Article

Chemical Compositions of Pine Resin, Rosin and Turpentine Oil from West Java

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Abstract

This study was conducted to identify chemical composition of merkus pine resin, rosin and turpentine oil. Initially, pine resin was separated into neutral and acidic fractions with an aqueous 4% sodium hydroxide solution. After methylation, the fraction containing turpentine oil and rosin were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC), and gas chromatograph mass spectrometry (GC-MS), respectively. The neutral fraction of pine resin and turpentine oil mainly consisted of a-pinene, D-3-carene and b-pinene. Based on mass spectral comparison, the major constituents of the acidic fraction and rosin were identified as sandaracopimaric acid, isopimaric acid, palustric acid, dehydroabietic acid, abietic acid, neoabietic acid, and merkusic acid. The major component of the acidic fractions was palustric acid, while that of rosin was abietic acid. Using TC (tough column) 1 and TC 5 columns, levopimaric acid could not be separated from rosin or acidic fraction of pine resin of Indonesian Pinus merkusii.

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... So far, 18 turpentines have been reported, including α-phellandrene, α-pinene, δ-3-carene, β-caryophyllene, β-pinene, camphene, d-camphene, p-cymene, myrcene, β-myrcene, α-thujene, sabinene, limonene, d-limonene, myrcene, sabinene, α-terpineol, and α-terpinolene. α-pinene is a dominant component of turpentine for Sumatran plants (Cooling 1968;Sukarno et al. 2015;Wiyono et al. 2006a, b). Some chemical compounds from rosin and acidic fraction were also recorded, including abietic acid, dehydroabietic acid, isopimaric acid, merkusic acid, neoabietic acid, palustric acid, and sandaracopimaric acid (Wiyono et al. 2006a). ...
... α-pinene is a dominant component of turpentine for Sumatran plants (Cooling 1968;Sukarno et al. 2015;Wiyono et al. 2006a, b). Some chemical compounds from rosin and acidic fraction were also recorded, including abietic acid, dehydroabietic acid, isopimaric acid, merkusic acid, neoabietic acid, palustric acid, and sandaracopimaric acid (Wiyono et al. 2006a). A study carried out by Sukarno et al. (2015) shows that the yields of oleoresin, gum, and turpentine differ between plants from different areas in Aceh and cultivation from Java. ...
... Timber was once listed among the topmost economically important ones in Sumatra, Java, and Madura (Embassy of Indonesia 1967). According to Wiyono et al. (2006a), there are 23,560 ha of pine forests in Java. The plantation in Java is second after Java teak (Corryanti and Rahmawati 2015). ...
... This material arises when asphalt pavement is peeled for reconstruction, resurfaced, or dug to access the embedded utility network underneath. When shelled, and filtered properly, RAP can contain high-grade and well-aggregated aggregates [1]. ...
... Gondorukem is the result of the cleaning process of the residue obtained from the steam distillation of tusam sap. The result of the distillation is turpentine [1][2]. The result of the distillation of the sap becomes turpentine with the chemical element of C10H16. ...
... Properties of Gondorukem (colophony)[1][2]. ...
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Increasing the level of the road due to overlay, by adding additional layers continuously, will thicken the pavement layer and utilize the virgin materials. The dredged asphalt pavement materials can be reused, for example for new pavements, commonly called Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP). However, adding RAP on the new pavement result in a decrease in the physical properties of the pavement. Gondorukem is a sap that was chosen as an asphalt concrete additive ingredient that can absorb heat. The use of Gondorukem as additive was expected to increase the stability of the asphalt pavement. In this study, the Marshall characteristics of the mixture of asphalt concrete - wearing course (AC-WC) containing RAP and Gondorukem additives were tested. Asphalt concrete containing 35% of RAP and Gondorukem which content varied of 0%, 3%, 5%, 7%, and 10% was tested. The obtained stability value increased by 28.48%. The optimum Gondorukem addition into the asphalt was 3.2%; the optimum bitumen content was 6.45%.
... The oil contains ⍶-pinene, dcamphene, ß -pinene, Myrcene, α-phellandrene, △-carene, p-cymene, and d-limonene. The highest component of turpentine oil is pinene, followed by carene [6]. Table 1. ...
... Table 1. The composition of neutral fraction and turpentine oil [6]. ...
... Research on pinene in Indonesia is still in the first generation where it focussed on the production of raw pine resin and its utilization. However, the downstream process and product has yet to be considered [6]. ...
Article
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Pine resin is a non-wood forestry product in Indonesia that can be converted into a much higher value product. Pine resin traditionally is converted into rosin and turpentine. Due to the scarcity supply of fossil fuel, turpentine has been studied as fuel for diesel substitution. Pinene, the highest component found in pine resin is the primary fuel source candidate. Pinene dimer, modified pinene using catalysts or ozone have a heating value similar to that of JP-10, a tactical fuel for rockets. This paper discussed the technological development of pinene and pinene dimers as a fuel. The opportunity and challenge for producing pine based fuel in Indonesia were also addressed.
... For instance, pine needles are good source of Shikimic acid [3], Abietic acid [4] Vitamins A and C [5] etc...Its bark is used for medical purpose, for example, in treatment of cold, cough, influenza67. Varieties of ink and adhesives are used in various kinds of paints mainly a product of pine trees [8]. Most of these products are highly in demand and directly contribute in economy locally and globally. ...
... Rosin has a good electric isolation, being used as oil in cables for high voltage electricity. In soldering process, rosin is used to get rid of oxide compounds in the surface of metal, synthetic rubber and chewing gums [8]. Two new xanthone identified as 1,5-dihydroxy-3,6,7-trimethoxy-8-dimethylallyloxy-xanthone and 1-hydroxy-3,6-dimethoxy-2-β- Dglucopyranoxanthone have been isolated from the methanolic extract of the bark of Pinus roxburghii [19].On steam distillation, the needles of Pinus roxburghii are reported to give 0.26 % of colorless, volatile oil known as pine oil. ...
Article
Deforestation, forest fire hazard and exploitation of forest have been warning threats to our environment and ecosystem globally. Uttarakhand is a hilly state of India situated in the lap of Central Himalayas and Chir pine forest is the foremost species of this state. In this state, 65% area is covered mainly by forest and population wise, about 70% of its total population inhibit in its rural areas. Pine forest is found enormously in several districts of the Uttarakhand state. One of the prime means of survival hood of rural there is collection of hay stuff for cattle and growing tendrils for vegetables etc. For this purpose every year, villagers need a number of poles as a support to hay stuff and tendrils. Pine trees, bearing a pole kind of structure, are the most victims for this reason as it is easily available to the villagers. Pine has been a valuable asset internationally for many applications e.g. medicine, drugs, expensive chemicals, etc. It has been a research focus of many scientists and industrialists. It's under usage for hay and tendril purpose is, however, hardly noticed. The present study deals with estimation of poles, required for hay and tendril purpose in various districts of the Uttarakhand. A field survey is conducted to observe and estimate pine deforestation by individual family. The findings of present survey indicate: (i) pine deforestation by villages needs to be noticed and avoided (ii) villages may be provided an alternative solution (iii) instead, pine trees should be preserved and used for enhancing social, environmental and economic measures. The alternate for hay and tendril poles is discussed. The benefits of preserving pine trees and its scope is thoroughly studied. Harmful effects of pine forest degradation are highlighted.
... The pine leaves (needles) are normally used in agriculture to enrich the soil, and the seeds are used for human consumption because they are highly nutritious and much appreciated by consumers in cooked/prepared dishes (food industry) or simply as edible pine nuts. The resins, a product resulting from the exploitation of these species, are more regularly used as a sealant, glue, varnish, and also as a solvent and paint thinner (turpentine oil) [55,57,61]. ...
... Oleoresins are widely used in the synthesis of perfumed compounds for cosmetics, essences as additives for food and beverages, food protection (antimicrobial), bioinsecticides (high repellent activity), tapping green chemicals, biofuels, and carbon sequestration from multipurpose trees [54,55,57,61]. ...
Article
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In Europe, pine forests are one of the most extended forests formations, making pine residues and by-products an important source of compounds with high industrial interest as well as for bioenergy production. Moreover, the valorization of lumber industry residues is desirable from a circular economy perspective. Different extraction methods and solvents have been used, resulting in extracts with different constituents and consequently with different bioactivities. Recently, emerging and green technologies as ultrasounds, microwaves, supercritical fluids, pressurized liquids, and electric fields have appeared as promising tools for bioactive compounds extraction in alignment with the Green Chemistry principles. Pine extracts have attracted the researchers’ attention because of the positive bioproperties, such as anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anti-neurodegenerative, antitumoral, cardioprotective, etc., and potential industrial applications as functional foods, food additives as preservatives, nutraceuticals, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. Phenolic compounds are responsible for many of these bioactivities. However, there is not much information in the literature about the individual phenolic compounds of extracts from the pine species. The present review is about the reutilization of residues and by-products from the pine species, using ecofriendly technologies to obtain added-value bioactive compounds for industrial applications.
... For instance, pine needles are good source of Shikimic acid [3], Abietic acid [4] Vitamins A and C [5] etc...Its bark is used for medical purpose, for example, in treatment of cold, cough, influenza [6][7]. Varieties of ink and adhesives are used in various kinds of paints mainly a product of pine trees [8]. Most of these products are highly in demand and directly contribute in economy locally and globally. ...
... Rosin has a good electric isolation, being used as oil in cables for high voltage electricity. In soldering process, rosin is used to get rid of oxide compounds in the surface of metal, synthetic rubber and chewing gums [8]. Two new xanthone identified as 1,5-dihydroxy-3,6,7-trimethoxy-8-dimethylallyloxy-xanthone and 1-hydroxy-3,6-dimethoxy-2-β-Dglucopyranoxanthone have been isolated from the methanolic extract of the bark of Pinus roxburghii [19].On steam distillation, the needles of Pinus roxburghii are reported to give 0.26 % of colorless, volatile oil known as pine oil. ...
Article
Full-text available
Deforestation, forest fire hazard and exploitation of forest have been warning threats to our environment and ecosystem globally. Uttarakhand is a hilly state of India situated in the lap of Central Himalayas and Chir pine forest is the foremost species of this state. In this state, 65% area is covered mainly by forest and population wise, about 70% of its total population inhibit in its rural areas. Pine forest is found enormously in several districts of the Uttarakhand state. One of the prime means of survival hood of rural there is collection of hay stuff for cattle and growing tendrils for vegetables etc. For this purpose every year, villagers need a number of poles as a support to hay stuff and tendrils. Pine trees, bearing a pole kind of structure, are the most victims for this reason as it is easily available to the villagers. Pine has been a valuable asset internationally for many applications e.g. medicine, drugs, expensive chemicals, etc. It has been a research focus of many scientists and industrialists. It's under usage for hay and tendril purpose is, however, hardly noticed. The present study deals with estimation of poles, required for hay and tendril purpose in various districts of the Uttarakhand. A field survey is conducted to observe and estimate pine deforestation by individual family. The findings of present survey indicate: (i) pine deforestation by villages needs to be noticed and avoided (ii) villages may be provided an alternative solution (iii) instead, pine trees should be preserved and used for enhancing social, environmental and economic measures. The alternate for hay and tendril poles is discussed. The benefits of preserving pine trees and its scope is thoroughly studied. Harmful effects of pine forest degradation are highlighted.
... The effects of this additive on diesel soot nanostructure and reactivity were qualitatively same as those observed with DCPD addition to diesel. Another cyclic hydrocarbon with fused rings, α-pinene (a biofuel obtained from pine resin [27], microbial synthesis from glucose using E. Coli [28], and produced industrially as a byproduct of paper pulping [29] and the fractional distillation of turpentine [30]) has been tested as a fuel [31,32] and as a diesel additive [33,34] in the literature, though most commonly in the form of turpentine oil. In [31], α-pinene was tested as an alternative fuel for spark-ignition engines, and the combustion and the emission characteristics of this non-oxygenated biofuel was found to be similar to gasoline, though soot emission was higher than that of gasoline. ...
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Diesel fuel combustion generates soot particles, which are harmful for human health and the environment. To reduce soot emission, various solutions are proposed in the literature such as the use of metal-additives in fuels, fuel blending with biofuels, and the use of diesel particulate filters. This study analyses the effect of the addition of a bicyclic monoterpene hydrocarbon biofuel, α-pinene to diesel in different proportions on the fuel cetane number, sooting propensity, and the physicochemical properties of soot nanoparticles. The addition of 10% α-pinene to diesel exhibited a synergistic effect on sooting tendency and reduced the threshold sooting index of diesel by 21%, even though α-pinene is an unsaturated hydrocarbon, and had a minimal impact on cetane number, which reduced from 63.5 for diesel to 61.5 for the blended fuel. The influence of α-pinene addition to diesel on soot nanostructural characteristics and reactivity is determined through different characterization approaches including HRTEM, TGA, XRD, SEM-EDX, and EELS. The results indicate that α-pinene addition to diesel imposes curvatures in soot nanostructure, creates relatively smaller fringes (PAHs) in soot, and reduces soot aromatic content to improve soot oxidation rate.
... The effects of this additive on diesel soot nanostructure and reactivity were qualitatively same as those observed with DCPD addition to diesel. Another cyclic hydrocarbon with fused rings, α-pinene (a biofuel obtained from pine resin [27], microbial synthesis from glucose using E. Coli [28], and produced industrially as a byproduct of paper pulping [29] and the fractional distillation of turpentine [30]) has been tested as a fuel [31,32] and as a diesel additive [33,34] in the literature, though most commonly in the form of turpentine oil. In [31], α-pinene was tested as an alternative fuel for spark-ignition engines, and the combustion and the emission characteristics of this non-oxygenated biofuel was found to be similar to gasoline, though soot emission was higher than that of gasoline. ...
... Rosin has a good electric isolation, being used as oil in cables for high voltage electricity. In soldering process, rosin is used to get rid of oxide compounds in the surface of metal, synthetic rubber and chewing gums (Wiyono, et al., 2006). Native Americans have used pine resin to treat rheumatism because of its anti-inflammatory properties. ...
Article
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Pinus roxburghii Sarg. (syn. Pinus longifolia Roxb.) (Pinaceae), found in the Himalayan region, furnishes an oleo-resin which is used as insecticides, disinfectants and liver disorders. P. roxburghii are reported to have wound healing, cytotoxic, antibacterial, antifungal and spasmolytic actions. The plant also shows beneficial effects in the treatment of cough, ulceration and genito-urinary disorders. Folklore reports suggest its use in inflammations, asthma, chronic bronchitis, piles, diseases of the liver and spleen, urinary discharges, toothache, tuberculosis, scabies and epilepsy. This review provides a bird’s eye view about geographical distribution, folklore uses, phytoconstituents and pharmacological properties of P. roxburghii.
... Extracts from needles of P. roxburghii were reported to contain an intestinal antiseptic, antidyslipedemic, spasmolytic, and antioxidant properties (Puri et al. 2011). Pine rosin is used to make adhesives, paper, varnish, printing ink, synthetic rubber, chewing gums, and other products (Wiyono et al. 2006;Shuaib et al. 2013). The of August 2013. ...
Article
The essential oils extracted by hydro-distillation of Pinus roxburghii wood, bark, and needles were analyzed by GC/MS, and their antibacterial and antioxidant activities were evaluated. Twenty-two, thirty-one, and twenty-eight compounds were identified in the essential oils of wood, bark, and needles, respectively. The major chemical constituents of wood’s essential oil were caryophyllene (16.75%), thunbergol (16.29%), 3-carene (14.95%), cembrene (12.08%), α-thujene (10.81%), and terpinolen (7.17%). In bark, they were α-pinene (31.29%) and 3-carene (28.05%), and in needles, they were α-pinene (39%) and 3-carene (33.37%). Almost all of the essential oils were active against human pathogen bacteria, and the essential oils from bark and needles were active against the plant pathogen bacteria Ralstonia solanacearum and Pectobacterium carotovorum. Alternatively, Erwinia amylovora was resistant to all tested oils. The total antioxidant activities (TAA%) of the essential oils from wood (82 ± 2.12%), and bark (85 ± 1.24%) were higher than that of tannic acid (81 ± 1.02%), and the TAA% from the essential oil of needles (50 ± 2.24%) was lower than that of tannic acid.
... Turpentin adalah bahan resen kimia yang tidak murni, umumnya mengandung unsur hidrokarbon siklik atau yang hampir terpen selalu tercampur dengan unsur dan sesquiterpen kadang-kadang dengan unsur bukan . terpen Kompisisi kimia getah pinus dari Jawa Barat dianalisa kedalalam fraksi netral dan fraksi asam, dan ditemukan bahwa senyawa ini terdiri dari 50 -53% fraksi asam (Wiyono, Tachibana, & Tinambunan, 2006). Fraksi netral pada dasarnya sama dengan terpentin yang disusun terutama oleh , dan . ...
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Secara umum, produksi getah pinus dipengaruhi oleh beberapa faktor, yaitu jenis pohon pinus, lingkungan pertumbuhan, dan cara penyadapan getah. Tulisan ini mempelajari produksi getah pinus yang disadap dengan cara dibor dan menggunakan stimulan H2SO4. Lubang sadap dirancang dengan kedalaman 4, 6, dan 8 cm dengan kemiringan 25°. Tiga konsentrasi stimulan H2SO4 (0,15%, 25%) dilaburkan pada luka sadap dengan pengulangan perlakuan 10 kali. Penelitian dirancang menggunakan percobaan faktorial 3 x 3 dengan rancangan acak lengkap dan uji lanjutan uji beda nyata jujur. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penyadapan getah pinus dengan cara dibor dan penambahan stimulan H2SO4 menghasilkan getah pinus antara 15,5-109,3 g/pohon/pungut (rata-rata 56,3 g/pohon/pungut) atau antara 2,6-18,2 g/pohon/hari (rata-rata 9,4 g/pohon/hari). Hasil getah pinus dipengaruhi secara nyata oleh kedalaman lubang sadap dan konsentrasi stimulan H2SO4. Semakin dalam lubang sadap, semakin banyak getah pinus yang dihasilkan, demikian juga semakin tinggi konsentrasi stimulan H2SO4 yang digunakan semakin banyak getah pinus yang dihasilkan. Produksi getah pinus pada lubang sadap 8 cm lebih tinggi 65,96% dari lubang sadap 4 cm dan penggunaan stimulan H2SO4 30% meningkatkan produksi getah pinus sebesar 56,45%. Produksi getah terbanyak diperoleh dari titik sadap 8 cm dengan 30% H2SO4dengan hasil getah rata-rata 90,7 g/pohon/pungut.
... The composition of rosin was studied in the past (Joye and Lawrence 1967; Wiyono et al. 2006;Cannac et al. 2009;Ghanmi et al. 2009), and its empirical formula is C 20 H 30 O 2 . Di-terpene acids represent 90 wt% of rosin and the remaining 10 wt% are a blend of esters, alcohols, aldehydes and hydrocarbons. ...
Article
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The temperature of pine rosin softening point was studied to better understand the phenomenon of resin exudation on the surface of pine boards. This problem may decrease strongly the aesthetical performance of wood used outside and is an important concern for the industry. To perform a reliable measurement of rosin properties with a small amount of sample, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermo mechanical analysis (TMA) techniques were investigated and the results compared. DSC curves on industrial rosin and acetone rosin extractives from maritime pine show a behavior similar to a glass transition in polymers. TMA measurements carried out on the same industrial rosin showed that the softening point is in the midpoint of the transition phase observed by DSC. The softening point temperature is about 45 °C for industrial rosin and about 50 °C for rosin extractives from maritime pine boards. These values are significantly lower than those usually found on other rosins measured by the ASTM E28-14 standard using the ring-and-ball method. When using heat treatment, it was observed for the first time that the thermal history of the sample can change its softening point temperature. With these results, it could be possible to develop a new strategy to reduce rosin exudation for exterior wood siding.
... Rosin is used in products ranging from adhesives, printing ink, electric isolation, paper and varnish. As illustrated in Fig. 1, rosin consists mostly of resin acids, including abietic, dehydroabietic and pimaric acid [1]. Resin acids occur in the oleoresin fraction of coniferous wood species [2,3]. ...
Article
The potential recovery of resin acids from the fast pyrolysis of pine was assessed using both a batch micropyrolyzer and continuous fluidized bed reactor. Fast pyrolysis in the micropyrolyzer was conducted at 200 to 600 °C to determine the optimal pyrolysis temperature for the recovery of resin acids from pine. Maximum yield of resin acids occurred at 500 °C. Pyrolysis in a continuous fluidized bed reactor demonstrated that resin acids could be recovered from the heavy fraction of condensed pyrolysate. By increasing the temperature of the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) used to capture aerosols from 100 to 250 °C, the yield of resin acids in the recovered aerosol increased from 3.1 to 5.2 wt% based on the SF1 bio-oil. The results showed that fast pyrolysis can effectively produce resin acids-rich bio-oil from pine wood.
... Gondorukem rubber is resistant to weather changes and has a high melting point, therefore, no defects will occur due to heavy traffic loading [4]. Gondorukem properties are shown in Table 1 [9,10]. ...
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This study aims to investigate the Marshall properties of porous asphalt pavement containing Gondorukem rubber. Gondorukem rubber was used in 0%, 3%, 5%, 7% and 10% as a replacement to the asphalt binder. In this study, modified Gondorukem/Asphalt (G/A) was examined for its compatibility with porous asphalt pavement mixture by testing the Marshall properties particularly the Void in Mixture(VIM), stability and flow. It was found that 7% of G/A produced the maximum stability at 902.309 kg with a flow value of 4.55 mm and Void in Mixture (VIM) of 21.74%. Hence, the 7% G/A was selected as the optimum percentage of Gondorukem for the local design of porous asphalt.
... Meskipun tanpa Ethephon, SR4 yang diasumsikan disusun secara dominan oleh asam sulfat memberi respon tidak beda nyata dengan perlakuan yang mengandung Ethephon. Secara teknis, getah P. merkusii didominasi oleh fraksi asam diterpena (Jantan & Ahmad 1999, Wiyono et al. 2006. Setelah getah terbuka oleh udara luar, komponen monoterpena atau seskuiterpena menguap sedangkan asam diterpena berpolimerisasi untuk menutup luka (Trapp & Croteau 2001). ...
Article
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The aim of this study was to find out the effect of Ethephon, an ethylene releasing compound, in a combination with sulfuric acid resin production Pinus merkusii. The tested stimulants were ETRAT; SR4; 20% sulfuric acid; 20% sulfuric acid-Ethephon 2%; 3.3% sulfuric acid-4.1% Ethephon; and sulfuric acid-8.3% Ethephon. Trees without stimulant spraying were the controls. The results showed that for daily production, the first-day observation gave the highest value but decreased drastically after second-day observation in a varied degree depent on the stimulants. On the basis of accumulated production, the addition of Ethephon in a high or low level of sulfuric acid concentration exhibited significantly higher resin production compared to that of ETRAT; SR4; and 20% sulfuric acid stimulants as well as control trees. It increased resin production by 98.0-150.6% compared to control trees in class age of VII and increased by 140.9-227.1% in class age of IV stands. Moderate significant correlations (r=0.65) were observed between the values of resin production and tree diameter (controls) as well as between the values of resin production and tree diameter of trees treated by sulfuric acid stimulants (r=0.65-0.82).
... Rosin has numerous uses, such as paints, varnishes, coatings, adhesives (Echard et al. 2010;Tirat et al. 2016) and other applications related to polymers (Maiti et al. 1989;Arrieta et al. 2017;Narayanan et al. 2017). The composition of rosin has been studied (Joye and Lawrence 1967;Wiyono et al. 2006;Cannac et al. 2009;Ghanmi et al. 2009), and its empirical formula is C 20 H 30 O 2 . Diterpenic acids represent 90 wt% of rosin and the remaining 10 wt% are a blend of esters, alcohols, aldehydes and hydrocarbons. ...
Article
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The aim of this study was to have a better understanding of the phenomenon of resin exudation on pinewood boards due to the liquefaction of the resin caused by the heat of solar radiation. Resin exudation is a crucial problem for the maritime pine industry, as it may strongly decrease the wood’s aesthetics submitted to outdoor exposure. The softening temperature of dried pine resin was analyzed and the results were examined relative to its physico-chemical properties. To achieve this, resin samples were dried under different conditions (60°C, 120°C during 16 h and at 150°C during 24 h). After 3 months of post-drying at ambient temperature, their softening temperatures were measured by thermomechanical analysis. These same samples were subsequently studied to determine their chemical, structural and morphological properties. Samples with a low drying temperature (60°C) had high opacity attributed to crystallinity and porosity. These elements partially explained a higher softening temperature than for the other samples. Different chemical modifications of resin were also observed due to temperature, with a significant amount of oxidized derivatives for samples dried at low temperature and dehydrogenated compounds for samples dried at high temperature.
... (Cannac et al., 2009;Ghanmi et al., 2009;N. Mason Joye and Lawrence, 1967;Wiyono et al., 2006). Il y a deux principaux types d'acides résiniques dans la colophane : pimarane et abiétane. ...
Thesis
Le sujet de cette thèse est la mise au point d’un vernis industriel à base de colophane et d’huile végétale. Le but est de développer l’utilisation de la colophane issue de la résine de pin maritime pour fabriquer un vernis en se basant sur la connaissance des savoir-faire anciens (Tirat 2016). Nous nous sommes intéressés aux vernis employés à la fin du XVIIème et au début du XVIIIème siècle par le luthier Antonio Stradivari. Ses vernis d’une qualité exceptionnelle étaient obtenus à partir de colophane de pin et d’huile de lin (Echard 2010). La thèse consiste à s’inspirer de ces techniques anciennes pour fabriquer un vernis biosourcé industrialisable et de performances élevées, tout en utilisant la ressource locale, la résine de pin maritime des Landes. La thèse se déroule dans le cadre du projet collaboratif Stradivernis labellisé Xylofutur qui associe l’Université de Pau et des pays de l’Adour, la Cité de la musique (Paris), le FCBA, l’Université de Créteil, les entreprises Holiste (Biscarosse), Concept Aquitaine (Bordeaux), Finsa (Morcenx), Meubles Goisnard (Belin-Beliet) et l’association Api’Up (Capbreton). Les matières premières utilisées sont l’huile de lin crue (Onyx) et la colophane issue de la résine de pin maritime de Biscarosse (Société Holiste, Landes). Après distillation de la résine à basse pression et basse température, les mesures du taux de térébenthine résiduel dans la gemme sont réalisées avec un analyseur thermogravimétrique. Les huiles et les colophanes sont traitées thermiquement avec une plaque chauffante et la température réelle de l’huile est mesurée avec un thermocouple. Les vernis sont ensuite formulés avec de l’huile de lin, de la colophane et des additifs et mélangés grâce à un agitateur magnétique chauffant. Les formulations sont appliquées au pinceau et polymérisées avec des lampes UVA. Les couleurs des films sont mesurées avec un spectrocolorimètre (Ci62, X-rite). La brillance est mesurée avec un brillancemètre (micro-gloss, BYK Gardner). La résistance à l’arrachement est mesurée avec un testeur d’adhérence à l’arrachement de la marque (TA, Positest).Les analyses sont réalisées avec les appareils suivants : analyse calorimétrique différentielle par balayage (DSC Q20, TA instruments), analyseur thermogravimétrique (Q500, TA instruments), HPLC (DAD Ultimate 3000 Thermo Scientific) et un spectromètre de masse Orbitrap (Thermo-Fisher, LTQ Orbitrap Velos).Les expériences menées se sont portées sur trois axes :-Les traitements thermiques de l’huile de lin et leurs influences sur le film de vernis. Cinq traitements ont été testés : l’huile crue, deux traitements thermiques inférieurs à 200°C, un rinçage de l’huile à l’eau avant un traitement thermique inférieur à 200°C, et une standolisation à 400°C sous azote.-Les traitements thermiques de la colophane et leurs influences sur le film de vernis. Quatre traitements ont été testés : la colophane crue et trois traitements thermiques 180°C, 200°C et 250°C pendant 30 minutes.-L’ajout d’additifs minéraux et leurs influences sur la polymérisation et la qualité du film de vernis.Les traitements thermiques sur l’huile et la colophane semblent influer sur la qualité du film de vernis, notamment sur sa brillance et sa résistance aux solvants. L’ajout d’additifs améliore considérablement le temps de séchage du film et ses caractéristiques techniques. Un dépôt de savoir-faire est en cours sur ces formulations avec additifs.
... Concerning their nature and composition, the chemistry of natural resins exuded by trees is diverse, but most are composed of terpenes made up of isoprene units [6,7]. In general, the organic residue analysis involves extraction of the compounds that are either absorbed within the ceramic matrix or preserved within visible encrustations on the surface. ...
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