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Chaturvedi Dev et al. Int. Res. J. Pharm. 2016, 7 (6)
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INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF PHARMACY
www.irjponline.com
ISSN 2230 8407
Review Article
BASKETFUL BENEFIT OF CITRUS LIMON
Chaturvedi Dev *, Shrivastava Rishi Raj Suhane Nidhi
Daksh Institute of Pharmaceutical Science, Chhatarpur (M.P.), India
*Corresponding Author Email: chaturvedidev44@gmail.com
Article Received on: 26/04/16 Revised on: 17/05/16 Approved for publication: 28/05/16
DOI: 10.7897/2230-8407.07653
ABSTRACT
Citrus lemon is most important fruit in all over world. Citrus limon is well known nutritional and medicinal property. All part of citrus limon is used
as a traditional medicine. Citrus limon belong to the family rutaceae. The main characteristic of lemon plant is thorny branches and white flowers with
purple edges. Major medicinal property of Citrus limon include anti-cancer activity, Prevent kidney stones, Bring down a fever, Balance pH.
Phytochemically in whole plant contain citral, limonene, terpineol, geranyl acetate, linalyl.
KEY WORDS: Cit rus limon, anti-cancer, lemon
INTRODUCTION
Lemon (Citrus × limon) is a hybrid of the plant genus Citrus, as
well as the common name of the popular edible fruit of this
small tree. The citrus fruit known in ancient times in Europe
since the lemon (Citrus limon), lime (Citrus × auantiifolia),
pomelo (Citrus maxima) and bit- ter orange (Citrus × aurantium
L.) were all introduced in Europe by the Muslims via the Sicily
and Iberian Peninsula.1 The main characteristic of lemon plant is
thorny branches and white flowers with purple edges, the acidic,
juicy fruit is oval (shaped like egg), has an aromatic rind that is
yellow when ripe (green as immature and under certain
environmental conditions), and has a prominent bulge or nipple
on the blossom end.
Lemon is an important medicinal plant of the Rutaceae family
that originated in tropical and subtropical Southeast Asia.2 It has
a distinctive berry with its internal parts divided into segments.
It is cultivated mainly for alkaloids, which show anticancer
activities and the antibacterial activities in crude extracts of
different parts (viz., stem, root, leaves, and flower) of Lemon
against clinically significant in bacterial strains.3 Other
members of the Citrus genus include citrons, oranges, limes,
pomelos (pummelo, pommelo), grapefruit, and mandarins
(tangerines). Most members of the genus Citrus arose as
hybrids, and the types of hybridized of citrus, such as lemon
(Citrus limon), may or may not be recognized as species
according to different taxonomies.4,5
Lemon peel contained crude fibres (15.18%), crude fat (4.98%),
and protein (9.42%). Ash content of lemon peel is 6.26%.6
Lemon juice is about 5% acid, which gives lemons a sour taste
and pH of 2 to 3.
A lemon tree can grow up to 10 meter (33 feet), but they are
usually smaller. The branches form an open crown and are
thorny. The leaves are green, elliptical-acuminate and shiny.
Flowers have a strong fragrance and are white on the outside
with a violet streaked interior. On a lemon tree, flowers and
fruits can be found at the same time.
Lemon and lime trees should not be grown in cooler winter
areas, because they are more sensitive to winter cold than other
citrus fruits. The largest producers places are Italy and the
United States. Lemons are commercially grown in cooler-
summer or moderate-winter coastal Southern California in the
United States, since sweetness is neither attained nor expected in
retail lemon fruit. Other top producing nations include Greece,
Spain and Argentina.
Table 1: Botanical classificatio n of limon7
Kingdom
Plantae
Plants
Subkingdom
Tracheobionta
Vascular plants
Superdivision
Spermatophyta
Seed plants
Division
Magnoliophyta
Flowering plants
Class
Magnoliopsida
Dicotyledons
Subclass
Rosidae
-
Order
Sapindales
-
Family
Rutaceae
Rue family
Genus
Citrus L.
citrus P
Table 2: Indian synonyms of lemon8
Language
Name
Sanskrit
Jambira, Maha Nimbu
Bengali
Patinebu, Kagghinebu, Baranebu
English
Lemon
Hindi
Nimbu, Bara Nimbu, Pakari Nimbu
Kannada
Nimbe, Lime hannu, Nimbe hannu
Punjabi
Nimbu
Urdu
Limu, Neebu
Table 3: International synonyms of Lemon
Country
Name
French
Citron
German
Zitrone
Italian
Limone
Japanese
Remon
Romanian
Lămâi (tree), Lămâie (fruit)
Russian
Limon
Serbian
Limun
Spanish
Limón
Thai
Manao farang, Ma nao leung, Som saa
Chaturvedi Dev et al. Int. Res. J. Pharm. 2016, 7 (6)
2
Table 4: Different species of le mon
Cedrat Lemon
C. medica acida
C. Limetta
C. Lumia
Table 5: Different variety of lemon9
S.N.
Variety
Characteristics
1
The Avon
First grown in Florida and used
primarily for frozen concentrate
2
The Baboon
A bright yellow Brazilian variety
with a flavour similar to lime
3
The Bearss
Which is large and rich in oil, is also
known as the "Sicily", and similar to
the "Lisbon
4
The Berna
Spain's leading lemon, is a medium-
sized fruit
5
The Cameron
Highlands
A small, round lemon with pale green
flesh and many sees was discovered
in the Cameron Highlands of
Malaysia where it grew wild.
HISTORY
The lemon was firstly introduced into southern Italy in 200 A.D.
and spread to Iraq and Egypt by 700 A.D. Lemon was
throughout widely distributed the Mediterranean region by
1000-1150 A.D. and was cultivated in China approximately
760-1297 A.D. Lemon was introduce in the Spanish to the
Island of Hispaniola in 1493 and sometime the first settlement
of St. Augustine, Florida. Lemon was introduced into California
in 1751-1768.10 Lemons were originally developed as a cross
between the citron and the lime. Lemons are thought to have
originated in China or India, cultivated in these regions for about
2,500 years. The major productions of lemons today are the
United States, Turkey, Israel, Italy, Spain and Greece. Lemons
originated in Himalaya near the North Eastern India. In 1493,
the first lemon trees in America planted by the Italian Navigator
Christopher Columbus.
GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION
It is indigenous to North India, but cultivated on a very large
scale in countries like Sicily, Italy and Spain. It is also cultivated
in India, Florida and California. In India, the cultivation is
carried out in U.P., M.P., Punjab and Karnataka. 6
BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION
Lemon grows on thorny, small trees which reaches a height of
10 - 20 feet. The colours of leaves of the lemon are dark green.
Leaves are arranged alternately on the stem. The lemon has a
fragrant, white flower with five petals. This specific flower
comes from a lemon cultivar called Pink Lemonade. The fruit
is striped and the leaves of this cultivar are variegated. The
lemon fruit colour range is from greenish yellow to bright
yellow. Lemons seem very similar to limes, but are yellow when
ripe, where limes are green and lemons tend to be a little
larger. 7
Leaves
Leaves 6.5 to 100 mm, serrulate, acute to acuminate. Leaf
jointed to the petiole. Petiole narrowly winged. Leaf blade
elliptic to ovate, 8-14×4-6 cm, apex usually mucronate, margin
conspicuously crenulate.
Figure 1: www.growfruitandveg.co.uk
Fruit
Fruits are ovoid or globose, berry, hesperidium, and yellow
when ripe.11 Fruits belonging to the citrus group are called as
hesperidium,". Fruit shape can change as the fruit matures or
the trees get older and are also largely governed by variety
choice. Fruit size is influenced by variety, crop load, rootstock
and irrigation practices. Mature lemons turn green to yellow,
weigh about 50- 80 g in weight and measure about 5-8 cm in
diameter.
Figure 2: images5.fanpop .com
Flowers
Flowers male or bisexual. Petals white and tinged purple.
Stamens 20-30; Fruit oblong or ovoid mamillate, yellow when
ripe; pulp strongly acid and abundant.
Figure 3: pre14.devia ntart.net
Seed
Seeds of lemon nestle within the pulp near the center of each
fruit. Their size and numbers vary according to variety, but most
are white, wrinkled, hard, oval or elliptical and measure about
3/8inch long. 12
Chaturvedi Dev et al. Int. Res. J. Pharm. 2016, 7 (6)
3
Figure 4: 2.bp.blogspot .com
POLLINATION
A lemon flowers stigma must receive pollen which contains the
flowers sperm. More specifically, the pollen grains sperm must
be transferred to the stigma, which found the top and the longer
column in the middle of the flower. Lemon trees can be easily
grown in open area in warmer climate. Lemon trees can be
growing in pots in cooler region. Pollen was characterized by a
very different emission prole with respect to other parts of
ower. The trans-nerolidol (30.7%) is the main volatile detected
in pollen.13
PHYTOCONSTITUENT
The fruit juice mainly contains fruit acids, mainly citric acid
(8%) and sugars. Lemon peel consists of two layers: The outer
layer (pericarp, zest) contains an essential oil (6%), which is
composed of citral (5%) plus traces of citronellal and limonene
(90%), α-terpineol, geranyl acetate and linalyl. The inner layer
(mesocarp), in the other word, contains no essential oil but a
variety of coumarin derivatives and bitter flavone glycosides. It
also contains a very little potash, sugar and gum. An imitation
lemon juice has been prepared by dissolving tartaric acid into
water, then adding sulphuric acid and flavouring with oil of
Lemon. Oil of Lemon is dextrogyre. This contains 7 to 8% of
citral, an aldehyde yielding geraniol upon reduction, a small
amount of citronellal and pinene8
PHARMACOLOGICAL PROFILE14
Prevent kidney stones- Citrate levels in the urine raises by
drinking one half-cup of lemon juice every day. In studies lemon
juice shown that this could protect against calcium stones in the
kidney.
Soothe a sore throat- Honey mixing with lemon juice can help
alleviate and discomfort to treat nasty sore throat.
Support weight loss- Ancient time the old notion that the
Master Cleanse was the only way lose weight with the help of
lemons. New studies have shown the ways lemon juice supports
weight loss. Lemon juice contains pectin, a soluble fibre which
shown weight-loss.
Start your day right- Leave caffeinated drinks behind, and
stimulation of digestive track by the using fresh lemon juice and
hot water and add vitamin C.
Stop an itch -When it comes to insect bites or poison ivy, lemon
juice rubbing on the area can soothe the skin. Lemon juice show
anti-inflammatory and anaesthetic effects.
Anticancer properties- Studies have supported the citrus
liminoids show anticancer activity, compounds that protect cells
from damage which is the formation of cancer cells.
Potassium power- Lemons contain 80 milligrams of vitamin C
mineral. Vitamin C with Bananas that helps your body stay
strong and nimble.
Bring down a fever- Drinking a lemon juice mixture can help
bring your fever down faster. When body temperature goes up.
Balance pH -While lemons may seem quite acidic, lemon is
good source of an alkaline food that can help balance pH of
body.
MEDICINAL USE OF LEMON
· Blood Purifier
· Blood Sugar Balance
· Osteoporosis
· Insomnia
· Brain and Nerve Food
· Asthma
· Nausea, Vomiting and Travel Sickness
· Rheumatism, Arthritis and Bone-Related Diseases
· Acne, Spots and Pimples
· Treat Throat Infections
TRADITIONAL USES15
· The intake of lemon juice and honey is one of the key health
benefits associated with Weight loss.
· Lemon juice has a wide property of skin benefits. Lemon
juice is rich in Vitamin C can helps in lightening the skin.
· Lemon juice also used by people suffered with UTI (Urinary
Tract Infection) problem, it can help flush high level of uric
acid.
· Mixture of lemon juice and olive oil to cure gall bladder
stones and kidney stones.
· Lemon juice is also used for liver stimulant, controls nausea
and relieves heartburns and irritable bowel syndrome.
DISHES CONTAINING LEMON9
· Lemon curd
· Lemon syrup
· Lemon-Garlic soup
· Sour mix
· Lemonade
· Pink Lemonade Popsicles
STRANGE FACT
· Nutritionally, the lemon constitutes potassium, a mineral
that support in normalizing blood pressure, promotes clear
thinking and works with sodium to regulate the water
balance in the body.
· Add the equal amount of one lemon juice and hot water for
an anti-bacterial gargle.
· Lemons prevent scurvy because of high amount of Vitamin
C, a disease that causes aching joints, loose teeth and
bleeding gums.
· Acne scars, marks are embarrassing and pain treated by the
citric acid which is present in lemon juice.
· Lemon juice gives shine on faces.
· Lemon juice also stimulates the metabolism.
Chaturvedi Dev et al. Int. Res. J. Pharm. 2016, 7 (6)
4
Table 6: Nutritional Value11
Elements
Amount
Sodium (Na)
0.83
Water
92%
Potassium (K)
0.24
Magnesium (Mg)
0.59
Zinc (Zn)
0.15
Protein
9.42
Vitamin C
38.7 mg
Phosphorus (P)
0.11
Fibre
15.18
Fat
4.98
Calcium (Ca)
0.32
Copper (Cu)
0.22
Iron (Fe)
0.54
CONCLUSION
Citrus is well known for its nutritional and medicinal value in all
over world. Its plants part are used as a traditional medicine.
According to available literature does not reveal any adverse
effect. Citrus is one of most popular plant in all over world.
REFERENCES
1. Beatriz Alvarez Arias, Luis Ramon-Laca: Pharmacological
properties of citrus and their ancient and medieval uses in
the Mediterranean region. Journal of Ethnopharmacolgy
2005;97:89-95.
2. Javad Feizy, Hamed Reza Beheshti: Chemical Composition
of Lemon (Citrus Limon) and Peel its consideration as
animal food. Geographic Information and Decision Analysis
2012; 3 :267-271.
3. Maruti J. Dhanavade, Chidamber B. Jalkute: Study
Antimicrobial activity of Lemon (Citrus lemon L.) Peel
extract. British Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology
2011; 2 :119-122.
4. Komiya, M., T. Takeuchi, and E. Harada: Lemon oil vapor
causes an anti-stress effect via modulating the 5-HT and DA
activities in mice. Behav Brain Res, 2007, 172: 240-249.
5. Pizzetti, M., F. De Marco, and S. Schuler. Simon and
Schuster's Guide to Trees, New York: Simon and Schuster,
1978.
6. Kokate C.K., Purohit A.P., Gokhale S.B.: Pharmacology.
45th ed. Pune: Nirali Prakashan;2008;11.40.
7. M. Mohanapriya, Dr. Lalitha Ramaswamy: Health and
Medicinal Properties of Lemon (Citrus Limonum).
International Journal Of Ayurvedic And Herbal Medicine
2013;3:1095-1100.
8. The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, Gov. of India,
Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, 4: 83.
9. http://www.mnn.com/food/recipes/blogs/9-ideas-to-use-
leftover-fresh-lemon-juice, 07/10/2015.
10. Jonathan H. Crane: Lemon Growing in the Florida Home
Landscape. US Florida 2013;1153:1095-1100.
11. Javad Feizy, Hamed Reza Beheshti: Chemical Composition
of Lemon (Citrus Limon) and Peel its consideration as
animal food. Geographic Information and Decision Analysis
2012; 37 :269-270.
12. http://www.gardenguides.com/109348-lemon-seeds.html,
09/03/2016.
13. Guido Flamini, Marianna Tebano, Pier Luigi Cioni: Volatile
emission patterns of different plant organs and pollrn of
citrus limon. Analytica Chimica Acta 2007;02:120-124.
14. http://www.popsugar.com/fitness/10-Reasons-Lemon-Juice-
Good-You-14860617, 07/10/2015.
15. http://www.diethealthclub.com/articles/120/diet-and-
wellness/lemon-health-benefits.html, 07/10/2015.
Cite this article as:
Chaturvedi Dev, Shrivastava Rishi Raj Suhane Nidhi. Basketful
benefit of Citrus limon. Int. Res. J. Pharm. 2016;7(6):1-4
http://dx.doi.org/10.7897/2230-8407.07653
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Purpose: This study was conducted to identify the physiological disorders and their symptoms of selected Citrus fruit species (C. sinensis, C. limon and C. crenatifolia). Furthermore, it was aimed to determine whether physicochemical and sensory properties were affected by physiological disorders. Research method: Citrus fruits with physiological disorderswere observed separately for visible changes and characters were recorded and photographed. Moreover, Citrus fruits with physiological disorders were analyzed for physicochemical and sensory properties. Findings: Many physiological disorders were recorded from three Citrus fruit species including chilling injury, sun burn, stem-end rind breakdown, oleocellosis, rind disorder, puff and crease, granulation, wind injury, peteca, fruit splitting and fruit cracking. Based on the overall result of sensory analysis, it can be concluded that most of the physiological disorders in studied Citrus species appear on the peel but not adversely affect the edible internal portion of the fruits. Physicochemical properties of C. limon are not adversely affected by physiological disorders whereas C. sinensis and C. crenatifolia are affected by physiological disorders. Limitations: Availability of selected Citrus fruit species throughout the year is limited due to their seasonality. Originality/Value: This study provides novel information about the physiological disorders of some Citrus species in Sri Lanka and other parts of Asia and a future potential exists in controlling these disorders to provide healthy and quality fruits to the market.
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Abstrak. Cascara adalah salah satu bentuk pengembangan terhadap pemanfaatan produk- produk turunan dari limbah kopi. Cascara juga merupakan produk sampingan dari hasil pengolahan limbah kulit kopi menjadi minuman fungsional yang memiliki nilai ekonomi yang tinggi. Cascara dapat dijadikan minuman sehari hari, namun dapat juga dijadikan bahan tambahan untuk kopi. Pembuatan sirup dengan berbahan dasar cascara dan tanpa atau penambahan buah lemon ini dapat menjadi sirup yang kaya akan citarasa hingga dapat ditambahkan pada minuman kopi jenis lainnya seperti ke dalam kopi espresso, kopi susu dan kopi kekinian lainnya. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui karakteristik sensori dari sirup cascara dengan menggunakan persentase ekstrak cascara yang berbeda dan penambahan atau tanpa penambahan ekstrak lemon untuk mendapatkan formulasi terbaik pada sirup cascara yang dihasilkan.study of making cascara and lemon syrupAbstract. Cascara is a form of development towards the utilization of derivative products from coffee waste. Cascara is also a by-product of processing coffee skin waste into functional drinks that have high economic value. Cascara can be used as an everyday drink, but it can also be used as an additive to coffee. Making a syrup made from cascara and without or the addition of lemon can be a syrup that is rich in flavor so that it can be added to other types of coffee drinks such as espresso coffee, milk coffee and other contemporary coffees. This study aims to determine the sensory characteristics of cascara syrup by using different percentages of cascara extract and with or without the addition of lemon extract to obtain the best formulation for the resulting cascara syrup.
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Citrus limon is one of the most widespread plant in globally, with great economic and heath value, natural products have been the source of new drugs since ancient times. Plants are a good source of secondary metabolites which have been found to have beneficial properties. Every plant part (fruit, leaves, peel of fruit, roots, bark, flowers etc.) of Citrus limon gives benefits in economically as well as medicinally. The present study is a review about the chemistry and pharmacology of Citrus limon leaves, this reveals chemical compositions of Citrus limon leaves as a source of natural compounds with important activities that are beneficial for human health that could be used to develop new products or drug preparations. Since Citrus limon leaves have been used generously in various types of medicinally and culinary efforts in the world, it can be assumed that lemon leaves are edible and important in therapeutically but researches need to further study on this topic.
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Background: Modulation of non-specific immunity and other related activities of succulent parts of effective medicinal plants can prevent viral infections like COVID-19 through their dietary intake. Objective: The succulent parts of the medicinal plants with immunomodulation, anti-oxidation, anti-viral, anti-inflammatory, etc . power can be used orally in the capsular form to prevent as well as to reduce the severity of symptoms of COVID-19. Methods: A proposal is displayed with a detailed description of related steps like the selection of medicinal plant parts consulting related reports, collection of biomedicines, validation of efficacy, dosing, encapsulation, storage, and transportation, etc . Results: The succulent bio-medicines against COVID-19 can be developed and marketed following only some adoptive research. Conclusion: Succulent bio-medicines can be prepared and marketed for the prevention and cure of different infectious and non-infectious diseases.
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Abstract: The main objective of the study is extraction, identification of antimicrobial compounds and demonstration of antimicrobial activity of lemon (Citrus lemon L.) peel against bacteria. As microorganism are becoming resistant to present day antibiotics, our study focuses on antimicrobial activity and future prophylactic potential of the lemon peel. Biologically active compounds present in the medicinal plants have always been of great interest to scientists. The peel of citrus fruits is a rich source of flavanones and many polymethoxylated flavones, which are very rare in other plants. These compounds, not only play an important physiological and ecological role, but are also of commercial interest because of their multitude of applications in the food and pharmaceutical industries. The citrus peel oils show strong antimicrobial activity. The antimicrobial activity has been checked in terms of MIC by using different solvents against microorganisms like Pseudomonas aeruginosa NCIM 2036 for which MIC was 1:20 in presence of methanol, for Salmonella typhimurium NCIM 5021 the observed MIC was 1:20 in presence of acetone. In case of Micrococcus aureus NCIM 5021 the observed MIC was 1:20 when ethanol was used as solvent. The compounds like coumarin and tetrazene were identified by GC/MS of lemon peel extract.
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This paper reviews the pharmacological properties of Mediterranean-grown citrus species ("Citrus" L., "Rutaceae"), including citron ("Citrus medica" L.), lime ("Citrus" x "aurantiifolia" [Christm.] Swingle), lemon ("Citrus" x "limon" [L.] Osbeck), bitter orange ("Citrus" x "aurantium" L.) and pomelo ("Citrus maxima" [Burm.] Merr.), as referred to in ancient, medieval and 16th century sources. The virtues of the species reported in these texts were compared to those known to modern science. A much broader spectrum of pharmacological properties was recorded by these early writers than one might expect. The use of the citron and lemon as antidotes for 'poison and venom' is recorded in the very earliest material. According to modern scientific literature the citron and the bitter orange may possess anti-cancer activity, lime may have an immunomodulatory effect in humans, and the pomelo may be useful for treating circulatory problems. Lemons might even ease hangover symptoms. Research is required to confirm these properties.
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The volatiles emitted in vivo by different plant parts of Citrus limon (Rutaceae) have been identified by mean of head space-solid phase micro extraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses. In particular, the profiles of flower buds, mature flowers, petals, stamens, gynaecium, pericarp of unripe and ripe fruits, young and adult leaves and pollen have been examined. Furthermore, the essential oil obtained from expression of ripe pericarp was studied. Volatiles were produced in distinctive amounts by the different plant organs, creating an interesting contrast, particularly within the flower parts: the highest amount of limonene (62.5%) was emitted by gynaecium, followed by stamens (22.9%) and petals (3.1%). Pollen did not produce limonene at all. The same compound is contained in higher amounts in the young leaves than in old ones (65.3% versus 30.1%). A possible defensive role of limonene and other volatiles, mainly terpene aldehydes, produced by young leaves has been hypothesized.
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We examined the anti-stress action of the essential oils of lavender, rose, and lemon using an elevated plus-maze task (EPM), a forced swimming task (FST), and an open field task (OFT) in mice. Lemon oil had the strongest anti-stress effect in all three behavioral tasks. We further investigated a regulatory mechanism of the lemon oil by pre-treatments with agonists or antagonists to benzodiazepine, 5-HT, DA, and adrenaline receptors by the EPM and the FST. The anti-stress effect of lemon oil was significantly blocked by pre-treatment with frumazenil, benzodiazepine receptor antagonist, or apomorphine, a nonselective DA receptor agonist. In contrast, agonists or antagonists to the 5-HT receptor and the alpha-2 adrenaline receptor did not affect the anti-stress effect of lemon oil. Buspirone, DOI, and mianserine blocked the antidepressant-like effect of lemon oil in the FST, but WAY100,635 did not. These findings suggest that the antidepressant-like effect of lemon oil is closely related with the 5-HTnergic pathway, especially via 5-HT(1A) receptor. Moreover, the lemon oil significantly accelerated the metabolic turnover of DA in the hippocampus and of 5-HT in the prefrontal cortex and striatum. These results suggest that lemon oil possesses anxiolytic, antidepressant-like effects via the suppression of DA activity related to enhanced 5-HTnergic neurons.
Lalitha Ramaswamy: Health and Medicinal Properties of Lemon (Citrus Limonum)
  • M Mohanapriya
M. Mohanapriya, Dr. Lalitha Ramaswamy: Health and Medicinal Properties of Lemon (Citrus Limonum). International Journal Of Ayurvedic And Herbal Medicine 2013;3:1095-1100.
Simon and Schuster's Guide to Trees
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