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Chaturvedi Dev et al. Int. Res. J. Pharm. 2016, 7 (6)
ISSN 2230 8407
Review Article
Chaturvedi Dev *, Shrivastava Rishi Raj Suhane Nidhi
Daksh Institute of Pharmaceutical Science, Chhatarpur (M.P.), India
*Corresponding Author Email:
Article Received on: 26/04/16 Revised on: 17/05/16 Approved for publication: 28/05/16
DOI: 10.7897/2230-8407.07653
Citrus lemon is most important fruit in all over world. Citrus limon is well known nutritional and medicinal property. All part of citrus limon is used
as a traditional medicine. Citrus limon belong to the family rutaceae. The main characteristic of lemon plant is thorny branches and white flowers with
purple edges. Major medicinal property of Citrus limon include anti-cancer activity, Prevent kidney stones, Bring down a fever, Balance pH.
Phytochemically in whole plant contain citral, limonene, terpineol, geranyl acetate, linalyl.
KEY WORDS: Cit rus limon, anti-cancer, lemon
Lemon (Citrus × limon) is a hybrid of the plant genus Citrus, as
well as the common name of the popular edible fruit of this
small tree. The citrus fruit known in ancient times in Europe
since the lemon (Citrus limon), lime (Citrus × auantiifolia),
pomelo (Citrus maxima) and bit- ter orange (Citrus × aurantium
L.) were all introduced in Europe by the Muslims via the Sicily
and Iberian Peninsula.1 The main characteristic of lemon plant is
thorny branches and white flowers with purple edges, the acidic,
juicy fruit is oval (shaped like egg), has an aromatic rind that is
yellow when ripe (green as immature and under certain
environmental conditions), and has a prominent bulge or nipple
on the blossom end.
Lemon is an important medicinal plant of the Rutaceae family
that originated in tropical and subtropical Southeast Asia.2 It has
a distinctive berry with its internal parts divided into segments.
It is cultivated mainly for alkaloids, which show anticancer
activities and the antibacterial activities in crude extracts of
different parts (viz., stem, root, leaves, and flower) of Lemon
against clinically significant in bacterial strains.3 Other
members of the Citrus genus include citrons, oranges, limes,
pomelos (pummelo, pommelo), grapefruit, and mandarins
(tangerines). Most members of the genus Citrus arose as
hybrids, and the types of hybridized of citrus, such as lemon
(Citrus limon), may or may not be recognized as species
according to different taxonomies.4,5
Lemon peel contained crude fibres (15.18%), crude fat (4.98%),
and protein (9.42%). Ash content of lemon peel is 6.26%.6
Lemon juice is about 5% acid, which gives lemons a sour taste
and pH of 2 to 3.
A lemon tree can grow up to 10 meter (33 feet), but they are
usually smaller. The branches form an open crown and are
thorny. The leaves are green, elliptical-acuminate and shiny.
Flowers have a strong fragrance and are white on the outside
with a violet streaked interior. On a lemon tree, flowers and
fruits can be found at the same time.
Lemon and lime trees should not be grown in cooler winter
areas, because they are more sensitive to winter cold than other
citrus fruits. The largest producers places are Italy and the
United States. Lemons are commercially grown in cooler-
summer or moderate-winter coastal Southern California in the
United States, since sweetness is neither attained nor expected in
retail lemon fruit. Other top producing nations include Greece,
Spain and Argentina.
Table 1: Botanical classificatio n of limon7
Vascular plants
Seed plants
Flowering plants
Rue family
Citrus L.
citrus P
Table 2: Indian synonyms of lemon8
Jambira, Maha Nimbu
Patinebu, Kagghinebu, Baranebu
Nimbu, Bara Nimbu, Pakari Nimbu
Nimbe, Lime hannu, Nimbe hannu
Limu, Neebu
Table 3: International synonyms of Lemon
Lămâi (tree), Lămâie (fruit)
Manao farang, Ma nao leung, Som saa
Chaturvedi Dev et al. Int. Res. J. Pharm. 2016, 7 (6)
Table 4: Different species of le mon
Cedrat Lemon
C. medica acida
C. Limetta
C. Lumia
Table 5: Different variety of lemon9
The Avon
First grown in Florida and used
primarily for frozen concentrate
The Baboon
A bright yellow Brazilian variety
with a flavour similar to lime
The Bearss
Which is large and rich in oil, is also
known as the "Sicily", and similar to
the "Lisbon
The Berna
Spain's leading lemon, is a medium-
sized fruit
The Cameron
A small, round lemon with pale green
flesh and many sees was discovered
in the Cameron Highlands of
Malaysia where it grew wild.
The lemon was firstly introduced into southern Italy in 200 A.D.
and spread to Iraq and Egypt by 700 A.D. Lemon was
throughout widely distributed the Mediterranean region by
1000-1150 A.D. and was cultivated in China approximately
760-1297 A.D. Lemon was introduce in the Spanish to the
Island of Hispaniola in 1493 and sometime the first settlement
of St. Augustine, Florida. Lemon was introduced into California
in 1751-1768.10 Lemons were originally developed as a cross
between the citron and the lime. Lemons are thought to have
originated in China or India, cultivated in these regions for about
2,500 years. The major productions of lemons today are the
United States, Turkey, Israel, Italy, Spain and Greece. Lemons
originated in Himalaya near the North Eastern India. In 1493,
the first lemon trees in America planted by the Italian Navigator
Christopher Columbus.
It is indigenous to North India, but cultivated on a very large
scale in countries like Sicily, Italy and Spain. It is also cultivated
in India, Florida and California. In India, the cultivation is
carried out in U.P., M.P., Punjab and Karnataka. 6
Lemon grows on thorny, small trees which reaches a height of
10 - 20 feet. The colours of leaves of the lemon are dark green.
Leaves are arranged alternately on the stem. The lemon has a
fragrant, white flower with five petals. This specific flower
comes from a lemon cultivar called Pink Lemonade. The fruit
is striped and the leaves of this cultivar are variegated. The
lemon fruit colour range is from greenish yellow to bright
yellow. Lemons seem very similar to limes, but are yellow when
ripe, where limes are green and lemons tend to be a little
larger. 7
Leaves 6.5 to 100 mm, serrulate, acute to acuminate. Leaf
jointed to the petiole. Petiole narrowly winged. Leaf blade
elliptic to ovate, 8-14×4-6 cm, apex usually mucronate, margin
conspicuously crenulate.
Figure 1:
Fruits are ovoid or globose, berry, hesperidium, and yellow
when ripe.11 Fruits belonging to the citrus group are called as
hesperidium,". Fruit shape can change as the fruit matures or
the trees get older and are also largely governed by variety
choice. Fruit size is influenced by variety, crop load, rootstock
and irrigation practices. Mature lemons turn green to yellow,
weigh about 50- 80 g in weight and measure about 5-8 cm in
Figure 2: images5.fanpop .com
Flowers male or bisexual. Petals white and tinged purple.
Stamens 20-30; Fruit oblong or ovoid mamillate, yellow when
ripe; pulp strongly acid and abundant.
Figure 3: pre14.devia
Seeds of lemon nestle within the pulp near the center of each
fruit. Their size and numbers vary according to variety, but most
are white, wrinkled, hard, oval or elliptical and measure about
3/8inch long. 12
Chaturvedi Dev et al. Int. Res. J. Pharm. 2016, 7 (6)
Figure 4: 2.bp.blogspot .com
A lemon flowers stigma must receive pollen which contains the
flowers sperm. More specifically, the pollen grains sperm must
be transferred to the stigma, which found the top and the longer
column in the middle of the flower. Lemon trees can be easily
grown in open area in warmer climate. Lemon trees can be
growing in pots in cooler region. Pollen was characterized by a
very different emission prole with respect to other parts of
ower. The trans-nerolidol (30.7%) is the main volatile detected
in pollen.13
The fruit juice mainly contains fruit acids, mainly citric acid
(8%) and sugars. Lemon peel consists of two layers: The outer
layer (pericarp, zest) contains an essential oil (6%), which is
composed of citral (5%) plus traces of citronellal and limonene
(90%), α-terpineol, geranyl acetate and linalyl. The inner layer
(mesocarp), in the other word, contains no essential oil but a
variety of coumarin derivatives and bitter flavone glycosides. It
also contains a very little potash, sugar and gum. An imitation
lemon juice has been prepared by dissolving tartaric acid into
water, then adding sulphuric acid and flavouring with oil of
Lemon. Oil of Lemon is dextrogyre. This contains 7 to 8% of
citral, an aldehyde yielding geraniol upon reduction, a small
amount of citronellal and pinene8
Prevent kidney stones- Citrate levels in the urine raises by
drinking one half-cup of lemon juice every day. In studies lemon
juice shown that this could protect against calcium stones in the
Soothe a sore throat- Honey mixing with lemon juice can help
alleviate and discomfort to treat nasty sore throat.
Support weight loss- Ancient time the old notion that the
Master Cleanse was the only way lose weight with the help of
lemons. New studies have shown the ways lemon juice supports
weight loss. Lemon juice contains pectin, a soluble fibre which
shown weight-loss.
Start your day right- Leave caffeinated drinks behind, and
stimulation of digestive track by the using fresh lemon juice and
hot water and add vitamin C.
Stop an itch -When it comes to insect bites or poison ivy, lemon
juice rubbing on the area can soothe the skin. Lemon juice show
anti-inflammatory and anaesthetic effects.
Anticancer properties- Studies have supported the citrus
liminoids show anticancer activity, compounds that protect cells
from damage which is the formation of cancer cells.
Potassium power- Lemons contain 80 milligrams of vitamin C
mineral. Vitamin C with Bananas that helps your body stay
strong and nimble.
Bring down a fever- Drinking a lemon juice mixture can help
bring your fever down faster. When body temperature goes up.
Balance pH -While lemons may seem quite acidic, lemon is
good source of an alkaline food that can help balance pH of
· Blood Purifier
· Blood Sugar Balance
· Osteoporosis
· Insomnia
· Brain and Nerve Food
· Asthma
· Nausea, Vomiting and Travel Sickness
· Rheumatism, Arthritis and Bone-Related Diseases
· Acne, Spots and Pimples
· Treat Throat Infections
· The intake of lemon juice and honey is one of the key health
benefits associated with Weight loss.
· Lemon juice has a wide property of skin benefits. Lemon
juice is rich in Vitamin C can helps in lightening the skin.
· Lemon juice also used by people suffered with UTI (Urinary
Tract Infection) problem, it can help flush high level of uric
· Mixture of lemon juice and olive oil to cure gall bladder
stones and kidney stones.
· Lemon juice is also used for liver stimulant, controls nausea
and relieves heartburns and irritable bowel syndrome.
· Lemon curd
· Lemon syrup
· Lemon-Garlic soup
· Sour mix
· Lemonade
· Pink Lemonade Popsicles
· Nutritionally, the lemon constitutes potassium, a mineral
that support in normalizing blood pressure, promotes clear
thinking and works with sodium to regulate the water
balance in the body.
· Add the equal amount of one lemon juice and hot water for
an anti-bacterial gargle.
· Lemons prevent scurvy because of high amount of Vitamin
C, a disease that causes aching joints, loose teeth and
bleeding gums.
· Acne scars, marks are embarrassing and pain treated by the
citric acid which is present in lemon juice.
· Lemon juice gives shine on faces.
· Lemon juice also stimulates the metabolism.
Chaturvedi Dev et al. Int. Res. J. Pharm. 2016, 7 (6)
Table 6: Nutritional Value11
Sodium (Na)
Potassium (K)
Magnesium (Mg)
Zinc (Zn)
Vitamin C
38.7 mg
Phosphorus (P)
Calcium (Ca)
Copper (Cu)
Iron (Fe)
Citrus is well known for its nutritional and medicinal value in all
over world. Its plants part are used as a traditional medicine.
According to available literature does not reveal any adverse
effect. Citrus is one of most popular plant in all over world.
1. Beatriz Alvarez Arias, Luis Ramon-Laca: Pharmacological
properties of citrus and their ancient and medieval uses in
the Mediterranean region. Journal of Ethnopharmacolgy
2. Javad Feizy, Hamed Reza Beheshti: Chemical Composition
of Lemon (Citrus Limon) and Peel its consideration as
animal food. Geographic Information and Decision Analysis
2012; 3 :267-271.
3. Maruti J. Dhanavade, Chidamber B. Jalkute: Study
Antimicrobial activity of Lemon (Citrus lemon L.) Peel
extract. British Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology
2011; 2 :119-122.
4. Komiya, M., T. Takeuchi, and E. Harada: Lemon oil vapor
causes an anti-stress effect via modulating the 5-HT and DA
activities in mice. Behav Brain Res, 2007, 172: 240-249.
5. Pizzetti, M., F. De Marco, and S. Schuler. Simon and
Schuster's Guide to Trees, New York: Simon and Schuster,
6. Kokate C.K., Purohit A.P., Gokhale S.B.: Pharmacology.
45th ed. Pune: Nirali Prakashan;2008;11.40.
7. M. Mohanapriya, Dr. Lalitha Ramaswamy: Health and
Medicinal Properties of Lemon (Citrus Limonum).
International Journal Of Ayurvedic And Herbal Medicine
8. The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, Gov. of India,
Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, 4: 83.
leftover-fresh-lemon-juice, 07/10/2015.
10. Jonathan H. Crane: Lemon Growing in the Florida Home
Landscape. US Florida 2013;1153:1095-1100.
11. Javad Feizy, Hamed Reza Beheshti: Chemical Composition
of Lemon (Citrus Limon) and Peel its consideration as
animal food. Geographic Information and Decision Analysis
2012; 37 :269-270.
13. Guido Flamini, Marianna Tebano, Pier Luigi Cioni: Volatile
emission patterns of different plant organs and pollrn of
citrus limon. Analytica Chimica Acta 2007;02:120-124.
Good-You-14860617, 07/10/2015.
wellness/lemon-health-benefits.html, 07/10/2015.
Cite this article as:
Chaturvedi Dev, Shrivastava Rishi Raj Suhane Nidhi. Basketful
benefit of Citrus limon. Int. Res. J. Pharm. 2016;7(6):1-4
Source of support: Nil, Conflict of interest: None Declared
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... Lemon known botanically as Cymbopogon citratus is a well cultivated medicinal plant having anticancer and antibacterial properties (Dev and Nidhi, 2016). It is also used as a relief for constipation, aids in good digestion, treatment of scurvy, piles, gout, gums and respiratory disorders (Mohanapriya et al., 2013). ...
study on the antifungal potentials of various plants extracts on mycoflora of groundnut pod was carried out in the Department of Plant Science and Biotechnology, Rivers State. Cultural laboratory methods was used to evaluate the mycoflora. Powdered plants extracts used were extracted by air drying and blending the leaves of the plants. The antifungal activity on the various fungal isolates was done at different concentrations (100, 50, 25, and 12.5mg/ml). For antifungal activity of C. citratus at 100, 50 and 25mg/ml revealed higher inhibition of Scopulariopsis sp compared to other isolates, although at 12.5mg/ml there was complete inhibition across all fungal isolates. X. aethiopica showed more inhibition for all isolates at the different concentrations while T. tetraptera and C. aurantifolia revealed total inhibition of these isolates at 12.5mg/ml with variations across other concentrations respectively. Generally all plants extract showed complete inhibition at 12.5mg/ml.
... In addition to lemon juice, Itolmasovna mentioned that lemon peel has been approved to be used to treat renal calculi as well as prevent them from recurring [36]. Finally, regarding the traditional use, a lemon juice and olive oil mixture was prescribed for curing KSs [37]. ...
Full-text available
Background Kidney stones (KSs), in fact, have been considered one of the most ancient and prevalent medical conditions that impact a significant number of human beings all around the world. Such stones can range greatly in size and can be detected in any part of the urinary system, including the kidneys, ureters, or bladder itself. The development of stones is caused by the mineral’s crystallization, which then interacts with each other and adheres together. Kidney stone formation can represent a prime medical condition for which there are numerous therapies available, among them natural ones. Recurrence of stones after curing is very common, and strategies available to prevent their reoccurrence or even their development for the first time are numerous, with enhanced fluid consumption or avoiding dehydration being the most important one. Objective The current review article aims to draw attention to the potential of natural remedies besides lifestyle modification in the management and prevention of KSs. This is not arbitrary but based on real, documented scientific evidence. Method The natural remedies mentioned in the context of this manuscript were chosen for their availability in almost all nations, or perhaps even in every home. Results The findings of the present article are very promising and exhibit the potential benefit of natural remedies in addition to shifting to a healthy lifestyle in both the treatment and prevention of KSs.
... C. limon L Osbeck is also used as an essential ingredient during the production of different industrial products (Neuberger et al. 2017). They are also used as a primary garnishing agent in several dishes across the globe (Chaturvedi et al. 2016). Due to its high consumption and increased demand, C. limon L Osbeck is cultivated in most countries around the globe (Makni et al. 2018). ...
Full-text available
Assam lemon represents the core table fruit and a very important part of the food regime of Northeast India. It stands out from the other lemons owing to its distinctive aroma and flavour. Northeast India being the cradle to the various Citrus species, we were interested in cataloging the genetic diversity accumulated by this cultivar over the last 67 years of its existence. For this, Assam lemon (510 samples) collected from 97 different locations in 16 districts of Assam were analyzed using 12 inter simple sequence repeats, which showed 37,607 DNA amplicons among which 31,997 (85.08%) indicate polymorphism. The average polymorphism information content was 0.89, whereas total gene diversity among the populations (HT) and within-population (Hs) were 0.14 (0.03) and 0.07 (0.01), respectively. The mean coefficient of gene differentiation was high (GST = 0.52), resulting in a moderate gene flow (Nm = 0.46), indicating genetic differentiation among the populations of Assam lemon. The analysis of molecular variance specified that 84% molecular variance was observed among the population. In contrast to the samples from other districts, the populations from Tinsukia, and Dhemaji districts of Assam were genetically similar to the original stock conserved at Kahikuchi, as evident from the diversity analysis.
... This result is due to the nature of lemon which belongs to the acidic food group. According to Chaturvedi et al [10], lemon extract has a pH of 2-3 which means it has a very sour taste. The addition of more lemon extract can give a stronger sour taste and lower pH. ...
Full-text available
Cascara is a drink made from dried coffee cherry skin that has the potential aspects to be further developed into syrup. The processing of cascara syrup with the addition of lemon (Citrus limon) is expected to produce a preferred syrup. This study aims to determine the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of cascara syrup with the addition of lemon extract. This study used a factorial Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with 2 factors, the concentration of cascara extract (C1 = 20% and C2 = 25%) and lemon extract (L1 = 0%, L2 = 3% and L3 = 5%). The parameter analyzed were pH, total soluble solid (TSS), total fenol, vitamin C and hedonic taste. The results showed that the addition of lemon affects the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of the cascara syrup produced. The higher cascara extract added, the total soluble solid of cascara syrup produced will be increased. The more lemons added, vitamin C content and the hedonic taste also increase, but pH value decreased. The best treatment was obtained from cascara syrup with 25% cascara extract and 5% lemon extract (C2L3) with a pH value of 3.91; total soluble solid 4.89 °Brix; vitamin C 10.83 mg/100g; total phenol 31.62 mg/ml and hedonic taste 3.72 (like).
... The distinctively harsh flavor of lemon juice makes it an essential constituent of drinks and nutritional supplements, including lemonade and lemon meringue pie. Its berry is essentially rich in alkaloids which show anticancer properties and demonstrates antibacterial activities in unrefined concentrations of lemon on clinically challenging bacterial strains [14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21]. The biological activity of C. limon is attributed to the rich quantity of phenolic compounds, for instance, flavonoids; limonoids, carotenoids and bioactive monoterpenoids such as D-limonene, β-pinene and γterpinene [22]. ...
Full-text available
... The butterfly pea flower is a flower from the Fabaceae family with the international name blue pea flower because it is blue which indicates the presence of anthocyanin (Lestario, 2017). In addition, lemon is one of the fruits from the genus Rutaceae which has the highest hesperidin content compared to other citrus types (Chaturvedi et al., 2016;Klimek-szczykutowicz et al., 2020). No one has ever studied the total content of flavonoids and anthocyanin related to the combination of them. ...
Conference Paper
Butterfly pea flower (Clitoria ternatea L.) and lemon (Citrus limon) have bioactive compounds such as flavonoids and anthocyanin that were known the potential to be processed as functional beverage for health. The combination of them was never been done before. This experiment aimed to analyze the levels of total flavonoids, anthocyanin, and antioxidant activity in butterfly pea flower and lemon beverage. This experimental research was experimental method while dried butterfly pea flower was brewed at temperature of 60 degrees Celsius for 15 minutes combined with lemon fruits with formulation TL (100:0%) F1 (75:25%), F2 (50:50%), F3 (25:75%), and JL (0:100%). The formulation beverages were analyzed for total flavonoid by spectrophotometric method, anthocyanin by pH differential method, and antioxidant activity IC50 by DPPH method. The formulation beverage of butterfly pea flower and lemon F3 (25:75%) was the best formula based on the results for total flavonoids and antioxidant activ ity. Besides, formula F1 (75:25%) was the best in anthocyanin levels. More composition butterfly pea flower in the beverage, contained more the flavonoid and anthocyanin. Adding more lemon fruits into beverage made greater antioxidant activity IC50. Further research is needed to examine other phytochemical compounds and the effect of its administration on health.
... and bone-related diseases, nausea, and bone infections [1]. In addition, lemon intake 132 is linked with a decreased risk of heart disease and cancer [5,6]. ...
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The lemon (Citrus limon; family Rutaceae) is one of the most important and popular fruit worldwide. Lemon also tolerates Huanglongbing disease, which is a devastating citrus disease. Here, we produced a gap-free and haplotype-resolved chromosome-scale genome assembly of the lemon by combining Pacific Biosciences circular consensus sequencing, Oxford Nanopore 50-kb ultra-long, and high-throughput chromatin conformation capture technologies. The assembly contained nine-pair chromosomes with a contig N50 of 35.6 Mb and zero gaps. While a total of 633.0 Mb genomic sequences were generated. The origination analysis identified 338.5 Mb genomic sequences originating from citron (53.5 %), 147.4 Mb from mandarin (23.3 %), and 147.1 Mb from pummelo (23.2 %). The genome included 30,528 protein-coding genes, and most of the assembled sequences were found to be repetitive sequences. Several significantly expanded gene families were associated with plant-pathogen interactions, plant hormone signal transduction, and the biosynthesis of major active components, such as terpenoids and flavor. Most HLB-tolerant genes were expanded in the lemon genome, such as 2-oxoglutarate (2OG) / Fe(II)-dependent oxygenase and constitutive disease resistance 1, cell wall-related genes, and lignin synthesis genes. Comparative transcriptomic analysis showed that the phloem regeneration and lower levels of phloem plugging are the elements that contribute to HLB tolerance in lemon. Our results provide insight into lemon genome evolution, active component biosynthesis, and genes associated with HLB tolerance.
The study was carried out to assess the mineral content, phytochemicals and proximate analysis of the peels and seed of citrus limon. Analysis of the mineral was carried using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer and flame photometer. Phytochemicals and proximate analysis determination were done using standard methods. The citrus limon peels and seeds contain reasonable amount of important minerals such as Ca, K Mg, Na, Zn. Fe, Mn and Cu. Poisonous elements like Pb and Cd are present in very small quantity and these may be considered as food supplement especially for animals. The phytochemical analysis showed the presence flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, saponins, phenols and steroids in both the citrus limon peels and seeds while terpenoid is present in only the peels. Substantial amount of nutritional components such as carbohydrate, fibre, lipids and proteins are also present. The peels and seeds of lemon may be used materials for drug production and nutritional supplements.
Full-text available
This study aims to identify consumers’ most liked formulation and evaluate the effect of thickening agents of potato starch (PS) and xanthan gum (XG) on the overall acceptability of cilantro sauces, viscosity, and pH. There are five formulas to be tested: F1 (1% PS), F2 (0.75% PS: 0.25% XG), F3 (0.50% PS: 0.50% XG), F4 (1% XG), and F5 (control). The results show significant differences based on taste and texture in the acceptance test, but no significant differences were discovered based on color and aroma. While no significant changes were identified in pH, there was a substantial difference in the viscosity test for each formulation. Based on the results, the ideal formulation for cilantro sauce consists of 0.75% PS and 0.25% XG (F2).
Full-text available
Abstract: The main objective of the study is extraction, identification of antimicrobial compounds and demonstration of antimicrobial activity of lemon (Citrus lemon L.) peel against bacteria. As microorganism are becoming resistant to present day antibiotics, our study focuses on antimicrobial activity and future prophylactic potential of the lemon peel. Biologically active compounds present in the medicinal plants have always been of great interest to scientists. The peel of citrus fruits is a rich source of flavanones and many polymethoxylated flavones, which are very rare in other plants. These compounds, not only play an important physiological and ecological role, but are also of commercial interest because of their multitude of applications in the food and pharmaceutical industries. The citrus peel oils show strong antimicrobial activity. The antimicrobial activity has been checked in terms of MIC by using different solvents against microorganisms like Pseudomonas aeruginosa NCIM 2036 for which MIC was 1:20 in presence of methanol, for Salmonella typhimurium NCIM 5021 the observed MIC was 1:20 in presence of acetone. In case of Micrococcus aureus NCIM 5021 the observed MIC was 1:20 when ethanol was used as solvent. The compounds like coumarin and tetrazene were identified by GC/MS of lemon peel extract.
Full-text available
This paper reviews the pharmacological properties of Mediterranean-grown citrus species ('Citrus' L., 'Rutaceae'), including citron ('Citrus medica' L.), lime ('Citrus' x 'aurantiifolia' [Christm.] Swingle), lemon ('Citrus' x 'limon' [L.] Osbeck), bitter orange ('Citrus' x 'aurantium' L.) and pomelo ('Citrus maxima' [Burm.] Merr.), as referred to in ancient, medieval and 16th century sources. The virtues of the species reported in these texts were compared to those known to modern science. A much broader spectrum of pharmacological properties was recorded by these early writers than one might expect. The use of the citron and lemon as antidotes for 'poison and venom' is recorded in the very earliest material. According to modern scientific literature the citron and the bitter orange may possess anti-cancer activity, lime may have an immunomodulatory effect in humans, and the pomelo may be useful for treating circulatory problems. Lemons might even ease hangover symptoms. Research is required to confirm these properties.
The volatiles emitted in vivo by different plant parts of Citrus limon (Rutaceae) have been identified by mean of head space-solid phase micro extraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses. In particular, the profiles of flower buds, mature flowers, petals, stamens, gynaecium, pericarp of unripe and ripe fruits, young and adult leaves and pollen have been examined. Furthermore, the essential oil obtained from expression of ripe pericarp was studied. Volatiles were produced in distinctive amounts by the different plant organs, creating an interesting contrast, particularly within the flower parts: the highest amount of limonene (62.5%) was emitted by gynaecium, followed by stamens (22.9%) and petals (3.1%). Pollen did not produce limonene at all. The same compound is contained in higher amounts in the young leaves than in old ones (65.3% versus 30.1%). A possible defensive role of limonene and other volatiles, mainly terpene aldehydes, produced by young leaves has been hypothesized.
We examined the anti-stress action of the essential oils of lavender, rose, and lemon using an elevated plus-maze task (EPM), a forced swimming task (FST), and an open field task (OFT) in mice. Lemon oil had the strongest anti-stress effect in all three behavioral tasks. We further investigated a regulatory mechanism of the lemon oil by pre-treatments with agonists or antagonists to benzodiazepine, 5-HT, DA, and adrenaline receptors by the EPM and the FST. The anti-stress effect of lemon oil was significantly blocked by pre-treatment with frumazenil, benzodiazepine receptor antagonist, or apomorphine, a nonselective DA receptor agonist. In contrast, agonists or antagonists to the 5-HT receptor and the alpha-2 adrenaline receptor did not affect the anti-stress effect of lemon oil. Buspirone, DOI, and mianserine blocked the antidepressant-like effect of lemon oil in the FST, but WAY100,635 did not. These findings suggest that the antidepressant-like effect of lemon oil is closely related with the 5-HTnergic pathway, especially via 5-HT(1A) receptor. Moreover, the lemon oil significantly accelerated the metabolic turnover of DA in the hippocampus and of 5-HT in the prefrontal cortex and striatum. These results suggest that lemon oil possesses anxiolytic, antidepressant-like effects via the suppression of DA activity related to enhanced 5-HTnergic neurons.
Lalitha Ramaswamy: Health and Medicinal Properties of Lemon (Citrus Limonum)
  • M Mohanapriya
M. Mohanapriya, Dr. Lalitha Ramaswamy: Health and Medicinal Properties of Lemon (Citrus Limonum). International Journal Of Ayurvedic And Herbal Medicine 2013;3:1095-1100.
Simon and Schuster's Guide to Trees
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Pizzetti, M., F. De Marco, and S. Schuler. Simon and Schuster's Guide to Trees, New York: Simon and Schuster, 1978.
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