Carmi (2002) is a response to our study published inRadiocarbon 43(l) by Rasmussen et al. (2001). We noted widespread possible exposure to castor oil of the Dead Sea Scrolls (DSS) in the Rockefeller Museum in the 1950s and reported experiments showing that the AAA pretreatment used in the first 2 series of radiocarbon datings of the DSS (Bonani et al.  and Jull et al. ), "cannot be guaranteed to have removed all of the modem carbon in any samples if they had been contaminated with castor oil and hence could have produced some C-14 dates that were younger than the texts' true ages." Carmi, a coauthor of the Bonani et al. (1992) study, criticizes our analysis on 4 grounds: 1. Carmi argues that "the extant [radiocarbon] dates of the Dead Sea Scrolls do not suggest a major deviation from their palaeographic or specific ages. There is thus no indication that the pretreatment was inadequate." 2. Carmi claims that our study, Rasmussen et al. (2001), "miscalculated the efficiency of their AAA treatment from the C-14 data," and Carmi presents an alternative formula for calculation of the cleaning efficiency. 3. Carmi says the efficiency of the cleaning procedure of our experiments should have been calculated based on "the delta(13)C values of the samples," and that when this is done, a dramatically different result is obtained. 4. Carmi claims that our "strategy of testing the validity of the dates of the Dead Sea Scrolls is wrong." We believe that Carmi's response fundamentally misunderstands our paper and is in error on each of the 4 points.