive (logical) -the ability to comprehend the Affective. Some investigators took additional steps to integrate the constructs suggesting that empathy's most significant power comes with recognizing that individuals can apply affective and cognitive empathy (Coke et al., 1978;Davis, 1980Davis, , 1983Deutsch & Madle, 1975). More recently, some investigators suggest empathy includes both Cognitive and Affective dimensions and also add another dimension, Behavioral empathy-the ability of an individual to understand and communicate empathy to share in another's emotions without making them their own-as an essential dimension (Akgun et al., 2015;Ekman, 2007). ...
... Identifying how empathy may be operationalized within an organization might minimize variability in managerial CHAPTER 2: RESEARCH AND RELATED LITERATURE This literature review explores empathy, empathy in the workplace, examines the literature on the concept of organizational empathy, and reviews existing literature on collective empathy and its impact on organizations and considers the challenges and limitations of existing research. Davis (1983) first approached empathy as a multidimensional construct, suggesting that individuals may possess varying affective and cognitive empathy levels rather than a singular, either-or, affective, or cognitive construct. With the development of the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI), Davis built upon previous theories that identified three subscales (Perspective-Taking, Empathic Concern, and Personal Distress) that measured empathy and added a fourth subscale, Fantasy (Davis, 1983). ...
... Davis (1983) first approached empathy as a multidimensional construct, suggesting that individuals may possess varying affective and cognitive empathy levels rather than a singular, either-or, affective, or cognitive construct. With the development of the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI), Davis built upon previous theories that identified three subscales (Perspective-Taking, Empathic Concern, and Personal Distress) that measured empathy and added a fourth subscale, Fantasy (Davis, 1983). Fantasy, Davis (1983) argued, is connected with the tendencies of some individuals to transpose themselves into the life, feelings, and actions of fictitious characters. ...
Thesis
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This study investigates how collective empathy forms, embeds, and sustains, and thus might be operationalized at [Healing Arts for Children], a small arts-focused nonprofit organization serving pediatric patients and their families. The twenty-year-old organization, in partnership with hospitals, facilitates art, music, and other creative expression activities to help reduce anxiety and encourage more positive healthcare experiences for the critically and chronically ill. The predominance of literature on empathy and its development in the workplace focuses on empathy at an individual level (specifically with leaders and staff) and empathic responses or expressions by individuals related to workplace performance. Despite a long history of studying empathy in the workplace, the constructs of individualized empathy are not universally defined and agreed upon, thereby creating significant variability in the possibility of sustainable and practical workplace application. There is little current research on empathy in the workplace that investigates the system-level application of empathy, which may be essential in determining how empathy forms, embeds, and sustains within an organization. Some research on the concept of “collective empathy” of individuals within a system exists, suggesting the possibility of operationalizing the construct. Yet, this literature appears to insufficiently address the collective empathy of a system and its influence on stakeholders and constituents, even though it suggests the possibility that collective empathy might have the power to improve culture and performance. The findings from this study build on and add to the limited empirical research on collective empathy by identifying likely conditions for how such empathy forms, embeds, and sustains within an organization. This study contributes to existing research by supporting how collective empathy forms and adds to that research by offering a perspective on the role of culture in its formation. The study further extends existing research by providing a theoretical model for how collective empathy may embed and sustain within an organization.
... In addition, some studies in the literature have argued that perspective taking is an important component of empathy [21]. Perspective taking is the tendency to understand another's thoughts, feelings, or situation [9,22,23]. It is a cognitive capacity to consider the world from other viewpoints and "allows an individual to anticipate the behavior and reactions of others" [22]. ...
... Perspective taking is the tendency to understand another's thoughts, feelings, or situation [9,22,23]. It is a cognitive capacity to consider the world from other viewpoints and "allows an individual to anticipate the behavior and reactions of others" [22]. ...
... Empathy was assessed using the Interpersonal Reactivity Index [22] including three 7-item subscales on empathic concern (EC), perspective taking (PT), and personal distress (PD). The Empathic Concern Subscale measures the tendency to experience feelings of warmth, compassion, and concern for other people. ...
Article
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Although Western studies showed that attachment insecurity was negatively related to adolescent altruistic behavior, few studies have investigated this issue among Chinese adolescents, and little is known about the mechanisms underlying the impact of attachment avoidance and attachment anxiety on adolescent altruistic behaviors. This study investigated the mediating role of different dimensions of empathy (empathic concern, perspective taking, and personal distress) on the association of attachment avoidance and attachment anxiety with altruistic behavior among Chinese adolescents. A total of 1005 7th and 8th grade Chinese students (Mage = 12.86 years, SD = 0.69) from three middle schools in Chengdu, China completed measures of attachment insecurity, interpersonal reactivity index, and altruistic behavior. Results indicated that attachment avoidance, not attachment anxiety, negatively predicted adolescent altruistic behavior among Chinese adolescents. Moreover, higher attachment avoidance predicted less empathic concern and perspective taking, which in turn predicted less altruistic behavior, while higher attachment anxiety predicted more empathic concern and personal distress, which further predicted more and less altruistic behavior, respectively. These findings highlight the importance of promoting adolescent empathic concern and perspective taking and reducing personal distress to strengthen adolescent altruistic behavior.
... We thus predicted that high Honesty-Humility would best discriminate real-world extraordinary altruists, whose behavior benefits others at a cost to the self, from controls. Participants also completed measures of other traits previously found to correspond to altruism, including cognitive reflection 36 , risktaking and risk-perception 37,38 , empathy 39 , and psychopathy 40 . The battery required approximately 60 minutes to complete, as part of an extensive screening that collected data on personality characteristics, demographic details, and measures assessing mental health and MRI safety to assess eligibility for future laboratory and neuroimaging studies. ...
... Upon recruitment, participants completed an initial online screening, which included a demographics questionnaire, and the HEXACO short form consisting of 60 items 34 . They also completed a self-report measure of empathy (IRI, Interpersonal Reactivity Index) 39 , a self-report measure of risk taking tendencies and perceptions (Domain-Specific Risk-Taking, DOSPERT) 37,38 , a self-report measure on psychopathy (Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Short Form, PPI-SF) 40 , and the CRT that measures fast and intuitive versus slow and reflective deliberation during decision-making 36 . Participants were compensated $20 for completing the battery of measures as part of an extensive screening that required approximately 60 minutes to complete, and included all surveys, demographic questions, and measures assessing mental health and MRI safety to assess eligibility for future laboratory and neuroimaging studies. ...
Preprint
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Acts of extraordinary, costly altruism in which significant risks or costs are assumed to benefit strangers have long represented a motivational puzzle. But the features that consistently distinguish individuals who engage in such acts have not been identified. We conducted the first assessment of six groups of real-world extraordinary altruists who had performed costly or risky and normatively very rare (<.00005% per capita) altruistic acts: heroic rescues, non-directed and directed kidney donations, liver donations, marrow or hematopoietic stem cell donations, and humanitarian aid work. The features that best distinguished altruists from controls were traits and decision-making patterns indicating unusually high valuation of others’ outcomes: high Honesty-Humility, reduced Social Discounting, and reduced Personal Distress—results that two independent samples of adults failed to predict. Findings suggest that theories regarding self-focused motivations for altruism (e.g., self-enhancing reciprocity, reputation enhancement) alone are insufficient explanations for acts of real-world self-sacrifice.
... Participants were randomly assigned to start with either a sleep-deprived or a sleep-rested session followed by the crossover session, separated by at least 7 days. Upon entering the study, and prior to any sleep manipulation, participants completed the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI [82]) in order to measure interindividual differences in empathy. ...
... In addition to the key outcome variable of helping behavior, measures of mood were also collected in each daily survey using the short PANAS questionnaire [112] described above. Finally, trait empathy was assessed upon entry to the study using the IRI [82], as in Study 1. ...
Article
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Humans help each other. This fundamental feature of homo sapiens has been one of the most powerful forces sculpting the advent of modern civilizations. But what determines whether humans choose to help one another? Across 3 replicating studies, here, we demonstrate that sleep loss represents one previously unrecognized factor dictating whether humans choose to help each other, observed at 3 different scales (within individuals, across individuals, and across societies). First, at an individual level, 1 night of sleep loss triggers the withdrawal of help from one individual to another. Moreover, fMRI findings revealed that the withdrawal of human helping is associated with deactivation of key nodes within the social cognition brain network that facilitates prosociality. Second, at a group level, ecological night-to-night reductions in sleep across several nights predict corresponding next-day reductions in the choice to help others during day-to-day interactions. Third, at a large-scale national level, we demonstrate that 1 h of lost sleep opportunity, inflicted by the transition to Daylight Saving Time, reduces real-world altruistic helping through the act of donation giving, established through the analysis of over 3 million charitable donations. Therefore, inadequate sleep represents a significant influential force determining whether humans choose to help one another, observable across micro- and macroscopic levels of civilized interaction. The implications of this effect may be non-trivial when considering the essentiality of human helping in the maintenance of cooperative, civil society, combined with the reported decline in sufficient sleep in many first-world nations.
... It pertains to interpersonal sensitivity and the ability to understand the position the other person is in. Cognitive empathy has often been linked with other concepts like perspective-taking and theory of mind (Davis, 1983;Leslie, 2001). ...
... Perspective-taking is a cognitive capacity to consider the world from other viewpoints and allows an individual to anticipate the behavior and reactions of others (Davis, 1983). ...
Article
Empathy is an essential part of communication in healthcare. It is a multidimensional concept and the two key dimensions: emotional and cognitive empathy allow clinicians to understand a patient’s situation, reasoning, and feelings clearly (Mercer and Reynolds, 2002). As artificial intelligence (AI) is increasingly being used in healthcare for many routine tasks, accurate diagnoses, and complex treatment plans, it is becoming more crucial to incorporate clinical empathy into patient-faced AI systems. Unless patients perceive that the AI is understanding their situation, the communication between patient and AI may not sustain efficiently. AI may not really exhibit any emotional empathy at present, but it has the capability to exhibit cognitive empathy by communicating how it can understand patients’ reasoning, perspectives, and point of view. In my dissertation, I examine this issue across three separate lab experiments and one interview study. At first, I developed AI Cognitive Empathy Scale (AICES) and tested all empathy (emotional and cognitive) components together in a simulated scenario against control for patient-AI interaction for diagnosis purposes. In the second experiment, I tested the empathy components separately against control in different simulated scenarios. I identified six cognitive empathy elements from the interview study with first-time mothers, two of these elements were unique from the past literature. In the final lab experiment, I tested different cognitive empathy components separately based on the results from the interview study in simulated scenarios to examine which element emerges as the most effective. Finally, I developed a conceptual model of cognitive empathy for patient-AI interaction connecting the past literature and the observations from my studies. Overall, cognitive empathy elements show promise to create a shared understanding in patients-AI communication that may lead to increased patient satisfaction and willingness to use AI systems for initial diagnosis purposes.
... By other-focused emotional reaction, we mean that the affect, cognition, and behaviors involved are primarily motivated by attention to and concern for the other, rather than to one's own emotional state. Empathic concern is closely related to feelings of sympathy and compassion 1 , and is often associated with adopting or taking on another person's perspective (Davis, 1983). ...
... From this inventory, we selected two instruments that include measures of dispositional concern for others. The Interpersonal Reactivity Index (21 items; Davis, 1983) was used to assess the three empathy-related facets of empathic concern, personal distress, and perspective taking. The Dispositional Positive Emotions Scale (27 items; Shiota et al., 2006) was used to assess participants' tendencies to experience the five positive emotions of compassion, amusement, contentment, joy, and love. ...
Preprint
Contemplative traditions have long affirmed that compassion and kindness are trainable skills. While research on meditation practice has recently flourished, the mechanisms that might precipitate such changes are still poorly understood. Here, we present a motivational framework to explain why meditation training should increase concern for others and modulate empathic engagement with human suffering over time. Meditation practices are conceived as tools for enacting cognitive and emotion regulatory goals that are conditioned by the underlying ethical motivation of the training—to reduce and alleviate suffering. In support of this account, we present data from a randomized, waitlist-controlled study of intensive meditation. In Study 1, we introduce a novel cardiovascular index of the salience of human suffering. We show that 3 months of meditation training can increase the motivational salience of others’ suffering, as compared to the salience of threats to oneself. We also show that training-related changes in the ability to orient attention to suffering is mediated by the dynamic regulation of distress-related physiological arousal. In Study 2, we demonstrate that meditation training can alter how images of human suffering are encoded in memory and are subsequently recollected 7 years later. Together, our findings suggest that meditation training can strengthen the motivational relevance of others’ suffering, prompting a shift from self-focused to other-focused processing, which can leave lasting imprints on emotional experience. Considering meditation training from a motivational standpoint offers an important perspective for understanding how compassion can be cultivated through intentional practice.
... Moreover, cognitive empathy can be considered an organizing principle for a number of related concepts studied within the cognitive, social-cognitive, and cognitive systems engineering, naturalistic decision making, and human factors disciplines. These include frameworks like perspective-taking and theory of mind (Davis, 1983;Leslie, 2001), and more specific topics like shared understanding, shared mental models, team sensemaking, shared decision making, and trust. ...
... One important component of cognitive empathy is perspective-taking, which is a cognitive capacity to consider the world from other viewpoints and allows an individual to anticipate the behavior and reactions of others (Davis, 1983). Perspective takers can step outside the constraints of their own immediate, biased frames of reference (Moore, 2005). ...
Conference Paper
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Research on empathy has traditionally focused on affective aspects, but cooperative work can also involve cognitive aspects of empathy in terms of common ground and perspective-taking. Many of the affective empathetic processes involve the same kinds of intuitive decision making processes invoked in naturalistic decision making research. Furthermore, elements of cognitive empathy are studied throughout research on cooperative teamwork, including shared mental models, shared sensemaking, shared goals, shared plans, etc. Thus, cognitive empathy can be considered a means for organizing a broad range of cooperative functions that improve teamwork. In this paper, we provide a principled taxonomy of cognitive empathy-based on general macrocognitive planning/sensemaking/decision processes, providing illustrative examples in human-human work from medical diagnosis and care. Finally, we discuss the prospects of creating cognitively empathetic AI systems to create genuine empathetic interactions.
... Task fMRI experiments were conducted for the finger tapping, n-back, and memory recall tasks. Two resting state experiments were conducted, one for subjects with IRI (Davis, 1980(Davis, , 1983 and the other for subjects having musical practice experience. MRI scanner used in the experiments was a 3-Tesla Verio/Skyrafit scanner (Siemens, Erlangen, Germany). ...
... relationships formed with others (Davis, 1983). The subscales include perspective taking, empathic concern, fantasy, and personal distress. ...
Article
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Previous studies suggested the possibility that the red nucleus (RN) is involved in other cognitive functions than motion per se, even though such functions have yet to be clarified. We investigated the activation of RN during several tasks and its intrinsic functional network associated with social cognition and musical practice. The tasks included finger tapping, n-back, and memory recall tasks. Region of interest for RN was identified through those tasks, anatomical information of RN and a brain atlas. The intrinsic functional network was identified for RN by an analysis of connectivity between RN and other regions typically involved in seven known resting state functional networks with RN used as the seed region. Association of the RN network with a psychological trait of the interpersonal reactivity index and musical training years revealed subnetworks that included empathy related regions or music practice related regions. These social or highly coordinated motor activity represent the most complex functions ever known to involve the RN, adding further evidence for the multifunctional roles of RN. These discoveries may lead to a new direction of investigations to clarify probable novel roles for RN in high-level human behavior.
... They state that perspective-taking refers to an individual's ability to imagine a situation from a different perspective or imagine oneself being someone else to understand that person's thoughts, motivations, intentions, and emotions. Davis (1983) states that perspective-taking is closely related to orientation to others. Perspective takings owned by individuals are observable when they perform increased understanding and attention to others and give positive attributes to others (Parker & Axtell, 2001). ...
... The researcher used a measuring instrument with adequate reliability. The measurement of perspective-taking was carried out by using the PT scale from Davis (1983), which consisted of 6 ...
Article
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Organisasi yang sukses membutuhkan anggota yang bersedia melakukan sesuatu lebih dari pekerjaan yang biasa ia lakukan, dan perilaku ini disebut organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). Faktor individu mempunyai peran yang penting untuk memunculkan perilaku OCB, salah satunya adalah kemampuan untuk melihat dan memahami melalui sudut pandang orang lain atau yang disebut perspective taking. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh perspective taking terhadap OCB pada anggota organisasi. Partisipan dalam penelitian ini adalah 197 mahasiswa, 56 laki – laki dan 141 perempuan dengan rentang usia 18 - 23 tahun. Data dikumpulkan secara online dengan menggunakan dua skala, skala perspective taking dan skala OCB. Analisis data menggunakan regresi sederhana dengan program SPSS menunjukkan bahwa perspective taking memberikan kontribusi pada OCB.
... Empathy requires one to adopt the subjective viewpoint of the other (Decety and Jackson 2004) and describes the capacity to feel, understand, and emotionally engage with what other people are experiencing. Detecting and understanding empathy have applications in many domains including human-computer interaction (Buechel et al. 2018;Virvou and Katsionis 2003;De Vicente and Pain 2002), education (Virvou and Katsionis 2003), medical and healthcare (Raab 2014;Williams et al. 2015), and psychology (Yan and Tan 2014;Davis 1983;Batson 2009). ...
... There have been several studies on the importance and impacts of empathy on individuals' physiological and medical health, and its applications and benefits in various fields of psychology (Davis 1983;Batson 2009), cognitive science (Launay et al. 2015;Wakabayashi et al. 2006;Baron-Cohen and Wheelwright 2004), human-computer interaction (Virvou and Katsionis 2003;De Vicente and Pain 2002;Kort and Reilly 2002), neuroscience (Singer and Lamm 2009;Carr et al. 2003;Keysers et al. 2004), and healthcare (Williams et al. 2015;Raab 2014). Interestingly, empathy is shown to have interplay with gender, language, behavior, and culture (Chung, Chan, and Cassels 2010;Chung and Bemak 2002;Gungordu 2017). ...
Article
Empathy describes the capacity to feel, understand, and emotionally engage with what other people are experiencing. People have recently started to turn to online health communities to seek empathetic support when they undergo difficult situations such as suffering from a life-threatening disease, while others are there to provide empathetic support to those who need it. It is, therefore, important to detect the direction of empathy expressed in natural language. Previous studies only focus on the presence of empathy at a high-level and do not distinguish the direction of empathy that is expressed in textual messages. In this paper, we take one step further in the identification of perceived empathy from text by introducing IEMPATHIZE, a dataset of messages annotated with the direction of empathy exchanged in an online cancer network. We analyze user messages to identify the direction of empathy at a fine-grained level: seeking or providing empathy. Our dataset IEMPATHIZE serves as a challenging benchmark for studying empathy at a fine-grained level.
... Sensitivity to pain expressions have been found to be diminished among patients diagnosed with schizophrenia (Martins et al., 2011;Wojakiewicz et al., 2013), positively correlated with a test of the ability to name "basic affects" (Martins et al., 2011), and improved by training in the identification of facial actions known to be correlated with pain (Rash et al., 2019). The tendency to impute higher levels of pain to others has been found to be positively associated with observers' trait anxiety, pain catastrophizing (Rash et al., 2015), and the Fantasy and Empathic Concern components of Davis's (1983) widely used multidimensional self-report measure of empathy (Wojakiewicz et al., 2013). It has also been found to be positively associated with a unidimensional measure of empathy (Mehrabian, 1997) among patients with congenital insensitivity to pain (Danziger et al., 2006). ...
Article
Despite growing evidence that psychopathy entails reduced emotional processing, the relationship between psychopathic traits and third-person pain perception is poorly understood. This study directly examined perception of others' pain in a sample of male and female students (N = 105) who completed the Self-Report Psychopathy scale (SRP-III) and the Toronto Empathy Questionnaire (TEQ). Participants watched a video of 60 one-second clips of other people experiencing pain. Following each clip, participants rated the perceived level of pain intensity and pain unpleasantness. Psychopathic traits were unrelated to response bias, suggesting that individuals high in psychopathic traits were no more or less likely to impute pain to others. However, higher levels of psychopathic traits, particularly callous affect and antisocial behavior, were associated with a decreased ability to discriminate others' pain. Sensitivity and response bias were unrelated to TEQ scores. These findings provide novel insights into the influence of psychopathic traits on emotional processing.
... For your friend/the other person?). Decision-makers then completed a number of additional self-report measures assessing: general attitudes toward risk-taking (DOSPERT) 43 , empathy (IRI) 44 , self-esteem (Rosenberg self esteem) 45 , general reward sensitivity (BIS/BAS) 46 and Machiavellian traits 47 . The experimenter then calculated participants' bonus payment by randomly selecting a single trial from the shared condition of the task. ...
Article
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Choices under risk often have consequences for ourselves and others. Yet, it is unclear how the other’s identity (stranger, close friend, etc.) influences risky choices made on their behalf. In a mixed within and between subjects design, two participant groups made three series of risky economic decisions: for themselves, another person, or for both themselves and another person (i.e., shared outcomes). One group made choices involving a same-sex stranger (n = 29), the other made choices involving a same-sex close friend (n = 28). Hierarchical Bayesian estimation of computations underlying risky decision-making revealed that relative to choosing for themselves, people were more risk averse, loss averse, and consistent when choices involved another person. Partner identity was additionally crucial: people became risk neutral and more consistent when choosing for friends relative to strangers. These findings establish that the complexity of the social world is mirrored in its nuanced consequences for our choices.
... Upon arrival at the laboratory, participants completed the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI; Davis, 1983 ) to assess their trait empathy. This index consists of four subscales: perspective-taking, empathic fantasy, empathic concern, and personal distress. ...
Article
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Alterations of empathy for others’ pain among patients with chronic pain remained inconsistent. Here, applying a capsaicin-based ongoing pain model on healthy participants, this study investigated how ongoing first-hand pain influences empathic reactions to vicarious pain stimuli. Healthy participants were randomly treated with topical capsaicin cream (capsaicin group) or hand cream (control group) on the left forearm. Video clips showing limbs in painful and non-painful situations were used to induce empathic responses. The capsaicin group showed greater empathic neural responses in the right primary somatosensory cortex (S1) than the control group but smaller responses in the left anterior insula (AI) accompanied with smaller empathic pain-intensity ratings. Notably, the intensity of ongoing pain negatively correlated with empathy-related neural responses in the left AI. Inter-subject phase synchronization analysis was used to assess stimulus-dependent dynamic functional connectivity within or between brain regions engaged in pain empathy. The capsaicin group showed greater empathy-related neural synchronization within S1 and between S1 and AI, but less synchronization within AI and between AI and MCC. Behaviorally, the differential inter-subject pain-intensity rating alignment between painful and non-painful videos was more positive for the capsaicin group than for the control group, and this effect was partially mediated by the inter-subject neural synchronization between S1 and AI. These results suggest that ongoing first-hand pain facilitates neural activation and synchronization within brain regions associated with empathy-related somatosensory resonance at the cost of inhibiting activation and synchronization within brain regions engaged in empathy-related affective sharing.
... Psychology research defines perspective-taking as an intentional process of stimulating a person's thought into considering and accepting the specific aspects of another's point of view (Davis 1983a). It allows individuals to adopt the other person's strategies beyond their typical perspective during their decision-making processes (Davis, Conklin, Smith, and Luce 1996). ...
Article
Chui, Curtis, and Pike (2022) find that auditors encouraged to take a forensic specialist’s perspective provide a more effective and efficient risk response in varying fraud risk environments than with their traditional mindset. The study provides evidence that auditors can adopt the forensic perspective, which focuses on fraud detection, while maintaining their typical audit roles and responsibilities. We summarize their key findings and discuss practical implications and actionable suggestions for audit practitioners. These insights suggest a potential low-cost mechanism to improve auditors’ fraud risk assessments and subsequent risk responses.
... Los análisis de regresiones plantean que en este grupo APS, compasión y promoción personal, predicen la prosocialidad-productiva. Las dos primeras variables son consistentes con los perfiles que se reportan en emprendedores que buscan equilibrar valor y generar un bien social mayor (Miller et al., 2012;Ovais & Li, 2016), dada la capacidad de condolerse y actuar para el bien de otros (Abhi, 2017;Davis, 1983;Ruskin et al., 2016). Respecto a los valores de autopromoción, se podría interpretar que en este grupo hay intereses, de corte individualista, detrás de la ejecución de conductas prosocialesproductivas. ...
Article
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Se analizaron perfiles psicológicos de emprendedores según el tipo de valor (comercial/social) y el origen (necesidad/oportunidad) de sus emprendimientos, buscando identificar variables predictoras de conductas de prosocialidad-productiva. Se midieron variables como: rasgos de personalidad, valores, empatía y sostenibilidad, en 506 fundadores de diversos emprendimientos en Perú. Se realizó un análisis de conglomerados según las condiciones de valor y origen, y se identificaron cinco grupos/clusters: Oportunidad Comercial, Oportunidad Social, Centro, Necesidad Comercial y Necesidad Social. Se contrastaron muestras independientes con ANOVA de una vía. La discusión explica las particularidades de cada grupo/cluster señalando la diferencia radical del grupo Oportunidad Social respecto a los otros y proponiendo oportunidades de comprensión y promoción de emprendimientos orientados a la prosocialidad en el contexto local.
... While rewards and effort costs play crucial roles in people's decisions to invest prosocial effort 16 , these decisions are also shaped by people's social preferences 23 , which are in turn influenced by factors such as empathy and self-other overlap 24,25 . Empathy is a multidimensional process of understanding, sharing, and caring about the emotions of others 3,26 , while self-other overlap is a property of one persons' perception of another person that includes perceived closeness between self and other, as well as the extent to which representations of self and other overlap 24,27 . ...
Article
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Effort is aversive and often avoided, even when earning benefits for oneself. Yet, people sometimes work hard for others. How do people decide who is worth their effort? Prior work shows people avoid physical effort for strangers relative to themselves, but invest more physical effort for charity. Here, we find that people avoid cognitive effort for others relative to themselves, even when the cause is a personally meaningful charity. In two studies, participants repeatedly decided whether to invest cognitive effort to gain financial rewards for themselves and others. In Study 1, participants (N = 51; 150 choices) were less willing to invest cognitive effort for a charity than themselves. In Study 2, participants (N = 47; 225 choices) were more willing to work cognitively for a charity than an intragroup stranger, but again preferred cognitive exertion that benefited themselves. Computational modeling suggests that, unlike prior physical effort findings, cognitive effort discounted the subjective value of rewards linearly. Exploratory machine learning analyses suggest that people who represented others more similarly to themselves were more willing to invest effort on their behalf, opening up new avenues for future research.
... There is a large individual difference in empathy (e.g. Davis, 1983;Stern and Cassidy, 2018). Future studies can expand the diversity of participants in empathy. ...
Article
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Background Empathy is a choice and the product of a dynamic decision process based on motivation. The value trade-off in empathy is object-specific and people are more likely to empathize with ingroup, especially empathize with whom we are particularly concerned. The mother is an integral part of the self-concept, but the status of the mother in the self-concept of the eastern and western subjects was different. Previous studies have shown that mother is integrated in self-concept and share the same motivational hierarchy with self in Chinese brain. Objectives The study's purpose is to investigate the empathic choice for mothers in Chinese culture and its regulatory mechanism. Methods Three experiments were conducted to investigate whether Chinese college students would choose to empathize with their mothers. Experiment 1 used the Empathy Selection Task to examine the empathic choices between mother-other and stranger-other conditions with two blocks of 50 trials, and used the NASA Task Load Index to evaluate the cognitive costs for each deck option presented; Experiment 2 induced a disagreeable emotional state and replicate the same conditions of the experiment 1; Experiment 3 induced an agreeable emotional state and replicate the same conditions of the experiment one. Results and conclusions The results showed that: (1) participants tended to avoid empathizing with their mothers and strangers for to the cognitive cost; (2) participants were more likely to choose empathy when the target was their mother rather than when the target was a stranger-other, due to the social reward; and (3) participants were more likely to opt to empathize with their mothers when positive emotions towards their mothers were primed. The results suggested that empathy is a choice and the product of a dynamic decision process based on motivation and the value trade-off in empathy is object-specific.
... The IRI includes 28 self-report items, composing four subscales [7 items each; (35,36)]. The current study focuses on two subscales: perspective taking (e.g., "I try to look at everybody's side of a disagreement before I make a decision") and empathic concern (e.g., "I often have tender, concerned feelings for people less fortunate than me"). ...
Article
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Empathetic tendencies (i.e., perspective taking and empathic concern) are a key factor in interpersonal relationships, which may be impacted by emotion regulation (i.e., reappraisal and suppression) and mental health symptoms, such as psychotic-like experiences. However, it is unclear if certain psychotic-like experiences, such as delusion-proneness, are still associated with reduced empathetic tendencies after accounting for emotion regulation style and dimensions of psychopathology that are often comorbid. In the current study, linear models tested these associations in a transdiagnostic community sample (N = 128), using the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI), Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, and the Peter’s Delusion Inventory. Results indicated that perspective taking was positively associated with reappraisal and negatively associated with delusion-proneness, after controlling for age, sex, race, intelligence, and symptoms of anxiety and depression. A significant change in R2 supported the addition of delusion-proneness in this model. Specificity analyses demonstrated perspective taking was also negatively associated with suppression, but this relationship did not remain after accounting for the effects of reappraisal and delusion-proneness. Additional specificity analyses found no association between empathic concern and reappraisal or delusion-proneness but replicated previous findings that empathic concern was negatively associated with suppression. Taken together, delusion-proneness accounts for unique variance in perspective taking, which can inform future experimental research and may have important implications for psychosocial interventions.
... O estudo da empatia é um vasto tópico no campo das ciências comportamentais, como a psicologia, sociologia e comportamento de consumo. Davis (1983) cita estudos de séculos anteriores que já consideravam dois aspectos deste constructo, da "simples habilidade em entender a perspectiva do outro" a expressão de reações emocionais por conta do outro. ...
Research Proposal
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Conforme máquinas, independente de sua forma, passam a exibir elementos sociais, uma relação afetiva é criada entre estes seres artificiais (S.A.) e seus interlocutores humanos. Como resultado, indivíduos podem atribuir características humanas a tais seres, considerá-los como iguais e, por consequência, exibir um comportamento interpessoal e de interação similar ao que ocorreria com outro ser humano, resultando em empatia, vínculos de confiança e cumplicidade. Por meio de uma abordagem experimental, este projeto busca avaliar como a empatia, moderada pela antropomorfização, contribuiria em um maior nível de percepção de humanidade em seres artificiais e, por conseguinte, aumentaria o nível de confiança em sugestões de comportamento dadas por um S.A. (empático vs. não-empático; antropomorfizado vs. não-antropomorfizado) e na cumplicidade para com o S.A. em situações que possam resultar em ganho, perda ou indiferença para o participante humano.
... 3. Interpersonal Reactivity Index [33]. This scale was used to measure individual's cognitive and affective empathy. ...
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Stigmatization of COVID-19 disease has been speculated due to misinformation about the disease, fearing of contracting the infection, absence of available cure, and holding responsibility for infecting others. We aimed to establish the prevalence of COVID-19 related stigma and its association with empathic responding, in addition to exploring predictors of stigma and testing intention among Jordanian people. A quantitative, descriptive and predictive design was used and data were collected using a web-based survey from 1074 adults. Findings showed that participants had high stigmatization against COVID-19 infection. Higher empathic responding (both cognitive and affective), being a female participant, and older age resulted in higher stigmatization. Only stigmatization of COVID-19 negatively predicted individuals’ intention for testing. These findings warrant intensive efforts from the Jordanian government on a local and national level to provide ongoing public education related to several aspects of COVID-19 disease, in order to reduce or prevent the associated stigma and increase people’s intention for testing.
... We measured the extent to which participants were motivated by empathic concern using the 7-item Empathic Concern subscale from the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (Davis, 1983). Example items include, "When I see someone being taken advantage of, I feel kind of protective toward them," and "I often have tender, concerned feelings for people less fortunate than me." ...
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Low sexual desire in women is usually studied as a problem, one that is located within women. However, other possibilities exist, including known gender inequities related to heteronormative gender roles. In this study, we provide the first test of the theory that heteronormativity is related to low sexual desire in women partnered with men, focusing specifically on inequities in the division of household labor. In two studies with women who were partnered with men and had children (Study 1, N = 677; Study 2, N = 396), performing a large proportion of household labor was associated with significantly lower sexual desire for a partner. Together, the results suggest that this association was mediated by both perceiving the partner as a dependent and perceiving the division of labor as unfair. These results support the heteronormativity theory of low sexual desire in women partnered with men, and show that gender inequities are important, though understudied, contributors to low desire in women partnered with men.
... Empathy research suggests a distinction between traits and abilities (Hall and Schwartz 2019;Stosic et al. 2022), and it is unclear whether insular damage manifests differently on trait and ability measures. Thus, for a richer exploration of empathy as a multidimensional construct and to assess possible alterations in trait empathy, patients and controls completed the German adaptation of the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI; Davis 1983), the Saarbrücker Persönlichkeitsfragebogen (SPF; Paulus 2009), after the EA task. This widely used self-report questionnaire (for reviews, see Kumfor et al. 2017;Nadeau 2021;Mendez et al. 2022) addresses individual differences in cognitive and affective trait empathy by means of 4 subscales: The Perspective-Taking (PT) scale and the Fantasy (FS) scale represent the concept of CE, while the Empathic-Concern (EC) scale and the Personal-Distress (PD) scale operationalize AE. ...
Article
The insula plays a central role in empathy. However, the complex structure of cognitive (CE) and affective empathy (AE) deficits following insular damage is not fully understood. In the present study, patients with insular lesions (n = 20) and demographically matched healthy controls (n = 24) viewed ecologically valid videos that varied in terms of valence and emotional intensity. The videos showed a person (target) narrating a personal life event. In CE conditions, subjects continuously rated the affective state of the target, while in AE conditions, they continuously rated their own affect. Mean squared error (MSE) assessed deviations between subject and target ratings. Patients differed from controls only in negative, low-intensity AE, rating their own affective state less negative than the target. This deficit was not related to trait empathy, neuropsychological or clinical parameters, or laterality of lesion. Empathic functions may be widely spared after insular damage in a naturalistic, dynamic setting, potentially due to the intact interpretation of social context by residual networks outside the lesion. The particular role of the insula in AE for negative states may evolve specifically in situations that bear higher uncertainty pointing to a threshold role of the insula in online ratings of AE.
Article
Результаты многочисленных научных исследований и выводы ученых разных веков отводят особое место самопознанию в жизни и благополучии человека. Однако до настоящего времени вопрос связи самопознания и психологического благополучия личности изучался крайне мало, давая лишь фрагментарные представления о наличии или отсутствии этой связи. Особенно этот вопрос необходим для изучения в подростковом возрасте, важном для гармоничного формирования личности и связанном с активизацией развития процессов самосознания и самопознания.В статье содержатся результаты изучения значимых факторов самопознания подростков, определяющих их психологическое благополучие. Актуальность проведенного исследования обусловлена особой необходимостью интеграции научных знаний о внутриличностных факторах, способствующих формированию психологического благополучия. Научная новизна проведенной работы состоит в том, что самопознание подростков в контексте их психологического благополучия является малоизученной темой и исследуется впервые.Респондентами исследования стали подростки 13–17 лет из тульских и московских школ, психологическое благополучие которых было определено с помощью методики «Шкала психологического благополучия К. Рифф» (адаптированный вариант Т. Шевеленковой и П. Фесенко), а особенности самопознания изучены с использованием семи психологических методик. После статистической обработки с помощью программы обработки данных SPSS 21.0 был проведен факторный анализ 59 признаков, связанных с самопознанием и оказывающих влияние на психологическое благополучие изучаемых подростков. В исследуемой группе в разрезе разных уровней психологического благополучия удалось выявить от 6 до 16 факторов.Описаны общие и специфичные факторы самопознания, значимые для подростков с высоким, средним и низким уровнями психологического благополучия. Общими для всей выборки стали стремление к рефлексивному анализу себя, осмысленному восприятию своего будущего, успешному общению, физической гармонии. Кроме этого, описаны специфичные факторы, значимые для каждой уровневой группы.Вывод о том, что психологическое благополучие подростков обусловлено факторами, связанными с самопознанием, подтверждают результаты данного исследования.Полученные результаты будут интересны ученым, занимающимся поиском внутриличностных способов повышения психологического благополучия подростков, а также важны для разработки образовательных программ и проектов, направленных на обеспечение психологического благополучия подростков. Numerous studies attach great importance to one’s self-reflection and well-being. However, the interconnection between one’s self-reflection and one’s well-being is largely underinvestigated. The interconnection between one’s self-reflection and one’s well-being is especially significant in adolescence when it ensures harmonious personality development and self-reflection.The article presents the results of a survey aimed at the investigation of important factors pertaining to teenagers’ self-awareness predetermining teenagers’ psychological wellbeing. The relevance of the research is accounted for by the necessity to integrate scholarly research about intrapersonal factors related to psychological well-being. Scientific novelty of the research consists in the fact that teenagers’ self-awareness in the context of their psychological well-being is a largely understudied issue.The survey involved 13–17 year-old teenagers from schools of Tula and Moscow. To evaluate schoolchildren’s psychological well-being, the authors use K. Riff’s Scale of Psychological Well-being (adapted by T. Shevelenkova and P. Fesenko). To evaluate schoolchildren’s self-awareness, the authors use seven psychological techniques. The data are statistically processed with SPSS Statistics 21.0. Factor analysis is applied to explore 59 descriptors connected with self-awareness and influencing teenagers’ well-being. The investigation shows that there are 6–16 factors related to different levels of teenagers’ psychological well-being.The article describes general and specific factors of self-awareness for teenagers with high, medium and low levels of psychological well-being. All respondents demonstrate the desire to improve their self-reflection, to be aware of their future, to ensure effective communication, to ensure harmonious physical development. The article also describes specific factors typical of each group.The authors conclude that teenagers’ psychological wellbeing is interrelated with teenagers’ self-reflection.The results of the research are relevant to the investigation of intrapersonal means of improving teenagers’ psychological wellbeing and are an essential prerequisite for the development of educational programs and projects aimed at ensuring teenagers’ psychological wellbeing.
Article
Проблема доверия к врачу в настоящее время приобретает особую актуальность, так как возрастает потребность общества в психологически грамотных специалистах, способных целенаправленно развивать доверительные отношения со своими пациентами. Кроме того, актуальность обусловливается отсутствием специальной подготовки будущих специалистов в этом направлении, а также недостаточной разработкой проблемы доверительных отношений в отечественной психологии.В статье дается анализ уже существующих подходов к содержанию доверия в рамках различных отраслей научной деятельности с акцентом на психологическую составляющую контента данного феномена. Прослеживается трансформация понимания доверия во временном аспекте вплоть до современного осмысления. Вместе с тем изучается теоретический аспект доверия во взаимоотношениях субъектов и анализируется содержание этого аспекта в трудах различных ученых (А. Селигмен, А. Б. Купрейченко, Т. П. Скрипкина и др.).В эмпирической части исследования рассматриваются особенности содержательного аспекта феномена доверия, то есть контента доверия в отношениях «врач — пациент». Исследование было проведено на выборке из пациентов, находящихся на стационарном лечении в следующих отделениях: хирургическое, травматологическое, терапевтическое ГБУ РО «Городская клиническая больница скорой медицинской помощи» (ГКБСМП) и пульмонологическое ГБУ РО «Областная клиническая больница» г. Рязани. Исследование имело пилотажный характер. Приняли участие 50 респондентов: 25 пациентов, подвергавшихся оперативному вмешательству, и 25 — не подвергавшихся. В работе с респондентами соблюдались этические принципы психолога: исследование проводилось на добровольной основе, соблюдалась анонимность и неразглашение личной тайны. Работа заключалась в устных и письменных ответах на вопросы. Основным методом изучения контента доверия к врачам со стороны пациентов было свободное интервью.Изучая отдельные содержательные стороны, составляющие контент доверия, удалось выделить четыре основные категории, которые формируют доверие пациента к врачу: профессиональные, коммуникативные, морально-этические и саморегуляция. Предпринята попытка найти различия в особенностях доверия у пациентов, проходивших оперативное и консервативное лечение. Таких различий не выявлено, что послужило благоприятным фактором, поскольку формирование доверия у врачей не вызовет отдельной дифференциации мишеней работы в зависимости от направленности медицинского воздействия. The issue of patients’ trust in doctors has become highly relevant, for there is an urgent need for reliable specialists who are well versed in psychology of human relationships and can build patient-doctor relationships based on trust. The relevance of the research consists in the fact that nowadays there are few specialists meeting this requirement and the issue of patient-doctor trust is largely underinvestigated by Russian psychologists.The article analyzes the existing approaches to the notion of trust focusing on the psychological aspect of this phenomenon. The article underlines that scholars’ understanding of the concept of trust has changed several times. The article analyzes theoretical aspects of trust and investigates the concept of trust as represented in works of different scholars (A. Seligmen, A. B. Kupreychenko, T. P. Skripkina, etc.).The empirical part of the research focuses on the content of the phenomenon of trust, i.e. on the content of patients’ trust in their doctors. The research is conducted in the Department of Surgery, the Department of Trauma and the Department of Therapeutics of the City Clinical Hospital (Ryazan) and in the Department of Pulmonology of the Regional Clinical Hospital (Ryazan). The research involves 50 respondents: 25 surgical patients and 25 non-surgical patients. The communication with patients is voluntary (as required by the code of ethics), anonymous, and confidential. The respondents are asked to answer a number of questions both orally and in writing. The main method of investigating patients’ trust in doctors is an interview.The research shows that there are four basic factors that predetermine patients’ trust in their doctors: doctors’ professional qualities, communication skills, moral and ethical principles, self-regulation. The research has uncovered no differences in surgical patients’ and non-surgical patients’ trust in doctors, which may be beneficial for further research, since there will be no need to trace differences in different groups of patients.
Article
В статье представлены результаты эмпирического исследования, цель которого — определение типичных психологических проблем и их зависимости от тревожности как черты личности у современной студенческой молодежи в период пандемии COVID-19. В процессе исследования использовались методика Ч. Д. Спилбергера на выявление личностной и ситуативной тревожности, адаптированная Ю. Л. Ханиным (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory — STAI), шкала тревоги А. Т. Бека (BAI), анкета Л. А. Регуш на выявление психологических проблем молодежи. Выборку исследования составили 86 респондентов в возрасте от 18 до 23 лет, из которых 46 обучались в вузе и 40 — в учреждениях среднего профессионального образования (СПО). Гендерные особенности в нашем исследовании не учитывались.Результаты проведенного исследования показали, что наиболее характерными для студенческой молодежи независимо от типа тревожности и уровня обучения являются три категории психологических проблем: связанные с обучением, будущим, а также с развитием современного общества (проблемы зависимостей, изменения ценностей, психологической безопасности).Получены достоверные различия результатов обучающихся в вузе респондентов в период стабильности (2019 год) и пандемии COVID-19 (2021 год), в частности выявлен рост уровня и ситуативной, и личностной тревожности.Результаты позволяют расширить имеющиеся в психологии данные о специфике влияния ситуативной и личностной тревожности на психологические проблемы студенческой молодежи и могут быть использованы в работе специалистами в области образования, прежде всего психологами-педагогами. The article presents the results of an empirical research aimed at investigating typical psychological problems and whether they are connected with anxiety as a personal trait of modern students during the Coronavirus COVID-19 pandemic. The researchers use Ch. D. Spilberger’s method of evaluation of personal and situational anxiety, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory adapted by Yu. L. Khanin, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, L. A. Regush’s questionnaire aimed at detecting psychological problems. The survey involves 86 respondents aged 18—23. 46 respondents are university students, 40 respondents are students of secondary vocational education institutions. Gender differences are not taken into account. The results of the research show that all students regardless of their anxiety level or their year of studies experience three significant psychological problems associated with their academic involvement, with their anticipation of the future and with the state of modern society (addiction, values, psychological safety).The article presents reliable results showing the differences between students’ academic performance, the levels of their situational and personal anxiety in pre-pandemic times (2019) and during the pandemic (2021).The results of the research throw more light on the influence of situational and personal anxiety on psychological problems experienced by students. The results of the research can be used by educators and educational psychologists.
Article
В статье рассмотрены некоторые особенности стрессовой реакции школьников при госпитализации. Актуальность темы обусловлена тем, что болезнь ребенка, требующая госпитализации или длительного лечения, неблагоприятно влияет на его эмоциональное состояние в период заболевания и госпитализации, а также может иметь долговременные последствия.На основе теоретического анализа литературы и наблюдений выделены особенности адаптации детей при госпитализации и факторы, оказывающие влияние на возникновение стрессовой реакции: разлучение с семьей и друзьями, отрыв от учебных занятий в школе, влияние болезни и лечебных мероприятий, эмоционального состояния родителя и его отношения к болезни и госпитализации, а также личностные особенности школьников.Сделан вывод о том, что существует дефицит данных об особенностях стрессовой реакции детей с последствиями травм и других соматических заболеваний, нуждающихся в неотложной медицинской помощи. Исследования в данном направлении позволят более обоснованно раскрыть специфику психолого-педагогического сопровождения данной группы детей. The article treats some peculiarities of stress responses in school children being hospitalized. The relevance of the research is accounted for by the fact that childhood illnesses which require ongoing medical attention or prolonged hospitalization are associated with negative effects on children’s emotional state during the period of ill health or hospitalization and can have long-lasting effects.The analysis of research literature and observational studies enables the researchers to single out peculiarities pertaining to children’s adaptation to hospitalization and factors affecting stress responses, such as separation from family and friends, inability to be involved in studies, ill health and medical procedures, parents’ emotional state and their attitude to ill health and hospitalization, personal characteristics.The authors conclude that there is a deficit of knowledge about stress responses in children with post-traumatic stress disorder and other somatic conditions requiring emergency treatment. Further investigations in the field will enable researchers to develop procedures for psychological and pedagogical support of children belonging to the group.
Article
В статье представлен анализ мотивации к занятиям физической культурой, а также факторов, снижающих двигательную активность у студентов первых и выпускных курсов неспортивных специальностей педагогического института.Актуальность исследования обусловлена усиливающимся вниманием к проблеме сохранения и укрепления здоровья студенческой молодежи. Однако, как показывает ряд исследований, вследствие увеличения учебной нагрузки, роста интеллектуального и нервно-психического напряжения, снижается двигательная активность студентов и как следствие — потребность в физических нагрузках. Целью нашего исследования является изучение особенностей мотивации к занятиям физической культурой студентов неспортивных специальностей на разных этапах обучения. Предполагается, что у студентов старших курсов за счет влияния внешних факторов снижается потребность в регулярных физических упражнениях. В исследовании приняли участие студенты педагогического института первого, четвертых-пятых курсов бакалавриата и специалитета в возрасте 18–22 лет (N = 98). Выявлены особенности мотивов, побуждающих к занятиям физической культурой обучающихся на первых и выпускных курсах. Полученные результаты могут быть использованы преподавателями для проведения занятий физической культурой у студентов первых курсов в целях решения проблемы сохранения и укрепления здоровья в процессе обучения в вузе и после его окончания. The article analyzes students’ motivation to engage in physical culture. It also analyzes factors that lead to a decline in physical activity in first-year students and last-year students who do not major in sports.The relevance of the research is accounted for by the growing attention to the issue of preserving and improving students’ health. However, according to some research, students’ physical activity tends to decline due to the increase of cognitive and neuro-psychological stress. Therefore, it is essential that students should be engaged in physical culture. The aim of our research is to investigate non-sport students’ motivation to engage in physical culture and sports. The author hypothesises that due to various external factors, senior students have lower demand for regular physical activity. The survey involved 98 freshmen and senior students of a pedagogical institute aged 18–22. The research uncovers first year students’ and senior students’ motivation to engage in physical culture. The obtained results can be used in PE classrooms to preserve and improve first-year students’ health during university studies and after graduation.
Article
It is unknown whether watching other people in high pain increases mechanical hypersensitivity induced by pain. We applied high-frequency electrical stimulation (HFS) on the skin of healthy volunteers to induce pinprick mechanical hypersensitivity. Before HFS participants were randomly allocated to two groups: in the “low pain group”, which was the control condition, they wathched a model expressing and reporting lower pain scores, in the “high pain group” the model expressed and reported higher scores. The two videos were selected on the basis of a pilot/observational study that had been conducted before. We tested the differences in perceived intensity of the HFS procedure, in the development of hypersensitivity and the role of fear and empathy. The high pain group reported on average higher pain ratings during HFS. The perceived intensity of hypersensitivity, but not the unpleasantness or length of the area was higher in the high pain group. Our results suggests that watching a person expressing more pain during HFS increases one's own pain ratings during HFS and may weakly facilitate the development of secondary mechanical hypersensitivity, although this latter result needs replication.
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Objective Empathy and empathy education have been reviewed a number of times through systematic reviews and meta-analyses; however, the topic of ‘empathetic communication’ remains poorly understood when considering engaging in hospital-based research. Therefore, this scoping review aimed to explore the existing literature concerning empathetic communication in hospital settings and to evaluate the definitions presented. Design Scoping review. Data sources Systematic searches of the PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane, PsycINFO, and PsycArticles databases were conducted. Study selection All English studies in which empathetic communication in hospital settings were explored. The search terms used included empathy, communication, hospital settings, providers, and consumers. Data extraction Data were assessed through the use of a pre-set analysis tool. Results After conducting the searches, 419 articles were identified, of which 26 were included in this review. No single article specifically defined the term ‘empathetic communication’; however, 33 unique definitions of ‘empathy’ were identified, of which 23 considered communication to be a component of empathy. There was a considerable lack of consistency between the empathy definitions, with some classifying communication in empathy as an ability and others classifying it as a dynamic process. Conclusion Future and contextually focused research is needed to develop a consistent and clear definition of empathetic communication and empathy within a hospital setting to better build positive healthcare cultures. Practice implications Inconsistencies between definitions of empathy in empathetic communication research could reduce the efficacy of future research gains and impact the translation of research findings into clinical practice.
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Introduction Psychology students at universities in Denmark and worldwide often receive relatively little clinical training, even though such training is crucial to job performance after graduation. Training common psychotherapeutic skills, such as being empathic and facilitating the therapeutic alliance, is critical since these skills are related to psychotherapy outcomes. In this study, a deliberate practice-based approach to student training will be compared with theoretical teaching. The main hypothesis is that deliberate practice training will result in a larger improvement in students’ observer-rated interpersonal skills. Methods and analysis The TRaining of graduate students In general Psychotherapeutic Skills study has a double-centre, randomised, assessor-blinded, two-way crossover study design. About 200 graduate students from two Danish universities will be randomised into two groups, (a) deliberate practice training of common psychotherapeutic skills using role-play and Skillsetter, an online skill-building system with therapy videos or (b) theoretical teaching. Group a will first receive the experimental condition, followed by the control condition, while group b will receive the conditions in reverse order. Each condition consists of 15 hours of classroom participation and homework. The primary outcome is facilitative interpersonal skills—observer. Secondary outcomes include the facilitative interpersonal skills—self-report, the Counselor Activity Self-Efficacy Scales and the Interpersonal Reactivity Index. Outcomes will be measured at baseline (week 0), after the first condition (week 5; before the crossover, reflecting true randomisation) and after both conditions (week 10). Main outcome analyses will be performed at week 5. Several predictors of the effect of deliberate practice will be explored. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval from university ethics boards has been obtained. All participants will be asked to provide informed consent before participation. Once completed, the study can potentially transform the training of psychotherapy in graduate education, which, ultimately, may positively influence psychotherapy outcomes (IP-IRB / 03092021). Trial registration number NCT05164497 .
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Objective Numerous studies have demonstrated that religious belief is associated with prosocial behavior. However, how do they maintain cooperation in societies with a predominating atheist population, such as China? Different primings (explicit, subliminal, implicit) and a quasi-experiment are used to examine the link between communist authority and prosocial behaviors among college students in China. Materials and methods In Study 1 ( N = 398), the subjects’ communist authority in the university lab was primed by a communist-authority video. In Study 2 ( N = 296), we compared the priming effects of communist authority and religion on prosocial intention. Study 3 ( N = 311) investigated the priming effect of communist authority on prosocial behaviors by employing a scrambled sentence task in the university lab. A quasi-experiment was conducted in Study 4 ( N = 313). Results Results showed that communist-authority, a reminder of secular authorities, increased prosociality among college students. And empathy moderated the relationship between secular authorities and prosociality in Study 3 and Study 4. Discussion Communist authority, a secular authority prime, has a positive effect on promoting prosocial behaviors. These results provided a feasible yet novel way to reveal the mechanism of the relationship between secular authorities and prosociality in China.
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В статье рассматриваются теоретические аспекты феномена жизнестойкости и толерантности к неопределенности, которые в зарубежной и отечественной психологии представлены как внутренние ресурсы, позволяющие повысить адаптационные возможности личности при столкновении с кризисной ситуацией. Болезнь рассматривается как критическая жизненная ситуация. Инсульт является кризисной, неопределенной ситуацией, дезориентирующей личность, разрушающей ее представления о себе, нормах и ценностях, оказывающей негативное влияние на психологическое благополучие, качество жизни в целом.Психологическое благополучие является показателем, отражающим степень удовлетворенности жизнью, субъективно выражающимся в ощущении счастья. Также это направленность личности на реализацию позитивных жизненных целей (самоактуализация, самопринятие, личностный рост и т. п.).Описываются особенности психологического благополучия мужчин и женщин, перенесших инсульт в легкой степени: ощущение неудовлетворенности жизнью, снижение мотивационной (изменение жизненных мотивов и целей в связи с болезнью), когнитивной (оценка удовлетворенности различными жизненными сферами), эмоциональной (возникновение тревожности, депрессивности, невротизации личности) и поведенческой (деструктивные способы поведения) составляющих психологического благополучия.Повысить адаптационные возможности перенесших инсульт в процессе их психологической реабилитации поможет формирование внутренних ресурсов, к которым относятся жизнестойкость и толерантность к неопределенности, помогающие активно взаимодействовать с окружающим миром; восстановить нервно-психическое состояние; успешно адаптироваться к новым жизненным условиям; сформировать позитивное отношение к себе; выдержать неопределенность ситуации, сохраняя необходимый уровень эмоциональной и психологической устойчивости.В статье приводятся данные эмпирического исследования, свидетельствующие о взаимосвязи психологического благополучия и толерантности к неопределенности с жизнестойкостью у лиц, перенесших инсульт в легкой степени тяжести: чем выше уровень психологического благополучия, тем более высокий уровень жизнестойкости и толерантности к неопределенности они демонстрируют. Представлены также различия в детерминантах психического здоровья, определяющих психическое восстановление у мужчин и женщин, перенесших инсульт.Полученные результаты представляют интерес для психологов при психологической реабилитации людей, перенесших инсульт в легкой степени тяжести. The article treats theoretical aspects of the phenomena of resilience and tolerance for uncertainty, which are viewed by foreign and Russian scholars as internal resources which enhance people’s adaptability to crisis. Illness is treated as a critical situation. Apoplexy is a critical uncertain condition which disorients a person and destroys a person’s self-perception, undermines conventional norms and values, produces a negative impact on a person’s psychological wellbeing and on the quality of life in general.One’s psychological wellbeing reflects one’s satisfaction with life, enables a person to attain positive goals, such as self-actualization, self-acceptance, personal growth, etc.The article describes the peculiarities of psychological wellbeing in men and women who have suffered from mild apoplexy. It focuses on dissatisfaction with life, loss of motivation, cognitive (satisfaction vs. dissatisfaction with various spheres), emotional (anxiety, depression, neuroticism), behavioural (destructive behaviours) and other components of psychological wellbeing.The article maintains that in order to enhance patients’ adaptability and increase the effectiveness of psychological rehabilitation, it is important to focus on patients’ internal resources, such as resilience and tolerance for uncertainty which help to interact with the outer world, to improve one’s psychological wellbeing, to adapt to new conditions of life, to regain positive self-perception, to handle uncertainty and to regain emotional and mental stability.The article provides data of empirical research which shows the interconnection between psychological wellbeing and tolerance for uncertainty in people who have suffered from mild apoplexy. The article maintains that psychological wellbeing depends on resilience and tolerance for uncertainty. The article also investigates differences in psychological wellbeing of men and women who have suffered from apoplexy.The obtained results can be used by psychologists engaged in rehabilitation of people who have suffered from mild apoplexy.
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В статье анализируется и обобщается опыт реализации волонтерского практико-ориентированного проекта, направленного на сохранение и укрепление здоровья детей дошкольного возраста. Проект направлен на становление целостного отношения к здоровью, здоровому образу жизни, способствует физическому и психическому развитию дошкольников, определяет цель и задачи, основные направления, а также план действий и мероприятий по их реализации. Волонтерский проект «Здоровое детство» дает возможность раскрыть различные эффективные виды и формы взаимодействия детских образовательных учреждений, семьи, социальных условий с целью приобщения детей дошкольного возраста к регулярным занятиям физической культурой и спортом, здоровому образу жизни и, как следствие, будет способствовать повышению уровня здоровья.Актуальность заключается в разработке системы физкультурно-оздоровительной работы, использовании разнообразных здоровьесберегающих технологий с помощью нетрадиционного пути в педагогической деятельности дошкольных образовательных учреждений — волонтерской деятельности.Основными задачами проекта стали организация здоровьесберегающего процесса, соответствующего возрастным возможностям детей, распространение опыта работы в данном направлении, развитие волонтерского объединения за здоровый образ жизни.Новизна проекта заключается в пропаганде здорового образа жизни посредством волонтерского движения, в развитии духовных качеств участников проекта, укреплении традиционных семейных ценностей.В статье приводятся результаты реализации заявленного проекта, достигнутые успехи при участии в различных конкурсах волонтерских инициатив, педагогического мастерства, которые свидетельствуют об эффективности реализации проекта «Здоровое детство». Представлены перспективы дальнейшей работы. The article analyzes and summarizes the experience of organizing a volunteering project aimed at the preservation of pre-school children’s health. The main goal of the project is to promote a healthy lifestyle as a prerequisite to preschool children’s physical and mental development. The project is aimed at outlining measures that must be undertaken to meet the objectives. The Healthy Childhood volunteering project encourages effective collaboration between childcare centres, families and society in order to promote physical activity and a healthy lifestyle in preschool children as a prerequisite to children’s wellbeing.The research is relevant, for it views volunteering as a means to promote physical activity and health-preserving technologies in preschool educational institutions.The project is aimed at promoting health-preserving technologies in accordance with children’s specific age-dependent abilities and at encouraging people to volunteer in childcare centres.The novelty of the research consists in an attempt to encourage a healthy lifestyle through volunteering, through the development of participants’ moral qualities, through promotion of traditional family values.The article presents the results of the Healthy Childhood volunteering project, describes numerous volunteering accomplishments, such as successful participation in various competitions, and outlines prospects for further work.
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В поиске выхода из затянувшегося кризиса образования целесообразным является обращение к потребностям и ценностным ориентирам обучающихся. Это особенно актуально в условиях стремительных изменений во всех социальных сферах, сопровождающихся трансформацией системы традиционных ценностей.В статье представлены основные результаты пилотажного исследования ценностных ориентаций обучающихся организаций среднего специального и высшего образования Республики Крым. Учащиеся в возрасте от 18 до 25 лет были задействованы как респонденты. В рамках исследования был применен авторский опросник, ориентированный на следующие направления исследования: а) ценности, которые прививает современное образование; б) ценности, которыми пренебрегают в современном образовании; в) ценности, которые приоритетно должны быть реализованы в современном среднем, среднем профессиональном и высшем образовании; г) ценности, которые соотносятся с профессиональным обликом эффективного педагога; д) индивидуальные ценности респондентов. Выявлены терминальные и инструментальные ценности в рамках каждого из этих направлений. Определены зоны взаимопересечения ценностей в аспекте реального и идеального положения дел в образовании с позиции респондентов, а также зона аксиологической конфликтности.Новизна исследования обусловлена спецификой региональной образовательной среды Крыма, а также возрастными особенностями Z-поколения, определяющими формирование конкретного набора ценностей. Результаты исследования могут быть применены в сфере образовательного менеджмента и оптимизации отношений в системе «обучающий — обучаемый». In a situation of a lingering educational crisis, it is essential that researchers should focus on the investigation of students’ needs and values. This acquires special significance, since traditional values undergo transformation.The article presents the results of a pilot research of values in 18-25 year-old students acquiring education in secondary and tertiary education institutions of the Republic of Crimea. The author uses her own questionnaire to assess a) values developed by modern education, b) values ignored in modern learning environments, c) values that should be prioritized in modern secondary, vocational and higher education, d) values that are related to the image of an efficient teacher, e) respondents’ individual values. The research singles out terminal and instrumental values within the abovementioned groups. It investigates the interconnection between real and ideal educational values as viewed by the respondents, as well as axiological aspects of education.The novelty of the research is accounted for by the peculiarities of educational environment in the Republic of Crimea and the peculiarities of GenZers, which account for development of educational values. The results of the research are associated with the sphere of education management and with the teaching-learning-based optimization.
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Обозначена актуальность исследования феномена детства. Определены области научного знания о детстве и представлена дефинитивная палитра этого термина. Исследованы подходы к его изучению, функции. Обозначены особенности процесса развития ребенка. Рассмотрено пространство детства, описаны его характеристики и функции. Приведена позиция государства в отношении детей. Рассмотрены теоретические и практические аспекты исследований детства в XXI веке.Авторский вклад в исследование детства заключается в сопоставлении, анализе, изложении актуальных, значимых, перспективных аспектов современных исследований данной тематики. Представлен обзор теоретических и прикладных аспектов детства. Предложено авторское определение детства. В рамках профессиональных интересов авторов детство рассматривается как дополнительное направление в системных персонологических исследованиях, отдельный элемент структуры репродуктивной функции человека, составная часть материнско-детских взаимоотношений.На основе сопоставления и анализа данных системного исследования сделаны следующие основные выводы.Интерес социума к проблеме детства возникает с эпохи Возрождения (XIV–XVII вв.).Различные аспекты мира ребенка и его психологии раскрываются в произведениях искусства (графика, живопись, скульптура), художественной и просветительской литературе, кинематографе.Психология детства является актуальной и перспективной темой научного исследования.Исследование феномена детства носит полидисциплинарный характер: традиционно это науки о человеке (психология, педагогика, социология, философия, биология, медицина, история, культурология), а также специфические области междисциплинарного знания (психоанализ, педагогика, этнография, история).Целью детства как периода онтогенеза является взросление, рассматриваемое как присвоение, освоение, реализация взрослости.В периоде детства Homo sapiens sapiens выделяются три основные функции, отражающие гетерогенные аспекты существования человека: биологическая (соматическое развитие организма), психологическая (развитие психики человека), социальная (включение индивидуума в систему общественного воспитания).Существуют две точки зрения на процесс развития ребенка: развитие непрерывно и развитие дискретно.Детство интерпретируется как производная от исторической эпохи, характерной для нее культуры (духовной и материальной), уровня экономического развития и представляет собой n-мерное психосоциокультурное пространство. The article highlights that the investigation of the phenomenon of childhood is highly relevant. It investigates various approaches to the investigation of childhood and scrutinizes various definitions of the phenomenon. The article outlines various characteristics of childhood development, investigates various characteristics and functions of childhood, and focuses on theoretical and practical aspects of childhood research in the 21st century.The authors’ contribution to the investigation of childhood consists in the comparative analysis and investigation of relevant, significant and prospective aspects of modern research in the field. The authors overview theoretical and applied aspects of childhood. They provide their own definition of childhood and investigate childhood as a component in the system of reproductive functions and an essential element of mother-to-infant bonding.The authors provide an illustration in Danish artist H. Bidstrup’s style to underline the relevance of the investigated research and to popularise science.A comparative analysis of the data of systemic research enables the authors to draw the following conclusions:The Renaissance (the 14th–17th centuries) was the first historical period to see social interest in childhood.Various aspects of the children’s world and child psychology can be seen in works of art (graphics, painting, sculpture) and literature (fiction and popular science).Child psychology remains a relevant and prospective issue of research.The investigation of the phenomenon of childhood is multidisciplinary, it incorporates human-related research (psychology, sociology, philosophy, biology, medicine, history, culturology) and some specific interdisciplinary knowledge (psychoanalysis, pedagogy, ethnography, history).The aim of childhood as a period of ontogenesis is maturing, which is viewed as learning to be an adult.The young of the Homo sapiens species perform three functions which reflect heterogeneous aspects of human existence: biological (somatic development), psychological (psychic development) and social (social involvement).Some scholars believe that children undergo continuous development, others argue that children’s development is discreet.Children are exposed to the influence of culture (spiritual and material) typical of the historic period, economic development and n-dimensional psychosocial space.
Article
В статье рассматривается проблема изучения лексикологии русского языка в современной школе в рамках когнитивно-прагматического подхода. Аксиология обучения русскому языку предполагает усиление внимания к ценностным аспектам современного знания, прежде всего к роли родного языка в процессе познания и мышления.Актуальность проблематики обусловлена необходимостью учета в эпоху цифровизации когнитивных сдвигов в процессе познания в сторону клипового мышления и важностью разработки программ обучения русскому языку с учетом задач обновленного Федерального государственного образовательного стандарта основного общего образования в части требований к выработке метапредметных умений анализа, обобщения, классификации и др. Цель статьи — обосновать важность работы над родо-видовыми понятиями на уроках русского языка в соответствии с принципом градуальности на всех этапах обучения в основной школе.Сделана попытка выявления дефицитов в программно-методическом обеспечении процесса обучения лексикологии в современной школе в указанном аспекте. Проведен контент-анализ действующей Примерной основной образовательной программы основного общего образования (ПООП ООО), обобщены научные труды, касающиеся проблемы формирования языковой и научной картин мира, а также особенностей понятийного мышления современных подростков. Обоснована необходимость пересмотреть работу над родовидовыми понятиями на уроках русского языка и уточнить те способы толкования значения слова, которые являются прагматически направленными и решают, помимо дидактической задачи, еще и развивающую задачу, обеспечивая достижение учащимися метапредметных результатов в обучении русскому языку.Сделан вывод о необходимости разработки методической модели обучения русскому языку в когнитивно-прагматическом аспекте с учетом задач формирования языкового сознания обучающихся на этапе основного общего образования, развития понятийного мышления, постижения родного языка как средства познания мира. The article treats the issue of teaching vocabulary in the modern Russian language classroom within the framework of the cognitive-pragmatic approach. The axiology of Russian language teaching presupposes focusing on value-related aspects of modern knowledge, primarily on the role of one’s native language in the process of cognition and thinking.The relevance of the research is accounted for by the necessity to investigate cognitive shifts pertaining to digital natives’ clip mentality and the necessity to elaborate Russian language teaching curricula based on the updated Federal State Educational Standard of Secondary Education and aimed at developing meta-subject skills of analysis, generalization, classification, etc. The aim of the article is to substantiate the importance of investigating lexical hyponymy and hyperonymy in the Russian language classroom in accordance with the principle of gradual and continuous development.The article attempts to identify current vocabulary teaching and learning strategies that need to be improved. It analyzes the existing Tentative Curriculum of Secondary Education. It summarizes research in the sphere of developing one’s linguistic and scientific worldviews and in the sphere of modern adolescents’ conceptual thinking. It accounts for the necessity to review current strategies of teaching lexical hyponymy and hyperonymy in the Russian language classroom and underlines the necessity to investigate effective strategies of interpreting inherent aspects of lexical meaning which are pragmatics-oriented and will enable learners to acquire meta-subject competencies in the Russian language classroom.The article underlines the necessity of developing a methodological model incorporating cognitive and pragmatic aspects of Russian language teaching and aimed at developing learners’ linguistic worldview and conceptual thinking in the Russian language classroom in secondary schools
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Современная система российского образования ориентирована на необходимость соответствовать мировым стандартам качества образования. В Федеральном законе «Об образовании в Российской Федерации» указано, что современный успешный учитель должен непрерывно совершенствоваться в области преподаваемого предмета, реализации профессиональных функций и решении педагогических задач, а также в овладении инновационными формами, методами и технологиями обучения, реализуя творческий подход в профессиональной деятельности.В статье рассмотрены основные аспекты влияния творчества учителя на качество обучения и воспитания современных школьников. Приведены компоненты творчества современного учителя, его уровни развития, критерии и метод оценивания, сравнительный анализ показателей творческого саморазвития педагогов, представлена динамика творчества педагогов. Все это позволило сравнить показатели мониторингов качества знаний старшеклассников и описать результаты эмпирического исследования зависимости качества знаний от уровня творчества педагогов.Сравнительный анализ соотношения уровня творческого развития педагога и качества знаний обучающихся позволил уточнить, что творческий подход к организации профессиональной деятельности учителя является ключевым фактором в повышении качества обучения и эффективности в учебной и воспитательной работе. The modern system of Russian education strives to comply with the world standards of education quality. The Federal Law on Education in the Russian Federation states that to succeed in their profession, modern teachers should be engaged in constant self-improvement in their field of expertise, should be creative, and should be well-versed in innovative forms, methods and technologies of education.The article treats some major aspects of teachers’ creativity and the way it impacts the quality of education and upbringing in the modern learning environment. The article deals with components of modern teachers’ creativity, levels of creativity development, criteria and techniques for assessing creativity development. It also provides a comparative analysis of teachers’ creative self-improvement. Having performed an empirical research and having assessed senior students’ knowledge, the researchers come to the conclusion that there is a close dependence of the quality of students’ knowledge on the level of teachers’ creativity.A comparative analysis of teachers’ creativity and the quality of students’ knowledge shows that teachers’ creativity is a key factor ensuring the improvement of education quality and enhancing the effectiveness of education and upbringing.
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В связи со складывающейся общественно-политической обстановкой в мире, на фоне усиливающего соперничества стран за установление новых принципов миропорядка нарастают темпы распространения экстремистской идеологии. Для этого применяются любые ресурсы, но в первую очередь информационно-телекоммуникационная сеть (интернет). Военнослужащие Росгвардии активно ее используют, поэтому подвергаются влиянию идеологии экстремизма.Командиры воинских частей и подразделений Росгвардии уделяют особое внимание организации мероприятий военно-политической работы по противодействию влияния идеологии экстремизма на подчиненные воинские коллективы, однако такая работа имеет специфические особенности.В статье раскрываются особенности военно-политической работы, направленной на противодействие влиянию идеологии экстремизма на военнослужащих Росгвардии, по результатам проведенной экспериментальной работы в воинских частях. Violent extremist ideologies are being widely promoted on the Internet against the background of the current social and political situation in the world, against the background of rivalry between different countries for the establishment of new principles of the changing world order. Military personnel of the National Guard of the Russian Federation are active users of the Internet, therefore they can fall victims to extremist ideology.Commanding officers of military units of the National Guard of the Russian Federation pay heed to organizing events aimed at ideological and political education of military personnel aimed at tackling violent extremist ideologies.The article assesses the results of ideological and political education of military personnel of the National Guard of the Russian Federation aimed at tackling violent extremist ideologies and describes the peculiarities of such endeavours.
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В статье представлен анализ источников и условий психологической опасности образования, включая источники насилия.Основа безопасного образования — принятие себя и других, уважение субъектов образования друг к другу. К этим условиям примыкают психологически безопасные — эмпатические и искренние (аутентичные и конгруэнтные) отношения субъектов образования с собой и миром. Задачей в этом контексте является подготовка специалистов к образовательным взаимодействиям на основе идей безопасности, гармонии и ненасилия в рамках программ сопровождения и коучинга — до и после этапа вузовского обучения. Центральным в этих задачах являются задачи развития осознанности, рефлексии как многоуровневого и многоаспектного понимания себя и мира.Исследование психологической безопасности образования связано с выделением контекстов и технологий обеспечения психологической безопасности образования. Анализ данных направлений может быть важным шагом на пути к созданию интегративной модели психологической безопасности образования, а также шагом на пути осмысления источников и условий психологической опасности образования. The article analyzes various factors and conditions pertaining to psychological safety in the learning environment, including such factors as violence.Self-acceptance and acceptance of others are a foundation for safe and secure education. These two factors go hand in hand with factors of psychological safety, such as empathy and genuine and congruent relationships of the participants of the learning process with themselves and the outer world. The main task of pedagogical universities is to coach novice teachers to interact with other participants of the learning environment in a safe, harmonious, and nonviolent environment. The above mentioned task is related to the development of consciousness and reflection as multilevel and multifaceted perception of the self and the world.The investigation of psychological safety of education focuses on the analysis of contexts and technologies ensuring psychological safety in the learning environment. The aforementioned analysis can be an important step to creating an integrative model of psychological safety in the learning environment and an important step to understanding the factors and conditions pertaining to psychological safety in the learning environment.
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В статье рассмотрены особенности личности подростков с умственной отсталостью, склонных к аддиктивному поведению, а также подходы к осуществлению их психолого-педагогического сопровождения в соответствии с обнаруженными особенностями.Рассмотрены возрастные и специфические, связанные со структурой дефекта, факторы формирования аддиктивного поведения на протяжении младшего подросткового возраста.Доказано влияние биологических и психологических, личностных факторов на формирование интернет-аддикции у младших подростков с интеллектуальной недостаточностью.Обоснована важность проведения коррекционно-развивающей работы со школьниками с интеллектуальной недостаточностью с целью профилактики личностной дисгармонии и аддиктивного поведения.Представлена разработанная с учетом типологических особенностей программа диагностики аддиктивного поведения младших подростков с умственной отсталостью, включающая в себя два блока: диагностику факторов риска девиантного поведения и особенностей его проявления у подростков. The article focuses on personal characteristics of intellectually disabled teenagers with addictive behaviours. It also focuses on approaches to psychological and pedagogical support such teenagers need.The article analyzes age-related and retardation-related factors associated with addictive behaviours in young teenagers.The authors underline the influence of biological, psychological ad personality-related factors on the formation of internet addiction in young teenagers with intellectual disorders.The authors substantiate the importance of corrective and developmental procedures aimed at preventing personal disharmony and addictive behaviours in schoolchildren.The article presents a two-step procedure of diagnosing addictive behaviour in young teenagers with intellectual disability, which focuses on diagnosing the tendency to deviant behaviour and on investigating the manifestations of deviant behaviour in teenagers with intellectual disability.
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Для проведения аттестационных работ в организациях необходима разработка программы, обозначение цели аттестации, задач и создание алгоритма оценки мотивации субъектов трудовой деятельности. В контексте развития профессионализма и повышения компетентности кадрового состава это является фундаментальным условием. Актуальность исследования обусловлена ключевой задачей — необходимостью разработки для кадровых служб технологии и методического обеспечения оценки мотивации субъектов профессиональной деятельности при проведении аттестационных мероприятий и решением государственной задачи по кадровому обеспечению развития экономики нашей страны.Цель исследования — обоснование оценки мотивации субъектов профессиональной деятельности в процессе аттестационных мероприятий. Для ее достижения использованы методы теоретического, рейтингового и сравнительного анализа, праксиметрический метод (профессиограмма, модель компетенций), метод экспертной оценки, методика «Мотивационный профиль» и другие тесты, анкетирование и математико-статистические методы.Новизна заключается в анализе подходов к категории «мотивация труда» и ее оценке в контексте аттестационных мероприятий субъектов профессиональной деятельности, в разработке теоретической модели мотивации в профессии и Программы аттестации субъектов трудовой деятельности. Уточняются главные детерминанты мотивации в структуре профессионализма субъектов профессиональной деятельности.Теоретическая значимость заключается в определении психологической сущности аттестационных мероприятий, в создании научной основы оценки мотивации субъектов профессиональной деятельности, обогащении новыми моделями мотивации и матрицами оценки мотивации. Практическая значимость состоит в разработке Программы аттестации с матрицей комплексной оценки мотивации субъектов профессиональной деятельности. Подходы и методы оценки могут применяться не только в организации аттестационных мероприятий, но и в преподавательской деятельности по соответствующим дисциплинам, для консультирования кадровых служб.Основные результаты работы — интеграция теории, методологии и эмпирики в анализе и оценке мотивации субъектов профессиональной деятельности в контексте аттестационных мероприятий. В системе профессионализма построена теоретическая модель, дифференцированы ролевые позиции, созданы матрица и вектор развития мотивации, блочная программа аттестации, апробирована анкета «Ролевая мотивация» и матрица оценки мотивации на основе разработанной теоретической модели. Сделан вывод о том, что оценка мотивации и аттестация кадров — важнейшие виды кадровой работы в русле создания благоприятных условий для развития предприятий и экономики страны. To ensure an efficient mechanism of holding attestation events, it is essential that we should develop a program, single out aims and objectives, create an algorithm of motivation assessment, which is a fundamental prerequisite for professional development and competence enhancement. The relevance of the research is accounted for by urgent necessity to develop professional motivation assessment programs as a prerequisite for promoting economic development of the country.The aim of the research is to create objective criteria for professional motivation evaluation during attestation events. To achieve the aim, the researchers use theoretical analysis, ranking analysis, comparative analyses, praximetric analysis (professiogram, competence modelling), expert assessment method, motivational profiles, questionnaires, mathematical methods of statistics.The novelty of the research consists in the analysis of approaches on the basis of such criteria as professional motivation and professional motivation assessment in the context of attestation procedures and as a part of the procedure of elaborating an algorithm of professional motivation assessment and singling out major determinants of professional motivation.The theoretical significance of the research consists in examining the psychological essence of attestation procedures in an attempt to create a theoretical foundation for professional motivation assessment. The practical value of the research consists in an attempt to outline attestation procedures aimed at complex professional motivation assessment. The methods and approaches employed needn’t be confined to attestation procedures, but can be applied in teaching and counselling services.The researchers underline the importance of combining theoretical, methodological and empirical aspects of professional motivation analysis and assessment. The authors present a theoretical model of professional motivation, outline professional roles and vectors of motivation development, create and test the Professional Motivation questionnaire, assess motivation evaluation on the basis of theoretical modelling. The authors conclude that professional motivation assessment and attestation are essential for boosting national economic development.
Article
В статье проанализированы психолого-педагогические идеи П. Я. Гальперина, имеющие ценность и для современного образования. Описаны научные проблемы, интересовавшие советского ученого. Отмечено, что значительное влияние на научные взгляды исследователя оказала его совместная работа с А. Н. Леонтьевым по практике восстановительного обучения.Установлена востребованность в современной психолого-педагогической практике идей П. Я. Гальперина об ориентировочной деятельности. Ее суть заключается в возможности человека ориентироваться и выбирать действия в ситуациях, где шаблонные образцы поведения не могут привести к эффективному результату. Замечено, что значительное влияние теория П. Я. Гальперина оказала на совершенствование современных форм обучения в области фортепианной педагогики, развитии коммуникативных умений, обучении двигательным действиям.Рассмотрена идея П. Я. Гальперина об интериоризации, которая применяется не только в области развития познавательной сферы. Современные исследователи используют данную концепцию как методологическое основание в изучении психологических состояний и свойств личности.В статье показано, что, хотя и П. Я. Гальперин не разработал развернутой теории становления личности, современные исследователи, опираясь на предложенные им идеи, формируют социально значимые черты человека. Работы по этому направлению реализуются в процессе учебной деятельности. Полученные результаты свидетельствуют о том, что обучающиеся приобретают индивидуальные схемы ориентировки по сохранению и укреплению здоровья.Исследователи используют идеи П. Я. Гальперина не только в практике освоения новых действий, но и в объяснении современных психологических феноменов. О. А. Шагреева рассматривает психологическую компетентность как способность субъекта правильно ориентироваться в ситуации взаимодействия с ребенком. Есть исследования, в названии которых обозначается использование подхода, разработанного П. Я. Гальпериным, однако содержание фактически на него не опирается, и происходит подмена психологических феноменов: вместо исследования условий и средств как важных и необходимых компонентов формирования умственных действий и понятий осуществляется изучение личностных особенностей обучающихся. The article analyzes P. A. Galperin’s psychological and pedagogical ideas that are relevant for modern education. It describes issues that interested the Soviet scholar. It maintains that P. Ya. Galperin’s scholarly views were largely formed under the influence of A. N. Leontyev.The article underlines that modern psychological and pedagogical research could profit by P. Ya. Galperin’s ideas dedicated to the investigation of people’s ability to act in situations when conventional behavioural patterns prove inefficient. The authors highlight that P. Ya. Galperin’s ideas influenced the formation of piano teaching methods, methods of improving communication skills, methods of improving motor skills.The article focuses on P. Ya. Galperin’s ideas on interiorization, which is not confined to education. Modern researchers use this concept as a methodological foundation for the investigation of psychological states and features.The article shows that that even though P. Ya. Galperin didn’t develop an elaborate theory of personal formation, the ideas he formulated enable modern researchers to speak about socially significant human features. His works are used to facilitate the learning process. The obtained results show that students acquire individual behavioural patterns that help them preserve and improve their health.Modern researchers use P. Ya. Galperin’s ideas both to facilitate the acquisition of new behavioural patterns and to explain the essence of psychological phenomena. O. A. Shagreyeva views psychological competence as a person’s ability to make the right choices when communicating with children. However, there are some works whose authors claim to use P. Ya. Galperin’s ideas without really using them. They do not investigate the conditions and means as important and indispensible components of mental actions formation, but focus on students’ individual peculiarities.
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Expectation for how brands succeed communicating a social cause is gaining salience in today’s interconnected and increasingly vocal environment. To address this topic of interest, this study presents and tests an integrative theoretical framework for consumer–brand identification from both a social identity and consumer engagement perspective. It articulates the conditions under which consumers are likely to identify with a brand that communicates social purpose and how that identification process can be enhanced through empathy and self-involving gamification. Findings from two field experiments reveal that (1) value and attribute attractiveness of a brand have a positive impact on consumer–brand identification, and (2) in turn they will increase consumers’ extra-role behavioural intention; and (3) engaging consumers using empathy and selfinvolving gamification enhance the identification process. The results were replicated and confirmed in an online and a laboratory experiment employing different brand contexts. Theoretical and managerial implications were discussed.
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Psychopathy is found to be associated with aggression. However, the role of “understanding the mental states of others” in this relation is not clearly understood yet. The current study aimed to increase our understanding of a specific ability of understanding the mental state of others, namely recognizing a faux pas, and understand the relation of this “social misstep” in self-reported aggressive behavior. The sample consisted of 105 individuals from the community (both males and females) who were tested with the Faux Pas test and several self-report questionnaires assessing triarchic psychopathic personality traits and aggression. We found a positive relationship between the triarchic constructs and self-reported proactive and reactive aggression. Additionally, although all psychopathy constructs were negatively related to self-reported empathy, only the boldness trait was negatively associated with faux pas recognition. No mediation effect of faux pas on the relation between psychopathy and aggression was found. Current findings underline the importance of differentiating different Theory of Mind and empathic abilities in relation to psychopathy and aggression, which is essential to develop effective interventions.
Article
В статье рассмотрена проблема эмпатии — индивидуально-личностного и одновременно социально-психологического феномена в межличностном взаимодействии студентов, являющихся представителями разных культурных групп (китайская, африканская, индийская). На основе критического анализа существующих в социальной психологии концепций эмпатии выделены ее сущностные структурные компоненты, а в эмпирическом исследовании выявлены индивидуальные и социокультурные различия.Цель исследования — выявить специфические особенности содержательно-структурных компонентов эмпатии у студентов с учетом их культурной принадлежности, пола и возраста. Осуществлена эмпирическая проверка гипотезы о наличии значимых различий в уровне выраженности компонентов эмпатии у студентов разных социально-демографических групп (половозрастные и культурные). Задачи исследования реализовывались с помощью анализа научной литературы по проблеме исследования, тестирования студентов, обработки результатов диагностики с использованием процедур описательной математической статистики и U-критерия Манна — Уитни.Приведены результаты эмпирической проверки выдвинутой гипотезы о различиях эмпатии на выборке иностранных студентов, обучающихся в российских учреждениях высшего образования по учебным программам с преподаванием на английском языке. Специфичность выборки обусловила применение англоязычного диагностического инструментария для тестирования респондентов. Представлены различия выраженности содержательно-структурных характеристик эмпатии, выявленные в группах студентов разного пола, возраста и культурной принадлежности. Осуществлен качественный анализ и интерпретация выявленной половозрастной специфики эмпатии и культурного своеобразия эмпатии у студентов — представителей разных культурных сообщностей.Результаты представленного в статье эмпирического исследования позволяют углубить социально-психологическое научное понимание феномена эмпатии и как индивидуально-психологического свойства, и как кросс-культурного феномена. На их основе могут быть разработаны программы социально-психологического сопровождения студентов в системе профессионального образования для реализации миссии высшей школы по формированию межкультурной компетентности и толерантности специалиста, востребованных в современных условиях профессионального делового взаимодействия, в которое включены субъекты разных социально-демографических и этнических групп. The article treats empathy as an individual and social-psychological phenomenon predetermining multicultural (African, Chinese and Indian) students’ interpersonal communication. A critical analysis of social-psychological concepts of empathy enables the authors to single out major structural components of empathy and an empirical research enables the authors to single out its individual and sociocultural manifestations.The aim of the research is to analyze specific content and structural features of empathy in differently aged male and female students representing different cultures. The article empirically proves the hypothesis that empathy is differently manifested in students with different socio-demographic characteristics (age, gender, culture). To achieve the aim of the research the authors analyze research works on the investigated issue, conduct tests among students and process the results of the tests relying on mathematical statistics and using the Mann-Whitney U test.Since the research involves foreign students who use English as a mediator language, all diagnostic terminology is English. The article discusses different structural features of empathy in male and female students of different age groups and of different cultural background. The authors perform qualitative analysis of the correlation between students’ levels of empathy, their age, gender and cultural background.The results of the empirical research ensure a better understanding of empathy as a social and psychological phenomenon, as an individual and psychological feature and as a cross-cultural phenomenon. The results of the empirical research can be used to outline the measures of students’ social and psychological support in higher vocations institutions, to ensure the development of interculturally competent and tolerant specialists efficiently functioning in the modern conditions of professional business communication involving representatives of different social, demographic and ethic groups.
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The development of an adequate assessment instrument is a necessary prerequisite for social psychological research on loneliness. Two studies provide methodological refinement in the measurement of loneliness. Study 1 presents a revised version of the self-report UCLA (University of California, Los Angeles) Loneliness Scale, designed to counter the possible effects of response bias in the original scale, and reports concurrent validity evidence for the revised measure. Study 2 demonstrates that although loneliness is correlated with measures of negative affect, social risk taking, and affiliative tendencies, it is nonetheless a distinct psychological experience.
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Past difficulties in demonstrating a link between accuracy in person perception and "empathy" are reviewed. The advantages of a forced choice accuracy assessment technique, in which observers view target subjects on video tape and then attempt to match targets with three-word self-descriptions, are discussed. Two studies designed to validate the method were performed. In both studies observers' accuracy in matching targets with self-descriptions exceeded chance. The effects on accuracy of observers' perspective-taking ability and targets' self-consciousness were also explored. Study I revealed that subjects scoring high on a measure of perspective-taking (Davis, 1980) were more accurate than low perspective-takers as predicted. Study II showed that target subjects high in private self-consciousness (Fenigstein, Scheier, & Buss, 1975) were more easily matched with their self-descriptions than were targets low in private self-consciousness. Study II also showed that the effects on accuracy of both observers' perspective-taking abilities and targets' selfconsciousness were related to the length of time targets were observed. The theoretical connections between perspective-taking and both stereotype and differential accuracy are discussed.
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A factor analysis of the Self-Monitoring Scale yielded 3 replicated factors: Acting, Extraversion, and Other-Directedness. Acting includes being good at and liking to speak and entertain. Other-Directedness is a willingness to change one's behavior to suit other people, and Extraversion is self-explanatory. Other-Directedness correlates positively with Shyness and Neuroticism and negatively with Self-Esteem. Extraversion correlates negatively with Shyness and positively with Self-Esteem and Sociability. Two of the scale's 3 factors, therefore, have opposite patterns of correlations with other personality dimensions. The 3 factors help to explain certain discrepancies found in previous research with the Self-Monitoring Scale. For future research, it is suggested that scores for each of the factors are more appropriate than full scale scores. It is concluded that there may be a gap between the construct of Self-Monitoring and the way it is operationalized in the scale. (27 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Two studies investigated the relationship between shyness (tension and inhibition with others) and sociability (preference for being with others rather than being alone) using 952 undergraduates. A factor analysis of shyness and sociability items revealed 2 distinct factors, indicating that shyness and sociability are distinct personality dispositions. Self-reported shyness showed only a moderate negative correlation with self-reported sociability. Furthermore, the measures of shyness and sociability had different patterns of correlations with other personality scales (e.g., the Public and Private Self-Consciousness scales of the Self-Consciousness Inventory, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and the EASI [Emotionality, Activity, Sociability, Impulsivity] Temperament Survey). On the basis of these findings, it is concluded that shyness is not just low sociability. Next, 4 groups of Ss were selected: shy–sociable, shy–unsociable, unshy–sociable, and unshy–unsociable. Pairs of these Ss, matched for both traits, interacted for 5 min. Shy–sociable Ss talked less, averted their gaze more, and engaged in more self-manipulation than did the other 3 groups. In studying social behavior, it should be known whether Ss are shy but also whether they are sociable. (38 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
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Thesis--University of Texas at Austin. Vita. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 209-219).
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Proposes a 2-stage model of empathic mediation of helping behavior, which holds that taking the perspective of a person in need increases empathic emotion; this in turn increases helping. Ss in 2 experiments learned of another person's need from taped radio broadcasts and were subsequently given an opportunity to offer help to that person. The experiments used different strategies for manipulating empathic emotional response to the other's plight. In Exp I, using 44 male and female undergraduates, the empathic emotion of some Ss was experimentally reduced by a misattribution of arousal technique; in Exp II, using 33 female undergraduates, the empathic emotion of some Ss was experimentally increased by a false feedback of arousal technique. Results of each experiment support the proposed model. Ss who experienced the most empathic emotion also offered the most help. Results of Exp I indicate that perspective taking did not directly affect helping; it affected helping only through its effect on empathic emotion. Motivational implications are discussed. (31 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The revision of the Wechsler-Bellevue Adult Intelligence Scale retains the type of item categories but has numerous changes in the items. Standardization is based on a stratified sample of 1700 adults ages 16 to 64. Additional norms are given for ages above 64 based on a different group of subjects. Reliabilities for verbal, performance and full scale IQ's are .96, .93, and .97, and for the subtests range from .65 to .96. Manual includes directions for administering, IQ tables, and scaled score tables. Officially the title is to be abbreviated WAIS. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Presents an interactive theory of personality which assumes that there are inborn tendencies that underlie individual differences in personality. 4 such dispositions (temperaments) are identified, and their measurement, similarities in different populations (e.g., twins), and their stability during childhood are discussed. Innate sex differences in personality are also examined and implications for clinical problems (e.g., hyperkinesis and psychopathy) are discussed. (11 p ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Proposes a social psychological construct of self-monitoring (self-observation and self-control guided by situational cues to social appropriateness) of expressive behavior and self-presentation. An internally consistent, temporally stable self-report measure of individual differences in self-monitoring was constructed. 4 converging laboratory and field studies of peer perception ratings, criterion group membership, self-control of facial and vocal emotional expressive behavior, and attention to normative social comparison information were conducted with undergraduates to demonstrate the convergent and discriminant validity of the Self-Monitoring Scale (SM). The use of SM to investigate hypotheses concerning consistency in expression across situations and between channels of expressive behavior is discussed. (28 ref)
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Two short (16 item) forms of the Helmreich, Stapp, and Ervin (1974) Texas Social Behavior Inventory, a validated, objective measure of self-esteem or social competence are presented. Normative data and other statistics are described for males and females. Correlations between each short form and long (32-item) scale were .97. Factor analysis and part-whole correlations verified the similarity of the two forms. The utility of the scale in research is described.
Article
A selective review of various conceptual positions within a historic framework is used to address four issues: whether an empathic response is an understanding or sharing of affect; whether an empathic response is a response to an object, another’s affect, and/or circumstance; which mechanisms explain empathy, and is self-other differentiation required by various definitions. This discussion is related to an examination of representative, predictive and situational measures. Comments are made regarding the reliability and construct validity of certain measures. The implications of this evidence for the use and the development of measures are advanced. A cognitive theoretical perspective is applied, in which variables that influence empathic learning are discussed with several applications of data, to assist in our understanding of empathy.Copyright © 1975 S. Karger AG, Basel
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Discusses the development of a 64-item self-raport measure of empathy, constructed by comparing the responses of group with high- and low-rated empathy, using the combined MMPI-CPI item pool. After providing evidence concerning the scale's reliability and validity, an attempt is made to show its relevance for specifically moral conduct by relating empathy scale scores to real life indexes of socially appropriate behavior and to certain previously well-validated measures of personality. (39 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This paper seeks to disentangle some of the many effects which contribute to social perception scores, and to identify separately measurable components." The components of the Accuracy (with which the judge perceives Others) score and of the Assumed Similarity (between the judge and another person) score are discussed in the text and formulated mathematically in an appendix. Illustrations are provided of applications of the model, for the practical use of judgments in the clinic, the school, and elsewhere. Understanding and use of social perception data will be enhanced by "careful subdivision of global measures" and by more explicit theory in order to reduce the investigator's "measures to the genuinely relevant components." 34 references.
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